Volume 22: The Guide

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THE GUIDE

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‘Let me take you by the hand’, the little princess cooed. ‘I’ll show you all the secret hideouts in my castle. It’ll be fun, but also a little bit scary, because Mr. Grumple doesn’t like me to be all over the place. He thinks I’m just being nosy, would you believe? It is my duty to show visitors around and have them experience the marvels of my home. I’m only guiding!’ 10

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tt o t gu his id issu e e to Be iru t

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Editorial Arjen Oosterman

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Preliminary Traverse Map of the Landing Site Strange Maps City beyond Planning Jan van Grunsven

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Love’s Topography: La Carte de Tendre Strange Maps 55

Guiding the Guide Ole Bouman Here & There – a horizonless projection in Manhattan Strange Maps

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Guided by Unbuilt Ambition Rory Hyde, Kate Rhodes

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Publishing Practices Michael Kubo

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Architecture Left to its Own Devices Edwin Gardner World Waters with Un-interrupted (!) Oceanographies Strange Maps Metropolis Guides Archis as Guide Aldo van Eyck Playground Tour 2009 Jonathan Hanahan, Rory Hyde Détournement Atelier Bow-Wow’s Guide to Paris Thomas Daniell Realness On Russian Guides and World Cities Anastassia Sverlova A Lighthouse for Lampedusa Thomas Kilpper Istanbul Talking over the Strait Lucy Bullivant Turning Left and Turning Right Louisa Bufardeci Guided by Another Hope Christian Ernsten talks with Charles Esche North Sea Drainage Project to Increase Area Of Europe Strange Maps Vital Statistics of a Deadly Campaign: The Minard Map Strange Maps Feeling Your Way Around Sunny Bains Atlas of Love and Hate The Detroit Unreal Estate Agency Contributors, Corrections/Additions

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THE GUIDE PRINCIPLE Arjen Oosterman

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There are other forms of scientific research and reasoning of course, but we’ll deal with those more extensively in a forthcoming issue of Volume.

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Over a decade ago, the solution to a mathematical riddle hit the news. Pierre de Fermat’s Last Theorem had finally been proven (and solved, many were inclined to say). For some unknown and unexplainable reason daily newspapers, TV stations and other media reported extensively on Andrew Wiles’ brilliant labor of solving the problem. Genius is fascinating, even if, or maybe because ‘normal’ people are completely unable to understand the least bit of Wiles’ achievement. It was 15 doubly remarkable since not only the proof itself was way beyond popular comprehension, but also because the issue itself wasn’t exactly tickling people’s imagination. It was all about Fermat’s conjecture that An + Bn = Cn can never be true if n is higher than 2. Who cares? Will we build better planes after solving this? Or grow tastier tomatoes? Why bother for 358 years about this question? Simple: because it’s there. But if we cannot understand the issue, maybe we can analyze the play. Is guiding involved in this 20 story, and if so, who is the guide? Fermat is the master. And Wiles? He’s a master too, of course, because he outwitted all of those talented and educated colleagues who had tried to do what he finally demonstrated. But was this mastering? The expression ‘to find an answer’ suggests that the answer is out there, is existing and only has to be found, to be discovered by a clever mind. A matter of intellectual path finding.1 The Fermat conjecture 25 supports this reading since Fermat himself claimed he knew the solution to his own question. It would only take more space than the margin of the book for him to have scribbled down this idea, so we didn’t get to see what he was thinking. Now, with Wiles we have the answer (Fermat’s conjecture is correct) and the track to convincingly reach that answer. In mastering the problem, he could become a guide for his colleagues, showing the route to reach the goal. 30 Conjecture and refutation isn’t exactly how architecture is produced. The iterative process called design does contain guesswork and adjustment to come to a result. But since this result is a cultural product, an objective ‘final’ cannot be established. It is the same with Marcel Duchamp’s art piece the ‘Large Glass’, a work in progress for many years he declared ‘definitely unfinished’ in the end; a clear indication of the autonomous and non-objective position of 35 art and artist. For architecture, the implication is: one question has an infinite number of answers. Guiding isn’t the issue here, creating a new reality or setting an example is. So maybe an architect isn’t a guide. Guiding is not about creating; it’s about helping. The guide has no goal other than to lead someone safely to the destiny of his choice.. The guide is skilled; he or she actually can lead the way, but does so without ambition. Not an ambition beyond delivering 40quality service. The guide sells safety where risk is involved; s/he’s instrumental. Some architects think they are too. They’re usually not the ones that hit the weeklies or even monthlies. Yet, they’re indispensable. There is a lot to say for good quality guiding. Maybe evidence-based design is about this, or earlier attempts (which were not en vogue over the last decade or two) to ‘scientifize’ architecture. Still, as long as architecture can be considered a cultural, political and social notion, guiding cannot be the full story. 45 And what about Volume as project and publication? Volume cannot be guide or master. The project labeled ‘beyond’ was at its introduction with Volume 1 as much a conjecture as an attempt to create a free zone for speculation, research and experimentation. The conjecture was and is that beyond the forest of architectural production, there exist pampas, deserts, oceans and other biotopes that have an architectural dimension just the same, and that have a need 50 for architectural intelligence just the same. Because they’re all part of this envelope called ‘world’, because the forest doesn’t exist in isolation. Because existing formats of architecture had become repetitive, self-congratulatory and increasingly redundant, because difficult urgencies were left more or less unattended in favor of easy opportunities, and for a dozen other reasons. So Volume is about exploration. And Volume is based on collaboration. And Volume doesn’t stick to reflection. It includes action. And 55 in the end it’s all about curiosity, about an urge to come to grips with the present – to understand – and about a hope that creative energies can be spent to better effect than producing icons. In this period of multiple crises, ‘going beyond’ is becoming an (almost) popular notion, a reform of discredited practices. So is the adoption of the idea of ‘unsolicited architecture’. It’s tempting to claim in retrospect the role of guide for Volume, but that temptation 60 has to be resisted and dismissed as unproductive. The aforementioned tendencies shouldn’t be interpreted as ‘the result of a mission’, but seen as improving conditions in order to work the way we intended to.

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CITY GUIDE

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It is a well known saying that you see your habitat anew through the eyes of a stranger. It’s a cliché so it must be true. Take a guide of your own city. For once try to follow its instructions and become a tourist in your home town. Everything will be different. First of all, the esthetic experience becomes central, instead of functional and emotional ones. The street where your friend lives is no longer the drive towards agreeable hours together but a dull place to go. The former industrial area where your office is located and that you appreciate for its freedom and abundant space transforms into an isolated, dilapidated bunch of crappy buildings. On the other hand, the small church you always ignored on your way to work proves to be a delicate spatial composition with exquisite detailing. Admitted, seasoned travelers will not be satisfied with these experiences. They’ll go for the ‘authentic’ and look for insider information. Actually, they would love to see your city as you normally do. Given time and means that usually aren’t possible, travel guides cunningly pretend they provide this insider’s perspective. Fortunately they don’t. If authenticity has any meaning at all, it surely is lost the moment it has been identified and described as such. The ‘want’ of tourism transforms the authentic into a commodity and that simply is at odds. Although tourism isn’t the subject of this issue, the impact it has on everyone’s image and understanding of the city is. This promotional and commercial image of the city, this image for an external world, tends to become a self-image – internalized, one could say. And it is the implied simplification that is most disadvantageous, not so say dangerous. Promotional image becomes ideal, ideal becomes program. A city cannot afford to reduce its complexity to a tagline. There are more reasons than (this) one to keep on searching for characteristics and qualities that do not conform to the esthetic tourist or commercially successful image. Dynamics and transformation for instance. Previously, Volume experimented with ‘explorations’ to discover (or uncover) a different understanding of a particular city. The so called RSVP-events manifest this ambition. One can define these one day happenings as provoked chance, opening up the possibility of discovery and new insight. These ad hoc collaborations with local parties have been based on shared interests and ideas and have sometimes developed into longer-term relations and projects. Beyroutes, a Guide to Beirut, a supplement to this issue, is an example. It started with an RSVP-event in 2005 that developed into a continued involvement with that city. The RSVP discovered that the public domain of Beirut is crumbling away and partitioned, that Beirut has become a ‘territorial city’ under the pressure of conflicts and wars going on for decades. The engagement with Beirut’s fate shaped into this travel guide centered on public life; a psychological portrait or a series of portraits of this fascinating multicultural city. A guide like this is not a program or manual for making design decisions. It will show realities that are

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influenced by design decisions and other interventions. Anything you want to do in Beirut simply has to be informed by this kind of knowledge and understanding. Thus, the Guide to Beirut is not a guide. It presents readings, opens options. It doesn’t show the way. This issue is centered on the exploration of the city. The RSVP-events have taught us that taking a simple rule or idea as a starting point will lead to discoveries. The ‘strange maps’ within are clear demonstrations of the principle. Or take the bike tour in Amsterdam to all of the locations where an ‘Aldo van Eyck playground’ had been constructed; the present number still in existence and their condition are a clear indication of the reality of outdoor play today. Then, there is Atelier Bow-Wow’s analysis of the 13th arrondissement in Paris. It shows that this district normally shunned by tourists contains a surprising wealth of spatial typologies. The discovery or invention here was to start not from the idea of continuously aligned streets, but to start from the blocks behaving independently, like an archipelago surrounded by a sea of infrastructure. ‘Blockscapes’ instead of ‘streetscapes’ define the qualities of this district. Or take the ‘feelbelt’ that makes its wearer constantly aware of where north is located; the body as compass. The consequences of this device, once in general use, are difficult to predict, but potentially as far reaching as now popular GPS-navigation. The different guides in this issue have one property in common: that you cannot tell beforehand where they will take you. Another one is that they are interventionist by nature. ‘The Atlas of Love and Hate’ is an attempt to use geography (among others) as an instrument for transformation. The story of Russian travel guides before and after the fall of communism shows the inverse mechanism: the literary tradition of Soviet travel guides during isolation was dramatically transformed once the borders reopened. Probably the most radical example was published in the previous issue of Volume: The Mass Housing Guide. Where travel guides in general and city guides in particular are geared towards the special, this guide focuses on the ordinary, only to show the uniqueness and wealth to be found there. There is a last point to make; since genius is rare, we better rely on other methods. Collaboration and mutual inspiration has proven to be a successful one. Volume IS collaboration. Do I need to say more?

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GUIDING THE GUIDE UI 1

What identifies guidance guidance? The subject surfaces in all sorts of philosophy. In epis epistemology, it’s the truth. In aesthetics: supreme be beauty. In logic: the conclusion. In language: the per period. Human culture u needs a guiding principle; it needs purpose. ‘If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent Him.’ (Voltaire) But there is also a less philosophical dimension of the guide. As a well-known adage goes: great leaders are not born, but made. Of course the background and biography of such a personality is interesting to know; but what is more important is why this figure rises to prominence in the first place. There is no guide without the right conditions, without a historical context, without people’s profound desire to enthrone. No shepherd without a flock, no leader without followers. So ultimately, even the guide has to submit to circumstance. This perception is contrary to the idea that charisma will always prove effective. In fact, most charisma is wasted on the wrong moment. Plato understood this when he wrote his Allegory of the Cave in which the protagonist tries to rescue the people living in the realm of shadows by offering them a way out to the light. Alas, they don’t want to follow him; they (have) constructed their own realities and are in no need of a savior. As John the Evangelist later wrote: ‘The Light Shineth in Darkness and the Darkness Comprehendeth It Not.’ It is good to remember this trope before examining the role of guides in our contemporary culture. It is not difficult to consider our age in the same platonic vein – the way we second-guess or undermine our guides. Political leaders are taken hostage by populism. Newspapers give way to blogosphere. Intellectuals are called elitists. Cultural authorities become quickly recycled celebrities. The irony of individualism – this historical tendency to become our own guides in life and carry our own compass – is that if we are all individuals, there is no context that would require a guide. The field of architecture can offer us the same insight. Architecture has long derived its prestige by its capacity to lead; to give us orientation, meaning, direction. The entire cultural taxonomy of the guide can be found in architecture: the relationship between figure and ground, the place of the monument, the play with axiality, verticality, perspective, and view. The authority to occupy land, elevate grandeur, to pay for the details. As Nikolaus Pevsner states: ‘A bicycle shed is a building; Lincoln Cathedral is a piece of architecture.’ But how substantial is this prestige still, if now we also see the inflation of the guiding principle? The global competition to create icons everywhere, in which clients, architects, and users base their pride not on the lessons that might be learned, but on caprice that remains arbitrary and contingent; a perfect sign of the loss of a guiding principle in architecture. Icons are not guides; they are divertissements. No!! No cause for alarm, new purpose can still be invented, and already has. When circumstances

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change and our living conditions require new ideas to resolve existential issues, guides will once again emerge. Architecture can answer these changes by guiding the path to a true, sustainable society. Let’s face it: if we need to preserve energy, and to change its source beyond the age of oil, if we need to ensure our social health in the process of globalization, if we need to foster social cohesion in polarizing societies, and revalue time in a life permanently online; we need architecture. Architecture can show us a mentality of resolve in the state of multiple crises. It can offer us new socio-spatial organizations of daily life. An architecture of guidance is an architecture as example to others. Bicycle sheds everywhere!

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HERE & THERE – A HORIZONLESS PROJECTION IN MANHATTAN Here & There explores speculative projections of dense cities. This map of Manhattan, produced by London Design studio BERG, looks downtown from 3rd Avenue and 35th Street and is intended to be viewed from that same location, putting the viewer simultaneously above the city and in it where she stands, both looking down and forward. As the model bends from sideways to top-down in a smooth join, more distant parts of the city are revealed in plan view. The projection connects the viewer’s local environment to remote destinations normally out of sight.

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GUIDED BY UNBUILT UI AMBITION 1

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As is so common, despite a winner being announced for 20 the competition – of which this scheme was an entrant – it did not lead to a constructed outcome. After remaining vacant for a number of years, 25 the public ambitions for this site were eventually overshadowed by commercial interests, resulting in the large mixed-use development 30 that stands on the site today.

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For every decisio decision made by a city – to build, to demolish, to extend, to renovate, to replan, to rezon rezone – there exists countless alternate possibilities. The store rooms, plan dr drawers and hard drives of every architect’s office contain speculative proposals, that due to any number of reasons, will remain unrealized; destined to gather dust and fade from memory. Collectively, these projects form an alternate, invisible city, an archive of ideas and ambitions that never materialized. ‘Melbourne Unbuilt’ captures these architectural propositions in the form of an audio guide to this alternate city and rebuilds each project through the voices of the architects who designed them. Drawn from a period of over 50 years, the thirteen projects for Melbourne’s CBD include large-scale public competitions, monuments, residential projects and speculative schemes that have sparked discussion about the shape of this city. With a map and an iPod in hand, the audience is invited to stand on the real sites of these un-real projects, amongst all the noise and bustle of those spaces, to listen to an architect describe their unfulfilled ambition, and imagine a radically different place. Frustration, humor, and regret pervade these testimonies, as the architects’ ideas are at once possibilities for, and victims of, a metropolis of divergent agendas. Here, we present three stops on this tour, each one guiding us toward an alternate future shaped by a unique and personal ambition for society. 40

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GUIDE TO CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY: Edmond and Corrigan’s Pyramid

Our first stop is the Pyramid by Edmond and Corrigan, a 1986 competition entry to extend the State Library and Museum of Victoria. Edmond and Corrigan is notable for its critical contributions to Australian architecture since the 1970s, mostly through work in the Melbourne metropolitan area. The firm has developed a unique style derived from the forms, motifs, and materials of everyday buildings in Australian suburbia. Peter Corrigan reflects on this proposal and describes the larger ambitions that informed it. These desires reveal Corrigan as not merely a guide to this project, but as a guide to the formation of a better society in general. By designing buildings that offer ‘an alternative way that you might live a life’, architecture might be capable of guiding the public and the government toward a more positive urban future.

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Peter Corrigan transcript

Well, [the Pyramid] was an attempt to reinforce the Swanston Street frontage next to the [existing] library with a major civic presence. It was a type of stepped pyramid that went back from the footpath rather severely, and the public just slipped into the wall as it were. The old building interested me a lot, so there was an attempt to try and build a plaza into the project – in the middle of the site – that would engage with the old reading room and create a kind of ‘new reading room’. I think it had something to do with the scale of the street, the scale of the existing buildings, and the need for the government of the day to take some ownership of the artistic life of the town. I’m inclined to think that architecture talks about issues of identity. Here we are as ‘Melburnians’ dare we say – or Victorians – rather than Australians. That interests me a lot. Buildings provide those thresholds we walk through or past, the mirrors that we look at. Aside from written texts, buildings provide more information about our past and present than any other

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record that we understand. So it is possible to build into buildings a lot of hope, ambition, aspiration – attributes that are not simply totted out as architectural responses – but that might offer some sort of larger response, a type of more magical proposition to engage in a more imaginative way. There are occasional moments when we understand what architecture can do for us, and how it can change our lives positively. Particularly if we’re young we never forget. Those positive experiences are like first love affairs, or the first car, or the first trip interstate on a plane. They are indelibly imprinted on who we are and who we might be. Books have become commodities, libraries have become supermarkets of information – and that’s important too; great buildings try to do everything. They can’t get it all right… but boy do they try. I was more interested in the idea of a coherent society than I’ve ever been; interested in the nuances of architecture and how it might create a coherent and proud society. The responsibilities of architecture to reinforce social values, to behave properly in public, and not to be too engaged with some of architecture’s ongoing particular obsessions – the idea of the new, and the idea of vanguard thinking – all that very twentieth century modernist stuff. I really don’t think architecture is about that; it’s about larger and more complex responsibilities. This was an attempt to show the government a way that it could fulfill its responsibilities to the public of Melbourne and Victoria. A grand building, open generous spaces that went all the way down to the back, with vast halls for museum and display, and a vast plaza. There was, just briefly, a point in time in Melbourne where some politicians thought that there might be an opportunity to build a major public facility, which you wouldn’t have to pay to enter, and which our children could go, and if the school system didn’t work, you might just get an education at the public library. That’s what interested me. It was an alternative way that you might live a life.

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DÉTOURNEMENT NT Atelier Bow-Wow’s Guide to the 13th Arrondissement of Paris 1

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In Paris’s 13th arrondiss arrondissement, right alongside Dominique Perrault’s Biblio Bibliothèque nationale de France, there is a red boat perm permanently moored on the River Seine. A steel barge capped with a lighthouse tower, it was once the e LV Osprey, owned by Ireland’s Lighthouse Authority. In 1998, the boat was purchased by Parisian entrepreneurs and converted into Le Batofar (bateau-phare): a community center and café by day, a bar and music venue by night. The first of Paris’s floating nightclubs, it is the centerpiece of an organization that provides more than mere entertainment. Sponsoring cultural events and social activism, with an annual artist-in-residence program, the underlying aim of Batofar is to celebrate and invigorate the 13th arrondissement itself. In 2000, Batofar invited Japan’s Atelier Bow-Wow to visit the area. An unorthodox architectural practice founded in 1992 by husband-and-wife team Yoshiharu Tsukamoto and Momoyo Kaijima, Atelier Bow-Wow had already spent several years investigating the idiosyncratic forms, spaces, and activities of metropolitan Tokyo – playful, painstaking fieldwork that was soon to appear in their droll guidebooks Made in Tokyo (Kajima 2001) and Pet Architecture (World Photo Press 2001). Arriving in Paris they noted, ‘in Japanese tourist guidebooks, there are only two pages dedicated to the 13th arrondissement. In other words, for tourists the 13th arrondissement does not exist. Even so, we think it contains a great variety of key elements, in the widest sense, that may aid in the comprehension of other contemporary cities. That is why we decided to produce a guide to the 13th arrondissement. We titled it Broken Paris.’ The 13th arrondissement was established in 1860, annexed from Paris’s periphery as part of Baron Haussmann’s expansion plans for the city, but it never achieved the grandeur and coherence of his boulevards and monuments elsewhere. A century later, it had become a forgotten zone of moribund industrial facilities, open fields, and improvised residences. Clusters of public housing towers began to appear in the 1960s, and a population of Southeast Asian immigrants started to arrive in the 1970s. At the end of the 1980s, studies were initiated for the revitalization and modernization of the area alongside the river. It was designated a ZAC (Zone d’Aménagement Concerté) urban development zone in 1991, inaugurating a vast, visionary masterplan that has evolved into what is now known as Paris Rive Gauche. From Gare d’Austerlitz to Boulevard Général Jean-Simon, bordered by the River Seine and Rue du Chevaleret, the development covers 130 hectares of new business, commercial, and residential districts seeded with cultural, leisure, and educational facilities.

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(to use the Situationist term) due to the historical accident of an economic collapse – the bursting of the Japanese ‘bubble’ economy – coinciding with the beginning of their professional careers. Without real commissions they were left to literally take stock of their home city, bequeathed to their generation after decades of shortsighted urban development. The experience taught them to be alert to every opportunity the city offers, sensitive to the finest discriminations in its organization. Their take on Paris is not intended to negate the grand plans of Haussmann (or even of Le Corbusier) but to propose a complementary pragmatism about the state of the existing city, its thoughtless shapes and unintended uses. The shared ambitions of Batofar and Bow-Wow lie in guiding others to those places where aesthetic intervention might coincide with positive social action: ‘The contemporary city is not defined by a single society, but is composed of a superposition of different social characteristics. If we observe the city from this angle we don’t see a broken urban landscape but rather the seeds of new urban sceneries. Instead of relying on modernist masterplans, perhaps these may be cultivated as methods for controlling the ongoing urban mutations.’

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INSERT TO VOLUME 222

A PROJECT BY BY A PROJECT

The Detroit Unreal Estate Agency The Detroit Unreal Estate Agency !""#$%&'()*+,,---./

//0/"012---/3433


CONTENTS 3—8

31 — 32

AN ATLAS OF LOVE AND HATE: DETROIT RELATIONS

GEOGRAPHY OF ABSENCE: THE DETROIT TOUR-MISSED MAP

"'&%2"*()'*("7!"2&)'&

ANDREW HERSCHER

9 — 14

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CRAIG WILKINS

33 — 34

2/#%./$()'*(!)&%"'&

DETROIT BUREAU OF TOURISM NICK TOBIER

15 — 18

+,%#&-()'*()#./$"*

FUTURE POSTMAN

LADO DARAKHVELIDZE

35 — 38

5.,*()'*(2.33%&&"*

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SUB_CITY COOKBOOK

WE ALMOST LOST DETROIT

MARC MAXEY

CHRISTIAN ERNSTEN, EDWIN GARDNER, JOOST JANMAAT

19 — 20

39 — 44

+"#6"'&()'*("'4)4"*

FREE SPEECH KARAOKE

SHELBY MOFFETT AND ROBERT SMILEY JR

)++"2&%.')&"()'*("3!)&0"&%2

WALK-IN PORTRAIT STUDIO

CORINE VERMEULEN AND FEMKE LUTGERINK

21 — 24

45 — 46

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SPERAMUS MELIORA

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UNREAL ESTATE OF THE REALM

JIMINI HIGNETT

MIREILLE RODDIER

25 — 26

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UNITED NATIONS OF DETROIT ANDREW HERSCHER

47 — 48

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HUMAN TOUR OF DETROIT WILLIAM BUNGE

27 — 30

4"'"#./$()'*(%#.'%2

POETIC JUSTICE

THE ALTERNATIVE PRESS

Detroit Unreal Estate Agency is Christian Ernsten, Andrew Herscher, Joost Janmaat, Femke Lutgerink, Mireille Roddier detroitunrealestateagency.blogspot.com

Editors Christian Ernsten, Edwin Gardner, Andrew Herscher Design Nina Bianchi © 2009

!""#$%&'()*+,,---."

This publication is sponsored by: University of Michigan, Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning and Taubman College Architecture Program

This Atlas includes material from Detroit Unreal Estate Studio, University of Michigan, Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning, winter 2009 Instructor: Mireille Roddier Participants: Erica Andrus, Lisa Berglund, Katherine Chang, Sophia Chang, Ted Christensen, Jose Esparza, Ali Iftikhar, Christopher Lee, Marc Maxey, Timoty Miron, Shelby Moffett, Ian Ogden, Luke Rondel, Robert Smiley, Erik Zinser

Detroit Unreal Estate Agency sponsored by: University of Michigan Arts on Earth Initiative, Dutch Art Institute, Mondrian Foundation

Detroit Unreal Estate Studio, Dutch Art Institute, The Netherlands Coordinators: Christian Ernsten, Joost Janmaat Participants: Monika Berenyi, Cecilia Costa, Lado Darakhevelidze, Jimini Hignett, Raymond Huizinga, Yota Ioannides, Sasha Miljevic, Sevgi Ortac, Viki Semou

Volume is published by the Archis Foundation, the Netherlands, and Printed by Die Keure, Belgium

Special thanks to: Berenika Boberska, Mitch Cope, Amir Djalali, Rik Fernhout, Leon Hendrickx, Scott Hocking, Maaike Lauwaert, Toni Moceri, Hilly Podde, Gina Reichert, Gabrielle Schleijpen, Zeb Smith, Corine Vermeulen, Jeroen Visser, Klinger Street neighborhood, Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit, University of Michigan Detroit Center

//0/"012---/3433


!"#$"! CDE:#FG:#HD!!5@@I:#

!"#!$%&#$'()&*+,#&+#-"#+.,#*,*&*(&*/'%#.(%#%0''1*%02# 3(%,4&#5#67%*,84#8'+8$(10"9#:*;#5#,+&#17&#&0'#)*/*<# $*80&%#.+$=#!$%&#(,;#>7%&#&.*%&#*&#*,&+#(#8'+8$(10*)# ?+$-9#@0*%#687*<&4#1'$%*%&';#*,#-'#?+$#%+-'#"'($%A## '/',#*,&',%*?"*,8A#7,&*<#*&#!,(<<"#;(.,';#+,#-'## &0(&#8'+8$(10"#*%#%711+%';#&+#B'#67%';A4#&0(&#5#.(%# 1$()&*)*,8#.0(&#+&0'$#8'+8$(10'$%#)(<<#6$'<'/(,)'24 WILLIAM BUNGE, THE FIRST YEARS OF THE DETROIT GEOGRAPHICAL EXPEDITION: A PERSONAL REPORT, P. 9

3! SUB_CITY COOKBOOK MARC MAXEY in both support of and protest against the city’s civic leaders. At the same time, Detroit has entered a new real estate paradigm in which ‘return on investment’ is no longer in the lexicon. This eliminates the integral pairing between taxes and economic growth that built the entire American housing market and political landscape – citizens pay property taxes and in return ride positive growth economy all the way to retirement. In Detroit the pairing is broken; as a glance at the city’s monthly property sale reveals, real estate is worth almost nothing, with the sale merely paying for the transaction itself. The buy-in can be masked by tax abatements, as seemingly ‘free’ property, but the fact of the matter is that when you sign up to live or work in Detroit, you purchase a tax burden and financial commitment, each which exposes fundamental political relationships that are masked throughout the rest of the country in more stable markets. !"#$#%&'$()#*+,&-$-+).&#&+)$+/$,+'#0 &)."'#*&12$34(*&-1$'(#'$#%($'#15($/+*$1$)(6$/*+)#&(*$+/$ ,+2&#&-'$1).$"*71)&81#&+)9

DETROIT

SERVICES

TAXES

ESCROW

SUB CITY

RESIDENTS

ALTERNATIVE PRACTICE

NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

Detroit is a city on life support. Its piecemeal fabric still evoke notions of urbanity, yet its political and infrastructural core is almost dead. In a city that once boasted the largest number of single-family homes in the United States, the city has become the largest landowner; after one million of its residents walked away, no other American city owns more tax-default properties than Detroit. As municipal services are reduced to a bare minimum to cope with a budget continuously in the red, Detroit residents and non-profit organizations are burdened with picking up the slack of the city. Looking closely at the collaboration between non-profits and the city, however, one sees the city pawning off its responsibility to charitable interests, with non-profits assuming this responsibility paradoxically,

!""#$%&'()*+,,---./

SUB_city seeks to take over municipally owned property by &5)+*&)5 the existing political system and creating a new autonomous city, within the city. Aligning residents, non-profits, and creative practitioners to wage an invisible, non-violent war on the city through a diversion of capital, Sub_city poses Detroit not as a problem to solve but a problem to ignore. :;!<city rejects the notion of supporting a failed government. It does so by claiming city-owned land for productive use without paying taxes to the defunct city. Instead of attempting to leak into the failing city government to ignite change, the new city emerges with a shared vision already forming on the ground. Through networked ecologies of organizations and individuals, a decentralized constituency forms to begin the foundation for Sub_City. Action manifests itself in creative acts of subversion, organizing groups and individuals for mutual benefits, and providing services to depleted neighborhoods by way of small-scale entrepreneurship. Territory is marked through a curatorial process of spatial interventions:

0010"123---04546


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!""#$%&'()*+,,---./

0010"123---04546


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Suspended Disbelief_ is an act of reappropriation; an abandoned and dilapidated house in Detroit is renovated whereby portions of the house are suspended to create a floating and dematerializing structure. The valueless becomes valuable as it creates an anticipatory space; it is a house in transition, deconstructing and reconstructing itself simultaneously. Liner Gardening_ SUB_city will have community gardens, stretching for miles, in single rows. A narrow strip of corn runs through 1,000 backyards, stitching fragmented neighborhoods, and connecting others. Instead of attracting community, the garden confronts community. Tending a strip of horizontal garden becomes political: to keep it alive is to vote for the community. Dying segments of the row index nonparticipation. Continuous Monument of Dis_urbanization_ Suspended disbelief multiplies throughout the city. One hundred abandoned and burned out structures float above the ground plane. They are charged full of energy, and begin migrating towards a larger gesture: the !"#$%#&"&'()"#&*+#$(",(-%'.&/01#%21$%"#3(Unlike Superstudio’s 1969 Continuous Monument, which was an expression of man over nature, the Continuous Monument of Dis_urbanization emphasizes the nature of total urbanization over man, the mass exodus of capital, River Rouge, and the power to render the city into a suburb.

month, a portion of a borrower’s mortgage payment is put into an escrow account where it accumulates until insurance premiums or annual property taxes are due, at which time the lender carries out the transaction. This automates the entire process for all parties involved, and eliminates the borrower’s responsibility to ‘save’ money for future expenses, thus one payment is made each month that ultimately satisfies other transactions throughout the year. Although this may simplify one’s financial picture, it also abstracts an important transaction, which is a citizen’s payment of taxes to the government. This further dilutes the fundamental pairing of property ownership to government support. As Sub_City propagates throughout Detroit, residents and business owners will be given the option of protesting their failed city through the diversion of tax funds (sales, property and income tax) to a Sub_City Escrow Account. Initially acting as a typical mortgage escrow account, the Sub_City Account will continue to gain momentum as more residents begin to politically identify with the new city. When critical mass is reached and there is enough participation in the tax loop, the switch is flipped, creating a single violent act of capital warfare. Tax revenue that was once flowing to Detroit now begins to accumulate in SUB_city’s Treasury Department, expanding the new city’s programs and services. Detroit instantly weaken, allowing SUB_city to emerge as a new form of post-industrial urbanization. All images Marx Maxey, 2009

The Urban Combine_ Composed of retired construction equipment mashed up to create a single machine, the Urban Combine consumes concrete, brick, and asphalt to produce gabions. Grappling paddles move and stack the gabions into place inside old foundations to create huge footings for 45+(!"#$%#&"&'()"#&*+#$( ",(-%'.&/01#%21$%"#. The Urban Combine consumes the bones of Detroit. SUB_city Escrow Account_ Mortgages in the US are typically managed with an escrow account, which functions similarly to a personal checking account. Each

!""#$%&'()*+,,---./

0010"123---04546


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!""#$%&'()*+,,---..

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Colophon Volume 22

1

VOLUME Independent quarterly for architecture to go beyond itself Editor-in-chief Arjen Oosterman Contributing editors Ole Bouman, Rem Koolhaas, Mark Wigley Feature editor Jeffrey Inaba Editorial consultants Thomas Daniell, Bart Goldhoorn, Markus Miessen, Kai Vöckler VOLUME is a project by ARCHIS + AMO + C-Lab + … ARCHIS Lilet Breddels, Joos van den Dool, Christian Ernsten, Edwin Gardner, Jonathan Hanahan, Rory Hyde, Timothy Moore AMO Reinier de Graaf C-Lab Jeffrey Inaba, Benedict Clouette, Kate Meagher

5

10

Materialized by Irma Boom and Sonja Haller VOLUME’s protagonists are: ARCHIS, magazine for Architecture, City and Visual Culture and its predecessors since 1929. Archis – Publishers, Tools, Interventions – is an experimental think tank devoted to the process of real-time spatial and cultural reflexivity. www.archis.org AMO, a research and design studio that applies architectural thinking to disciplines beyond the borders of architecture and urbanism. AMO operates in tandem with its companion company the Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. www.oma.eu C-Lab, The Columbia Laboratory for Architectural Broadcasting, is an experimental research unit devoted to the development of new forms of communication in architecture, set up as a semiautonomous think and action tank at the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation of Columbia University. www.arch.columbia.edu/labs/c-lab

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30

Sunny Bains is a scientist, journalist, and editor based at Imperial College London. http://www.sunnybains.com Ole Bouman is an architectural critic and Director of the Netherlands Architectural Institute (NAi), Rotterdam. Louisa Bufardeci is an artist whose work has been exhibited internationally. She was born in Melbourne and currently lives in Connecticut, USA. www.louisabufardeci.net Lucy Bullivant is an architecture curator, critic, author and advisor based in London. She is writing her next book, Masterplanning Futures, for Routledge. Thomas Daniell is an architect and writer based in Kyoto, Japan. He is currently an Associate Professor at Kyoto Seika University and a Visiting Fellow at the RMIT Spatial Information Architecture Lab. Jan van Grunsven is an artist with a background in conceptual art, focusing on public domain in particular. As such he is also active in art policy and art education. At present he works in the field of architecture and urbanism. Thomas Kilpper is an artist based in Berlin who works with socio-political themes. Michael Kubo is pursuing a Ph.D. in History, Theory and Criticism of Architecture at MIT. His research on publishing practices has been exhibited in Buffalo, where he was Reyner Banham Fellow for 2008–2009, and at pinkcomma gallery in Boston. Kate Rhodes is Editor of Artichoke magazine and Adjunct Curator, Object: Australian Centre for Craft and Design. Anastassia Smirnova graduated in Scenography at the Moscow Art Theatre School. She worked as a stage designer for experimental theatres in Moscow and as a journalist/author for professional and popular press. In 2007-2008 she was an editor/designer at AMO/ OMA, Rotterdam. Currently, she writes fiction as well as essays on architecture/design for various magazines. Naomi Stead is a research fellow in the School of Architecture at the University of Queensland. Her research interests include architectural criticism, architecture and fiction, and experimental cartography. Her Mapping Sydney is available at www.localconsumption.com The Atlas of Love and Hate (page 71-122) was produced by the Detroit Unreal Agency and designed by Nina Bianchi. For details see p. 72

VOLUME is published by Stichting Archis, The Netherlands and printed by Die Keure, Belgium. English copy editing and translations Jonathan Hanahan, Timothy Moore, Wendy Thompson-Van Os Administrative coordination Valérie Blom, Jessica Braun Editorial office PO Box 14702, 1001 LE Amsterdam, The Netherlands, T +31 (0)20 320 3926, F +31 (0)20 320 3927, E info@archis.org, W www.archis.org Subscriptions Bruil & Van de Staaij, Postbus 75, 7940 AB Meppel, The Netherlands, T +31 (0)522 261 303, F +31 (0)522 257 827, E volume@bruil.info, W www.bruil.info/volume Subscription rates 4 issues, € 75 Netherlands, € 91 World, Student subscriptions rates, € 60 Netherlands, € 73 World, Prices excl. VAT Cancellations policy Cancellation of subscription to be confirmed in writing one month before the end of the subscription period. Subscriptions not cancelled on time will be automatically extended for one year. Back issues Back issues of VOLUME and forerunner Archis (NL and E) are still available through Bruil & van de Staaij Advertising marketing@archis.org, For rates and details see: www.volumeproject.org, under ‘info’ General distribution Idea Books, Nieuwe Herengracht 11, 1011 HR Amsterdam, The Netherlands, T +31 (0)20 622 6154, F +31 (0)20 620 9299, E idea@ideabooks.nl, W www.ideabooks.nl IPS Pressevertrieb GmbH, PO Box 1211, 53334 Meckenheim, Germany, T +49 2225 8801 0, F +49 2225 8801 199, E: lstulin@ips-pressevertrieb.de

Contributors

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The text links in all articles were conceived by Jonathan Hanahan based on the idea of Irma Boom and Sonja Haller Volume 22: The guide is distributed with a special supplement: Beyroutes. A Guide to Beirut, by Studio Beirut (Amsterdam: Archis, 2009), 168p. ISBN 9789077966549 Corrections/Additions In Volume 21, the two captions on page 155 were reversed. Apologies to the author.

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Disclaimer The editors of Volume have been careful to contact all copyright holders of the images used. If you claim ownership of any of the images presented here and have not been properly identified, please contact Volume and we will be happy to make a formal acknowledgement in a future issue.

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VOLUME has been made possible with the support of Mondrian Foundation Amsterdam ISSN 1574-9401, ISBN 978-90-77966-22-8 Copyright 2009, Stichting Archis

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