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MUMBAI DHARAVI - SCENARIOS FOR DEVELOPMENT

Columbia University Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation Master in Architecture and Urban Design Spring 2009


This report is dedicated to the indomitable spirit of the hardworking entrepreneurs of Dharavi.


MUMBAI DHARAVI - SCENARIOS FOR DEVELOPMENT Columbia University Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation Architecture and Urban Design, Studio III, Spring 2009 Dean: Mark A. Wigley Urban Design Program Director: Richard Plunz Studio Faculty: Richard Plunz (Coordinator), Michael Conard, Petra Kempf, Geeta Mehta, Kate Orff Faculty Editors: Michael Conard, Geeta Mehta, Kate Orff Managing Editor and Graphic Designer: Marielly Victoria Casanova

Students: Benjamin Abelman Habiba Akhtar Maria Alicia Becdach Marielly Victoria Casanova Marianella Castillo Olimpia Cermasi Hui Dong Robert Matthew Drury Jamieson Neil Fajardo Nuala Gallagher Shruti Vijaykumar Gaonkar Pierre-Louis Gerlier Marta Guerra Pastrian Tana Marie Hovland Ariel Yen-ju Hsieh Kenzo, Hsueh-Hsien Hsieh Zheng Hu Zhe Jin Romina Khandani Dongsei Kim Martha Kolokotroni Amardeep Labana

Hector Lim Shreya Malu Daniel Montes Santamaria Suah Na Vivian Ngo Guanghong Ou Margarita Papadimitriou Yakima Emilio Pena Ginny Sharma Sheng-Wei Julia Melanie Siedle Ashley Rose Spatafore Akhila Srinivas Mania Tahsina Taher William Christopher Tate Jay Trung Tran Emily Miriam Weidenhof Nuo Xu Nita Yuvaboon Shu Zhang Yingning Zheng Tahaer Zoyab

Photo Credits: Kenzo, Hsueh-Hsien Hsieh Dongsei Kim Daniel Montes Santamaria Vivian Ngo Sheng-Wei Jay Trung Tran

URBZ

Copyright 2009 by the Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York All rights reserved. Published by the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation of Columbia University, New York NY 10027. Produced through the Office of the Dean [ISBN] 1-883584-59-0 Printed by Lulu.com


Special Thanks to: Studio Collaborators: Partners for Urban Knowledge, Action and Research (PUKAR), Mumbai Sir College of Architecture, Mumbai URBZ: User Generated Cities, Mumbai Invited Lecturers and Critics: Viren Brahmbhatt, Architect, New York Matias Echanove, Partner, URBZ, Mumbai Ramachandra Korde, Community Leader, Dharavi Rahul Srivastava, Partner, URBZ, Mumbai Kamu Ayer, Architect, Mumbai Arjun Appadurai, Anthropologist and Professor, New York University Sunil Bald, Parsons the New School of Design Elizabeth Barry, Urban Designer Sidney Blank, Parsons the New School of Design Noah Chasin, Columbia University Dilip DaCunha, Professor, Parsons the New School of Design Mustansir Dalvi, Professor, Sir College of Architecture, Mumbai Anita Patil Deshmukh, Executive Director, PUKAR, Mumbai Skye Duncan, Urban Designer, Columbia University James Ferreira, Social Activist, Mumbai Ben Gilmartin, Cornell University Michael Jacobs, Architect K. P. Jayasankar, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bombay Ravi Keny, Community Leader, Dharavi, Mumbai Kaja Kuhl, Planner and Urban Designer, Columbia University Christoph Lechner, Architect Vienna Sytse de Maat, Architect, Amsterdam Mukesh Mehta, Chairman, MM Project Consultants Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai Rajiv Mishra, Principal, Sir College of Architecture, Mumbai Ramesh Mishra, Lawyer, Mumbai Anjali Monterio, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bombay Justin Garrett Moore, Urban Designer, Columbia University Sheela Patel, SPARC Shilpa Phadke, Anthropologist, Mumbai Raquel Ramati, Urban Planner, New York Evan Rose, Urban Designer, Columbia University Yehuda Safran, Professor, Columbia University Kalpana Sharma, Author, Mumbai Neerja Tiku, Head of the Department, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi June Williamson, Urban Designer, City College of New York Students of Sir College of Architecture, Mumbai


CONTENTS FOREWORD

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A MESSAGE FROM DHARAVI

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Ramachandra Korde

DHARAVI: A NEW URBAN PARADIGM Geeta Mehta Richard Plunz

DHARAVI: A TRANSIENT CITY Viren Brahambhatt

HEALING MITHI RIVER A framework for ecological and social change

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Dongsei Kim Daniel Montes-Santamaria Sheg-Wei Shih

PLAN B: RETAINING DHARAVI A new development model

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Habiba Akhtar Shruti Gaonkar Amardeep Labana Shreya Malu

EQUITY THROUGH INFRASTRUCTURE Synergizing local and municipal needs

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Pier-Louis Gelier Martha Kolokotroni Nita Yuvaboon Taher Zoyab

MOVING UP DHARAVI Creating common ground

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Ben Abelman Ariel Hsieh Hector Lim Julia Siedle

LIVE | WORK [3] A [RE] self-development process

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Marielly Casanova Jamieson Fajardo Romina Khandani Ashley Spatafore

BUILDING UP DHARAVI A toolkit of stategies for progressive self-development

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Maria Alicia Becdach Olimpia Cermasi Yakima Pena

MAXIMUM CROSSING Live - work - move

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Robert Drury Nuala Gallagher Akhila Shrinivas Jay Trung Tran

STUDIO TIMELINE

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Omkar Cooperative Housing Society

Rangtarang Cooperative Housing Society

Ram Gufa Cooperative Housing Society

Kumbharwada


FOREWORD

The Columbia University Urban Design Studio began work in Mumbai with an intense period of field briefings in early January 2009. The intricacies of the debate on all sides of the Dharavi redevelopment issue were introduced. Four sites within Dharavi were selected for deeper investigation by the Studio, including the potter’s area of Kumbharwada, and three municipal chawls: Omkar Cooperative Housing Society, Rangtarang Cooperative Housing Society, and Ram Gufa Cooperative Housing Society. The students worked in six groups, and met with residents of each site to discuss issues of lifestyle, infrastructure, and improvement of building stock and ecology. The five faculty members from the Studio worked closely with students throughout the semester. Students were encouraged to create and test many different interventions and development scenarios throughout the semester before arriving at their final projects that are presented in this document. Experts were also invited to pin-up reviews, mid term, and final presentation. The GSAPP community also had a chance to view the students work during the year-end exhibition. All the work produced by the students is being made accessible to the people of Dharavi via this document, through local presentations by our partner URBZ, and via the www.dharavi.org website, an interactive website for the people of Dharavi. This document is also being translated into Hindi to make it more accessible to the residents. Exhibitions of student work were held at the newly opened URBZ center in Dharavi and in the Sir College of Architecture. It is of note that Dharavi was one of the two studio sites that students worked on, the other located on the periphery of Vienna. These contrasting sites were deliberately selected to engage the students in some of the most critical issues in urbanism today, contrasting the developing and the developed world. With over 50% of the world’s population now urbanized, and with an increasing percentage of it in informal settlements, the Dharavi project represented the challenges and paradigms being faced around the world. Given its diverse and international student body, Urban Design Program recognizes its particular responsibility to do so. The studio benefited from working in both contexts, and in some cases applying the learning from one site to the other. Development in Dharavi is imminent. However, the way it happens will be watched around the world, and will hold lessons for the many informal developments facing similar issues. Faculty and students of the Urban Design Studio are grateful for the opportunity to have worked in Dharavi, and thank all those involved in this project.

Urban fabric of Dharavi and the four sites selected for deeper investigation by the Studio Image source: Google Earth

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Chhatrpati Shivaji International Airport

Navi Mumbai

Healing Mithi River

Bandra-Kurla Complex Building Up Dharavi The Maximum Crossing

Sion Train Station Mahim Train Station Dharavi Wadala Truck Terminal

Mumbai Port

Nehru Port

Equity Through Infrastructure Plan B: Retaining Dharavi Moving Up Dharavi Live / Work [3]


A MESSAGE FROM DHARAVI Ramachandra Korde Community leader, Dharavi, Mumbai

Dharavi has people from several ethnic, language and nomadic groups from across the country who have developed businesses on their own for over 100 years. Subsidies and bank loans provided by the government to big industries elsewhere are not provided to people in Dharavi. Despite this, they manage to provide employment to at least 300,000 people in Mumbai. Still, there is no effort from the government to provide the much needed social services. People work in recycling industries in harmful conditions, but no labour laws are enforced. Child labour is rampant, especially in zari (boracade) and catering industry. People have to rely on private medical care since there are no proper government hospitals. Quality of education in municipal schools is so poor that children eventually drop out. Dharavi Redevelopment Project (DRP) being proposed by the government is not about human development, but about land development. It is set to destroy the entire structure that the poor have developed on their own, instead of improving on it. It is being considered only as a business deal for everybody, for the builders, architects and politicians alike. In the past, people have sold the apartments where they were relocated under the Slum Rehabilitation Scheme (SRS), and left for other places because the new housing did not meet people’s requirements. Now, a similar thing may happen under the DRP. Politicians indulging in vote-bank politics have promised people free houses and no maintenance charges. This has changed the mindset of people who now do not want to pay anything for their new housing. It was a great learning opportunity for me to work with the students when I was invited to the Urban Design Program at Columbia University. The students work is full of creative ideas, thoughts and insights, put together with tremendous amount of hard work, dedication and a sense of commitment. ‘Healing Mithi River’ where the students have collected data right from the 1800’s is impressive for its in-depth study, observations on the causes of flood and the suggestion for a bypass nalla (drainage channel) to allow for easier water flow. ‘Live / Work [3]’ is also interesting because it provides for a plan to redevelop Dharavi without making it go high rise, and also provides for people’s own contribution. ‘Moving Up Dharavi’ is also a very thoughful plan, but the economic viability of both plans should be conisdered further because builders might not see much profit in such plans. About the project ‘Building Up Dharavi’, I think the idea of making a common market is a very useful one. However, common kiln may also be considered as it may be more cost-effective and viable instead of the private kilns proposed. ‘The Maximum Crossing’ project is interesting and in the long run raising the height of Sion Railway station may be beneficial. However, based upon past experience, I think commercial interests may override the community interests in the surroundings. Shifting the station south by 300 yards may give Dharavi residents easier accessibility and an opportunity to develop community oriented businesses and institutions. Suggestions such as building women centres, micro-credit facilities, child care facilities, housing facilities, and senior citizens centre can very well be incorporated in the Dharavi station proposed in DRP. About the project ‘Equity Through Infrastructure’, the proposed monorail in the current redevelopment plan will optimally serve the Dharavi community. Also, the shifting of recycling units to the outskirts of city would prove more beneficial considering the environmental impacts. The idea of rainwater harvesting put forward in ‘Plan B: Retaining Dharavi’ is an invaluable idea that can be incorporated even in the current redevelopment plan. It should be taken seriously and perhaps a Public Interest Litigation could be filed to urge the courts to make it mandatory in the redevelopment plan. The studio revealed to me that one can learn much from Dharavi. Certain processes that are unique to Dharavi do not have to have solutions that can be replicated elsewhere in other redevelopment projects. Also, it is hard to redevelop cities that have already been developed. It may also be good to focus in this manner on smaller cities and towns where growth must be anticipated and planned for, formal as well as informal. Overall, I commend the Columia GSAPP Urban Design Studio for working on the Dharavi project. Investigations and ideas like these are very useful to the community in Dharavi. 4


DHARAVI: A NEW URBAN PARADIGM Geeta Mehta, Adjunct Professor, Urban Design Program Richard Plunz, Director, Urban Design Program

Dharavi has lately become an icon of urban issues relating to informal settlements in the developing world. While Dharavi obviously poses unanswered questions concerning land tenure, poor building stock, and lack of adequate physical infrastructure, it also has many strengths that need to be recognized as seeds for potential solutions to rapid urbanization. These include Dharavi’s hard working entrepreneurs and their social capital, its community-oriented urban fabric, and its postindustrial live-work paradigm.

Dharavi contributes about US $ 500-650 million to Mumbai’s economy from its micro industries and services (1). Religious festivals and social events are celebrated with pomp and enthusiasm. Women dressed in beautiful saris greet each other on shopping streets lined with food, gold jewelry, clothing shops, as well as mosques, temples, and churches. Notwithstanding this seeming normalcy, the fear of eviction hangs like an ever present shadow for the residents of Dharavi, as most of them are deemed by the authorities to be illegal occupants of public land, which the government is now keen to redevelop for higher income housing and offices. The development pressures on Dharavi are therefore enormous due to the shortage of suitable land to support the rapid economic growth that Mumbai has been experiencing for the past two decades. Informal settlements, informal metropolis

Background Dharavi is a vibrant community of approximately 700,000 people located in the heart of Mumbai, India’s commercial hub. Although it is a poor community, its poverty is not due to lack of hard work, entrepreneurship, optimism, or social capital. Rather it is due to lack of access to infrastructure, social services, and other opportunities that are available to more well-off segments of Mumbai’s society. Perched on a flood prone landfill site, the residents of Dharavi make the most of the challenging situation in which they find themselves. The young as well as old are busy and productive, contributing significantly to the overall economy of their city. Almost three-quarters of Mumbai’s recycling takes place in Dharavi. Small workshops turn out leather and embroidery products catering to clients in cities as far away as New York or Paris. Potters fire their kilns, small manufacturing industries hum, women work in food processing units, the markets are busy, and most children attend school with the ambition of going on to universities or acquiring professional degrees.

Approximately five hundred new people move to Mumbai every day in search of employment and a better life. The promise of Mumbai and the glitter of Bollywood stirs dreams among rich and poor across India. The poor come due to the pull of the city as well as the economic challenges that exist in distressed agricultural regions of the country. The poorest of migrants come to Dharavi or other informal settlements of Mumbai, find their first job, and then work their way up from there. Mumbai, like many other cities in the developing world, has not been able to cope with the rural-urban migration. While the total population of Mumbai Metropolitan Region is expected to rise from 17 million today to an estimated 34 million by 2050, the proportion of people living in informal housing is expected to rise from the current 55% to 70% during the same period unless drastic steps are taken to address this issue. Overall, the population of slums in India is growing 250% faster than India’s overall population (2).

People in Dharavi have managed to create a productive and well functioning community without even the minimal public infrastructure

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Small entrepreneurs like this taylor feel they are better off in Dharavi than they were in their native villages


The 60 feet road is one of the two main traffic arteries of Dharavi, and connects it to the rest of Mumbai

Problems in Dharavi are closely linked with the severe shortage of housing for all economic segments of Mumbai as well as the rest of the country. The official urban housing shortage at the start of India’s 11th Five Year Plan (2007-2012) was estimated at 25 million units, with the most of it pertaining to the lower income groups. The real shortage is probably much higher, and reliable statistics of urban migrants are not readily available. As a result, those in extreme poverty have little choice but to set up their own shelters wherever vacant space is available, such as public lands, along rail tracks, sidewalks, or ecologically fragile areas such as flood plains and swamps. Mumbai is rapidly becoming an informal city not just in terms of housing but also its economy, since employment in the informal sector is growing much faster than the formal sector. While the closure of the large labor-intensive mills and chemical factories over the past decades is one reason for this change in Mumbai (5), the trend is unmistakable all across India. A majority of migrant workers find semiskilled or unskilled jobs in service or unorganized sectors, with no job security, health insurance or social safety nets. Rapid economic growth in India has largely been driven by the knowledge industries and the service sector. The manufacturing sector, which has the capability of absorbing large numbers of semi-skilled workers, has lagged behind. The knowledge intensive businesses sprouting up in the new SEZ (Special Economic Zones) generally employ the more skilled people, leaving behind a large pool of unskilled and semi-skilled workers. There are already over 120 SEZ in Mumbai alone.

Students from the Urban Design studio enjoyed interacting with the community in the streets of Dharavi, and were often invited into people’s homes

Location, location, location, and Dharavi Because the severe shortage of land in Mumbai is one of the main bottlenecks for development, the real estate pressures on Dharavi have become a major political issue. Dharavi sits at the pivot point of the Mumbai peninsula, making its 590 acres of land a highly coveted property. It is here that the rail lines coming from the Fort area fork towards the rapidly developing North and Eastern parts of Mumbai, with Sion, Mahim, and Matunga railway stations in close proximity. Dharavi is also at the intersection of Sion and Mahim Link Roads, the important east-west and north-south routes, with easy access to the Mumbai Airport. Its neighbors include the new Bandra-Kurla Complex, a recently developed car-centered high-income office area. In prior decades, formal development in Mumbai had skipped over the lowlying flood prone area of Dharavi, as it was not considered commercially attractive. However, now that its location is more centralized, the area of Dharavi is estimated to be worth around ten billion dollars. Its occupation by informal settlements is now considered by the BMC (Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation) to be not ‘the highest and best use’ of the prime property from the ‘viewpoint of the entire city’. The low-lying swampy land bordering Mahim Creek that Dharavi occupies was originally a part of the Mithi River estuary with its mangrove rich ecosystem. It has been filled in over hundreds of years with waste material and is still prone to settling. The Monsoon floods in Dharavi have become more severe in recent years due to the landfill of the Bandra Kurla site across Mahim Creek, and other developments upstream entailing mangrove destruction.

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Diversity and social capital of Dharavi

Right to Dharavi, right to the city

Migrants have been coming to Dharavi from all over India since the nineteenth century, attracted by the cotton industry and the thriving trade in the port city of Mumbai. Dharavi is now an agglomeration of nearly 85 distinct nagars or towns, each with its own history, ethnicity, culture, religious identity, and informal governance structure. People in these nagars have generally come from the same geographic region or social background, with strong links to their home villages and families that were left behind. They bring with them their language, customs, and support networks. While a majority of them are Tamils (55%) or Maharathi speakers (20%) (7), people from other parts of India including Muslims and North Indians are also represented here. These include the leather workers from Tamil Nadu, embroidery workers from Uttar Pradesh and potters from Gujarat. Dharavi offers them their first foothold in the city, with employment, and shelter.

While Dharavi provides critical inputs and services needed to keep the economy of Mumbai growing, the municipal authorities are unable and/or unwilling to provide its residents the physical infrastructure and civic services it needs. This is largely due to the “informal” status of Dharavi, following the argument that improving informal settlements in cities only encourages more to spring up, exasperating an already difficult situation. In this regard, however, it is important to note that not all of Dharavi’s residents are illegal squatters. The best-known example are the Kolis, who reside in Koliwada, one of the original six fishing villages that predate Mumbai. Most families in Koliwada have title to their land and are proud of their heritage. Some of them still make their living from selling fish and related businesses, although most have moved on to professional or government jobs. Several Kolis have become landlords renting tiny flats in their village. Most Kolis consider themselves middle class and do not feel any direct affinity with the rest of Dharavi residents. The village of Koliwada has recently been given the legal status of ‘gaothan’ or urban village, and excluded from the current Slum Redevelopment Authority plans, at least for the time being. Self-development of the village is being considered as an option by the Kolis.

Life in Dharavi is made livable and is enriched by its social capital. Communities support their members; neighbors watch each other’s children; women’s micro-credit groups are proliferating. Conflicts in the various nagars are resolved within their own informal governance system anchored by the elders. Statistics show that Dharavi is as safe a place as any in Mumbai (4), even though Hollywood and Bollywood movies tend to accentuate the negative aspects of Dharavi rather than highlight its supportive social networks and its strong community bonds.

Residents of the potter’s colony of Kumbharwada also claim their right to their land because they were brought to Dharavi by the government when development caused them to be displaced from land they were

The social capital of Dharavi is formed by neighbors supporting each other, and sharing life on the semi-public areas just outside their homes

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previously occupying. Also in contention in Dharavi are many lowincome residential clusters called chawls. These were developed in the past by the government to provide affordable housing at the time when Dharavi was on the periphery of the city, and considered of no significant property value. Residents of these chawls have been paying rent to the government, and do not consider themselves illegal occupants of land. They claim their right to be in Dharavi under the normal tenant protection laws of Mumbai. As the residents of Dharavi are making their voices heard and demanding their “right to the city,” a shared sense of community is emerging among various nagars, with growing understanding that their destinies hang together as the Mumbai government evaluates Dharavi’s future options. Several community leaders have emerged to represent the interest of the people of Dharavi. Jockin Arputham, recipient of 2000 Ramon Magsaysay award, is a social activist who founded The National Slum Dwellers Federation and also Slum Dwellers International. Sheela Patel is another important community leader. She is the founding director of the Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centers (SPARC) organized in 1984, and works closely with Jockin and Mahila Milan, a micro credit self-help organization for women. Both Jockin and Sheela are working to organize the people of Dharavi to have an effective voice in negotiations with the government about the future of their communities. Slum Dwellers International also offers similar consultation to informal settlements in other countries based upon its success in Dharavi. Other leaders like Bhau Ramachandra Korde have done important work in promoting community harmony, especially after the 1992-93 communal riots. Other than during the tense period of in 1992-93, Dharavi residents of all castes and backgrounds have lived together in harmony (4). In many ways, Dharavi is much like the rest of Mumbai, where people from all parts of India feel at home and everyone simply goes about their own business. While the social capital of Dharavi is strong, it would be stronger if the fear of eviction was eased. This remains a matter of deep concern for its residents. The urban fabric of Dharavi The organic urban fabric of Dharavi represents an important repository of history and memory for the communities it serves. It has developed incrementally over several generations. Pedestrian oriented narrow streets are lined with 2-4 storey structures that are commercial at the street level and residential on upper floors. The roof terraces are used for storage, to catch the evening breeze, or for children to fly kites. The occasional nooks and bends of streets allow for casual meetings or for street vending. Small streets and courtyards that veer away from the main streets have a distinctly residential character, where children play and women work on crafts or food processing enterprises. Family members can watch over children as well as public activity from within their homes. Public spaces and streets are integral parts of the residential life, with activities spilling out into the open during the cool of the evenings. All aspects of life in Dharavi are lived within close proximity to others. The large open spaces that serve many nagars are

well guarded against encroachment, and provide venues for festive celebrations, political speeches and cricket matches. The population density of Dharavi is estimated to be close to 300,000 people per square kilometer (3). Compared to this, the daytime population density of Manhattan is approximately 50,000 people per square kilometer, and for Mumbai as a whole it is about 22,000 people per square kilometer. Living conditions in this very high-density area are exacerbated by lack of adequate roads, sewage, and water supply. There are 60,158 structures in Dharavi, of which 45,563 are residential. A majority of the tenements are about 150 square feet in area (6). While the building stock in some nagars is made up of structures pieced together from scrap material, other areas have “pucca” or permanent houses of brick or concrete, often with toilets, water storage tanks, and marble details. These homes are usually decorated with exuberant colors and decorations on the interior as well as exterior. Families with some space and funds have also expanded their homes on the floors above as they grew, often cantilevering over the street and public areas. Some have also built additional rooms to rent. Generally, the building stock in Dharavi is not of the quality most people want or can afford, because people are afraid to invest in their homes for fear of eviction. Toilets are a particular problem, as both private and public toilets are inadequate and most people have to take turns for their use. Communal taps and wells are the source of water supply for many people. The streets are dusty and poorly maintained. People’s homes are generally kept very clean, but garbage is often tossed into the streets, where it awaits sporadic garbage removal. This ‘poverty penalty’ is clearly a drain on people’s resources. On a per capita basis, the people of Dharavi end up paying much more for basic services than in other parts of Mumbai. History of government sponsored Slum Redevelopment Programs in Dharavi The Slum Redevelopment Authority (SRA) dates from the Slum Redevelopment Law in 1971, as the government body in-charge of redeveloping Dharavi and other slums. However, the history of slum redevelopment efforts in India and Mumbai is long and varied. Slums started to appear in Indian cities in the 1950s. The first reaction of the government was to clear them as part of the planning process. However, planning in Mumbai is not controlled by a single authority and is subordinate to prevailing commercial forces (5). As the futility of the Slum Clearance Policy of 1950s became evident, it was replaced by the Slum Improvement Law in 1971 with a goal of providing ‘insitu’ basic amenities and infrastructure to slums. Dharavi was officially recognized as a slum in 1976, and some amenities such as electricity, communal water taps, and public toilets were installed. The clamp down on the organized criminal elements and illicit liqueur production in all of Mumbai at that time also helped make Dharavi a safer place than before. As the slum population around India increased rapidly during the 1970s, the Prime Minister’s Grant Project (PMGP) was launched in 1980s. The selection of Dharavi as one of the areas subject to this initiative was

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largely due to health concerns. High floodwater containing raw sewage remaining for days in Dharavi during the monsoon was considered a health hazard to the whole city. However, the community in Dharavi was skeptical of the relocation plans that the PMGP had offered. The Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centers (SPARC), the foremost NGO operating in Dharavi at that time, opposed the plan on the basis that 65,000 families would be displaced. As a result, no action was taken (3). The impetus for redevelopment was further reinforced in 1985 when Rajiv Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India at that time, visited Dharavi and announced the Prime Minister’s Grant Project (PMGP). One billion rupees were made available to Bombay, with a substantial portion allocated to infrastructural and housing projects in Dharavi. Beginning in 1995, the Slum Rehabilitation Scheme (SRS) was launched along with the Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) program. These schemes offered incentives to developers for constructing buildings in slums where small flats of 225 square feet would be given free of charge to slum dwellers as part of the relocation strategy, enabling the builders to develop the land thus cleared with buildings which could then be sold on the open market. The high-rise buildings that can be seen on the periphery of Dharavi were built under this scheme. However, most of these high-rise apartments quickly turned into vertical slums. The quality of life for their residents became, in many instances, worse then before. Families could no longer watch over their children playing on the streets, and the adults lost the community interactions that had benefited them before, including the possibilities for informal sector enterprises which proliferate within the dense horizontal fabric. Nevertheless, people who were relocated still reported some satisfaction since they were now the legal occupants of their apartments. The economic deregulation policies and the consequent steep economic growth in India during the last two decades has encouraged the government to seek public-private partnerships for solving urban issues. In this context, the Slum Redevelopment Authority has proposed the Dharavi Redevelopment Project (DRP) with the participation of a private Developer, Mukesh Mehta. The current Floor Area Ratio (FAR) of Dharavi is 1.33. The government has offered to increase the allowable FAR to 4.00 to enable the developer to accommodate a larger number of slum dwellers while still achieving the desirable economic returns by building a number of mid- and high-income structures. Under the plan approved by the SRA in 2004, slum dwellers included in the voters list of January 1995 who are actually occupying their homes are eligible to receive a free 225 square feet flat with a ten-year tax abatement (7). Dharavi residents have since negotiated with the government to increase the size of flats to 300 square feet per family, and also to include families who have been in Dharavi before January 2000. The Developer has accepted these conditions, but the plan is still stalled due to opposition from others of the Dharavi community. The SRA had originally proposed that the land in Dharavi be divided into five sectors, but has since increased the proposed number of sectors to ten (7). International tenders were invited in 2007 from

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companies to design and develop one sector each. The hope is that this would also divide community opposition into smaller and more manageable units. The SRA announced a shortlist of 19 bidders soon thereafter. This plan appears to have been slowed down by the global financial downturn of 2008-9. Meanwhile, the results of a cadastral, socioeconomic and biometric survey using GIS conducted by an independent NGO consultant retained by SRA were publicized in June 2009. However, this survey only considered ground floor occupants as legal residents, potentially leaving out 25,000 families. The opposition to the SRA plan continues from many quarters, based upon an apparent distrust of the developer and the government. The plan as it stands now would only cover about 25% of Dharavi’s residents. The remaining people, many of whom have lived there for generations, would have no choice but to move to another informal settlement due to a severe shortage of affordable housing in Mumbai. People who are entitled to apartments are also concerned about the high building maintenance fees that may be charged from them. The Developer is keen to proceed with the development and has offered to build schools and training facilities for the residents and electric kilns for the potters. SRA has also promised that non-polluting industrial and businesses will be retained in Dharavi itself (7). The SRA has formed an advisory group of Dharavi residents and experts including noted architects and community leaders to help with the development project. However, this group circulated an open letter to the government in July 2009, expressing their opposition to the SRA plan. The letter states that pushing the residents of Dharavi to less than half the land they currently occupy, and developing the rest for highdensity housing and offices for the open market will make the entire development too dense. It will also destroy livelihoods. This letter proposes that the government help residents to redevelop Dharavi by themselves without looking for any profits for the government or the developer. Nagars that redevelop according to the guidelines provided by SRA could then be legalized. Post industrial live-work paradigm In some ways Dharavi embodies an efficient pre-industrial live-work paradigm that is now being reinterpreted in post-industrial societies as a sustainable lifestyle option. Most people in Dharavi work out of their own homes, or run workshops on the ground floor while staying in the upper floor. People employed in service industries or small scale manufacturing benefit from the decentralized production networks they have created in Dharavi to reduce costs. These networks are now being strengthened by the use of mobile phones, and there are plans to establish community computing centers where small entrepreneurs can reach out to the local and international markets directly. This would help increase incomes and opportunities. The existing urban configuration of the various nagars is likely to be suited for this livework paradigm in the future as well, once the physical infrastructure and building stock have been improved. Koliwada, the village that predates Mumbai, has the potential of lending personality to new development with its intimate pedestrian-scaled and shaded streets. If these features and community assets are to be preserved, incremental


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4 1. Small scale brick vendors cater to small building projects and expansions in Dharavi 2. Dharavi is now surrounded by high-rise, high-end developments, and consequent development pressures 3. Contrast in the urban fabric: SRA housing and self developed structures seen in the foreground

redevelopment with public participation could be considered as a development alternative to the present SRA plan that seeks to completely wipe out the existing urban fabric. Meanwhile, Dharavi has become the site of many studies and concerned speculation among Indian as well as foreign architects, planners, sociologists, and developers.

4. Road repair excavations in Dharavi reveal layers of landfill, and signs of lives supported by Dharavi for nearly 400 years

Dharavi’s redevelopment does not allow for such migrant support any more? What alternative systems of recycling is Mumbai planning to set up if this function is removed from the redeveloped Dharavi? How will the carbon foot print of the car oriented redevelopment compare to that of Dharavi today? What will be the long-term social impact in Mumbai of segregated low, middle, and high-income housing enclaves?

Moving forward While all stakeholders, including the current residents, understand the need for redeveloping Dharavi, the agreement on strategy stops with a number of crucial questions. Is the tabula rasa approach being currently considered by SRA the only way forward, or are there alternative scenarios that should be considered? Can development happen in an incremental manner so that the social capital of Dharavi’s nagars is preserved and enhanced, such that a major urban asset of Mumbai is not lost? Can the existing urban fabric of Dharavi be a valuable asset to the redevelopment in giving it scale and a historic context? How can the future development of Dharavi contribute to strengthening the ecology of Mahim Creek, and to remediating its perennial flooding? What are the possible roles of the existing communities in the redevelopment? Is it valuable to the overall sustainability of Mumbai’s economy that Dharavi continue to provide support and transition help to new migrants? What are the alternative systems that will be set up if

The above competing priorities and questions were posed in the Urban Design Studio. The intricacies of the debate on all sides of the Dharavi redevelopment issue were introduced, with results that were not exactly conclusive. Perhaps the most interesting challenge had to do with the approach to renewal itself. While obviously there was no consensus for total clearance, there was also no consensus for careful preservation. In most of the inhabitants minds, the answer to renewal seemed to lie somewhere between all obvious strategies; and this was the challenge that most attracted the interest of the design teams. Work focused on devising incremental change strategies that could preserve social fabric (and social capital), while addressing obvious deficiencies in the spatial infrastructure. Among the most obvious infrastructural problems are insufficient dwelling size, inadequacy of space for production activities, ecological dysfunction including flooding of the urban fabric during monsoon season, and inadequate service infrastructure for water and sanitation.

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Everyone in Dharavi is busy and productive, this successful live-work paradigm represents Dharavi lifestyle

While the evolution of the work in the Urban Design Studio generally recognized that tabula rasa approach to social housing might provide superior internal dwelling standards, it was obvious that the external relationships between dwelling and community would become highly restricted by the usual high-rise typologies. For this reason, high-rise solutions tended to be excluded from the study. Instead, densification of the existing low-rise paradigm became the principal assumption for most of the work. Literal preservation of the existing urban fabric was also not seen as realistic, while deployment of its spatial and social memory was seen as essential. Increasing FAR to levels consistent with minimum space standards was also considered necessary, accepting that there must be no resident displacement. The sensibility of the Studio’s approach grew from the understanding that because Dharavi has evolved from the needs of so many people, problem-solving there must be understood in the context of the residents’ point of view rather than merely as an issue for government or experts to solve. As urbanization worldwide continues at a fast pace, it is places like Dharavi that are essential to this transition that must be legitimized.

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Work Cited 1. Jacobson, Mark. Geographic, May 2007. Dharavi, Mumbai’s Shadow City. 2. Davis, Mike. Planet of Slums. Verso, London and New York, 2007. 3. Savchuk Katia, Echanove Matias, and Srivastava Rahul. Intro: Lakhs of Residents, Billions of Dollars. <http://www.dharavi.org/B._Introduction> 4. Sharma, Kalpana. Rediscovering Dharavi: Stories From Asia’s Largest Slum. By Sharma. New York: Penguin Books, 2000. 5. Mehrotra, Rahul. “Evolution, Involution and the City’s Future: A Perspective on Bombay’s Urban Form.” Bombay to Mumbai: Changing Perspectives. Eds. Pauline Rohatgi, Pheroza Godrej, and Rahul Mehrotra. Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2007. 258-277. 6. Times of India, June 12, 2009. Deconstructing a Slum: Dharavi at Your Fingertips. 7. Slum Redevelopment Authority’s official website <http://www.sra.gov.in/htmlpages/Dharavi.htm> Other references • <10_cities/07_mumbai/_essays/mumbai_Parasuraman.html> • Correa, Charles. “New Bombay: Marg as an Urban Catalyst.” Bombay to Mumbai: Changing Perspectives. Eds. Pauline Rohtagi, Pheroza Godrej, and Rahul Mehrotra. Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2007. 312-315. • <www.Dharavi.org> • Lehrer, Jim “In Famous Mumbai Slum, Redevelopment Plans Stir Controversy.” The Web site of the News Hour with Jim Lehrer. 7 April 2009. 11 April 2009 <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/asia/jan-june09/ mumbai_04-07.html> • Mehrotra, Rahul. “Remaking Mumbai.” Urban Age Web site. Nov 2007. 5 April 2009 <http:www.urbanage.net/10¬_cities/07_mumbai/_essays/> • <mumbai_Mehrotra.html> • Mehta, Suketu. “Maximum City.” Urban Age Web site. Nov 2007. 5 April 2009 <http:www.urban-age. net/10¬_cities/07_mumbai/_essays/mumbai_Mehta.html> • Mukhija, Vinit. “Enabling Slum Redevelopment in Mumbai: Policy Paradox in Practice.” Housing Studies. 18.4 (2001): 213-222. 5 April 2009 <http://www.sppsr.ucla.edu/ UP/webfiles/publications/ EnablingRedevelopment_HStudies_.pdf> • Neuwirth, Robert. Shadow Cities. Routledge, Oxon and New York, 2005. • Parasuraman, S. “Uncovering the Myth of Urban Development in Mumbai.” Urban Age Web site. Nov 2007. 5 April 2009 <http:www.urban-age.net/> • Rode, Philipp. “Mumbai: The Compact City.” Urban Age Web site. Nov 2007. 5 April 2009 <http:www.urban-age.net/10_cities/07_mumbai/_essays/mumbai_Rode.html>


DHARAVI: A TRANSIENT CITY Viren Brahmbhatt Visiting critic

Global cities: inheritance of loss The 21st century is defined by its inheritance of loss and collective global risks. The effects of multiple collective histories, traumas and missteps of the past as well as the acts of ‘erasures’ employed by cultures to cope with such legacies have left legible traces on the cities. These acts, or processes, include decolonization in some instances and defiance in others. Lately, they have been a result of struggles for defining what is culture amidst flux in the rapidly changing world under globalization, mobility and connectivity; and the risks the world shares collectively. Many of today’s global risks are results of the process of modernization, urbanization, economic growth (or decline), social inequalities, change, politics and, energy and climate crisis. On the other hand, there is also what scientists call manufactured risks, produced by human activity, risks that have transformed the modernization process itself. Social relations have changed with the introduction of manufactured risks thanks to increased public awareness, media and information technologies. With the influx of tele-technologies and the Internet, social and physical urban networks are being replaced by flows – together with, and produced by the interdependent nexus of formal-informal economies and social interactions. Some risks are also culturally relative, and are perceived differently depending on what interests, ideologies and politics are at stake in trying to determine their nature. Risks, much like resources, are distributed unevenly in geographic terms, locations and densities of population. Sharing resources is easy; sharing risks is not. World has inherited more risks than rewards from the last century’s missteps. An argument for more reflexive approach towards managing collective risks to avoid collective catastrophes is not ill placed. Sustainability and sharing have become keywords in defining reflexive frameworks for minimizing risks and for turning ‘risks into resources’. In the age of reuse and recycling, the design of the post-carbon cities calls for the need to re-evaluate that, which is already being used by society to engender new urban paradigms; typologies that integrate spaces with landscape; and built form with urban systems. Dharavi, like other informal cities, not only illustrates how risks can be put to use towards more sustainable living, but also epitomizes “culture of less” versus culture of excess and may itself provide clues towards building sustainable cities and communities; but more importantly for rebuilding itself while addressing the market-pressures as well as contemporary needs to improve the living conditions. It is estimated that there are almost a billion poor people in the world with the highest percentage in the Asian cities, of this over 750 million live in urban areas without adequate shelter and basic services. Asia’s

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palette is full as far as global risks are concerned: from population growth, rapid urbanization, inadequate infrastructure, deficient housing and urban poverty to climate crisis, carbon emissions, ecological hazards, contaminated land, air and water; and a million people flocking to cities everyday. Global Urban Development Magazine states: India has 433 million people living on less than US$1 a day, which is 36% of the total number of poor in the world. Out of the 290 million (28% of the total population of the country) that live in urban areas, 62 million live in slums. This represents over 21% of the urban population in India. The face of emerging India is much more scarred than the painted faces in the National Geographic pages. Urbanization and growth in this sense is a global issue and not merely a local condition considering the total population of the world (a billion people) living in informal settlements or slums; that is one in 6 people. And that number could double by 2030 according to a United Nations report. Insufficient and inadequate housing, deficient infrastructure, poverty, inequality and encroachment are among the most pressing challenges facing the world cities, making India’s precarious urbanization a global issue. As Urban Age Conference in Mumbai concluded, India’s slums bring to attention the difficulties of improving the urban quality of life in densely populated areas with rapid growth. The extent of informal settlements in India and the scale of encroachment make its cities unparalleled sites to reflect on strategies to better accommodate the growing number of urban residents and their multiple needs. Mumbai With the staggering rate of urbanization in the developing nations where large cities are growing exponentially, Mumbai is forecast to become the world’s second-largest urban agglomeration after Tokyo . However, unlike Tokyo, Mumbai is not adequately prepared to absorb such fast-paced growth in terms of providing decent housing and infrastructure to urban migrants and the poor who flock to the city for better employment and opportunities. To add to its predicament, 55% of its current population lives in slums or slum like conditions without provisions for basic necessities like clean water and decent sanitation. Mumbai has also already paid a huge price, almost in an irreversible manner for having incrementally altered its ecology over the last 100+ years, swallowing up the mangroves, marshland and changing the watershed and upsetting the natural balance of its estuary. Mumbai is a divided city, like many others in its category; divided by necessity or by design: from property division to segregation, informal settlements to its double - organized affluent urban ghettos; Mumbai is a city defined by isolated political, economic, and social zones - a city less continuous and cumulus than it may appear on a map. Housing ownership in Mumbai is equally divided between housing occupying privately owned land and informal settlements on publicly owned sites occupied by the so-called slums. Blurred boundaries between what is property and community are perpetuated thanks to lack of regulation over the last 60-70 years. The ‘neutral’ landscape of Mumbai in reality is cluttered with ruptures, disjunctures and at times not easily


decipherable layers of complexities that translate into urban areas of extreme social differences in close proximity to each other. Mumbai is caught between cosmopolitanism and the ubiquitous localism (as it relates to politics of meritocracy and exploitation of the marginalized). The cosmopolites who desire for Mumbai to become the next ‘global city’ are eager to embrace the notion of global culture ignoring certain realities on the ground, namely, overpopulation, poverty, squatter settlements; or advocating ‘erasure’ through ecoplotic. For cities like Mumbai, displacement of the informal settlements to make room for luxury development is not uncommon. The bigger worry is where and how the inhabitants are relocated without creating dispersed cities, expanding rather than densifying the urban metropolis. Dharavi Dharavi is a city of dreams, often romanticized, but all the same, home to close to a million people who have occupied this swampy land for generations in search of employment and livelihood. It’s a rags-toriches story, metaphorically and literally: Dharavi’s informal economy fuels that of rest of the city and manages its recycling needs producing goods and revenues. There are those who came and settled on public land and others who have been the legal inhabitants of Dharavi historically for more than a few centuries. To define entire Dharavi indiscriminately as an illegally occupied cumulus would be a gross mistake. In 18th century, inhabited by the Kolis, the fisherman community, Dharavi was an island. Now it is a much-maligned ghetto in spite of being still inhabited by the original fishermen villages and migrant communities of the potters and leather-workers. Dharavi, as the name signifies, has been on the edge for more than a century - on the edge of the city, society and economic affluence that otherwise defines Mumba. Having been the marginalized fringe city, it is now suddenly engulfed by the larger metropolis with its crowded streets, inadequate infrastructure and housing. The facts about the demographics are staggering: almost 1 million people live and work in Dharavi contributing largely to city’s GDP: $650 Million (USD) per annum. Goods produced in Dharavi are worth $500,000 Million (USD). Traditional industries such as pottery and textiles are still very prevalent in Dharavi however; the largest and most significant industry is recycling which takes care of approximately 50% of Mumbai’s recyclable materials. Dharavi remains unique among Mumbai’s slums – a unifying name that in reality defies the boundaries between various villages (nagars) or the communities it contains. It’s a place not unlike rest of Mumbai that contains multitudes geographically placed at the heart of Mumbai, it functions more like city’s lungs with its hugely well-established and operated recycling-based industries and production units; Dharavi is more than an illegally occupied space, an encroachment, it is also city’s infrastructure. It has been part of city’s history. The emotional and historical home for the marginalized yet resourceful people who have inhabited and cultivated a swamp into a place, for the people who live there, it is a center of all things, geographically, psychologically and spiritually. What once was an uninhabitable and undesirable area of

the city has now become a hot location as real estate in Mumbai, a metropolis that epitomizes India’s hopes of becoming an iconic city, a national emblem of India’s newfound affluence and growing economy, rivaling those of the other nations. So, under these sociopolitical, economic and cultural conditions and circumstances, what role can planning, architecture and urban design play? Planning without clarifying the premise would be the first misstep. Opting for the traditional models and not exploring new urban paradigms and pedagogies would put us back by 50 years. Displacement through dispersal should be avoided at any cost because even though Dharavi may embarrass a city aiming to become a global finance center, for many it is home and livelihood. Everyone agrees that Dharavi in its present state is far from desirable and needs to change to improve the conditions for close to a million people living and working there. Then there is the issue of density: considering that Mumbai is one of the world’s most expensive property markets where space is scarce due to city’s geographical constraints. Current levels of density are not sustainable considering the land value, location, and investment in the surrounding infrastructure of the city. However, Density is also cultural and not merely physical – at any given time of the day, there are more people outdoors than indoors; streets are production spaces besides being used for social and economic activities. Dharavi, as prime land must meet the pressures from the market for more housing, amenities and other economic needs/activities a city needs to address. However, instead of looking at Dharavi as a problem, it should be viewed as an asset, a resource; the most important resource Dharavi provides is its willing and able human resource. Dharavi, historically has been a place built by people themselves using their own limited resources and labor. Any plans that disregard the local communities and fail to engage the existing large labor force in the processes of reconstruction plans would be a missed opportunity. Incremental growth, phased development would be key in such efforts. Isolating Dharavi from the rest of the city of Mumbai as a sore blemish, ‘a tumor that must be removed’ would cripple the city in more ways than one: it will displace the large labor force and servicesector that supports the formal industry and the formal sector. The city will have to find alternate place, people and resources to take care of its recycling needs – not to mention loss in terms of significant revenue generated by the informal recycling industry and other economic activities, production units situated in Dharavi and run by the local community at no cost to the city. Dharavi, from that point of view is part of the city’s infrastructure and should be viewed as such. The policy makers must take into account the cost of displacing Dharavi and its populous in wholesale terms across the board; lost revenue; and jeopardizing the local economy versus the gain from the marketrate development of any sort - cost not merely in fiscal terms but also social, cultural and environmental terms. Policy for ‘contained growth’ without displacement or dispersal while increasing the density may allow for co-existence rather than create affluent ghettos surrounded by newer future slums. On more topographic and environmental levels: Dharavi by its location

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along the Mithi River and peninsula is a critical part of Mumbai’s ecosystem, the watershed and mangroves. Dharavi and major parts of the city flood during high monsoon months. Not addressing the climate crisis risks, water management, preserving the local ecologies and safeguarding against the future environmental threats (not just to Dharavi but the rest of the city) would be a mistake. Better-coordinated plans that integrate more comprehensive strategies to urban ecology, productive landscape, infrastructure and performance-based zoning and efficient landuse in concert with plans for physical density - would potentially bring Dharavi closer to a model for the 21st century cities. Last, but not the least is to exploit the potential offered by the existing infrastructure and transportation network that frames Dharavi; the disappearing fishing industry on the river, pottery, leather and other trades that thrive within Dharavi providing employment and producing useful goods. Recycling is the other most important newer industry that is flourishing while helping the city take care of its recycling needs. Of course, the conditions for production, storage and marketing these products leave a lot to be desired. While the global elites view Dharavi as a laboratory for social engineering experiments and LEGO urbanism, the property sharks in cahoots with developer-friendly bureaucrats and politicians are busy hatching out plans to erase histories of the so-called stigma that has come to be described as Dharavi, the slum city within Mumbai. What impact will this have on the informal settlements that constitute up to 55% of Indian cities; or what their response will be is yet to be understood. However, in the age of information and better connectivity, there are a few positive and important developments: The informal settlements are contributing significantly to local economies and city’s revenues; and there is also increased awareness and activism that has produced community leaders who have the tools and know-how to negotiate

with the formal sector institutions, governments and other stakeholders. Media, press and the Internet have helped considerably in this endeavor. The crisis of poverty, overpopulation and lack of resources – combined with the climate and economic crises have also drawn wellmeaning professionals, NGOs, individuals and the global institutions that are now much more interested in the issues surrounding the informal cities. Research, data collection and communication regarding the larger issues have put the problem in everyone’s frontyard as opposed to the typical NIMBY responses. Additionally, the politicians see opportunities and are willing to form alliances with such marginalized groups as potential voters. Additionally, the informal sector also stimulates and is closely linked with the formal sector economies by providing much-needed support-structure as well as cheap labor. And since many of the economic activities that fuel larger economic systems are done under the radar of regulating authorities (informally), the cost is lower and there are no compliance issues to contend with. On the other hand, along with the exploits of politics of poverty and the obvious selfish motives, there remain the market forces and the pressures from the real estate industry, developers, investors and governmental policies towards privatization to contend with. As Mumbai undergoes population growth, urbanization, and economic development, it is poised between being a failed experiment, not unlike the cities of the West in the mid 20th century or cities in China, or an opportunity for defining the 21st century model for sustainable urbanism and architecture. With more than half of world’s population living in the cities - a third of which lives in the informal settlements, transient cities are real and constitute a major part of our living environment. Dharavi therefore has a unique opportunity to become a model for sustainable living and redefine the city for the new millennium.

Citations 1. Urban Age Conference, Mumbai: Understanding the Maximum City 2. Source: City Mayors; an international think tank for urban affairs. 3. The name derives itself from Sanskrit word that suggests a geographic condition for a place that is on the edge (Dhaara, which means ‘edge’ of the earth)…. In Marathi, local language of Mumbai, it means ‘creek’ – another geological reference. Some attribute the name to original Portuguese word “Daravi” which could have been employed by the Portuguese from the native name of a deity Tarak Devi, worshipped by the locals. Image credits Mumbai City of Coexistence and Paradoxes Photo: Courtesy, Vastu Shilpa Foundation, Ahmedabad, India Plate 2: Density: Traditional Historical Cities of Jaisalmer, Jaipur and Ahmedabad; India 1. Jaisalmer, Historical City, India. Photo: Courtesy, Vastu Shilpa Foundation, Ahmedabad, India 2. Jaisalmer, Photo: Viren Brahmbhatt 3. Jaisalmer, Photo: Viren Brahmbhatt 4. Jaipur, Photo: Courtesy, Vastu Shilpa Foundation, Ahmedabad, India 5. Jaipur, Photo: Courtesy, Vastu Shilpa Foundation, Ahmedabad, India 6. Jaipur, Image: Courtesy, Google Imagery 7. Street, Ahmedabad, India 8. Pol in the Old City, Ahmedabad, India. Photo: Web: www.Shunya.net 9. Ahmedabad, Old City, India. Image: Courtesy, Google Imagery Mumbai: City of Coexistence and Paradoxes

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1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 Density in the Medieval Cities: A Comparative Study of the Traditional Historical Cities of Jaisalmer, Jaipur and Ahmedabad; India. Jaisalmer (top), Jaipur (middle) and Ahmedabad (bottom) Density is also a function of culture and climate. Dense physical fabrics of the historical city provide shelter from sweltering heat for cooler streets and public spaces. However, in the contemporary city, density (in terms of both, population and built-form) is governed by more complex set of criteria.

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HEALING MITHI RIVER

A Framework for Ecological & Social Change Dongsei Kim, Daniel Montes-Santamaria, Sheg-Wei Shih

SANJAY GANDHI NATIONAL PARK

POWAI LAKE

REMOVE POLLUTING ELEMENTS RECLAIM NEW HABITATS CHATRAPATI SHIVAJI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

RESTORE RIVER FLOODPLAINS

NEW BANDRA KURLA ISLAND BANDRA KURLA COMPLEX

MAHIM CREEK

DHARAVI NEW WATER COURSE

UPGRADED NALLA NETWORK

MAHIM BAY ARABIC SEA

PROPOSED NEW MITHI RIVER

17


Severe flooding and water pollution of the Mithi River is one of the most serious problems for Mumbai today, and particularly for Dharavi, which is built on low-lying marshlands. The main cause of this massive problem is that Mithi River has lost 54% of its original water basin due to slum encroachments, new bridges, construction of the Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport and the Bandra Kurla Complex. We propose to heal the river by reversing this haphazard, offensive and profit driven encroachment and introducing a new green infrastructural network based on water elevations. This will be executed at two scales. One at a regional scale that addresses urban program and land-uses that together transform Mithi River from the nalla (drain) of Mumbai into a thriving, productive green infrastructure that reduces risk of catastrophe like flooding and increases public health and ; the second at the neighborhood scale where the green infrastructure infiltrates Dharavi through the existing nalla right-of-way.

NEW PROPOSED NALLA

This intervention promotes sanitary environments, a social network of bike streets and public spaces for recreation and commercial activities. These two scales of interventions envision a new way of living with nature to remediate the current predicament of Mithi River, and generate valuable new green eco-economy and community that reinforces Dhraraviâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current dynamic economy and social fabric.

NALLA OF MUMBAI: EXISTING MITHI RIVER Mithi river receives 68% of the sewage of Mumbai

EXISTING NALLAS OF DHARAVI Most of Mumbai is built on reclaimed land. Nallas are the storm water drainage network of the city, but they also carry rubbish and other pollutants

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CHOKING NALLAS

MANGROVES DESTRUCTION

+10.25m

LAND RECLAMATION

+4.75m

MUMBAI HALTS FOR 2 DAYS

OVER 600 DEAD

LOSSES $690 MILLION

16,300 CARCASSES

+0.40 0

MUMBAI WATERSHEDS

MUMBAI EXISTING CONDITIONS India, like in many other rapidly developing countries, is going through growing pains. One of the most prominent issues is the water control and pollution. Here in Mumbai, the biggest city in India and the economical capital of the country, the problem is even worse, due to industrialization, migration and urbanization. The central government, in order to maintain a fast growing economy, does not tightly monitor environmental regulations, and many factories dump heavy pollutants into the rivers without control. The city also receives about 480 new migrants per day, most of whom do not have a place to stay, so the slums are growing everywhere they can, and the encroachments are taking place over the waterways choking them. In addition, the untreated sewage and garbage flows from the slums directly to the rivers. Furthermore, global finance and real state interests continue to take over enormous areas of natural land and modifying the waterways, backed by the Government.

INTERTIDAL AREA

25 YEAR FLOODPLAIN

+7.25m

+

100 YEAR FLOODPLAIN

+10.00m

WATER LEVEL

+

WATER POLLUTION

The tipping point for this to change took place on 26 July 2005, when a 24-hour rainfall of 994 mm lashed the metropolis. Mumbai, the economical power of India, â&#x20AC;&#x153;diedâ&#x20AC;? for two days: metropolitan trains could not circulate, major

roads closed. Due to landslides, children and workers had to stay in school or office overnight. Phone, internet and power blackouts lasted for hours or days, airports closed, and sewage water overflowed.Over 600 people died, 2,000 houses were destroyed and 50,000 were damaged, 30,000 vehicles were ruined, 16,300 animals died (1,300 buffalos and 5,000 sheep and goats). Direct losses reached the US$100 million, and total losses were estimated at more than $690 million. One of the causes for the flood was the Mithi River. It has lost over 54% of its original water basin due to slum encroachments, bridges and developments such as Bandra Kurla Complexand the International Airport. Its natural ecosystems were devastated, since most of natural mangrove forests have been destroyed, and the river has lost its capacity to absorb all of the water from monsoon rainfall. Additionally, the river is now highly contaminated, as it is used as an open sewer for pollutants and garbage. Industries upstream dump heavy chemicals and oils, while the slums dwellers produce enormous amount of sewage, garbage and light manufacturing industrial waste.


EXISTING CONDITIONS OF MITHI RIVER

0

POLLUTANTS

CUMULATIVE POLLUTION

1

4 km

PURIFIERS - VEGETATIONS

INDUSTRIES

CHEMICAL & OILS

MANGROVES

NATURAL GREEN

SLUMS

SEWAGE & LIGHT INDUSTRIAL

PARKS

SHALLOW WATER

WATER RUNOFF AND LAND RECLAMATION

RUNOFF SEWAGE & LIGHT POLLUTION

GREEN AREAS

RIVER VEGETATION

REVIVING MAHIM CREEK BANDRA KURLA

I 1600 ORIGINAL ISLANDS

DHARAVI

1979

The shape of Mumbai topography and Mahim Creek has been continuously changed from its original form. Both formal developments and informal settlements have encroached on the water course reducing its surface and water capacity enormously. Human encroachments have changed Mithi River’s ecology and behavior dramatically, specially the Bandra Kurla Complex that funnels monsoon waters towards Dharavi and other areas, as happened on July 2005. Our project proposes to reverse the formal and informal development process and recover the water basin areas, for the river to flow and grow on its natural course but also for reintroducing Mithi into

DHARAVI 2005

2025 PROPOSED

Mumbai’s livelihood resources and, taking advantage of the river’s periodical changes, create seasonal economic and social activities related with it. This project strategy is based on the changing water levels of Mithi River: the low and high tides, the water level for the 25 year flood and the water level for the 100 year flood. The proposal redraws the intertidal area and floodplains as a starting point for arranging new areas for related ecological habitats to be recovered and also designating new land uses, activities and policies that will change the citizen’s approach to Mithi River


+10.25m +4.75m

NEW WATER COURSE

INTERTIDAL AREA

25 YEAR FLOODPLAIN

+7.25m

+

100 YEAR FLOODPLAIN

+10.00m

WATER LEVEL

+

PROPOSAL: STRATEGY BY WATER ELEVATION

NEW WATER COURSE

NEW WATER LEVELS AND FLOODING

NEW WATER LEVELS AND FLOODING

+0.40

100 YEAR FLOOD PLAIN

FOREST

25 YEAR FLOOD PLAIN

FRESHWATER WETLANDS

0

OPEN LAND

INTERTIDAL AREA

SEAWATER WETLANDS MANGROVES


POWAI LAKE

ECOTOURISM

BIKE STREET

FISHING

SOCIAL HOUSING

MANGROVE NURSERY AGRICULTURE

BANDRA KURLA COMPLEX

FISHING ECOTOURISM

DHARAVI

0

NEW LAND USE NEW POLICIES FOR EXISTING URBAN FABRIC

PROPOSED SCHEME WITH ALL LAYERS NEW INFRASTRUCTURE

PUBLIC OPEN LAND - AGRICULTURE & RECREATION

BIKE STREETS

NATURAL VEGETATION

NEW POLICIES & PUBLIC HOUSING

NATURAL PARK

NALLAS INTERVENTIONS IN SLUMS

1

2 km


NEW POLICIES FOR URBAN FABRIC NATURAL VEGETATION

NATURAL PARK

PUBLIC OPEN LAND

+7.25m +4.75m +0.40m 0

NEW ECOLOGICAL HABITATS

NEW LAND USE

+10.25m +10.00m

WATER LEVEL

100 YEAR FLOODPLAIN 25 YEAR FLOODPLAIN

Elevation over the sea level is the primary driver for the entire proposal. Based on this, different ecological habitats grow and different programs and activities take place. Mangroves only grow on inter-tidal areas, while at upstream freshwater marshes develop. Forest and open land are more frequent in higher lands.

LOCATION OF NEW PROGRAMS

NEW POLICIES FOR URBAN FABRIC

OPEN PUBLIC LAND

NATURAL VEGETATION

NATURAL PARK

1750

INTERTIDAL AREA

STRATEGY BY WATER ELEVATION


WATER LEVEL

PROGRAMMATIC SECTION

WATER LEVELS AND FLOODING 100 YEAR FLOOD LEVEL

+10.25m

All existing vegetation is declared a natural park, for protection of vegetation, migrant birds and other fauna, and a new economy of ecotourism is developed. Meanwhile new natural vegetation is planted in the rest of the inter-tidal areas and in marshlands upstream, for recovering the destroyed habitats. Human activities are permitted, such as fishing and transportation. On the 25 year flood plain, construction is still not allowed but land is given back to the public and activities such agriculture, sports and social activities are programmed to take place. Finally, on the 100 year flood plain, existing urban fabric is not removed, but will be gradually phased to have a minimum of 50% permeable surface with future developments and a reinforced drainage system, and social housing is built for people displaced from other areas.

1500

[2005 MUMBAI FLOODS]

2750

SOCIAL HOUSING

50% PERMEABLE SURFACE

BIKE STREET

REINFORCED DRAINAGE SYSTEM

+7.25m

NO CONSTRUCTION

SPORTS/SOCIAL FACILITIES

PUBLIC OPEN SPACE

HIGHEST TIDE WATER LEVEL

MANGROVE NURSERY

NO CONSTRUCTION

+4.75m

BIKE STREET 4350

FISHING

BIKE STREET

ECOTOURISM

BIRD NESTING

PUBLIC AWARENESS LOWEST TIDE WATER LEVEL ARABIAN OCEAN - MITHI RIVER MEAN SEA LEVEL

FAUNA SANCTUARY

+0.40m +0.00m

INTERTIDAL AREA

BIRD NESTING

25 YEAR FLOODPLAIN

2500

25 YEAR FLOOD LEVEL

AGRICULTURE

100 YEAR FLOODPLAIN

+10.00m

DHARAVI AVERAGE GROUND LEVEL


INTERTIDAL AREA: MANGROVE NURSERY

+10.25m

100 YEAR FLOODPLAIN

+10.00m

WATER LEVEL

+

THE REVERSAL: GREEN ENCROACHMENTS

NEW WATER COURSE

PLANS

RESIDENTIAL AREA RELOCATED

SLUM AREA RELOCATED

BANDRA KURLA COMPLEX

INTERTIDAL AREA: ECO-TOURISM BIRD NESTING

+7.25m

+

INTERTIDAL AREA: AGRICULTURE NEW NETWORK OF BIKE STREETS RESIDENTIAL AREA RELOCATED

POLLUTING INDUSTRIES REMOVED

INTERTIDAL AREA: FISHING

NEW WATER COURSE

+4.75m

25 YEAR FLOODPLAIN

PLAN / SECTIONS

SLUM AREA REMOVED

DHARAVI SLUM AREA RELOCATED EXISTING OPEN SPACES CONNECTED TO NEW NALLAS

SITE INTERVENTION

PROPOSED PLAN

0

0.5

0

+0.40

INTERTIDAL AREA

NEW NALLAS AND SOCIAL PUBLIC SPACES

EXISTING NALLA & TOILETS

NEW NALLA & TOILETS

CONNECTING OPEN SPACE

1KM


INTEGRATED SOCIAL NETWORK OF NALLA IN DHARAVI

NEW WATER TREATMENT PLANT

NEW COMMUNITY

PUBLIC BIKEPATH TOILETS

NEW PUBLIC FACILITIES

REINFORCED DRAINAGE SYSTEM

NEW SOCIAL HOUSINGS NEW NALLA NETWORKS

SITE INTERVENTION


+10.25m

100 YEAR FLOODPLAIN

+10.00m

WATER LEVEL

+

NEW SOFT EDGES FOR MITHI RIVER

NEW NALLA NETWORK NEW DRAIN SYSTEM AGRICULTURE NEW DENSIFICATION BIKE STREETS

NEW COMMERCIAL

+4.75m

INTERTIDAL AREA

25 YEAR FLOODPLAIN

+7.25m

+

OPEN SPACE: PARKS

OPEN SPACE: PARKS

FISHING

NEW MANGROVES

ECO-TOURISM

MANGROVE FARMING

+0.40

NEW SOFT EDGES OF MITHI RIVER

INTER-TIDAL LINE

25 YEAR FLOOD LINE

NEW 100 YEAR FLOOD LINE

0

NEW WATER ELEVATIONS


PHASING PHASE 01: 0-5 YEARS

RENEWED MITHI RIVER

MITIGATE CURRENT POLLUTING INDUSTRIES & LARGE RUN-OFF AREAS

PHASING

PHASE 02: 5-10 YEARS

REMOVE GARBAGE RECLAIM MARSHLANDS

WATER FISH MANGROVE MARSH LANDS LAND

PHASE 03: 10-20 YEARS ECOLOGICAL HABITATS OPEN LANDS FOREST FRESHWATER WETLANDS SEAWATER WETLANDS LAND USE POLICIES FOR EXISTING URBAN FABRIC PUBLIC OPEN LAND AGRICULTURE & RECREATION NATURAL VEGETATION NATURAL PARK NEW INFRASTRUCTURES BIKE STREETS NALLAS INTERVENTIONS IN SLUMS NEW POLICIES & PUBLIC HOUSING

NEW PROPOSED SOFT EDGES

CASE STUDIES - Learning from Barcelona and ISeoul

ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION OF BESOS RIVER

1

CHEONGGYECHEON URBAN RENEWAL

2

Barcelona, Spain

Seoul, South Korea

In 1996, the European Union commissioned the restoration of the Rio Besos, One of the most polluted rivers in Europe. In order to improve the quality of the dry season river water sources, 60 water treatment wetlands were embedded within the channel in the upper, less developed reaches. By embedding this extensive wetlands system into the fluvial channel, Barcelona Regional has increased the utility and quality of the entire system.

Cheonggyecheon is a nearly 6 km long, modern public recreation space in downtown Seoul. The massive urban renewal project is on the site of a stream that flowed before the rapid post-war economic development required it to be covered by transportation infrastructure.The $900 million project attracted much criticism initially but opened in 2005 and is now popular among Seoul residents and tourists. It is lauded as a major success in urban renewal and beautification.


SUSTAINABLE HOUSING

NEW COMMERCIAL

BIKE STREET SOCIAL PUBLIC SPACE

UPGRADED NALLA

PROPOSED NALLA OF DHARAVI Dharaviâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Nalla Infrastructure is to be remade as part of the larger ecological and social recovery of Mumbai. Using existing infrastructure as right of way, new social network of bike streets, and commercial activities will promoted the well-being of its inhabitants. This new public space will also be a device to mitigate the flooding in the area.


SOURCES AND REFERENCES Image credits: 1. Busquets, B., Cites 10 Lines: A New Lens For the Urbanistic Project. pg 130131. 2. Margolis, L & Robinson A., Living Systems: Innovative Materials and Technologies for Landscape Architecture. pg 106-107. Aerial maps: Google Earth


PLAN B: RETAINING DHARAVI A new development model

Habiba Akhtar, Shruti Gaonkar, Amardeep Labana, Shreya Malu

31


The origins of Dharavi predate the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;formalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; settlement brought in with colonial rule. But this history is easily forgotten in a capitalist economy where the inhabitantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; status is reduced to illegal squatters, leading to a marginalization of the least represented section of society. Upon closer scrutiny, the grand vision proposed by the city of redeveloping Dharavi becomes less a philanthropic measure and more a prime real estate deal. This plan recommends the relocating of some of the present inhabitants into high rise tower blocks, relocating part of the industry and conveniently disregarding the rest. The emergent settlement would end up being a gated enclave surrounded by high end commercial towers. The fractures that would be caused in the community would be irreparable. Our proposal attempts to preserve the rich social capital of a threatened community. While we do acknowledge the need to urgently upgrade the dilapidated building stock and the poor infrastructure, our intent is to address these concerns in a way that causes the least amount of disturbance in the ongoing activities of Dharavi. Our strategy thus addresses the task of redevelopment in a phased manner that retains the work-live relationship that is the core of the community. Seeing the enormity of the practical problems (old housing stock and ailing infrastructure), piecemeal developments were disregarded in favor of a larger, all encompassing scheme. We seek to address the present and anticipate the future by creating practical guidelines that are open ended enough to create an alternative to the top down master-planning scheme. We move down in scale from the long term relocation planning of Dharavi to localized phasing for individual nagars and then onto the development of suitable models of development at the architectural scale. Our design thesis concentrates on preserving and reinforcing the identity of Dharavi. Dharavi has acted for a long time as first choice for the disenfranchised migrant workforce entering into the city in search of a livelihood. Over the years, these people have organized themselves into communities based on regional, caste based and profession based biases. These communities become a microcosmic representation of India, each contained in well defined spaces called nagars. What sets Dharavi apart from other informal settlements is the presence of an intensive work and live relationship. There is an overwhelming presence of grass-root entrepreneurship with people appropriating all available spaces for manufacturing of one kind or the other. The living space thus transforms into the working space. There is an inherent but not often acknowledged dependence of Mumbai on such settlements, settlements that are considered blemishes on the cityscape. Some of the people living in Dharavi have practiced their family trades for generations and thus have become cultural guardians in a rapidly changing urban setting.

32


1 SOCIO-ECONOMIC INTERDEPENDENCIES WITHIN AN ORGANICALLY GROWN SPATIAL FABRIC.

Pedestrian commercial street

2

1

3 4

Pedestrian commercial street Consolidated open space around houses

Consolidated open space around houses

Narrow Alley

1 2 Open pocket near Road 2 CASE STUDIE OFMain INTERSTITIAL SPACES MAXIMIZED IN USAGE WITHIN ONE NAGAR

Narrow Alley

3

Pedestrian commercial street

4

Consolidated open space around houses

Pedestrian commercial street

Narrow Alley


2

S RE-HOUSING

4 3

5

01_SITE PARCELIZATION Long term relocation planning scheme is for the phased rebuilding of Dharavi into a sustainable living environment. We propose an alternative to the proposed sector-based breakup scheme which includes a new road network and interim transit camp relocation strategy.

3

2

1

1

DESIGN STRATEGY

4

5

2

4 3 2 1

5 4 2

3

3 MUKESH MEHTA SECTOR

2 MUKESH MEHTA ROAD

1 REVISED ROAD NETWORK ALONG NAGAR BOUNDARIES 5 4 3 2 1

AREA OF REDEVELOPE THE PHASE THAT ARE COMPLETED (PEOPLE INHABIANTS OF THESE AREA WILL HAVEBEEN SENT BACK TO THEIR BE4 LOCATED IN TRANSIT CAMP SITE SCALE PHASING STRATEGY LEGEND: ORIGINAL TRANSIT LOCATION) CAMPS WORKING COMPLETED NAGAR

GEND:

F REDEVELOPE THE ANTS OF THESE AREA WILL TRANSIT CAMP ATED IN TRANSIT CAMP

FOR TEMPORARY RELOCATION

PHASE THAT ARE COMPLETED (PEOPLE REDEVELOPE HAVEBEEN SENTAREA BACK TOOF THEIR ORIGINAL LOCATION) INHABIANTS OF THESE

THE AREA WILL BE LOCATED IN TRANSIT CAMP

NAGAR

5

PHASE THAT ARE COMPLETED (PEOPLE HAVEBEEN SENT BACK TO THEIR ORIGINAL LOCATION)

4

1

2

3

5 RETAINING THE EXISTING 125 NAGARS AND THEIR RELIGIOUS STRUCTURE CONFIGURATION

6 SITE PARCELIZATION INTO 5 SECTORS EACH AN AGGLOMERATION OF NAGARS TO FACILITATE ESTABLISHING MAJOR INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES

02_FINANCING STRATEGY The estimated amount of redevelopment is Rs 300 crores . The government plans to sell 58% of the Dharavi land and +4 FSI to developer and remaining 42% for re-housing of Dharavi residents. According to our financial plan NGOs can facilitate micro-loan to each household which could be given to Government as a rent and can be used for redevelopment of Dharavi. This will allow the inhabitant to establish better living condition and grant land ownership rights. This loan can be paid at the rate of Rs 500/month over a period of 20 years.

FINANCE DEVELOPER 58%

SELL

BUILD HIGHRISE

DHARAVI RESIDENTS

S I

42% FOR DHARAVI RESIDENTS 4 MUKESH MEHTA FINANCING SCHEME

MOVE TO A TALL TOWER

REDEVELOPMENT Rs. 300 CRORES GOVT.

NEEDS BETTER HOUSE

NEEDS 7 OWNERSHIP BASED FINANCING STRATEGY

DHARAVI RESIDENTS PAY Rs.500/ MONTH GOVT.

OWNERSHIP TO DHARAVI RESIDENTS


SECTION

ROOFSCAPE PART OF DAY TO DAY ACTIVITIES

RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES ALONG RESIDENTIAL STREET SPACE COMMERCIAL -SOCIAL INTERACTION SPACE 1 THE SECTION CAPTURES ACTIVITIES OF THE EXISTING

NAGAR IN THE NEW DEVELOPED NAGAR. THE NEW FORM ALLOWS ACTIVITIES TO HAPPEN ON MULTILEVEL NOT ONLY ON THE STREET

ROAD FRONT COMMERCIAL SPACES WORK AND LIVE CONDITION

HAND CART HAWKERS


OPEN BAZAAR

SHADED INTERNAL PEDESTRIAN STREETS

MULTI LEVEL ROOFSCAPES


03_NAGAR GUIDELINES

TO ANDHERI

TO BANDRA & WESTERN EXPRESS HWY

SION STATION

EA

TO MAHIM SION LINK ROAD

ER N

ST

EX PR ES S

MAHIM STATION

H IG HW AY

Deriving spatial conditions from the existing built fabric and incorporating higher densities we propose open ended nagar based guidelines. Desirable interstitial spaces, physical infrastructure layout, multi-usage groundscape, pedestrian accessible roofscape and regulated building heights will results. Testing our guideline on Kutinagar results in the nagar layout below. Here the existing religious structures are retained along with the major public usage activity zone which connects the multiple secondary open spaces.

85 NAGARS IN DHARAVI

1 DHARAVI_KUTI NAGAR

2 KUTI NAGAR_EXISTING LAYOUT

LEATHER PRODUCT SOLD LOCALLY IN MUMBAI

15% %

TEMPORARY TE TEM T EM RA RARY AR A R RY JOB JOB

20% 20 20% 0%

WORKS RKS OUTSIDE OUTS SID DE D RESTAURANT

30% 3 %

EMPLOYEED M MP YEED YE D WITHIN W DHARAVI DHA D

O PR

PR

OD

UC

LOCAL MARKET

T CO

MI

NG

FR

OM

CT S DU

SOLD @ LOCAL

ST OR E

LIVE

MAD

RA

PROD WORKSHOP

(RENTED)

LE

S

AT HE OD

R PR UC

LIVE+WORK

ST T DI BU RI

35% 3 5% 5%

TION

W D

ORL

SELF-EMPLOYEED LF F-EMP FEM E MP PL LOYEE ED ED WITHIN IT THIIN N DHARAVI DH D DHA HARA AV

ID

W E

PROCESSING

T JARA

CLAY

FROM

GU

MAKING

PERCENTAGE OF WORK

LEATHER PRODUCTS SOLD IN THE CITY

1_GROUNDSCAPE RETAIN EXISTING RELIGIOUS STRUCTURES ALONG WITH CONNECTION TO PROMINENT OPEN SPACES DERIVE SLOPE DIRECTION FOR SUNKEN COURTS

FLOWER GARLANDS MADE AT HOME

GARLANDS SOLD AT TEMPLES

LEATHER PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED

PAPADS SOLD IN LOCAL RESTAURANTS

TEMPLE

HIDES FROM CHENNAI

PAPADS MADE IN BACKYARD CLAY FROM GUJARAT

2_INFRASTRUCTURE SET HIERARCHY IN ROAD NETWORK SET LOCATION FOR 300M SQ. SOAK PIT AND FILTER TANK FOR EVERY 2000 M SQ. PLOT AREA

LEATHER PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTION

AMENITIES

POTTERY AND ARTIFACTS SOLD IN MUMBAI

KUMBHARWADA

INDUSTRY

MOSQUE

3_MASSING AND VOIDS SET HIERARCHY IN ROAD NETWORK SET LOCATION FOR 300M SQ. SOAK PIT AND FILTER TANK FOR EVERY 2000 M SQ. PLOT AREA

4_ROOFSCAPE PROVIDE ACCESS G+1 LEVEL

BETWEEN

ADJACENT

ROOF

AT

3 KUTI NAGAR_PROPOSED LAYOUT

LIVE

STORE

STORE

SEL


TESTING NAGAR GUIDELINES

4 ROOFSCAPE – THE STEPPED UP TERRACES AND VARYING BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AN ALTERNATIVE PEDESTRIAN CONNECTION AT G+1 LEVEL ARE THE ALTERNATIVE SPILL OVER COMMUNAL SPACES FOR DAY TO DAY ACTIVITIES

5 INTERSTITIAL SPACE – ALONG WITH PRIMARY MULTIPURPOSE SPINE, PLACING SECONDARY CONNECTING VOIDS CREATES SHADED/SUNNY COURTS WITH WINDOWS OF WORK-LIVE UNITS FACING INTO THEM. PERIPHERAL LOW-RISE COMMERCIAL FRONTAGE BUILDING STOCK SURROUNDS MID-RISE (UP TO G+3) WALK-UP WORK-LIVE COMPOUNDS

6 GROUNDSCAPE – THE DEBRIS OF THE EXISTING BUILDING STOCK COULD BE COMPRESSED TO FORM THE NEW PLINTH AND GROUND SURFACE. THIS BREAKS DOWN THE TYPICAL HIERARCHY OF ROADS AND FACILITATES MULTIPLE USAGE AND SPILL OVER OF ACTIVITIES AS PER THE OCCUPANTS’ NEEDS OVER TIME (1) TERRACE RUNOFF PIPED TO FILTRATION CHAMBER

(2) FILTRATION CHAMBER

(3) PERCOLATION TO RENEW GROUND WATER

(5) BORING WELLS CAN PROCURE WATER FOR FUTURE USE

(4) SUNKEN COURTS PREVENT OVERFLOW

7 INFRASTRUCTURE - A SERIES OF SUNKEN COURTS BY RAISED PLATFORMS FORM AN ALTERNATING STORM WATER DRAINAGE PATH WHICH ALSO COULD BE USED FOR PUBLIC ACTIVITIES.


KUTI NAGAR CALCULATIONS

RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL INDUSTRY

LEGEND RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL RELIGIOUS

0 RESIDENTIAL- RELOCATION TO TRANSIT CAMP RETAINING SOME RESIDENCES FOR WORK INSERTION OF NEW COMMERCIAL IN EMPTY SLOTS INDUSTRY REMAINS

SITE AREA 29,900 Sq. M. BUILT AREA 34,180 Sq. M. EXISTING FAR 1.22

AREA SCHEDULE

CIVIC AMENITIES

UNITS

AREA (M)

2

PERCENTAGE

OLD

1,576

20,360

59.5

NEW

1,576

47,280

74.0

OLD

638

11,120

32.5

NEW

638

11,120

17.5

OLD

29

2,430

7.1

NEW

29

2,430

3.8

OLD

3

270

0.9

NEW

3

270

0.4

OLD

0

0

0.0

NEW

1

2,990

10.0

1 SOME RESIDENCES FOR WORK SPACES RELOCATION OF COMMERCIAL IN NEW PREMISES SEQUENTIAL REMOVAL OF COMMERCIAL OLD INDUSTRY REMAINS / NEW INDUSTRY BUILT

2 SOME RESIDENCES FOR WORK SPACES RELOCATION OF COMMERCIAL INTO NEW PREMISES SEQUENTIAL REMOVAL OF COMMERCIAL OLD INDUSTRY RELOCATED TO NEW PREMISES

3 RESIDENCES REBUILT COMMERCIAL REBUILT INDUSTRY REBUILT

PROPOSED BUILT AREA 47,280 SQ. M. PROPOSED FAR 2.27 (CAP OF 2.5)

The nagar redevelopment scheme is triggered by an internal nagar phasing scheme. The desirable housing, commercial, industrial and amenities breakup are to be resolved by the residents. Thus we have provided as per the calculation mentioned above.

4 1 INTERNAL NAGAR PHASING


1 KUTI NAGAR_ARCHITECTURAL PROTYPE

04_ARCHITECTURAL FRAME-WORK

10

Each living unit is built on a frame work which breaks down the 30 m2 living unit area with a 12 m2 loft space and can be used for the familyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s need for extra work space/privacy requirement. Multiple combinations are possible with these 4 section types.

3 ALTERING THE SECTION

7 2.25 2.25

3

2 KUTI NAGAR_SECTIONAL VARIANTS

3 KUTI NAGAR_BUILDING UP


1 KUTI NAGAR_VIEW OF A RAINY DAY

2 KUTI NAGAR_EXISTING TO PROPOSAL

Our proposal will preserve and reinforce the identity of Dharavi, by facilitating improved efficiency with an all encompassing scheme and formulating localized open ended guidelines to create an alternative to top down master-planning approach.


SOURCES AND REFERENCES http://indipepal.com/specialfeatures/sm_virtual_tour_image 2 www.mtviggy.com/unloads/5513/1GS/Badani1M.jpg www.Dharavi.org www.pbase.com www.zimbio.com

www.daylife.com www.airoots.org www.SRA.gov/dharavi www.skyscrapercity.com/showforum


EQUITY THROUGH INFRASTRUCTURE Synergizing Local and Municipal needs

Pierre-Louis Gerlier Martha Kolokotroni Nita Yuvaboon Tahaer Zoyab

ting Exis

se 1 Pha

l cia er m s m ing Co uild b

$

se 2

Pha nd ea r ag ate ain w Dr esh de Fr pgra U

Co

&

Pha

n tio c u r t ns

$ $ $ $

ng i s a Ph r l ra fo ctu rk h ru wo wt St e ro am l g Fr tica r Ve

se 3

nd la e cia tiv So duc d o Pr oun n gr nsio pa

Ex

43

$ $


Dharavi, one of Mumbaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ancient settlements, today sits in the center of Mumbai, in between the downtown and the airport. There are real estate proposals to both redevelop its land and also infrastructural proposals to cross it. Our project takes these large infrastructural proposals as a starting point. The government has several ambitious plans for adding new elevated roads and trains throughout the city. The proposed Sealinks along the western coastline and the Link roads across the city of Mumbai are examples of elevated highway projects which would serve as a connection line for the mass movement travelling from north to south and east to west every day in Mumbai. However, both infrastructures bypass and ignore the existing ground context, thus, creating a parallel world between local inhabitants and the new elevated travelways. In Dharavi, the government has planned to build a new monorail and elevated walkways that are proposed to pass through Dharavi and to create a new Dharavi station that connects the western corridor between Bandra and Malabar hill.

n e n o mp

& Co

s

r e y a ts L

In the existing plan, the monorail investment serves the municipal needs for a better connection between the north and the south of Mumbai. But in the case of elevated walkways, it would only function as supporting pedestrian fast lane which chanels people from one station to another. We see this monorail as an opportunity to begin to transform and upgrade Dharavi. Dharavi is made of 85 smaller communities with a complex social structure and hierarchy among different religions and caste systems. This complex system tends to create a pattern where people from one community do not cross into another community and therefore the only place that these people can interact is along the streets. This social pattern is evident through the formation of the commercial realm. These commercial streets are the most precious resource of Dharavi and therefore we are proposing to expand and maximize the street without destroying the current fabric by creating a new topography that will not only accommodate more social and productive area but will also integrate the harvesting of rainwater and facilitate the management of both solid and organic waste. If the monorail and its walkways have to pass through the dense fabric of Dharavi, this new elevated infrastructure should not only serve municipal needs but also the local needs of the Dharavi community. We recognize the monorail and its walkways project as a funding opportunity and a trigger for local redevelopment that would allow the people of Dharavi to have more leverage in negotiating with the municipality and redefine the role of existing commercial streets and the new elevated ground with mutiple functions that would become an integral part of Dharaviâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fabric.

44


INFRASTUCTURE MUMBAI-DHARAVI 10%

90%

parallel worlds

VASAI CREEK

$800 Million on Sealinks. 1 $520 Million on Monorail & Walkways. 2 $13 Million on 50 elevated skywalks. 3 Image Source: 4

SEALINK

Image Source: 5

Image Source: 6

Image Source: 7

TYPICAL STREET

MONRAIL

SKYWALK

In the center of all development projects is our site, Dharavi. If the monorail and its walkways have to pass through the dense fabric of Dharavi, we believe that the new elevated infrastructure should not only serve municipal needs but also the local needs. The existing proposal has planned to eradicate most of the existing fabric and create several large crossroads mainly for cars, and place the monorail in the center of Dharavi by cutting the site into two parts.

GREATER MUMBAI

GORAI

90% 1

MARVE

3

X5

1 - 4

VERSOVA

X5

4

Caste Hierrachy

X5

Traditional governance in each community

2

X5

JUHU BANDRA

DHARAVI

SION

Pressure on street

BANDRA WORLI THANE CREEK

HAJI ALI

Tannery

13 Compound

Koliwada

Kumbharwada

Textiles

Impermeable and distinct social pockets generate a social pattern in which people from one community do not cross into another community and therefore the only place that people can interact is along the main street. 4

SHALUBHAI DESAI ROAD

CAFFE PARADE

11 24

Built Infrastructure 9

Proposed Infrastructure Sea / Cross link roads

24

NARIMAN POINT

4

11

COLABA

Monorail Skywalks

6

5

6

15

10

10

10

24

9

5

6

10

12

existing walkways proposal Detached and single function

new grounds proposal Integrated and multifunctional

car and pedestrian street

BANDRA KURLA COMPLEX BANDRA WEST

12

BANDRA KURLA COMPLEX

BANDRA WEST

SION STATION 90 ft. ROAD D

90 ft. ROAD

SION STATION

13TH COMPOUND EASTERN EXPRESS HIGHWAY

MAHIM STATION

DHARAVI STATION

TANNERY

EASTERN EXPRESS HIGHWAY

MAHIM STATION KUMBHARWADA

DHARAVI STATION 60

ft.

RO

AD

SION HOSPITAL STATION

existing monorail proposal eradicating radicating existing footprint and streets

SION HOSPITAL KING’S CIRCLE

new MOnORAIL pRO ROpOsAL preserving reserving existing footprint and streets

KING’S CIRCLE


DHARAVI SITE PLAN 60 Feet Rd

Dharavi Main Rd Dharavi Main Rd

SURFACE AREA CALCULATION COMMERCIAL ROAD SURFACE AREA Total area : 294,930 m2 13% of Dharavi area

New investment in the monorail could be transformed into an opportunity for Dharavi to upgrade its fabric and services.

COMMERCIAL BUILDING SURFACE AREA Total area : 127,399 m2 5.7 % of Dharavi area

BANDRA KURLA COMPLEX

A WEST

SION STATION

A O DHARAVI STATION

EASTERN EXPRESS HIGHWAY

MAHIM STATION

CAR STREET >15m

PEDESTRIAN 10m<STREET <15m PEDESTRIAN STREET <10m

WATER COLLECTION CALCULATION City’s annual rainfall: 2.2m (86.6 in) Total commercial surface:422329m2 Total water collection: 929123m3 Water storage along road surface: 3.1 m depth Daily need of water per person: 0.077 m3 People on commercial streets: 45600 people Annual Water supply for 45600 people: 930000 m3

SION HOSPITAL STATION

FLOATING GROUND NEW TOPOGRAPHY

TEMPLES AND RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS

NEW MONORAIL ROUTE GOVERNMENT PROPOSED SKYWALKS

KING’S CIRCLE

NEED FOR SKYWALKS (HEAVY PEDESTRAIN FLOW) EXISITING TRAIN LINE CANAL (NALA)


design tRiggeRs tR The commercial street has been treated more like the back of the house rather than the front of the house. Waste has accumulated more on the commercial street than inside of the chawl. Mobile

Static

Static Mobile

Streets tend to be congested by the interaction between buyers and traders which occur mostly along the faรงade of the building. Since buyers hardly enter into the store, they cause even more congestion on these busy commercial streets.

I _ ROADS + TRANSPORTATION 20 mins

10 mins

20 mins

10 mins

10 mins

5 mins STOP

STOP

STOP

Existing condition

road>15m

PO

UN D

SINCE THE COMMERCIAL STREET IS THE MOST PRECIOUS RESOURCE, , We are proposing to expand and maximize the street without destroying the current fabric by introducing a new elevated ground and creating a new topography above commercial buildings that will not only accomodate more social and productive area but will also harvest rainwater and facilitate the management of both solid and organic waste. Raiwater will be captured by porous surfaces and filtering systems on our new elevated ground and the existing commercial streets. Collected rainwater will then be stored beneath the street surfaces. TH

CO

M

THE DHARAVI PROJECT

13

WASTE MATTERS

Waste Center

M

CO

TH

13

ACORN FOUNDATION

Residential growth

PO

UN D

CLEAN UP

13

TH

CO

M

PO

UN

D

MCGM

1st community prototype at the new monorail station

3 HOUR

S

3 HOUR

S

3 HOUR

S

3 HOUR

S

3 HOUR

S 3

3 HOUR

3 HOUR

S

UR S HO 24

24

HO UR S

S

3 HOUR

S

road < 10m

10m < road < 15m

Commercial building

New Ground Level 1

New Ground Level 2


road>15m

road < 10m

M PO

UN D

II _ WASTE

10m < road < 15m

13 TH

CO

THE DHARAVI PROJECT

WASTE MATTERS

13 TH

CO

M

13 TH

PO

CO

M

UN D

PO

UN D

CLEAN UP ACORN THE DHARAVI PROJECT FOUNDATION WASTE MATTERS

M CO

There is a degree of solid waste management already existing in Dharavi through some groups of rag pickers and the 13th compound which is Mumbai’s major recycling unit.

13 TH

ACORN FOUNDATION

PO

UN D

CLEAN UP MCGM

13

TH

CO

M

PO UN D

13

TH

CO

M

PO UN D

MCGM

Solid waste management

Existing

proposed

Drainage / Flood Problem

proposed

III _ WATER 3 HOUR

S

3 HOUR

S

3 HOUR S 3 HOUR S

3 HOUR

S 3 HOUR

S

3 HOUR

3 HOUR

S

S 3

3 HOUR

S

3 HOUR

3 HOUR

S

HO UR S

HO UR S

S

S

3 HOUR

Road<10

10<Road<15

3

3 HOUR

S

S

UR S

UR S

Temporal Connection 24

24

HO

HO

Fresh water and Sewage contamination

3 HOUR

S

24

24

3 HOUR

3 HOUR

S

Road>15

DHARAVI MAIN ROAD RefeReNce plAN


design typologies

1

MONORA

IL STATIO

N

SWALES

TYPOLOGY 2

2 10

3

4

5 9

6

7 8 COLUMNS & BEAMS

7

TYPOLOGY 3 SWALES

8 COLUMNS & BEAMS

11

COMMERCIAL 1 STORY COMMERCIAL 2 STORIES

TYPOLOGY 1

COMMERCIAL 1 STORY COMMERCIAL 2 STORIES

TYPOLOGY 1: car sTreeT > 15M & MOnOraiL

*5 *1

*3 *2

DESIGN DEtaIlS Porous ground

geotextile filter subgrade soil

geotextile filter subgrade soil

*1

high void content aggegate sub basel storage layer

*1

Image Source: 8

high void content permeable paving aggegate sub basel filled with gravel storage layer

permeable paving filled with gravels

Ceramic filtering system

Bioswale

Ceramic filtering system

Bioswale

Porous ground

compost tilled into native soil

compost tilled into native soil

*2 perforated underdrain

*2

swale divider perforated underdrain

swale divider

Image Source: 9

the filter uses kiln-fired clay pots to transform contaminated and turbid liquidinto safe drinkable water

the filter uses kiln-fired clay pots to transform contaminated and turbid liquidinto safe drinkable water

*3 Image Source: 10

*3


A. Raised platforms

B. Railing surfaces

C. Vertical access

D. Circulation bridges

Raised platform as an extension of residential facade

Productive and storage level integrated with railings

Vertical access from commercial to the new ground along the top of the pitch

Circulation bridges knit together different elevated ground & height variations

TYPOLOGY 2: 10m < sTreeT widTh< 15m

C

1.5m

2.0m

B

A *5 *1

*1 *3

3.0m

typology 3: waste center

G *4 *4

typology 4: street width < 10m Image Source: 11,12

RESIDENCE RESIDENCE

SOLID WASTE CENTRE SOLID WASTE CENTRE

3.0m 3.0m

STORAGE STORAGE

+

+

*4 *4 RESIDENCE RESIDENCE

ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY

GAS GAS

aerobic rice rice aerobic

WC WC

3.0m 3.0m

fishnet fishnet

*5 *5

7.2m 7.2m 3.6m 3.6m

ORGANIC WASTE CENTRE ORGANIC WASTE CENTRE

3.0m 3.0m

wastecompost compost waste Image Source: 13

*6 *6

*6 *6

COMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL

3.0m 3.0m

*1 *1 *3 *3

COMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL


community detailed plan

Productive Raised Platform A Productive Railing Surface B Vertical Access & Expansion C Circulation Bridges & Ramps D Residential Building E Columns & Beam above F Waste Center G

Community prototype & proposed Dharavi monorail station (60 Ft road & Dharavi main road junction)

L STATION MONORAI DHARAVI

60 FEET

ROAD

BI B BIO IIO OSWA WALES WA L LE BIOSWALES

north elevation DHARAVI DHA ARAV A I MAIN MAIN N RO R ROAD A AD

a

BIOSWALES B BIO BI IIO OSW SWA WALES WA LE ES E S

ey

all

all

ey

all

ey

F

B

D

C

Community creation between streets

stre

et

t

ee

str

Parasitic structure height variation above each module

Module creation between alleyways

E

south elevation

all

ey

ey

all

ey

all

all

ey

et

stre

stre

et

et

+

all

ey

t

ee

t

ee

str

t

ee

str

+

str

ey

stre

ey

ey

ey

all

all

all

all

south elevation +

+

+

+

+

+

g


COMMUNITY STRATEGY

COOPERATIVE BENEFITS 1. New porous ground above commercial buildings 2. Rental revenue from new commercial & residential units above commercial buildings 3. New porous street 4. Potable rainwater stored beneath the street 5. New bridges, ramp & stairs

To achieve this new topography we are proposing to build this new ground incrementally. The intervention will be developed by the commercial and residential owners along the street. Residents will come together as a community to finance this new infrastructure that will provide them with permanent access to clean water all year round, while a portion of our infrastructure will provide a base for new residential or commercial units which could generate revenue by renting out these units. The revenue generated will eventually help to pay back the initial investment. In addition to these private benefits, Dharavi as a whole could gradually benefit from the new porous system of collecting rainwater that would greatly improve the drainage problems existing along the commercial road and at the same time these new surfaces would also become the ground for the expansion of Dharaviâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s productive, social and economic activities.

NORTH ELEVATION


View from the first level of the new ground


SOURCES AND REFERENCES 1 2 3 4 5 6

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandra-Worli_Sea_Link http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/content/mmrda-plans100-km-monorail http://www.mmrdamumbai.org/skywalk.htm http://www.flickr.com/photos/32975420@N00/384406678 http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200607/05/ eng20060705_280299.html http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:TamaToshiMonorail6061.jpg

7 8 9 10 11 12 13

http://img175.imageshack.us/img175/4516/skywalkaf7.jpg http://www.spencebrothers.com/general.asp?ID=24 http://www.practicafoundation.nl/products/water-filters/ceramicwater-filter/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/dharmesh84/315779783/ http://www.new-ag.info/08/02/develop/dev4.php http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:P%C3%AAche_DS... http://sustainabledesignupdate.com/?p=628


MOVING UP DHARAVI

CREATING COMMON GROUND

Ben Abelman, Ariel Hsieh, Hector Lim, Julia Siedle

ALLOW TIDAL FLOW IN

ESTABLISH BETTER CONDITIONS FOR MANGROVES

OPEN THE RIVER MOUTH CONNECT TO MUMBAI’S MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY

DENSIFY FLOOD-FREE AREAS IN HIGHLANDS

ALLOW STORMWATER TO FLOW OUT

ELEVATION

WORLI

in meters above sea level

+13 m +11 m + 9m + 7m + 5m + 3m + 1m EXISTING OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS

55

CREATE NEW SOAKING GROUND & SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE

NEW OPEN SPACES IN LOWLANDS

MANGROVES

WATER

DEWATS


Dharavi as we know it today has emerged from the ongoing process of creating new ground from wetlands. This project is a continuation of this process of ground manipulation. It attempts to incrementally transform Dharavi by addressing two major issues that are currently holding Dharavi in a negative situation: (1) the lack of a comprehensive SEWAGE / STORM WATER management system, and (2) limited access to the full potential of the PRODUCTION CAPITAL created within Dharavi. It is our belief that Dharavi has intrinsic assets that can improve its living conditions by employing the following measures: (1) ESTABLISH A LOCAL MARKETING MECHANISM that will harness a bigger share of the value of the productivity of Dharavi, (2) SHIFT EXISTING OPEN SPACES to lower elevations to absorb monsoon flooding while building a new ELEVATED GROUND to protect houses and businesses from monsoon flooding, and (3) provide a WATER AND SANITATION SYSTEM built within the new elevated ground. In order to physically transform Dharavi, we propose to form a new entity called DHARAVI COMMONS. This organization will establish an online trading system, allowing greater access to global markets, and cut out middle men. It will thus generate higher profit margins for producers, while creating a shared fund. As a neighborhood institution related to local production, education, and communication, it will finance and administer common infrastructures as well as provide for private, low interest micro loans.

DHARAVI

MIGRATE OPEN SPACES TO THE LOWLANDS

SION

PROVIDE DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN EACH BLOCK

The process of SHIFTING open spaces from higher elevations to flood prone areas will occur by residents moving to self-constructed new housing directly adjacent to their current location, built on new elevated grounds formed by the debris of the old building fabric. Houses will develop individually and freely around SERVICE CORES provided by Dharavi Commons, allowing access to grey-water collection, ventilation and a sewage system that will initially act as a decentralized system but will eventually connect to become a centralized sewer system. These service cores will act as an organizing framework for the incremental rebuilding of Dharavi’s fabric creating new lots for residents to construct new housing. The result of this shift will create a new NECKLACE OF VOIDS that will formulate in the areas of low elevation. These open spaces will (1) allow water to soak into the ground, (2) clean rainwater and carry it out to Mahim Creek, (3) provide a series of shared community spaces, and (4) act as a sewage system for the surrounding fabric. Ultimately, by establishing a process that continues the history of ground manipulation, this project will provide a framework for reordering the ground while preserving what we read as Dharavi’s DNA (the spatial relationship of communities and their livelihoods). Dharavi’s major assets, its social capital and its productivity, will therefore be translated into an intrinsic process that will allow the residents to + 5m a.s.l. incrementally transform their surroundings and create a ‘Common Ground.’ + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

SECTION - PROPOSED

SECTION - EXISTING

5m FLOOD LINE

DHARAVI

+ 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

+ 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

+ 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

56


PHASED DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW COMMON GROUND The development of the DHARAVI COMMONS SHARED SERVICE ORGANIZATION and the transformation of the ground ++ 5m ofa.s.l. Dharavi occur 3m a.s.l. a.s.l. simultaneously. The timeline + 1m shows the interrelationships between the creation of a new financial and management platform and the development of the new physical ground and infrastructure that it provides. + 5m a.s.l.

DHARAVI COMMONS

+ 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

a.s.l. a.s.l. a.s.l.

a.s.l. a.s.l. a.s.l.

www.shopdharavi.org E-TRADE MECHANISM The website ‘SHOPDHARAVI.ORG’ is set up, allowing local producers to sell their products directly online to a global market, cutting out the middlemen, thus harnessing more value for producers. 10% OF THE PROFIT goes to a SHARED FUND that supports overall infrastructural development and creates private micro-finance for the construction of new homes and businesses. SHIFTING PROCESS In order to move the open spaces from the higher elevations to the flood prone areas, each resident builds a new, larger and improved unit for their family on an adjacent site. Each new block is built on an ELEVATED GROUND, built up from the old buildings’ debris, which will protect the house from flooding and will accommodate piping and decentralized sewage treatment facilities.

NOW

$

+ 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

PRODUCER

VENTILATION / WATER SERVICE CORE AND DECENTRALIZED SEWAGE TREATMENT Dharavi Commons provides a basic element, a SERVICE STACK for water, ventilation, and greywater collection for each new housing cluster. Each core provides service to up to 4 houses. The stacks connect to a dectralized sewage system $ evolve over time to become a (DEWAT) that will $ centralized system. $ PRODUCER PRODUCER

+ 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

+ 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

+ 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

$ DHARAVI COMMONS FUND + 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

DHARAVI COMMONS HOUSE

+ 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

WATER AIR

SEWAGE

$DHARAVI

DHARAVI COMMONS HOUSE

COMMONS DHARAVI FUND COMMONS

DHARAVI COMMONS HOUSE

FUND

DHARAVI COMMONS HOUSE: WAREHOUSE + COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE Dharavi Commons will build its physical manifestation adjacent to this NECKLANCE OF VOIDS, in the form of WAREHOUSES that gather the products of each nagar for easy common shipment to customers worldwide, as well as community infrastructures. While the new voids will be used for recreation, production, playgrounds, and commercial activities, PRODUCER the warehouses are combined with programs that DHARAVI serve their local community. Programs include, COMMONS [Indoor] education, recreation, administration, FUND community space. [Outdoor] playgrounds, market, production, civic space.

$

2030

$

DHARAVI COMMONS HOUSE

DHARAVI COMMONS HOUSE

DHARAVI COMMONS HOUSE


GROUND TRANSFORMATION: CREATING NEW GROUND AND WATER INFRASTRUCTURE HISTORICAL WETLAND

1. DHARAVI WETLAND: Mumbai was once an archipelago surrounded by wetlands and mangove forests. Dharavi is built on reclaimed land in a former wetland between the original islands of Mumbai.

OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS

+ 13 m

EXISTING OPEN SPACES (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE)

+ 11 m +9m

MANGROVES WATER

+7m +5m

DEWATS

+3m

OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS

+ 13 m

PIPES+ 11 m SEWAGE PLANT (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE) +9m EXISTING OPEN SPACES MANGROVES WATER DEWATS

ORIGINAL ISLAND

+ 7 m LINE 5m FLOOD +5m DHARAVI +3m

LANDFILLED BEFORE 1970s LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s

+1m -1m LANDFILLED BEFORE 1970s LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s

2. CURRENT: FLOOD PRONE RECLAIMED WETLAND Due to the reclemation of wetlands and bridges that choke Mahim Creek, Dharavi and its low-lying fabric are prone to monsoon flooding. Large open spaces are located in areas above the flood line while density is situated in flood prone area. PIPES SEWAGE PLANT

+1m -1m

BANDRA

5m FLOOD LINE DHARAVI

VOIDS IN HIGHLANDS

HIGHWAY

VOIDS IN LOWLANDS (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE) RIVER MOUTH BLOCKED

WATER PIPELINE

VOIDS IN HIGHLANDS

OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS EXISTING OPEN SPACES (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE)

+ 13 m + 11 m +9m

MANGROVES WATER DEWATS PIPES

+7m +5m +3m +1m -1m

SEWAGE PLANT 5m FLOOD LINE DHARAVI

HIGHWAY

HOUSES & BUSINESSES IN FLOOD PRONE AREAS

OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS EXISTING OPEN SPACES (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE) MANGROVES WATER DEWATS PIPES SEWAGE PLANT 5m FLOOD LINE DHARAVI

WORLI

OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS EXISTING OPEN SPACES (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE) MANGROVES WATER DEWATS PIPES SEWAGE PLANT 5m FLOOD LINE DHARAVI

+ 13 m + 11 m +9m +7m +5m +3m +1m -1m

+ 9 m DEWATS + 7 m PIPES BANDRA + 5 m SEWAGE PLANT + 3 m 5m FLOOD LINE + 1 m DHARAVI -1m

LANDFILLED BEFORE 1970s LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s

LANDFILLED BEFORE 1970s LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s

+3m +1m LANDFILLED - 1 m BEFORE 1970s LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s

DHARAVI

BETTER CONDITIONS FOR MANGROVES

OPEN RIVER MOUTH

VOIDS MIGRATED TO LOWLANDS

TIDAL FLUSHING IN + 13 m + 11 m +9m +7m +5m +3m +1m -1m

1 DEWAT PER BLOCK ~ 35m SPACING

NEW SOAKING GROUNDS

STORMWATER OUT

WORLI

OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS EXISTING OPEN SPACES (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE)

OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS + 13 m + 11 m (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE) +9m OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS + 13 m DEWATS MANGROVES+ 11 m PIPES +7m EXISTING OPEN SPACES SEWAGE PLANT WATER +5m (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE) +9m DEWATS + 13 m MANGROVES + 7 m 5m FLOOD LINE+ 3 m PIPES +1m + 11 m WATER + 5 m DHARAVI

LANDFILLED AFTEREXISTING 1970s WATER OPEN SPACES

+ 9 mDEWATS

MANGROVES WATER DEWATS

+ 7 mPIPES BANDRA + 5 mSEWAGE PLANT + 3 m5m FLOOD LINE

PIPES

+ 1 mDHARAVI

SEWAGE PLANT 5m FLOOD LINE DHARAVI

-1m

SEWAGE PLANT -1m +3m 5m FLOOD LINE +1m LANDFILLED DHARAVI - 1 m BEFORE 1970s LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s

5m FLOOD LINE VOIDS IN LOWLANDS SLUM AREA (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE)

4. 2030: COMMON GROUND + CENTRAL SEWER SYSTEM After the NECKLACE of VOIDS is created in the low-lying flood prone areas, the new elevated blocks connect their decentralized sewages systems (DEWATS) into a centralized sewage system.

+ 13 m + 11 m +9m +7m +5m +3m +1m -1m

+3m +1m - 113 mm +

LANDFILLED BEFORE 1970s LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s

LANDFILLED BEFORE 1970s LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s

LANDFILLED BEFORE 1970s LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s

DHARAVI

SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

MANGROVES WATER

+1m + 13 m -1m + 11 m +9m +7m +5m

SION

OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS EXISTING OPEN SPACES

INCREASED (GREEN DENSITY INFRASTRUCTURE) IN HIGHLANDS LANDFILLED BEFORE 1970s MANGROVES

PIPES SEWAGE VOIDS IN PLANT HIGHLANDS

OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS EXISTING OPEN SPACES (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE) MANGROVES WATER DEWATS PIPES SEWAGE PLANT 5m FLOOD LINE DHARAVI

+7m +5m +3m SION

OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS EXISTING OPEN SPACES LANDFILLED BEFORE(GREEN 1970s INFRASTRUCTURE) MANGROVES LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s WATER DEWATS OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS + 13 m PIPES EXISTING OPEN SPACES + 11 m SEWAGE PLANT (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE) +9m 5m FLOOD LINE + 13 mMANGROVES +7m DHARAVI + 11 mWATER +5m

PIPES VOIDS IN HIGHLANDS SEWAGE PLANT VOIDS IN LOWLANDS 5m FLOOD LINE (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE) SLUM AREA MANGROVES LANDFILLED BEFORE 1970s WATER LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s DEWATS

3. INTERMEDIATE FUTURE: OPENING THE MAHIM CREEK + SHIFTING THE VOIDS TO THE LOW LAND The large open spaces shift to the flood prone areas of Dharavi which connect to form a NECKLACE of VOIDS. The original programs of these spaces are maintained while they also act as soaking ground for monsoon water. Shifting the voids provides an incremental process to reconstruct the fabric. A dentralized sewage system (DEWAT) is built within each new block elevated above the floodline. In addition the obstructions are removed from the mouth of Mahim creek allowing better drainage of monsoon water. WATER PIPELINE

+ 11 m +9m

DHARAVI

MANGROVES ENDANGERED

MANGROVES WATER DEWATS

HIGHWAY

+ 13 m

INCREASED DENSITY IN HIGHLANDS

+ 11 m +9m +7m +5m

SEWAGE AND FRESH WATER PIPE NETWORK

CONNECTION TO MUMBAI MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY

+ 13 m + 11 m +9m +7m +5m +3m +1m -1m

SION

OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS + 13 m EXISTING +OPEN + 11 m OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS 13 m SPACES WORLI +9m EXISTING OPEN SPACES(GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE) + 11 m LANDFILLED BEFORE 1970s +7m INFRASTRUCTURE) +9m OPEN SPACES IN(GREEN HIGHLANDS + 13 m MANGROVES LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s LANDFILLED BEF +5m MANGROVES EXISTING OPEN SPACES + 11 m WATER + 7 m LANDFILLED AFT LANDFILLED BEFORE 1970s +3m (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE) + 9 m DEWATS + 5 m OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS + 13 WATER m SEWAGE CATCHMENT AREA 1 AFTER 1970s LANDFILLED PIPES +1m +3m MANGROVES+ 11 DEWATS +7m EXISTING OPEN SPACES m SEWAGE CATCHMENT AREA 2 LANDFILLED BEFORE 1970s -1m +1m WATER + 5 m SEWAGE PLANT (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE) + 9 mPIPES LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s 1m DEWATS OPEN SPACES IN HIGHLANDS + 13 mMANGROVES + 7 mSEWAGE PLANT + 3 m 5m FLOOD -LINE

DEWATS PIPES VOIDS IN PLANT HIGHLANDS SEWAGE EXISTING OPEN SPACES (GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE) MANGROVES WATER DEWATS PIPES SEWAGE PLANT 5m FLOOD LINE DHARAVI

+ 11 mWATER + 9 m DEWATS + 7 m PIPES + 5 m SEWAGE PLANT + 3 m 5m FLOOD LINE + 1 m DHARAVI -1m

+3m +1m + - 113 mm

LANDFILLED BEFORE 1970s PIPES + 5 m5m FLOOD LINE + 1 m DHARAVI LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s -1m SEWAGE PLANT + 3 mDHARAVI 5m FLOOD LINE +1m LANDFILLED DHARAVI - 1 m BEFORE 1970s LANDFILLED AFTER 1970s


FORMING THE NEW COMMON GROUND INCREMENTALLY REBUILDING THE EXISTING FABRIC BY MOVING OPEN SPACES TO THE LOWLANDS In order to move the HIGHLAND VOIDS to the FLOOD PRONE LOWLANDS, we have developed a SHIFTING PROCESS that rejuvenates the fabric while creating a strategically located common

ground. This process begins by finding blocks comprised of similar amounts of units within the fabric of Dharavi which act as an increment of this change.

SHIFTING OPEN SPACE TO LOWLANDS SITE 3 UNITS: 28 2 BLOCK: 404m 2 AVG. LOT: 10m

SITE 1 UNITS: 33 BLOCK: 1192m AVG. LOT: 20m

CREATING ELEVATED GROUNDS

SITE 4 UNITS: 25 BLOCK: 380m AVG. LOT: 9m

NEWLY CONSTRUCTED FABRIC 2

RAISED BLOCK

2

ORIGINAL FABRIC

2 2

SITE 2 UNITS: 33 2 BLOCK: 951m 2 AVG. LOT: 14m

1. RELOCATION The first site moves from existing cluster to a new block, clearing the way for a new site.

ORIGINAL OPEN SPACE

HESCO RETAINING WALL

VOID MANUFACTURING COMMERCIAL 1-STORY 2-STORY

BEFORE

DEWAT SUBTERRANEAN PIPES

DHARAVI COMMONS CORE RAISED GROUND

LOT LINES

NEW OPEN SPACE SITE 3 UNITS: 28 2 BLOCK: 793m 2 AVG. LOT: 14m

SITE 1 UNITS: 33 BLOCK: 1001m AVG. LOT: 22m

SITE 4 UNITS: 25 2 BLOCK: 350m 2 AVG. LOT: 13m

2. DEMOLITION OF FABRIC / RAISED GROUND / PROVIDE ACCESS TO WATER INFRASTRUCTURE Existing fabric is demolished and packed on site to raise the ground level. An interim septic system is provided for the new block connected to Dharavi Commons cores which define future building sites.

2

NEWLY CONSTRUCTED FABRIC

2

SITE 2 UNITS: 33 BLOCK: 1024m AVG. LOT: 20m

RELOCATED VOID

2 2

NEWLY CONSTRUCTED FABRIC

AFTER

3. FABRIC CONSTRUCTION Residents construct new buildings on enlarged lots on new block. Each owner has the possibility to construct their lot in anyway they see fit


DHARAVI COMMONS SERVICE CORES PROVIDE A STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE NEW FABRIC The DHARAVI COMMONS CORE is a vertical chase that provides water and ventilation to the building units constructed around them. Th ese cores house sewage pipes that connect to DEWATs

(Decentralised Sewage Treatment), drinking water supply, and collect grey water for toilet flushing, manufacturing uses, and cleaning, in order to reduce fresh water consumption.

GREY WATER CISTERN Grey water produced... -18,000 L per person, annually. -90,000 L per family (5 persons) each year.

RAIN WATER

SHOWER WATER

EXHAUST OUT

DRINKING WATER OUT

Grey water harvesting (from rain or used shower water) saves 50% of water use, or 50 litres per person each day.

SEWAGE IN FROM UNITS FILTERED WATER FOR LAUNDRY, TOILET USE

UPDRAFT VENTILATION

+ 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

EXHAUST

DEBRIS FROM OLD BUILDINGS

GREY WATER INTO UNITS

+ 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

NEW PIPES fresh water & sewage WIRE MESH

HESCO CONTAINERS

wire cages containing debris used to elevate+ ground, preventing erosion. 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

DRINKING WATER IN

SEWAGE OUT TO DEWAT

+ 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

+ 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

+ 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. + 1m a.s.l.

FACADE PANELS

BRICKS FROM FLY ASH

FROM PPP (FROM BOTTLES)

(FROM LOCAL POWER PLANT)

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS MADE FROM WASTE Dharavi Commons in 13th Compound produces construction elements for the construction of new durable structures.

$

$

RODUCER

DHARAVI COMMONS FUND CORE CLUSTERS DHARAVI COMMONS HOUSE

In order to move the HIGHLAND VOIDS to the FLOOD PRONE LOWLANDS, we have developed a SHIFTING PROCESS that rejuvenates the fabric while creating a strategicly located common ground. This process begins by finding blocks comprised of similar amounts of units within the fabric of Dharavi which act as an increment of this change. DHARAVI COMMONS HOUSE

COMERCIAL MANUFACTURING

RESIDENTIAL RENTED / SOLD SPACE LOT LINES

DHARAVI COMMONS HOUSE


[new housing]

[existing housing]

[new elevated ground built from debris]

[grey water outlet]

[urban farming]

[living machine cleaning grey water & storm water]


[water & ventilation service core]

[self-construction of new housing from recycled materials]

[hesco containers]

[laundry pool]

[playground and soaking ground]


THE DUAL FUNCTION OF THE COMMON GROUND As a result of shifting the fabric of Dharavi, a new COMMON GROUND is formed in the lowlands, intended to facilitate civic functions and water management. The proposal envisions a NECKLACE OF PROGRAMMED VOIDS in flood prone areas, at 5m above sea level. The reshaping of the groundscape is designed according to both monsoon season water flows and dry season

programmatic needs. During monsoon season, rain water will gather in this area and soak into the ground, or be ushered towards Mahim Creek. During dry season, pre-treated waste water from the DEWAT system is filtered by sequenced plantations (living machines) before entering the creek; in addition, it accomodates civic functions for community, trade, production, and recreation. LEGEND:

SIO

PIPELINE_LINK WATERWORKS ON VOIDS

N RA ND

BA LIN KR

PIPELINE_EXTEND TO BUILT FABRIC

D OA

MAHIM CREEK

KR

N

IM

SIO

D OA

TOPOGRAPHY (ELEVATIONAL CHANGE OF 2m DIFFERENCE)

LIN

AH M

INE

DL

LOO mF

+5

RETENTION POOL

INDUSTRIAL SITE SECTION : aa LIVING MACHINE

MARKET PLACE KINDERGARTEN SECTION : bb

90

FE

ET

RO AD

CRICKET FIELD SECTION : cc

MARKET PLACE SECTION : ee (E) CA NA L

URBAN FARM SECTION : dd SCHOOL YARD

LAUNDRY POOL

CEMETERY

THE NEW COMMON GROUND

Functions include (1) soaking grounds for flood, (2) continuous waterscape to carry runoff water and treated waste-water out to Mahim Creek, (3) relocated and new civic and community functions from original open spaces


SION ROAD ON PILLARS

MANGROVES

WATER CAN FLOW OUT

INDUSTRIAL SITE - SECTION aa

LIVING MACHINE

ELEVATED GROUND

[PRODUCTION]

Sion Road is placed on pillars to allow for water to flow into Mahim Creek. Existing production spaces can expand into the open space during dry season.

INDUSTRIAL SITE - DRY SEASON

INDUSTRIAL SITE - WET SEASON

[LIVE]

ELEVATED GROUND PIPES

[LIVE]

[LIVE]

LIVING MACHINE HILLSCAPE

GREYWATER TANK

DEWATS

HESCO LIVING MACHINE

[PLAYGROUND]

[KINDERGARTEN]

[WORK]

The common ground functions as PLAYGROUND and as a CONTINUOUS FLOWING GROUND for water, in which the ground is CROWNED so water flows to the LIVING MACHINE at the edge and be carried out to Mahim Creek.

KINDERGARTEN - SECTION bb

LIVING MACHINES AS RAIN WATER FILTER / HARVESTING TOOL

FARMING

LIVING MACHINES FOR DRAINAGE / DEWATS SECONDARY CLEANSING

[URBAN FARM]

URBAN FARM - SECTION dd

HESCO

Adopting LIVING MACHINES as water harvesting and as filtering system, the common ground adjacent to the cricket field will funciton as URBAN FARM to help support local FOOD PRODUCTION (papadum), and to provide FOOD SUPPLY.


CRICKET FIELD - DRY SEASON

CRICKET FIELD - WET SEASON

DEWATS

GREYWATER TANK SOAKING GROUND

LIVING MACHINE

ELEVATED GROUND

[OFFICE]

[CRICKET FIELD]

[DHARAVI COMMONS]

CROWNING // SITE SLOPES

The new BMC Cricket Field doubles as a soaking ground during monsoon season. The ground is CROWNED for drainage purposes to the living machines on its periphery. A DHARAVI COMMONS HOUSE for the tanners’ district is built on site as a grand stand, also accommodating a warehouse, shops, office and educational facilities.

CRICKET FIELD - SECTION cc

SERVICE CORE

[LIVE]

HESCO

DEWATS

ELEVATED GROUND ORIGINAL GROUND //90 FEET RD

[LIVE]

[LIVE]

[MARKET PLACE]

[SHOP]

[SHOP]

[LIVE]

[LIVE]

[WORK]

[WORK]

[PRODUCTION]

[DHARAVI COMMONS]

Void functions as SOAKING GROUND which will carry water to adjacent CEMETERY (see masterplan), also as NEW BAZAAR that ties to the +built 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. KUMBHARWADA’S DHARAVI COMMONS and to 90 FEET ROAD.

MARKET PLACE- SECTION ee

+ 1m a.s.l.

PROPOSED WATER TECHNOLOGIES

COMMON GROUND INDUSTRIAL SITE KINDERGARTEN DHARAVI COMMONS HOUSE / GRANDSTAND

CRICKET FIELD

URBAN FARMING MARKETPLACE LAUNDRY POOL

DECENTRALIZED WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM (DEWATS) septic tank & anaerobic treatment

DHARAVI COMMONS HOUSE

$ PRODUCER

$

LIVING MACHINE passive grey water treatment

PRIMARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT DEWATs filter +solid 5m a.s.l. + 3m a.s.l. matter out of household + 1m a.s.l. wastewater, taking out major contaminants and nutrients. Each block shares a DEWAT which is scaled to the size of the community it serves. SECONDARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT Living Machines further cleanse wastewater, before released into Mahim Creek. Living machines also filter storm water runoff during monsoon season.


SOURCES AND REFERENCES 1. RECYCLED CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE: Research done by Institute of structural design (ITKE), University of Stuttgart, Germany. Jan Knippers, New Building Products fro Waste: Mate rials in India, Detail, Issue 6/2008, p. 582-589. <http://www.katrin-wittmann.de/fotoalben/detail%202008.6.pdf> 2. ELEVATION CONTOURS OF DHARAVI: Flood Maps by Google, based on data provided by NASA. <http://flood.firetree.net/?ll=16.3412,97.3388&z=12&m=7>

3. HESCO: Retaining wall / erosion protection system by Hesco Basion. <http://www.hesco.com/CIVIL_SITE/enter_civil.html> 4. DEWATS: Decentralized wastewater treatment systems by Borda, Bre men Overseas Research and Development Association. <http://www.sozialstruktur.org/en/files/DEWATS05_09small.pdf> 5. LIVING MACHINE: Plant based wastewater treatment system. <http://www.livingmachines.com>


LIVE WORK^[3]

a [RE] SELF-DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Marielly Casanova, Jamieson Fajardo, Romina Khandani, Ashley Spatafore

67


The existing and complex live/work typology of Dharavi has been a model of post-modern development and is a significant contributor to Mumbai’s economy. LIVE/WORK^[3] envisions the vertical densification of this typology, a type that must not only be preserved, but magnified and enhanced. Centrally located in Mumbai with high-potential real estate value, Dharavi is under pressure for large-scale redevelopment. The existing redevelopment project, headed by Mukesh Mehta, calls for 76% high-end residential, 17% high-end commercial, and 2% industry/productivity.1 As this plan is pushed forward, one must realize the losses that will take effect. As an approach to the existing “Tabula Rasa” strategy, it is critical to understand and respond to current conditions, as Dharavi plays a key role in the economy of Mumbai. Currently, Dharavi generates 1.5% of Mumbai’s GDP because of its abundance of informal industries. 80% of the recycling in Mumbai occurs in Dharavi, an important asset and a $1.3 billion dollar industry. 400,000 leather laborers work in Dharavi within a complex and efficient live/ work typology. Overall, 66% of the area of Dharavi is devoted to some type of intensive productivity and is endangered by current proposals. LIVE/WORK^[3] challenges the popular belief that verticality in Dharavi will not work. In order to respond to real estate developments forces and achieve a 100% live/work urban community, Dharavi must rise vertically to increase its ‘energy’ and ‘density,’ to maximize productivity output, to respond to projected populations, and to improve the quality of life of Dharavi residents. The typical high rise, however will not work. Instead, productivity must shape the vertical fabric while maintaining complex and efficient ways of life. This project also explores the possibilities of uncertainty by investigating certain scenarios produced by undetermined possibilities. Because of uncertain factors of influx/outflux of people and productivity, flexibility will be emphasized through the organic growth and incremental development of the vertical fabric. Flexible spaces must be created to adapt to current and new industries, as well as current and new populations. Overall, productivity and verticality will generate unpredictable improvised conditions with productive potential.

image source: www.dharavi.org

68


[RE]DENSIFICATION OF 60’ ROAD = DHARAVI CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT Because of the high concentration of productivity located along 60’ Road and the constant pressures of Real Estate Development [R.E.D.], we propose to [RE]Densify this corridor that connects Dharavi with the formal streets of Mumbai. We are presenting a model that embraces both the possible co-existence of both informal and formal systems by merging both types of economies and fabrics. 60’ Road will act as the catalyst for the redevelopment of Dharavi where both ‘bottom-up’ self-redevelopment and ‘top-down’ real estate development projects are driven by the live/work typology, a factor that will solidify the economy of Dharavi and Mumbai as a whole.

The future of vertical development in Dharavi must immediately be rethought with the intention of enhancing live/work spaces. To some, the current Slum Rehabilitation Authority building is defined as below: SRA building - “a decaying Stalinist-styled pile, covered with Rorschach-like mildew stains. Inside is a long, dank hallway with 18 apartments on either side, which is called ‘36 rooms of gloom.’” 2 image source: www.dharavi.org

-Tank Ranchhod Savdas_Dharavi Potter of Kumbharwada


DHARAVI NOW:

1.5 % OF MUMBAI GDP

NAVI MUMBAI_11 MI.

CHHATRPATI SHIVAJI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT_3 MI.

NAVI MUMBAI_

CHHATRPATI SHIVAJI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT_3 MI.

(MUMBAI GDP IS 5% OF INDIA)3

NAVI MUMBAI_11 MI.

CHHATRPATI SHIVAJI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT_3 MI.

KALYAN WADI TEWAR NAGAR

BANDRA-KURLA COMPLEX_1.5 MI.

80% RECYCLING OF MUMBAI 2,000,300 TONS/YR

BANDRA-KURLA COMPLEX_1.5 MI.

4 13 COMPOUND

BANDRA-KURLA COMPLEX_1.5 MI. SION STATION

$1.3 BILLION INDUSTRY 250,000 RECYCLING WORKERS

SION STATION

CHAMDRA BAZAR

SION STATION MAHIM STATION MAHIM STATION

400,000 LEATHER WORKERS

SHETH WADI

6

PRODUCTIVITY INTENSITY PRODUCTIVITY INTENSITY

$30 MILLION INDUSTRY

5

COMPLEX LIVE/WORK TYPOLOGY

MAHIM STATION

WADALA TRUCK TERMINAL_1.5 MI. WADALA TRUCK TERMINAL

A K G NAGAR

WADALA TRUCK TERMINAL_1.5 MI. MUMBAI CBD_8.5 MI. MUMBAI CBD_8.5 MI.

MUSLIM NAGAR

66% AREA OF PRODUCTIVITY

7

1

MUMBAI PORT_6 MI. MUMBAI PORT_6 MI.

MUMBAI CBD_8.5 MI.

CONTEXTUAL UNDERSTANDING ALONG 60’ ROAD

MUMBAI PORT_6 MI.

KUMBHARWADA

DESIGN CRITERIA CONTEXTUAL UNDERSTANDING ALONG 60’ ROAD 1URBAN

FABRIC:

URBAN DESIGN CRITERIA

COEXISTENCE OF BOTH FORMAL + INFORMAL CONTRIBUTIONS L W S SO

L

W

L

W/L W/L

L W/L

SO

W/L

SO

W

85%

W/L/S W/L/S SO

SO

W/L

L

W/L

W/L/S

SO

W W/L W/L = W/L BUILT AREA (FAR 7.0)

W/L

SO W/S S

S

W/L

L

L

W/L W/L

W/L

W

AVERAGE W L LOT SO SIZE W L AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE W

W/L

L

W/L

W/L/S

L

W/L

W/L

W/L/S

W/L/S

W/L W/L/S

BUILT AREA (FAR 12.0) W/S=W/S S SO S S

S

R.E.D.

AVERAGE LOT SIZE AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE

0’ ROAD = DHARAVI

W/L

400 400 FT2 SF2 3802 SF2 380 95 FT% DENSIFICATION ALONG95% 60’500 ROAD BUILT AREA (FAR = 1.33) SF2 = DHARAVI 2 BUILT AREA (FAR = 1.33) 500 2FTFLOORS 2 FLOORS

AREA (FAR 7.0) DENSIFICATION ALONGBUILT 60’ ROAD ==DHARAVI BUILT AREA (FAR = 12.0) R.E.D.

0’ ROAD

80’ COVERAGE LOT

80%

20,000 SF2 17,000 SF2 85% 120,000 SF2 8.0 FLOORS 200,000 SF2 14 FLOORS

CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT

SO S

W/L S

95%

L

W

SO

W/L W/L/S

W/L W/L/S

W/L

W/L/S W/L

W/L/S

W/L

W

W/L/S W/L

W/L/S

W/L/S

SO W/S W/S S

->100’ ->150’ ->200’

AVERAGE LOT SIZE AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE BUILT AREA (FAR = 4.0)

10,000 SF2 8,000 SF2 80% 30,000 SF2 5 FLOORS

AVERAGE LOT SIZE AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE BUILT AREA (FAR = 1.33)

7.00

400 SF2 380 SF2 95 % 500 SF2 2 FLOORS

4.00 1.33

EXISTING

W

SO

W/L/S W/L/S W/L/S SO

W/L/S SO

S

L

01_FLODDING ZO

W/L W/L W/L

W/L

S

SO W/S S

S

HOTELS MANUFACTURING

FAR = 7.0

R.E.D. MUST MAINTAIN EXISTING

+

AVERAGE LOT SIZE AVERAGE AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE LOT SIZE

TYPOLOGY

AVERAGE LOT SIZE 10,000 AVERAGE LOT SIZE 10,000 FT2SF2 AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE 8,000 AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE 8,000 FT2SF2 R.E.D. MUST PROVIDE OPEN SOCIAL SPACES 80% 80%30,000 SF2 BUILT AREA (FAR = 7.0) BUILT AREA (FAR = 7.0) 30,000 FT2 5 FLOORS R.E.D. MUST MAINTAIN EXISTING COMMERCIAL LEVELS BUILT AREA+(FAR = 12.0) 5 FLOORS BUILT AREA (FAR = 12.0) R.E.D.

85%

R.E.D

400 SF2 380 SF2 AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE 95 % BUILT AREA (FAR = 1.33) 500 SF2 BUILT AREA (FAR = 7.0) 85% development rights can be sold for a 2 FLOORS BUILT AREA (FAR = 12.0) 20,000 SF2 17,000 SF2 85% 120,000 SF2 8.0 FLOORS 200,000 SF2 14 FLOORS

01_FLODDING ZONES

20,0002SF2 20,000 FT 17,0002SF2 17,000 R.E.D. M 85%FT 85%120,000 SF2 PROPOSED 2 8.0 FLOORS 120,000 FT 200,000 SF2 OFFICES 8 FLOORS RESIDENT 14 FLOORS 200,000 FT2 LIVE/WOR

14 FLOORS

AVERAGE LOT SIZE AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE

80%

BUILT AREA (FAR = 4.0) 02_CONVERSION TO SOCIAL / OPEN GREEN SPACES

COMMERC

10,000 SF2 R.E.D. M 8,000 SF2 R.E.D. M 80% 30,000 SF2 03_OCCASIONAL 01_FLODDING FLOO 5 FLOORS R.E.D. M

As real estate is developed within Dharavi, certain parameters are established to limit SELF-REDEVELOPMENT and control formal structures. Average lot sizes are smaller in order to adapt to R.E.D. MUST MAINTAIN LIVE + WORK 80% TYPOLOGY the scale of Dharavi’s built fabric, while REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ECOLOGICA 4 5 400 SF2 LOT SIZE the proposed F.A.R.AVERAGE allows for vertical R.E.D. MUST PROVIDE OPEN SOCIAL AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE 380 SF2 95 % SPACES growth in95% a set limit. Live/Work units BUILT AREA (FAR = 1.33) 500 SF2 R.E.D. MUST MAINTAIN EXISTING 2 FLOORS are multiplied within both the formal and COMMERCIAL LEVELS + 95% informal fabrics, differentiating in scale INCLUDE LIVING SPACES FOR EXISTING CURRENT RESIDENTS and productive use. maximum FAR of 12.0 as an incentive for private developer profits and selfdeveloper financial aid.

AVERAGE LOT SIZE 10,000 SF2 AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE R.E.D. MUST FOLLOW MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT 8,000 SF2 80% BUILT AREA (FAR = 4.0) 30,000 SF2 PROPOSED PROGRAM: 5 FLOORS

12.0

W/L

L

W/L

20,000 SF2 17,000 SF2 R.E.D. MUST FOLLOW MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT 85% 120,000 SF2 PROPOSED PROGRAM: 8.0 FLOORS RESTAURANTS/BARS 200,000 SF2 OFFICES ENTERTAINMENT 14 FLOORS RESIDENTIAL

MUMBAI + VIENNA

BUILT AREA

95%

W/L

W/L

W/L

SO

W

mumbai + vienna mumbai + vienna

CENTRAL BUILT AREADISTRICT (FAR = 4.0) 80% BUSINESS

R.E.D.

SELF-REDEVELOPMENT

80’

20’

W/L

W/L

L

W

W/L

L

W

SO

LIVE/WORK LOFTS COMMERCIAL / RETAIL

AVERAGE LOTSIZE SIZE AVERAGE LOT AVERAGE LOTCOVERAGE COVERAGE AVERAGE LOT

EXISTING 100’<- 80’<-

EXISTING F.A.R.

BUILT AREA (FAR = 7.0)

SELF-REDEVELOPMENT

140’

MI.

S

L

L

W/L

WADALA TRUCK TERMINAL_1.5 MI.

85%

VI CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT

LA TRUCK TERMINAL_1.5

S

W/L

W

W/L

->100’ ->150’ ->200’ AVERAGE LOT SIZE AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE

50’

W/L W/L W/L

SELF-REDEVELOPMENT

100’<- 80’<-

20’

L

L

W

MUMBAI PORT_6 MI.

AVERAGE LOT SIZE AVERAGE LOT SIZE AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE

MI.

50’

L

FAR = 4.0

EXISTING

SELF-REDEVELOPMENT

W

L

BUILT AREA (FAR = 12.0)

EXISTING

140’

W

L

mumbai + vienna

95%

REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT

L

L

R.E.D.

FAR = 1.33

3

W

SO

85%

->100’ ->150’ ->200’

>150’ ->200’

W

AVERAGE LOT SIZE AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE

SELF-REDEVELOPMENT

NAVI MUMBAI_11

W/L

W/L

W 20,000 SF2 W/L L W/L W/L 17,000 SF2 W W/L/S SO W L 85% W/L W/LSF2W/L W/L/S W/L/S W/L/S SO W/L 120,000 W/L/S W/L/S W/L/S W/L/S W/L W/L W/L 8.0 FLOORS 200,000SSF2 SO S SO W/S S S 14 FLOORS

10,000 SF2 8,000 SF2 80% 30,000 SF2 5 FLOORS

BUILT AREADISTRICT (FAR = 4.0) 80% BUSINESS CENTRAL

SO

SO

L

MUMBAI CBD_8.5 MI.

L

W/L

L

W

L

MAHIM STATION

W

INTENSITY OF PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY INTENSITY

CONTEXTUAL UNDERSTANDING ALONG 60’ ROAD

LIVE WORK SELL SOCIAL

2

1

NEW PRODUCTIVE LIVE/WORK^

URBAN DESIGN CRITERIA

[3]

OFFICES RESIDENTIAL LIVE/WORK LOFTS SELF-REDEVELOPMENT COMMERCIAL / RETAIL

R.E.D. MUST FOLLOW MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT PROPOSED PROGRAM:

RESTAURANTS/BARS ENTERTAINMENT HOTELS MANUFACTURING

OFFICES RESIDENTIAL LIVE/WORK LOFTS COMMERCIAL / RETAIL

R.E.D. MUST MAINTAIN EXISTING + AVERAGE LOT SIZE AVERAGEOPEN LOT COVERAGE R.E.D. MUST PROVIDE SOCIAL SPACES

TYPOLOGY 400 SF2 380 SF2 95 % BUILT AREA (FAR = 1.33) 500 SF2 2 FLOORS R.E.D. MUST MAINTAIN EXISTING COMMERCIAL LEVELS +

RESTAURANTS/BARS ENTERTAINMENT HOTELS MANUFACTURING

R.E.D. MUST MAINTAIN EXISTING

+

TYPOLOGY

R.E.D. MUST PROVIDE OPEN SOCIAL SPACES

R.E.D. MUST MAINTAIN EXISTING COMMERCIAL LEVELS +

EXISTING

HOLY MAIDAN

3

LOT COVERAGE

4

REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM


Rs

R.E.D. LAND VALUE

R.E.D.

1>

1

2>

_ESTABLISHMENT OF R.E.D. AREA ALONG 60’ ROAD

_ESTABLISHMENT OF R.E.D. AREA ALONG 60’ ROAD _CRITERIA?

LAND VALUE

Rs

2

%

R.E.D.

R.E.D.

+

3>

_DEVELOPER RECEIVES ECONOMIC INCENTIVE + SPECIAL F.A.R. _AGREEMENT IS MADE BETWEEN NEIGHBORS

_DEVELOPER RECEIVES ECONOMIC INCENTIVE + SPECIAL F.A.R. _AGREEMENT BETWEEN NEIGHBORS

3

_DEVELOPER FINANCIALLY AIDS REDEVELOPMENT OF ADJACENT AREA AIDING VALUE TO R.E.D. _INDIVIDUAL MOVES TO REDEVELOPMENT AREA

_DEVELOPER FINANCIALLY AIDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADJACENT AREA WHICH ADDS VALUE TO R.E.D. _INDIVIDUAL IS MOVED TO REDEVELOPMENT

4>

4

_FORMALIZATION BEGINS _INDIVIDUAL RECEIVES LEGAL RECOGNITION + SECURE TENURE

_FORMALIZATION BEGINS _INDIVIDUAL RECEIVES LEGAL RECOGNITION + SECURE TENURE

_MAJOR DEVELOPERS SHOW NO INTEREST IN DEVELOPING SCHEMES IN DHARAVI DUE TO WHERE THERE IS POOR QUALITY CONSTRUCTION

DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

000 SF2 000 SF2 % ,000 SF2 LOORS F ,000 SF2 LOORS F

000 SF2 00 SF2 % 000 SF2 LOORS F

SF2 SF2

SF2 LOORS F

%

1

_ PROPOSED REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT AREAS ALONG 60’ ROAD _ LOT DIVISION

2

_ CLEARANCE OF FLOODING AREAS _ INSERTION OF NEW CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY 01_FLODDING ZONES

The [RE]Densification of 60’ road begins with the establishment of real estate development areas along this major axis. Communities then combine and begin the negotiation process to sell the lots to private developers. The establishment of the new FAR(=7.0) along 60’ road will R.E.D. MUST FOLLOW MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT give incentives to the private developer to finance the [RE]densification of PROPOSED PROGRAM: the live/work structures, resulting in the increase of land value. As the [RE] OFFICES RESTAURANTS/BARS self-development process starts to extend along the nagar’s main streets, RESIDENTIAL ENTERTAINMENT LIVE/WORK LOFTS HOTELS more formal structures begin to emerge, while density also increases. COMMERCIAL / RETAIL MANUFACTURING The existing flooding areas are cleared and transformed into green open spaces for public markets, urban agriculture fields, holy ground and R.E.D. MUST MAINTAIN EXISTING + TYPOLOGY recreational spaces where densification and new self-redevelopment R.E.D. MUST PROVIDE OPEN SOCIAL SPACES projects surrounds these areas. MAINTAIN EXISTING COMMERCIAL LEVELS + A new fabrication industry emerges from R.E.D. the MUST construction of the new projects, allowing different types of development to occur in the different nagars, based on specific needs and conditions.

DHARAVI_FLOODING MAP

02_CONVERSION TO SOCIAL / OPEN GRE


PHASING_60’ ROAD

3

_ TRANSFORMATION OF FLOODING AREAS INTO OPEN / GREEN / HOLY SPACE _ DENSIFICATION SURROUNDING OPEN SPACE + EXPANSION OF NEW CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

4

_ LIVE/WORK3 _ DISPERSION OF SELF [RE]DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ALONG 60’ ROAD

REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT EXISTING BUILDINGS SOCIAL SPACE NEIGHBORHOOD SOCIAL SPACE BHARAT NAGAR KUMBHARWADA MUSLIM NAGAR KUNJI NAGAR

PROPOSED SOCIAL SPACES

image source: www.dharavi.org

AKG NAGAR KAMALA NAGAR LABOR CAMP PRABHAKAR KUNTE NAGAR INDIRA NAGAR NEW NAGAR VALMIKI NAGAR MATUNGA LABOR CAMP


Commercial unit

1

Existing structures EXISTING STRUCTURAL PATTERN

0

1

2

Existing house Phase_01 Phase_01 _ BASE FRAMES 2 _Base frames _Base frames _ STREET RAMP _Street ramp _Street ramp _ COMMERCIAL UNIT INSERTION _Commercial units insertion_Commercial units insertion

Commercial unit

Existing house

Live/work unit

2

_ FRAME EXTENSION _ LIVE/WORK UNITS

3

_ SALE OF ONE LOT FOR REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT _ INSERTION OF KIT OF PARTS RED lot

Phase_03 4 or RED _Sell of one lot for RED _Kit of parts

5

Phase_04 _Floor extension _[Re]densification

5

RED lot

Phase_04 _Floor extension _[Re]densification

Only 1/4 of the block for RED FAR 4.00 or less

4

RED lot _ FLOOR EXTENSION _ [RE]DENSIFICATION _ RESIDENT VACATES ALLOWING REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT

5

_ LIVE / WORK BLOCK + POSSIBLE REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT


SELF-[RE]DEVELOPMENT_MUSLIM NAGAR KIT OF PARTS _SLIDING PANELS _BRICK MASONRY

_ORGANIC GRID CONNECTING EXISTING DISJOINTED PEDESTRIAN STREETS

_X-BRACE FRAME (4X8) (8X8) _WOODEN FRAME (4X8) (8X8)

_CONCRETE FLOOR

_WOOD DECKING

AVERAGE LOT SIZE AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE

85%

BUILT AREA (FAR = 7.0) BUILT AREA (FAR = 12.0)

R.E.D.

80%

20,000 SF2 17,000 SF2 85% 120,000 SF2 8.0 FLOORS 200,000 SF2 14 FLOORS

AVERAGE LOT SIZE AVERAGE LOT AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE

SF2 SIZE10,000 8,000 SF2 80% AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE

BUILT AREA (FAR = 4.0)

BUILT AREA

30,000 SF2 5 FLOORS

SELF-REDEVELOPMENT

95% EXISTING

FAR = 4.0

AVERAGE LOT SIZE AVERAGE LOT COVERAGE

BUILT AREA (FAR = 1.33)

400 SF2 380 SF2 95 % 500 SF2 2 FLOORS

12”

6”

_AREA OF FOCUS CONTRACT + EXTRUDE PERIMETER BECOMES WIDER STREETS FOR VEHICLES

01_FLODDING ZONES

10,000 FT2 8,000 FT2 80% 30,000 FT2 5 FLOORS

The Self-[RE]Development process allows and encourages the participation MUST FOLLOW MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT of all residents, as they are R.E.D. currently neglected from the formal process. The PROPOSED PROGRAM: [RE]Densification of the Muslim Nagar challenges the density of the densest OFFICES RESTAURANTS/BARS neighborhood in Dharavi. Because of its current RESIDENTIAL ENTERTAINMENT low-rise buildings, the lack of LIVE/WORK LOFTS HOTELS air, light and circulation prevent the/ RETAIL process of production. COMMERCIAL MANUFACTURING We propose a building structural system that is self-buildable and allows for R.E.D. MUST MAINTAIN EXISTING + TYPOLOGY incremental growth and a flexibility of live/work spaces. Because of the reliance R.E.D. MUST PROVIDE OPEN SOCIAL SPACES on the ground floor, we propose to extend the streets by ramping walkways into the units that can facilitate new productive and social spaces and maintain the R.E.D. MUST MAINTAIN EXISTING COMMERCIAL LEVELS + existing live/work typology, allowing the verticality of Dharavi to work.


LIVE WORK^[3]_MUSLIM NAGAR

PRODUCTIVE WORK AREAS

GROUND STORAGE COMPARTMENTS

INCLINED ‘STREET’ RAMP

noxa

1

SERVICE PIPE WATER SEWAGE

DRAINAGE POINTS


image source: www.dharavi.org

PHASING

The new live/work block in Muslim Nagar provides natural light and ventilation in open and larger living and working spaces, maximizing work efficiency. The ramping walkways not only provide ground compartments for storage, but also connect various productive units and networks.


PLAN FOR CHANGE

17%

HIGH-END RESIDENTIAL HIGH-END COMMERCIAL

2%

INDUSTRY

SEZ =

OFFICE COMPLEXES

76%

DHARAVI REDEVELOPMENT PROJECT PROPOSED BY MUKESH MEHTA

1964

1933

2020?

2009 LIVE/WORK3 RE[PROPOSAL]

Historically, Dharavi has incrementally developed within an organic fabric surrounded by formal structures. Ten years from now, Dharavi is in danger of losing its unique characteristics because of a plan (Dharavi Redevelopment Project) for complete top-down formalization.

100%

LIVE WORK COMMUNITY FORMAL + INFORMAL

Instead, we propose to redevelop and densify along 60’ Road and Station Road, two main streets that connect the formal and informal fabric and economies of Mumbai, while maintaining and enhancing the unique characteristics and complex live/ work typology of Dharavi.

1

5 YEARS DHARAVI 60’ ROAD

2

10 YEARS DHARAVI 60’ ROAD

4

15 YEARS DHARAVI 60’ ROAD AND STATION ROAD

3

20 YEARS DHARAVI 60’ ROAD AND STATION ROAD


SOURCES AND REFERENCES 1

2

3 4

5

urban age conference. Dharavi Redevelopment Project Consultants PLT. LTD. November 2007 urban age conference. Dharavi Redevelopment Project Consultants PLT. LTD. November 2007 http://dharavi.wikispaces.com/economicdata http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/02/03/eco.about.recycling/ index.html http://www.livemint.com/2009/02/25234419/Migrants-quit-Dharavi-as-crisi. html?pg=1

6

http://www.2point6billion.com/2007/11/27/dharavi-a-twilight-zone-ofinformal-housing-on-its-way-to-development-404.html

7

http://www.2point6billion.com/2007/11/27/dharavi-a-twilight-zone-ofinformal-housing-on-its-way-to-development-404.html http://www.dharavi.org

Images


BUILDING UP DHARAVI A TOOLKIT OF STRATEGIES FOR PROGRESSIVE SELF-DEVELOPMENT María Alicia Becdach, Olimpia Cermasi, Yakima Peña

79


Dharavi is an economically thriving and socially vibrant informal settlement in the heart of Mumbai. It defies simplistic definitions. According to the 2003 Global Report on Human Settlements: “A Slum is a heavily populated urban area characterized by a wide range of low income settlements and substandard housing and squalor” However, Dharavi is much more than a “slum”. As in the case of any “Informal” city, Dharavi has to be looked at closely to be understood well. It is a very special place in which massive influx of migrants has managed to create livelihoods and their “own” city. What is considered by the city of Mumbai as a place of illegal squatters, is in reality a vibrant city with many different realities and patterns. Misconceptions about Dharavi are also a result of people not recognizing its social capital and economic power: the place involves several economic networks, types of production, income levels, land tenure conditions, and religious practices and celebrations. Dharavi consists of 85 distinct communities of people who have a strong sense of cohesion and great aspirations of stability and improvement of economic status and standard of living. It is also evident that these people are capable of constructing and improving their own shelter by themselves- when they have the means to do so. For all these aspects to be nurtured, the Social Capital of Dharavi has to be acknowledged and supported as an asset to the city of Mumbai. Our proposal envisions strategies for progressive self-development, including “bottom up” financial models and architectural practices, as opposed to the current redevelopment plan, which proposes uniform top down development. Having identified different patterns, looked carefully at behavior patterns, production systems, and existing community facilities, a toolkit of strategies has been developed to be applied to different sites and with different “outboxes”. Simplistic homogeneity of solutions for the varying conditions of Dharavi has been avoided. The existing identity and “mixed-use” model of Dharavi has been respected, acknowledging the Home as a tool of production. Communal spaces have been created to accommodate microinfrastructure systems and to enhance productivity. The result is a system of triggers for self-development that can upgrade the existing conditions and support the community’s aspiration for stability. At the same time, considering home-ownership as an economic driver, the proposed model can enable a form of “social mobility” for the population in Dharavi.

80


DHARAVI PRODUCES GOODS WORTH MORE THAN 500 MILLION US$ A YEAR.

-THE ECONOMIST

DHARAVI IS PROGRESSIVE, INCREMENTAL AND ADAPTABLE

The SLUM REDEVELOPMENT PROJECT: a typological and socio-economical problem

Dharavi’s Informal Sector supports

Mumbai’s Formal Economy DHARAVI’S SOCIAL CAPITAL:

- Diversity of income, social background and land tenure/production. - Local adaptation. - Community cohesion.

Highrise Apt. detached from the production space Low Rise House as a tool of production

Occupation Salary Land Tenure

Engineer

$260

LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES

Tenement

Average 15 families share1 tap of water for 2hrs a day.

Tenement

Student

1 toilet for 1.440 people.

WATER PIPES

Leather

$65

Owner Insufficient sewage. Exposed pipes, Overground leakages.

Maid

$22

Squatter

Housewife

$11

Owner

DRAINAGE

POVERTY PENALTY PUBLIC TOILETS

Water is sold at $1.12 per m3 vs. $0.03 of a middle class area.

Pottery

$260

Landlord

We believe that the current project proposed by the Mumbai Slum Development Authority will detach people from the CULTURAL AND SOCIAL GROUND of Dharavi. It does not acknowledge the community, with its different PATTERNS, and SOCIAL CAPITAL.

85 Nagars /communities with different types of production, religion,etc.

Dharavi is characterized by a diversity of social networks, income levels, land tenure and building conditions. Its informal sector produces about 500 million US$ worth of goods and services every year, contributing to Mumbai’s economy as a whole. This productivity can only be ensured and enhanced by respecting the house as a tool of production and the “mixed-use” model of a place for the people of Dharavi. The “tower project” is also inadequate as it has no room for the special process of progressive, incremental adaptability of the existing housing of Dharavi, and does not allow flexibility, expansion and growth of families.

Muslim Nagar

Kumbhar Wada


version of map (layers/ elements...) MUSLIM NAGAR existing situation

KUMBHARAWADA existing situation COMMUNITY DRIVEN PRACTICES

-2 story houses

-2 story houses -Poor building temporal huts

conditions:

-Permanent concrete building structures -Pottery production village

-Mainly residential -30,000 inhabitants

“HELP FOR SELF-HELP”

- Highly polluted because of burning kilns -Tight fabric with open spaces dedicated to production

-Tight fabric with very little light and air

TOOLKIT

To be applied to different sites with different results according to each site specific needs.

We selected two sites in Dharavi and looked at the physical aspects and human behaviour of each. The approach is to provide the two sites with of the same series of strategies to involve the communities in upgrading their living conditions. What the project seeks to provide is a sort of “Help for Self-Help”. A tool-kit of parts has been proposed to address the provision of services and the upgrading of the built fabric. Different elements are expected to be provided by private enterprises and in some cases produced in Dharavi itself.

$

A SERIES OF FINANCING MODELS FOR EACH NAGAR FOR PROGRESSIVE SELF DEVELOPMENT ARE PROPOSED. THE ECONOMIC MODELS CAN BE INTRODUCED ALONG WITH THE PHASING PROCESS.


TOOLKIT

TOOL A:

BIO-WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM/ SLOPING FOR CHANNELIZATION

TOOL B: FIXED MODULAR WET WALL

TOOL C: MODULAR STAIR CASE / VERTICAL GARDENS

Gray Water Fixed Wet Wall

Solid filtration chamber

GRAY

ments...) Discharge to phreatic level

Bio treatment tank, with wetland vegetation

Clean Water Housing Units

R WATE

E WAG TO SE TERN CIS FROM

TER N WA

CLEA

3rd Floor

Sixth Phase

Fifth Phase

2nd Floor

Fourth Phase

slope inclination 2% runoff water drainage

Third Phase

1st Floor

Second Phase existing fabric

First Phase

Constructed wetlands are designed to mimic natural wetlands to treat wastewater, using plants and microorganisms. A constructed wetland system consists of a septic tank, the wetland cell(s) and a method for returning the treated wastewater back to the environment.

A modular wet-wall is shared by several units to accomodate the pipes for water used in the house. It is the only fixed element in the layout of the new units, and will be stacked vertically as the housing units are built up.

A modular staircase, shared by different units can incrementally grow in vertical direction -together with the growth of the new housing system. An enclosing mesh allows the growth of a vertical garden.


TOOLKIT

TOOL D: LOAD BEARING WALLS THE BRICK AS THE BASIC MODULE OF CONSTRUCTION, commonly used in India.

The load-bearing wall system involves a series of variations according to use. The configuration of the wall depends on the orientation and climate factors such as sun screening, ventilation, and rain protection, together with consideration of privacy issues.

4 1/2’ 9’

The guidelines for construction are provided to the community for self-building. The more “porous” walls will be located on the West and East sides, to enhance ventilation. The more “solid” ones will be placed on the North and South sides, in order to provide sun screening and insulation.

3 1/2’

Wall_D

Wall_E

Wall_C

Wall_B

Solid Wall

Wall_A

Aperture Wall

0.10 m 0.30 m 0.10 m 0.30 m

0.30 m

0.30 m

0.30 m

2.00 m

2.00 m

2.00 m

- Facing N/S -for SUNSCREENING and INSULATION

- Facing N/S -for SUNSCREENING and INSULATION

- Facing N/S -for SUNSCREENING and VENTILATION

2.00 m

1.80 m

2.50 m

- Facing E/W -for VENTILATION

TOOL E: WATER COLLECTING ROOF AND CISTERN

- Facing E/W -for VENTILATION

1.00 m

-For separation of units and service areas. - Privacy

2.00 m

-Panels of various materials can be applied on top

TOOL F: ELECTRIC KILN

RAIN WATER

THE TILE AS THE BASIC MODULE OF ROOFING. Both bricks and tiles are made in KUMBHARAWADA with clay imported from the countryside, their manufacture promotes local and rural jobs.

Individual and shared electric kilns allow more productivity since they can to be indoors, and not affected by monsoon.

HARVESTING SYSTEM

CISTERN


phasing _ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

study site _1: 1. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING

2. SELECTIVE REMOVAL

FABRIC

MUSLIM NAGAR

CREATION OF PUBLIC OPEN SPACES

Selected Area

Units Removed

Existing Fabric

New open space

3. SLOPING STREETS, CHANNELIZATION

Pipe for gray water takes discharge to the freatic level. Water gardens, sloping streets for runoff water.

4. MICROINFRASTRUCTURE: SEWAGE (initial phase)

slope inclination 2% runoff water drainage

* transversal street section

A

Solid filtration chamber

existing fabric

new open space

Bio treatment tank, with wetland vegetation Discharge to freatic level

* longitudinal street section

The freed up area will be reshaped with slopes for water run-off drainage, and completed with a series of decentralized water treatment systems. These water gardens will treat the water (previously filtrated by a side solid filtration chamber) with a biological mechanism of wetland plants. The result will be sent back by a pipe to the freatic level in order to recharge underground water.

$

PRIVATE ENTERPRISE: The community will finance the first phase by paying for the services of the private enterprise that will provide the micro-infrastructure. The community will own and manage it themselves.

The lack of infrastructure and services is evident, with no toilets, insufficient sewage, and very little potable water. The first phase of the intervention envisions that the communities select and remove a few units to free up open spaces for the insertion of micro-infrastructure systems.This will also free up some space in the existing tight fabric for the provision of light and air.

Private Enterprise

Builds Sewage System

Monthly

Community


phasing _ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

study site _1: 5.RECONFIGURATION OF FABRIC (initial phases)

A

New Building Fabric

A’

A

C

D

amazing section / image

BIO WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM FREATIC DISCHARGE

* transversal section on the main street A-A’ This is the initial phase of a progressive reconfiguration of the building fabric. The image is a transverse section on the main street which shows the incremental, progressive aggregation of the different parts that constitute the project.

$

COMMUNITY AND CONSTRUCTION COMPANY SAVINGS PROGRAM: Construction company manages savings accounts for each family. $ The materials are delivered when the budget is reached. Building component production in Dharavi.

$


phasing _ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

study site _1: 7. MICROINFRASTRUCTURE:

6. RECONFIGURATION OF

SEWAGE TREATMENT (final phase)

FABRIC (final phases)

New Building Fabric

main gray water discharge pipes plugged to phreatic level gray water pipes from houses runoff water channels fixed wet walls water gardens, sloping streets for runoff fwater. existing fabric

CREATION OF SEMI PRIVATE OPEN SPACES: COURTYARDS

addition of new housing units rain water cisterns pipes for provision of clean rain water

900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 00

25 20 15 10 5.0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

0.0

126 gallons/day Average consumption of water per family 12 families consume 45,360

gallons/Month

4 Months of water needed per family is equal to 181,440

gallons (10m x 10m x 7m ) equivalent to 687 cubic meter = tank of water storage

The reconfiguration of the fabric involves a massing layout resulted from the creation of internal open spaces as courtyards. This space is dedicated to a water harvesting system consisting on a rain water cistern with sanitation processes. According to the Monsoon chart and the average consumption per family, it is estimated that the system can provide clean water all year long. The result is that the water becomes an asset instead of a hazard in Dharavi. .

Rainy days

Rainfall (mm)

8. CAPTURING RAINWATER


phasing _ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

study site _1:

B

C

D

A

amazing section / image

COURTYARD WATER HARVESTING SYSTEM

This image shows the character of the courtyard space. It is a semipublic area that enhances security and social interaction within the community. The water and the tree are symbolic, sacred elements in Indian culture. This water harvesting system recalls a rural tradition in India of creating water ponds for the recharge of the freatic level.

$

RENTAL INCOME: As a result of reconfiguring the fabric and increased density, additional rental units can be generated. These will support the financing of the water harvesting system by the community.

$

$


phasing _ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

study site _1:

...RECONFIGURATION OF

9.

New Building Fabric

GO VERTICAL: DENSITY IN A LOW RISE SYSTEM

ZONING HEIGHT REGULATIONS

FABRIC (final phase)

Total Population : 30,000 Ha. Existing FAR : 1.33 Proposed FAR: 2 Res. units in Intervention Area: 126 Res. units Relocated: 20 Res. units after intervention: up to 189

Additional 50% for family expansion or as developable area. Driver = rents

light + air In the spirit of “urban inclusion” community made rules can ensure sufficient light and air. courtyard

street

DENSITY PHASING

The diagrams show how density is addressed in a low –rise system. An additional 50% area is provided, allowing the existing FAR to go from 1.33 up to 2. A series of community-formed policies are created to regulate heights and to ensure the use of roofs at the fourth floor as a shared production areas for water collection. .

The housing units can rise to the fourth floor level, but are limited on the third and second floor when facing the streets and the courtyards. This regulation allows sun and air to penetrate the streets and the internal spaces.


study site _1:

phasing _ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

amazing section / image

The image shows how the new system allows growth and adaptability over time. The owners can also take advantage of the new communal spaces provided by the fabric reconfiguration for production or commercial purposes.


phasing _ 1 2 3 4 5 6

study site _2: 1. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING

2. SELECTIVE REMOVAL

FABRIC

KUMBHARWADA

Units Removed

Selected Area

New open space

3. SLOPING STREETS, CHANNELIZATION

CREATION OF PUBLIC RECREATIONAL AND PRODUCTIVE OPEN SPACES

4. MICROINFRASTRUCTURE: SEWAGE ( initial phase)

Main gray water pipes plugged to freatic discharge Gray water pipes from houses Runoff water channels Fixed wet walls Water gardens, sloping streets. Existing fabric Addition of new housing units

Kumbharwada is a pottery production village, with two story houses and permanent buildings. It is highly polluted because of the burning of the kilns, and the fabric is extremely tight as all open spaces are dedicated to pottery production. The strategy for Kumbharwada involves the freeing up of public open spaces with the selective removal of units on the secondary alleys and on the main alley, where the system of slopes and decentralized water treatment system will be constructed. The existing kilns are to be replaced with a new type of electric kilns

$

PRIVATE ENTERPRISE: The community will finance the first phase by hiring for the service to the private enterprise providing the microinfrastructure, and will own and manage it themselves.

Private Enterprise

Builds Sewage System

Monthly

Community


phasing _ 1 2 3 4 5 6

study site _2: 5. RECONFIGURATION OF FABRIC

storage space wet walls

C

D

residential units

B

Electric kilns

A

F

amazing section / image

located inside the house, leaving outdoor spaces and the main alley for production and recreational activity. A waste-to -energy plant can serve the new kilns and turn the waste problem into an asset. The new technology will also ensure a drastic reduction of the pollution caused by the burning kilns. The wet-wall system is applied to the existing fabric to connect the gray water discharge of the houses to the new water treatment system. The removed units can be replaced through a system of participatory planning by constructing on top of the existing structures, with the same system of brick load bearing walls and wooden aperture walls.

$

CONSTRUCTION COMPANY SAVINGS PROGRAM: Construction company and community manage savings accounts for each family. The $ $ building materials are delivered when the budget is reached. Building components are produced in Dharavi.


study site _2:

phasing _ 1 2 3 4 5 6

6. ELECTRIC KILNS

Energy from waste to energy plant Energy distribution grid Electric kilns Communal production and storage center.

The new housing addition,(with bricks produced locally) provides more space at the ground level for storage of clay and drying of pots. WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT only12% of total waste budget goes to slums

Dharavi would produce363,710 Kwh/Day

in Mumbai ( 60 % of population live in slums)

of Energy from waste ( 1 tons= 983 Kwh )

Dharavi produce 514 Tones of waste

a kiln consume an average of 800 Kwh

daily ( 72 % is mixed waste)

( less than 1% of the production per day)

NEW HOUSING MODULE

EXISTING FABRIC

RUNOFF WATER TREATMENT

ELECTRIC KILN

NEW STORAGE SPACE

ELECTRICITY FROM WASTE ENERGY PLANT

$

With the newly created open space free of burning and polluting kilns, more pottery can be laid out to dry as well as for sales display, thus increasing sales.

Once the KILNS are inside the houses, moonson cannot affect pottery production, potentially DOUBLING PRODUCTION and generating more income for Kumbharawada.

CLAY is imported from a RURAL AREAS, also supporting economic links and jobs outside the city.


SOURCES AND REFERENCES 1. Neuwirth, Robert. Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, A New Urban World. 2. Prahalad, C.K. The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty Through Profits. 3. Davis, Mike. Planet of Slums 4. The Economist 5. BBC NEWS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/world/06/dharavi_slum/html/dharavi_slum_intr o.stm 6. Borthagaray, J.M, de Nista, M.A., Wainstein-Krasuk, O. Hacia la gestion de un Habitat Sostenible. 7. Middle East RSD, constructed wetlands: http://www.rsd-me.com/en/products.htm

8. UN- HABITAT- The Challenge of Slums - Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. 9. Baker Laurie: http://lauriebaker.net/ 10. The Economist 11. BBC NEWS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/world/06/dharavi_slum/html/dharavi_slum_intr o.stm 12. Architecture for Humanity .Design Like You Give a Damn: Architectural Responses to Humanitarian Crises. 13. De Soto, Hernando. The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else

.


MAXIMUM CROSSING Live - Work - Move

Rob Drury, Nuala Gallagher, Akhila Srinivas, Jay Trung Tran

95


The focus of this project is to turn the rail corridor adjacent to Dharavi, and in particular the Sion station area into an asset for Dharavi rather than dividing it from the rest of the city. This is driven by two factors. Firstly, almost 2.5 miles of rail track surround Dharavi and segregate Dharavi from the rest of the city. Secondly, the Bombay Municipal Corporation is currently undertaking feasibility studies on the existing rail lines, in order to ascertain if an elevated line can be accommodated above in order to relieve the current congestion on trains. An average of, ten people are killed every day in rail related incidents in Mumbai, mainly crossing the tracks or in the carriages, which run at three times over capacity. Informal settlements have a tendency to encroach on the rail tracks, making their living conditions unsafe. This together with pedestrians crossing over the tracks generally slow down the trains in Mumbai. Currently the only official pedestrian crossing for Dharavi residents is located 750m from Sion Station. Thus, the existing rail line serves as a barrier between Dharavi and the rest of Mumbai. In the event that an elevated line is proposed in this corridor, this infrastructure would reinforce this corridor as barrier. This project proposes to counteract this and turns this negative space into a positive amenity for Dharavi. It utilizes the space surrounding the track and the air rights above the track to become a connector to provide essential services, facilities, increase density by filling up this previously unused area and connecting communities on both side of the track. The people of Dharavi will benefit with increased civic, educational and commercial facilities and amenities, increased open space and work space in addition to necessary services such as water and sewage being laid along with this new infrastructure. Many of these amenities will facilitate shared services and space to be used by communities on both sides, thus enabling the informal economy to be connected to the formal, and Dharavi and its people to be integrated physically and socially to Mumbai. The project also serves to aid the rail company by eliminating pedestrian access to the tracks, thus allowing for trains to run faster and to further permit positive expansion of the rail lines, Thus benefiting the city, which is an important factor in Dharaviâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s future development. The railway station is an important feature in Indian Cities. Sion Station is the oldest station on this rail line which is the oldest rail track in Asia. Therefore, the reinterpretation of this station along with the new infrastructure, the elevated rail, proposed by the city, serves as the starting point for this proposal.

96


BRIDGING SPINES

ABOVE ROOFTOP PATH PEDESTRIAN PATHS

SELF-BUILD STRUCTURES GROUND PATH TO ROOF

EXTEND GRID SYSTEM

CROSSING INFRASTRUCTURES

LIVE SPACE FROM ELEVATED RAILS

LIVE SPACE FROM GROUND

SION TRA STATIO NSIT N HOU / SIN

G

EXISTING STREET SEN

IOR/

WOM

EN F ACIL

ITIES

URBAN FABRIC

CIVIC

/SCH

OOL

EXTENDED ACCESS

FAC IL

ITIES

WORK SPACE

RESIDENTIAL

ELEVATED RAILS

EXISTING RAILS URBAN PLOT

Where previous infrastructure has served as a barrier our proposal promotes connection and inclusivity. The proposed program is accommodated around, below and above the proposed height of the elevated rail track, 12-13m above road level. The differing scales on both side of the tracks, the low rise informal settlements and the high rise formal settlements are negotiated and the proposal serves as a mediator between the two. Physically and socially the two sides connect across the tracks. The scheme functions at many levels.

Necessary civic and community blocks are located at strategic positions, connecting both sides. These blocks bridge the divide, perpendicular to the tracks and create an armature for infrastructure and work to be extended between. This provides stepped levels and a platform for self developed living units above. Paths of varying hierarchy are extended through live/work and civic areas, stepping and stretching through the spaces to the open space above the elevated rail line.


2

1

3

1

3

2


• DHARAVI IS SURROUNDED BY 2.5 MILES OF RAIL TRACKS • AN AVERAGE OF 10 PEOPLE A DAY ARE KILLED IN RAIL RELATED INCIDENTS IN MUMBAI • INFORMAL SETTLEMENT ENCROACHES ON TRACKSUNSAFE AND SLOW DOWN TRAINS • TRAINS ARE THREE TIMES OVER CAPACITY - THEY CARRY 4700 PEOPLE, DESIGN FOR 1700

DHARAVI

N

RA

IL LIN E

• DHARAVI NEEDS CIVIC & COMMUNITY FACILITIES

WE

ST

ER

SION STATION: OLDEST STATION ON TRACK. RECONFIGURE WITH NEW RAIL INFRASTRUCTURE

DHARAVI SIDE

SION SIDE EXISTING BARRIER

CITY PROPOSAL

EXISTING BARRIER

SUNKEN RAIL TRACKS

POTENTIAL / OPPORTUNITY

CITY PROPOSAL

ELEVATED RAIL

CONNECT DENSIFY

POTENTIAL / OPPORTUNITY

TRIGGER

SERVICE

MAXIMIZE PROSPECTS

Close examination of site conditions reveals a change in the city topography at the point of the rail tracks with the low rise informal settlement in Dharavi and the high rise private residential on the other side. Currently the only official pedestrian crossing on the track is 750m from Sion Station. The existing Sion station is located between the two and is hard to access, located across the busy Station Road and below ground level. The focus is on existing conditions around Sion station and potential on the track edges. Points of connection have been identified as part of the proposal. Sion station is a focus as it bridges both a road junction and rail underpass. The rail track is below ground level in this area and this potential has been exploited in this scheme. The city set a height for the new elevated rail at 10m -13 m above road level. Areas of opportunity are identified alongside the tracks. Open plots allow for civic blocks to bridge the tracks and become points of connection. Existing facilities are identified to be tapped into and enhanced, including the educational buildings on both sides of the tracks. The different scales of both sides have been considered.


CROSSING TRACKS

SION STATION POINTS OF OPPORTUNITY

SION STATION BRIDGE ACROSS RAILS/ROADS

CONNECTORS MAXIMIZE POINTS OF OPPORTUNITY & FACILITIES

SCHOOL

METHODOLOGY

COMMERCIAL

SION STATION: POTENTIAL AREA OF CONNECTION

GREEN SPACE: POTENTIAL AREA OF CONNECTION

OV E

RH E

AD

PO

WE

RL

IN

ES

EDUCATIONAL/PARK: POTENTIAL AREA OF CONNECTION


SECTION THROUGH WORK - LIVE

CIVIC SPACE:

EDUCATION, LECTURE HALL, AMPHITHEATER

The space between the civic blocks incorporates working and commercial areas on the lower levels with living above. This is similar to the current model in Dharavi where a live/work environment exists. The scale of development rises from two to tree story on the Dharavi side and grows up to reach the elevated rail line, where it can grow over and use the open space on top. A series of open spaces and terraces are inserted to create a village look organic environment and to allow light to filter to the work spaces below. The stepped section also allows easy use of the roof spaces by the residents and flexibility for the future.


WORK - LIVE :

PATH NETWORK BETWEEN CIVIC SPACES

This stepped nature allows for flexibility in the working area, with varying size units being allowed for. The stepped streets above allow for flexibility in the housing units, with single, two story or three story houses possible with the stepped section, this allows creation of a street with access on two sides and possible division of houses for extended family members, as is the current situation in Dharavi. The streets links to the civic blocks on each side, steps and ramps are provided to allow access for all.


FUTURE CHANGE

Development continues along the length of the rail track surrounding Dharavi, enhancing connections, facilities and making transportation more efficient.


STUDIO TIMELINE

Orientation presentations and discussion at Sir J. J. College of Architecture

Bus orientation tour of Mumbai, with commentary provided by Sir J. J. College students

Lectures and discussions at Tata Institute of Social Sciences

Students chose sites and formed teams of 4-8 each with students from Sir J. J. College of ArchitectureSite visits in Mumbai including Khotachiwadi

Itinerary: Mumbai Central- Chowpatty- Marine Drive- Nariman Point- Colaba- Gateway of IndiaCST Station- Byculla- Bhauji Lad Museum- Mill Lands- Sion- Bandra Kurla Complex- Bandra West

Work at Dharavi sites in groups

Visit to the selected sites in Dharavi: Three chawls and KumbharwadaCommunity meeting followed by dinner organized by Dharavi residents

Screening of movie and discussion at YMCA: “Slum Dog Millionaire”, filmed partly in Dharavi.

JANUARY 12

JANUARY 13

108

Screening of movie and discussion at YMCA: “Traffic Signal” filmed in Mumbai

JANUARY 14


Lecture and discussions at YMCA

Lecture and discussions at YMCA

Preparations for Presentations at J. J. College of Architecture

Work at Dharavi sites in groups

Work at Dharavi sites in groups

Public presentations at Dharavi by Columbia + J. J. students to community and other opinion leaders including Mr. Ramesh Mishra, Mr. Ravi Kenny, Mr. Bhau Korde. Farewell dinner and party organized by Dharavi residents

JANUARY 15

JANUARY 16

JANUARY 17

109


Fabric Explorations Pin up

FEBRUARY 11

110

Infrastructural Strategies Pin up

MARCH 04

Fabric / Infrastructure Overlay Midterm Review

MARCH 11


Proposal Reconstruction Pin Up

APRIL 01

Final review

Year-End Show Opening

Exhibition in Mumbai

APRIL 17

MAY 16

OCTOBER 28

111


Dharavi: Scenarios for Development  

Mumbai Dharavi: Scenarios For Development eds. Michael Conard, Geeta Mehta, Kate Orff, Marielly Casanova The Columbia University Urban Des...

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