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Portfolio.

Pratibha Singh Masters of Science in Architecture and Urban Design 2019 - 2020


Re-Defining Capital: Addis Ababa City Center

04

Green It, Clean It!

12

Spring 2020 | Urban Design Studio III

Fall 2019 | Urban Design Studio II

Towards an Equitable Health care system in the Hudson Valley

20

The Break Space: Designing the Sunnyside Yards Edge

26

Organic Waste NYC: Systems Research

32

The Rent Stories

36

Imagining Circular Bio-economies at the Amazonian Frontier

38

Vulnerability Assessment in the Brazilian Amazon

42

Cyprus Buffer Zone

44

Fall 2019 | Urban Design Studio II

Summer 2019 | Urban Design Studio I

Summer 2019 | Urban Design Studio I

Summer 2019 | Digital Techniques

Spring 2020 | Speculative City: Crisis, Turmoil, and Projections in Architecture

Fall 2019 | Geographic Information Systems

Fall 2019 | Difference and Design


Re-Defining Capital

Addis Ababa City Center Urban Design Studio III - Water Urbanism Addis Ababa Spring 2020 Team: Einat Lubliner, Hatem Alkhathlan, Sushmita Shekar

Playground

Addis Ababa is considered the diplomatic capital of Africa. Today, the main city center is going through rapid development including large influx of people and capital. The government and foreign developers are implementing a generic vision of a ‘modern developed city’. Driven by foreign investments, which extract capital from the city rather than benefit the locals. Although perceived as progressive, this development is in fact fragmenting the city, destroying ecosystems, and widening socioeconomic gaps. There is ecological degradation that will worsen with the Beautifying Sheger proposal to channelize the river by concreting its banks and creating exclusive public spaces, mimicking the global trend of riverfront development.These imported ideologies of development fail to address the current challenges of Addis Ababa. There is potential to reverse this type of urbanism driven solely by real estate interests to a multifunctional capital system. Hence we propose an inclusive development where financial capital is only a means towards enhancing social, and ecological capital.

4

5


Addis Ababa

Proposed Scenario Multifunctional

City Center

Improving connectivity and flexibility of spaces 1. Activate vacant lot 2. Road diet 3. Bike lanes 4. Cultural path connection

Improve Housing

Inclusive Recreation Local Economic Empowerment

Recharge Aquifer

Water Collection

Mitigate Flood

Filter Water

Social Capital Ecological Capital

Farmer market

Ecological Capital

Trading unit+solar

Cultural path

Irreecha festival ponds

Museum connection

Riparian vegetation

What If? A “world class” city center is envisioned to leverage social and ecological capital in support of ecosystem restoration, an inclusive public realm and the local economy?

Strengthening existing social organizations

Funding

Edir/ Equb

Green Jobs

Edir/ Equb

Director, Urban Center

Housing Improvement

Public Space Improvement

“The river is dirty and people use it to throw garbage.”

Edir/ Equb

Nature trail

Improve Connectivity

Retain Cultural Characteristics

Incremental Change

River Trash Collectors

-50%

From a trigger of social node to housing

Coverage

Local materials

Stormwater Collection

Green Jobs

Training Playgrounds

Teaching

Saba Local Resident

Trading

Fishing

Kebele Housing

Business Improvement

Filwoha

6

Support Local Economies

Social Capital Ecological Capital

Local Resident

CBD Edir/Equb Edir/ Equb

“If we manage to turn the city to face the River, it will create a new facade for the city.” Maheder Gebremedhin

Kechene Piazza

Solar Energy

Recharge wells

“He (developer) makes the water clean. It is good but I don’t like it. He takes out people and moves them outside.”

Edir/ Equb

Government

Meskel Square

Anchor Institutions

Research

Regulations

Jamal General Services

Road Diet

NGOs Trust Fund

Global Partners

“This is the core of the city and developing the River here will grab attention.”

Bike lane

Improving housing conditions through social and ecological networks

Private Developers Banks

Permeable pavement

Filtering

Social Capital Credits

Community

Mercato Akaki

Stormwater reuse

Trade

Biogas

Gray water treatment

Custodians

Community Garden

Teaching

Retention ponds

Filtration + Irrigation

Stormwater storage

Training

Trade

7


Integrating Ecological Capital to the development of the city

Social Capital Ecological Capital

Trigger: Wetlands, Riparian Vegetation, Public Spaces

Growth: Weaving the River edges to the city fabric

Network: Integrated Development, Green Corridors, Pocket Parks

+25% Affordable Housing Government Policy

Commercial

Green Jobs

Riparian Vegetation

Public Bath

Pocket Parks Public Space

Bird Nesting Habitat

Bikelane

Bioswale

Constructed Wetlands

Integrated Development

8

Permeable Surfaces

Improved Connectivity

Flood Mitigation Retention Ponds

Constructed Wetlands

Geothermal Energy

Inclusive Public Facilities

Geothermal Energy

9


Plan for sustainability through social and ecological systems

Flexible design solutions that are resilient and adaptive to growth +21 Acres

Accessibility to the river + Community centers Incremental housing

+

Active recreational Spaces

Community farming

+16,000 kg C/yr

+

Pedestrian zones

Music concert

Increase in Riparian Vegetation + Green Cover

+

+

Connectivity. Cultural & Social Network. Economic Programes. Incremental Housing & Integrated Development.

Edir celebrations

Informal trade Wetland plantation

Handicraft market

Markets

Additional CO2 Sequestered

Integrated development

600 - 650

Ecological restoration and expansion. Water cleaning, collection & recharge. Sewage infrastructure. Green avenues

Pocket parks

Ecological

Riparian vegetation

Retention ponds

Permeable surfaces

Geothermal

STPs

Trash collectors

Green Jobs Created

Flood Mitigation +200,000 gallons

Playing fields Irrecha celebrations

Floodwater Holding Capacity

+40% Kebele Housing Additional Housing

Up to +$6 Million Kebele Housing

Ambassador Theater

Filwoha Hot Springs

Addis Ababa Int. Staduim

Gihon Hotel

Meskel Square

Monetary Savings

Enabling the River as a cultural asset

Autumn

Summer

Winter

Spring

Utilizing the recreational and ecosystem service potential of the River Social Capital Ecological Capital

Recreational Public Bath

Farmers & craft market

Pervious cultural path

Social Capital Ecological Capital

Flexible vending spaces

Geothermal Energy River Trail

Road diet

Performance stairs

Trading Units Recreation Spots

Green Jobs Bird Nesting Habitat

Festive ponds

Social Capital Credits Constructed Wetlands

10

11


Contaminated lands in the Hudson Valley

Green It, Clean It! Urban Design Studio II - Hudson Valley Region Fall 2019 Team: Anai Perez, Danwei Pan, Zixuan Zhang

Around 130,000 acres of land in the Hudson Valley have been contaminated by the direct and indirect influence of industries. Our project proposes to transform these wastelands into community assets that can tackle contamination, while improving soil health, sequestering carbon and restoring the productivity of the land. This process enables us to open up the site to the people and develop further relationships with the surroundings, providing recreational and economic benefits for the community. The programs generate a wide range of jobs in research and manufacturing sectors, as well as low skilled maintenance jobs, supporting the low income and de-industrialized communities and strengthening the local economy. These sites become places for continued research and education about nature as an enabling infrastructure.

12

13


Analysis

Property Area: 258 Acres Demolished Area: 19 Acres Industrial Parcel: 20 Acres Data center/ Industrial Parcel: 16 Acres Mixed Use Parcel: 10 Acres Parking Parcel: 39 Acres Office Parcel: 3 Acres

IBM Access Point Highway Road

Timeline, Funding & Policy

4

Sectional timeline, policies and phasing on the site

14

15


GreenGreen House House

Floor Harvest

1

System AxonometricFloor Harvest System Axonometric Research Center

1 5 Vertical

Vertical Biodome

Biodome Hydroponics Hydroponics Concrete Shell Structure

Glass Panels

Glass Panels

Plaza

Library/Reading Room

Floor Harvest

1 5

Research Center

Vertical

Floor Harvest

1

Research Center

5 12

Administration Laboratory Research Room

Hydroponics

Vertical Concrete Shell Structure

Library Concrete Shell Structure Herbarium

Hydroponics Exhibition Area Demostration Lab Plaza

Classroom

Library/Reading Room

Research Center

5 12

Plaza

Library/Reading Room

Administration Administration Laboratory

12

Laboratory

Research Room Research Room

Research Center

5

Concrete Shell Structure Library Library Herbarium Herbarium Exhibition Area Demostration Lab Library/Reading Classroom Room

Exhibition Area

Plaza

7

Demostration Lab Classroom

Administration

12

Concrete Shell Laboratory Structure Research Room

Library Herbarium

Library/Reading Room

Exhibition Area

Demostration Lab Classroom

Plaza

7

Administration

12

7

Laboratory Research Room

Library Herbarium

Exhibition Area Demostration Lab

7

Classroom

16

17


18

19


Towards an Equitable Health care System in the Hudson Valley

Urban Design Studio II - Hudson Valley Region Fall 2019 Team: Claudia Kleffmann, Niharika Shekhawat, Yi Zhang

The present Health care system in the Hudson Valley lacks accessibility, both in physical and also monetary aspects. The internal structure of the private and public health care system and insurance make it hard for citizens to access and afford basic health care. This leads to a larger uninsured population and creates a vicious cycle, since unattended illnesses usually end up getting worse and therefore becoming more expensive to treat. In addition, rural areas are disconnected from basic medical care, making them more dependent on private cars, which contribute to a bad environment. Hence, another vicious cycle is created with the Carbon Footprint of the Health care sector, which represents 10% of the total Carbon Footprint of the United States. This leads to environmental pollution and climate change, eventually leading to more health issues needing health care. However, there are multiple ways of reducing this footprint, through working with local communities and retrofitting of buildings. By reducing carbon emissions, we can lower the amount of money spent, allowing for the reinvestment and proper distribution for a just and equitable health care system.

20


s

d

ce

LEADERSHIPS

Network creation

ENT

Members

42%

GREENE

PUTNAM

COLUMBIA WESTCHESTER

people/employer spend RENSSELAER ALBANY more on healthcare

people/employer spend more on healthcare ULSTER

ORANGE

had difficulties paying for their medical bills

63%

10.00%

$440 during average patient stay.

1 hour

Putnam Hospital Central

Sharon Hospital

Americans

had difficulties paying for their medical bills

of Americans spent most or all Hospitals Catskill Regional Medical Group their savings to pay for their mediPrimary Care 63% cal bills

Vassar Brothers Medical Center

Danbury Hospital

Long Term Healthcare of Americans mostBased or all Health Centers spent School their savings to Orange Regional Medical Group Diagnostic and Treatment Centers pay for their medical bills

less to spend on other things/services

Putnam Hospital Central

Railroads

Roadways

UNIVERSAL HEALTHCARE SYSTEM

minutes - Hospitals

Source: New York State Department of Health

NON-PROFIT CHEAPER

REDIRECTING FUNDS

$10,224

AWARENESS GENERATOR

RETHINKING PRICES

+

CARBON REDUCTION

COST UPGRADING REDUCTION INFRASTRUCTURE

+

+

how? REDIRECTING SAVINGS

EQUITABLE ACCESSIBLE PREVENTIVE

AWARENESS GENERATOR

CARBON REDUCTION

COST UPGRADING REDUCTION INFRASTRUCTURE

REDUCTION

COST UPGRADING REDUCTION INFRASTRUCTURE

how? REDIRECTING SAVINGS

EQUITABLE ACCESSIBLE PREVENTIVE

REDIRECTING SAVINGS

EQUITABLE ACCESSIBLE PREVENTIVE

40%

$10,224 10.00% #35Department USA of Health Source: New York State

REDIRECTING FUNDS

THINKING WITH THE GREEN NEW DEAL

Water bodies

UNIVERSAL HEALTHCARE SYSTEM

RETHINKING PRICES

NON-PROFIT CHEAPER

REDIRECTING FUNDS

THINKING WITH THE GREEN NEW DEAL

Norwalk Hospital

Westchester Medical Center

radius/10 minutes - Clinics

5 mile radius/10 minutes - Hospitals Hospitals people/employer spend cost of products/services Primary Care more on healthcare 10.5 mile radius/17 minutes increases - Hospitals Long Term Healthcare

$10,224 10.5 mile radius/17 minutes - Hospitals

Water bodies

how?

AWARENESS GENERATOR

RETHINKING PRICES

Norwalk Hospital CARBON

UNIVERSAL Westchester HEALTHCARE SYSTEM Medical Center

Source: New York State Department of Health

of insured

10.5 mile radius/17 minutes - Clinics

increases

NON-PROFIT CHEAPER

5 mile radius/10 minutes - Clinics 10.5 mile radius/17 minutes - Clinics Northern Dutchess 5 mile radius/10 minutes - Hospitals Hospital 10.5 mile radius/17 minutes - Hospitals New Milford Hospital 30 mile radius/50 minutes - Hospitals

IV BAG Single bag cost

25%

THINKING WITH THE GREEN NEW DEAL

Railroads

Roadways

IV BAG Single bag cost

BEDPAN Original cost 1$

5 mile radius/10jobs minutes Clinics move- to places

$4,902

Medical Center Danbury Hospital

Diagnostic and Treatment Centers Orange Regional Medical Group

137$

withminutes cheaper healthcare 10.5 mile radius/17 - Clinics consumption expenditures national debt increases cost of products/services capita in US dollars,2017 5 mile radius/10 minutes - Hospitals

USA

Norwalk Hospital

Westchester

Vassar Brothers Medical Center

Catskill Regional Medical Group

137$

minutes - Hospitals Health consumption expenditures #21 Canada $4,826 HealthHealth consumption Carbon expenditures Footprint 30 as mile %18% radius/50 US GDP per capita of National in US dollars,2017 Carbon Footprint Water bodies per capita in US dollars,2017

#15 France 1.51 #35 USA#35

Putnam Hospital Central

Sharon Hospital

13%

10.00%

Danbury Hospital

New Milford Hospital

9%

6.90%

$5,141 during

health Railroads decreases Roadways

#35 USA

#21 Canada

Vassar Brothers Medical Center

Orange Regional Medical Group

8%

#35 USA #35 USA

per

Catskill Regional Medical Group Northern Dutchess Hospital

7% 5%

5.10% Health Health Carbon Carbon Footprint Footprint as %per capita of National Carbon Footprint

+

Bon Secours Community Hospital

Primary Care

PLASTIC CUPS average patient stay.

debt increases 5 mile

PUTNAM

more on healthcare

New Milford Hospital Sharon Hospital

Long Term Healthcare PLASTIC CUPS

Diagnostic and Treatment Centers

jobs move to places ROCKLAND with cheaper healthcare %people/employer Health spend national debt increases

#35 USA

#15 France

jobs move to places with cheaper healthcare health nationaldecreases debt increases

Northern Dutchess Hospital

Catskill Regional

Sharon Hospital Hospitals

RUBBER GLOVES

30 mile radius/50 School Based Health Centers

debt increases

WESTCHESTER

Health Carbon Footprint as of National Carbon Footprint

#21 Canada

1.51479.7

BEDPAN pay for their mediOriginal cost 63% cal bills 1$ of Americans of Americans had to getspent a most or all second job their savings to to pay for pay theirfor their medi63% 42% medical bills cal bills

less to spend on cost of products/services other things/services increases

Sharon Hospital

+Medical Center

3% 3%

0.52

or all their savings to

cost of products/services increases

health decreases

Sharon Hospital

$4,717

Margaretville Hospital

10$

$440 during 100$ average patient stay.

spent most

COLUMBIA

Lack of interaction between Hudson Valley Healthcare Networks #21 Canada

18% US GDP

11%

1.51

ULSTER

0.83 Health Carbon Health Carbon Footprint Footprint per capita in Mt

#35 USA

25%

$10,224

$4,826

1

#35 USA

debt increases less to spend on other things/services

GREENE

+

Lack of interaction between Hudson Valley Healthcare Networks

53$

OPERATION IV BAG OVERHEAD LIGHTS Single bag cost Single operation cost of Americans

debt increases

RENSSELAER

ROCKLAND RENSSELAER

ALBANY ORANGE

TISSUE $440 during original cost <1$

Americans

DUTCHESS

COLUMBIA

#15 France

to pay for their medical bills

Source: Bureau of Communicable Disease Control Data 2018

School Based Health Centers

137$

of insured

less to spend on other things/services

second job

DUTCHESS

479.7

of Americans had to get a

DUTCHESS WESTCHESTER

10$

100$

BEDPAN ALCOHOL SWABS Original cost $322 during average patient stay 1$

PUTNAM

ORANGE

#35 USA #21 Canada

OPERATION OVERHEAD LIGHTS Single operation cost

More than 100.4

Lyme disease Incidence quartile distribution

other services

DUTCHESS

PUTNAM

WESTCHESTER

ULSTER

Health Carbon Footprint perROCKLAND capita 479.7

+

#3 Japan

Easier for employers to give better health coverage + Pre-tax cash to buy own premium

75% - 85% similar to regular wa

DUTCHESS

8$

PLASTIC CUPS

$5,141 during $87.50 during

of insured OPERATION Americans 75% - 85% similar to regular waste OVERHEAD LIGHTS had difficulties second job ALCOHOL SWABS paying for their to pay for their 5% - 25% infectious sharps, $322 during Singlewaste: operation 25% anatomical, pathological, general 42% patient medical bills medical average stay bills cost of Americans and highly infectious waste of insured in U.S.A. had to get a Americans chemical and radioactive had difficulties second job 3% waste: pharmaceutical, laboratory, to pay for their cleaning, heavy metals, pesticides paying for their 25% 42% medical bills medical bills Americans had to get a

65 years 7.60% and older + Permanently disabled + Admits with pre-existing condition

+

5% - 25% infectious waste: sha anatomical, pathological, gen and highly infectious waste

COLUMBIA

10$ PLASTIC CUPS

$440 during average patient stay.

NURSE 100$ RUBBER GLOVES ADMINISTRATION

93.5$

ALCOHOL SWABS $322 during average patient stayof

ALBANY

ALBANY

Carbon Footprint in Mt

TISSUE

COLUMBIA

RENSSELAER

53$

$5,141 during average patient stay.

original cost <1$ travel, supply chain, logistics

RENSSELAER

ALBANY

GREENE

ULSTER GREENE

Health Carbon Footprint in Mt

8%

6.25$

RUBBER GLOVES

3% chemical and radioac waste: pharmaceutical, laborat cleaning, heavy metals, pesticide

LEADERSHIPS

other services 93.5$

23$

LEADERSHIPS chemical 3 and radioactive waste: pharmaceutical, laboratory, cleaning, heavy metals, pesticides

GREENE

ULSTER

ORANGE

ROCKLAND

+

3%

9%

+

Bon Secours Community Hospital

#15 France $4,902 Lack of interaction between Hudson Valley Healthcare Networks #7 Sweden $5,511

Federal/state govt Jeffersonville pay premium ins m + 20 Grover M. Hermann For people with low Hospital income

YM

E

RC

3

53$

8$

1 hour

1 hour

s

ce

vi

s

ENT

Network creation

8$

TISSUE

original cost <1$ agriculture: provision of food

7% average patient stay. RUBBER GLOVES average patient stay average patient stay. TISSUE $5,141 during 5% pharmaceutical products $87.50 during original cost <1$ OPERATION average patient stay. 100$ 23$ patient stay 23$ 93.5$ 137$ 93.5$ waste treatment average 3% OVERHEAD LIGHTS IV BAG ALCOHOL SWABS BEDPAN $322 during Single bag cost Original cost Singlemining, operation primary industries: forestry 3% average patient stay 1$ cost products plastic/rubber 1%

5% - 25% infectious waste: sharps,

anatomical, pathological, general 2 RESILIENCE highly infectious waste

manufacturing: metals, textiles

11%

#21 Canada

Catskill Regional

+Medical Center

energy: electricity, gas, heating, cooling

Application of knowledge and

Members in U.S.A.+

13%

NURSE 23$ ADMINISTRATION NURSE $87.50 during transport: average patient stay ADMINISTRATION

waste: pharmaceutical, laboratory, cleaning, heavy metals, pesticides 1 MITIGATION

Spreading knowledge

operational emissions

ins

m

0 - 38.4 38.4 - 100.4

#35 USA

10.00%

Employer pays 5.10% $2.7 gas per hour 20 lb CO2 premium + use $1200 min. per 6.90%67 lb CO2 Remaining premium $12000 min.comes per use out 1,200 of lb CO2 4.50% paycheck

20

+ Westchester Medical Center

Source: Bureau of Communicable Disease Control Data 2018

PATIENT B: Lyme Disease

YM

ENT

YM

ENT YM

E

RC

E

RC

E

RC

ins

Margaretville Hospital

operational emissions

RESILIENCE

34.4

+

+ Westchester Medical Center

1 hour

2

#35 USA

jobs move to with cheaper healthcare national debt increases

Bon Secours Community Hospital

r

34 m

+

Grover M. Hermann Hospital

manufacturing: metals, textiles

Application of knowledge

#21 Canada Health 29.7

Good Samaritan placesHospital

Jeffersonville

agriculture: provision of food

75% - 85% similar to regular waste 3% chemical and radioactive

LEADERSHIPS MITIGATION

RESILIENCE

ou

transport: travel, supply chain, logistics

+

RESILIENCE

3 1

MITIGATION

70 mins

and highly infectious waste

Members in U.S.A.

2

Greenhealth

1h

+

+

rs

pharmaceutical products waste treatment primary industries: mining, forestry plastic/rubber products

Greenhealth MITIGATION

BALANCE BILLING

MISC. DIVERSE BALANCE BILLING COSTS

6.25$ 6.25$

75% - 85% similar to regular waste 3% chemical and radioactive

Network creation Spreading knowledge

P R A C T I C E

m

+

ou

+

Hospitals have an arbitrary cost setting mechanism 0 - 38.4 called a “charge master,”. It sets the prices for the POSSIBLE LAWSUIT COSTS items03 and services Provided by the hospital, inflated 38.4 - 100.4 Hospitals have an Balance arbitrary cost setting mechanism from item to item, and varies by hospital. More than 100.4 BALANCE BILLING BALANCE BILLING HEALTHCARE WORKER billing very least unethical and WAGES oftenmaster,”. illegal. 04is at the called a “charge It sets the prices for the Hospitals have an arbitrary cost setting mechanism HospitalsLyme have disease an arbitrary cost setting mechanism Incidence quartile distribution items and by the hospital,called inflated Bureau of Communicable Disease It Control Data the 2018 called a “charge master,”. It setsservices the pricesProvided for the a Source: “charge master,”. sets prices for the NEW TECH FUNDS from item tohospital, item, inflated and varies by hospital. items Balance items05 and services Provided by the and services Provided by the hospital, inflated from item to item, and varies bythe hospital. item to item, and varies by hospital. Balance billing is at veryBalance least unethical and oftenfrom illegal. 53$ 10$often MISC. BALANCE BILLING billing veryDIVERSE least unethical and illegal. COSTS billing is at the very least unethical and often illegal. 06is at the

NEWenergy: TECHelectricity, FUNDSgas, heating, cooling 40%

NURSE ADMINISTRATION $87.50 during average patient stay

waste: pharmaceutical, P R A C Tlaboratory, I C E HEALTH CARE cleaning, heavy metals,waste: pesticides 5% - 25% infectious sharps, CLIMATE COUNCIL Greenhealth anatomical, pathological, general

P R A C T I C E

Application of knowledge

#35 USA

06

6.25$ 8$ COSTS MISC. DIVERSE BALANCE BILLING

anatomical, pathological, general and highly infectious waste

Members in U.S.A. 1

20

+

Catskill Regional Medical Center

1 hour

P R A C T I C E

Greenhealth

HEALTH CARE

2h

health Bon Secours Community decreases s min 40

HEALTH CARE CLIMATE COUNCIL

#15 France

NEW TECH FUNDS

06

pharmaceutical products ENERGY transport: travel, supply chain, logistics waste treatment 3% AND WATER primary industries: mining, forestry 5% 2nd most intensive 3% pharmaceutical products energy using building plastic/rubber products 1% type in the US. US Health waste treatment 3% Care sector spends $6.5 75% - 85% similar to regular waste billion on energy. primary industries: mining, forestry 3% 5% - products 25% infectious waste:1% sharps, plastic/rubber

ENERGY AND WATER

22

05

5% 7%

2nd most intensive energy using building type in the US. US Health Care sector spends $6.5 billion on energy.

3

MISC. DIVERSEWORKER BALANCE BILLING COSTS HEALTHCARE WAGES

05

BALANCE BILLING DRUGS AND EQUIPMENT COSTS 02 INFLATED

WAGES

06 04

3% 8% 3% transport: travel, supply chain, logistics 7% plastic/rubber products 1%

2nd most intensive energy using building type in the US. US Health Care sector spends $6.5 billion on energy.

creation

TECHLAWSUIT FUNDS COSTS POSSIBLE 05 03 HEALTHCARE WORKER 04 NEW

9% 7% 9% 5% 8%

agriculture: provision of food pharmaceutical products PHARMAother services waste treatment CEUTICALS other services primary industries: mining, forestry

PHARMAENERGY CEUTICALS AND WATER

2

POSSIBLE LAWSUIT COSTS COSTS 03 INFLATED HEALTHCARE WORKER WAGES DRUGS AND EQUIPMENT 04 02

11% manufacturing: metals, textiles11% manufacturing: metals, textiles other services 8%

CLIMATE COUNCIL Spreading knowledge

P R A C T I C E

agriculture: provision of food

provision of food transport: agriculture: travel, supply chain, logistics

ion of knowledge

Greenhealth

13% 9%

operational emissions

TRANSPORT

1

Medicare

PUBLIC

PRIVATE INSURANCE Employer Provided HEALTHCARE #21 Canada 0.83 INSURANCE SYSTEM IN THE US

Members in U.S.A.

operational emissions

transportation intensive industry: ambulances, hospital vehicles, delivery vehicles, staff and patient travel

PHARMACEUTICALS

ng knowledge

MITIGATION

11% 13%

manufacturing: metals, textiles

TRANSPORT

ALTH CARE MATE COUNCIL

1

13% 40%

operational emissions energy: electricity, gas, heating, cooling

transportation intensive industry: ambulances, hospital vehicles, delivery vehicles, staff and patient travel

sive ing alth $6.5 gy.

ed

40%

cal equipment

transportation intensive industry: ambulances, hospital vehicles, delivery vehicles, staff and patient travel

GY ER

+

$4,717

67 lb CO2

ins

#21 18% US GDP $12000 min. perCanada use 1,200 lb CO2

ins

Source : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

+

PURCHASING goods for use in hospienergy: gas, heating, cooling tal: beds, electricity, linens, medi-

TRANSPORT

ALS

s

+

$5,511 Jeffersonville

Grover M. Hermann MidHudson cost of products/services Regional Hospital Hospital increases

24 min

1 hour

177.8 - 201.1

or

40%

energy: electricity, gas, heating, cooling

goods for use in hospital: beds, linens, medical equipment

RT

ST

packaged food

PURCHASING

sive stry: pital ehient avel

HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IN THE US

NY

PURCHASING

spiedient

A

industrial agriculture: mass production, meat consumption, highly processed and food goodspackaged for use in hospital: beds, linens, medical equipment

US TOT

ST

FOOD

NG

#35 USA

479.7

EMISSIONS

r to

or

NY

FOOD

#3 Japan

$4,717

people/employer spend more on healthcareJeffersonville

serious illness/disorders

ROCKLAND

Employer Provided

RESILIENCE

ST

W O RKFO

industrial agriculture: mass production, meat consumption, highly processed and packaged food

ure: on, on, and ood

r

2forc

NY

ec W O R K F14% O

r to

A US TOT

L

WESTCHESTER

+

$5,511 7.60%

$4,902

Margaretville Hospital #7 Sweden

Hospital

or

ST

A US TOT

E E M P LhO ealth s L

OD

r to

NY AT

W O RKFO

Expensive healthcare

LEADERSHIPS

or

r to

health s ec 14%

se

LACK OF ACCESSIBILITY (PHYSICAL + MONETARY)

PUTNAM

1.51 #35 USA + Remaining premium 65 years and older Employer PRIVATE Employer Provided comes outpays of #21+Canada premium INSURANCE paycheck 2.6 BILLION METRIC TONS Permanently disabled USA USA + #15 France #15 France #15 France 34.4 Medicare 0.52 + 65 years and older PUBLIC Remaining premium EMISSIONS EMISSIONS 10% 10% INSURANCE + comes out of Admits with U.S.A. HEALTH SECTOR #7 Sweden #7 Sweden #7 Sweden 4.1 0.42 Permanently paycheck disabled pre-existing condition + Medicare Medicare 65 yearsPUBLIC and older PUBLIC Admits with #3 Japan #3 Japan #3 Japan 114.9 0.9 U.S.A. HEALTH SECTOR Medicaid Federal/state govt health s + INSURANCE INSURANCE pre-existing condition ec 12% t Permanently disabled pay premium Medicaid Federal/state govt + + UNITED KINGDOM pay premium Admits with U.S.A. HEALTH SECTOR U.S.A. HEALTH SECTOR For people with low + UNITED alth s health s health s heKINGDOM pre-existing condition ec ec e c AT t For people with low income 12% t 14% E E M P12% LO Medicaid Medicaid Federal/state govt income Affordable Healthcare Easier for employers to payAct premium Affordable Healthcare Act Easier for employers to + (Obamacare) UNITED KINGDOM UNITED KINGDOM give better health (Obamacare) give better with health AT AT L For people low E E M PL O E E MBACK FO CO2 EMISSION TRACED TO SOURCE O R KOUTPUT P L O BACK coverage CO2WEMISSION OUTPUT TRACED TO SOURCE coverage income + + Affordable Healthcare Act Affordable Healthcare Act Easier for employers Pre-tax cash to buy toPre-tax cash to buy (Obamacare) (Obamacare) give better health 01 ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS own premium COSTS 01 ADMINISTRATIVE own premium CO2 EMISSION OUTPUT TRACED BACK TO SOURCE CO2 EMISSION OUTPUT TRACED BACK TO SOURCE coverage + 02 INFLATED DRUGS AND EQUIPMENT COSTS FOOD industrial agriculture: Pre-tax cash to buy 02 INFLATED DRUGS AND EQUIPMENT COSTS mass production, meat consumption, LAWSUITCOSTS COSTS ADMINISTRATIVE 03 01 POSSIBLE 01 ADMINISTRATIVE ownCOSTS premium highly processed and HEALTH

health s ec 12% t

re

ensive health car exp es erv ek se ic ’t es on not preventive

3

health s ec 14%

EMISSIONS USA

#35 USA

SECTOR10%5% #21 Canada 29.7

2.6 BILLION METRIC TONS

se

ek HEALTHCARE PRIVATE lth ca mo r e e x p e n siv e h e a need SYSTEM INmore THE USfor health moreINSURANCE spending ed

EMISSIONS

ic erv for he a lt h c a r e s more need for health care services

ed

rc

GLOBAL

5%

to

+

#3 Japan

DUTCHESS

ORANGE

serious illness/disorders

fo

HEALTH SECTOR

es

ed

EMISSIONS

2.6 BILLION METRIC TONS

Patients

a ore e x p e n siv e h e

LACK OF ACCESSIBILITY Patients+ (PHYSICAL MONETARY) more spending for cure

HIGH CARBON Health Care Facilities Expensive healthcare FOOTPRINT

#3 Japan 7.60%

$1200 min. per use

18% US GDP

#15 France

$4,902

4.50% #7 Sweden

+

$10,224

$4,826 #21 Canada

201.1 - 218.9 Employer pays 218.9 - 232.6 premium 0 - 38.4 232.6 - 253.6 more spending care services r r USA for cure for cure + 253.6 - 303.3 to to se se 38.4 - 100.4 se se re re ne ne s s a a e e e e c c ed ed ic Remaining premium Cardiovascular Disease Rate per 10,000 people km r vi c lt h ervk m orHealth Carbon for he Health for he EMISSIONS a lt h ore e Footprint per capita Health Carbon Footprint as % Health consumption expenditures More than 100.4 re se Carbon e e x p e n siv e h e a a lt h c a r e s GLOBAL Footprint in Mt x p e n siv e h e 10%alth52caBILLION comes out of METRIC TONS HEALTHCARE PRIVATE Employer Provided Employer pays of National Carbon Footprint capita in US dollars,2017 Lyme disease Incidenceper quartile distribution paycheck INSURANCE premium SYSTEM IN THE US

METRIC TONS

HEALTH 52 BILLION SECTOR METRIC 5% TONS

+ +

rc

ne

52 BILLION GLOBAL

LLION METRIC TONS

HIGH CARBON FOOTPRINT more need for health care services

fo

5%

Claudia Kleffmann, eNiharika Shekhawat, r he areYisZhang a lt h c Pratibha Singh,

Health Care Facilities

EMISSIONS

HEALTH SECTOR

d fo

ed

Claudia Kleffmann, Niharika Shekhawat,

52 BILLIONPratibha GLOBAL Singh, Yi Zhang

METRIC TONS

Patients

rc

ee

ve health c health care se pensi are rveikc ex vide se ULSTER rvi pro se es ce ’t s on not preventive more spending pollute environment LACK OF r toACCESSIBILITY for cure se e s(PHYSICAL Expensive healthcare serious illness/disorders + ee ar c k MONETARY) m lt h

fo

HIGH CARBON s e FOOTPRINT r vi c

Health n Care Facilities

0.9

s

not preventive

vi

health care se rvic vide es pro

more need for health pollute environment care services

Claudia Kleffmann, Niharika Shekhawat, Pratibha Singh, Yi Zhang

on

debt increases

PATIENT B: Lyme Disease

$2.7 Margaretville gas per hour 20Hospital lb CO2

1 hour

pollute environment

4.50% COLUMBIA serious illness/disorders GREENE

s

114.9

d

#3 Japan

0.42

6.90%

#15 France

#7 Sweden

#21 Canada

1,200 lb CO2 $4,826

ins

Health Care Facilities

d

#7 Sweden 4.1

#15 France

10.00%

67 lb CO2

$120005.10% min. per use #21 Canada

m

Towards an equitable Towards an equitable Healthcare Healthcare Healthcare System System System

6.90%

RENSSELAER

ALBANY

#35 USA $1200 min. per use

Health consumption expenditures per capita in US dollars,2017

less to spend on #35 USA $10,224 other things/services

1 hour

d

0.52

#15 France LACK OF 0.42 ACCESSIBILITY #7 Sweden Expensive healthcaresive healt (PHYSICAL + h ca en re exp #3 Japan k MONETARY) s erv e se #3 icJapan 0.9 ’t e #7 Sweden

#35 USA 10.00%

#21 Canada

Source : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

90

+

#15 France

0.52

ce

34.4 #15 France

HIGH #7 Sweden 4.1 #7 Sweden CARBON Patients ealth care se FOOTPRINT de h rvic 114.9 #3viJapan es pro #3 Japan

1.51

5.10%

vi

#15 France

#21 Canada

ce

34.4

0.83

0.83

vi

nn, Niharika Shekhawat, #15 France Yi Zhang

not preventive #35 USA

#21 Canada

20 lb CO2

253.6 - 303.3

1,200 lb CO2

34 m

PURCHASING

29.7

29.7 #21 Canada

s

$2.7 gas per hour

232.6 - 253.6

Cardiovascular Disease Rate per 10,000 people

+

oods for use in hospial: beds, linens, medical equipment

#21 Canada

479.7

#35 USA

#21 Canada

n #35 USAo 1.51

Health CarbonPATIENT Footprint as % Health consumption expenditures A: Cardiovascular Disease of National Carbon Footprint per capita in US dollars,2017

their savings 177.8to - 201.1 - 218.9 pay for their 201.1 medi218.9 - 232.6 cal bills

63%

Good Samaritan Hospital

TRANSPORT

#35 USA 479.7 pollute environment

#35 USA

h caHealthper HealthxpCarbon capitaFootprint as % ensive healtFootprint Carbon re e se ek rvi se of National Carbon Footprint ce ’t

$12000 min. per use

s min 40

Health Carbon Footprint

LEADERSHIPS

Carbon Footprint in Mt Health Carbon Footprint per capita

ROCKLAND

HEALTH CARE CLIMATE COUNCIL

3

Network creation

health care se Health in Mt rvic vide es pro

+

ROCKLAND

ansportation intensive industry: ambulances, hospital ehicles, delivery vehicles, staff and patient travel

RESILIENCE

Hospital

all

PHARMACEUTICALS

2

Spreading knowledge

Application of knowledge

second job

to pay for their jobs42% move to places medical bills with cheaper healthcare national debt increases

WESTCHESTER

WESTCHESTER

Application of knowledge

MITIGATION

Network creation

wards an equitable althcare stem Towards an equitable

1

ENERGY AND WATER

ORANGE

Spreading knowledge

chemicalPUTNAM and radioactive waste: pharmaceutical, laboratory, cleaning, heavy metals, pesticides

of Americans spent most or

of insured health Americans PATIENT B: Lyme Disease decreases had difficulties their $2.7 gas per paying hour for 20 lb CO2 25% jobs move tomedical places bills with cheaper healthcare $1200 min. per use 67 lb CO2 national debt increases

of Americans health had to get a decreases

3% ORANGE

PUTNAM

2nd most intensive energy using building e in the US. US Health re sector spends $6.5 billion on energy.

anatomical, pathological, general and highly infectious waste

Members in U.S.A.

23


more on healthcare

increases

ULSTER DUTCHESS

less to spend on other things/services debt increases

ORANGE

health decreases

PUTNAM

jobs move to places with cheaper healthcare national debt increases

WESTCHESTER

AER ROCKLAND

A

people/employer spend more on healthcare

cost of products/services increases

Health Carbon Footprint in Mt #35 USA #21 Canada #15 France

ER

479.7

#35 USA

114.9

#21 Canada #15 France

0.52

jobs move to places #7 Sweden with cheaper healthcare national debt increases #3 Japan

#35 USA #35 USA #21 Canada

0.83

#15 France

34.4

Health Carbon Footprint as % of National Carbon Footprint

1.51

decreases

#7 Sweden 4.1 #3 Japan

Health Carbon Footprint per capita

#21 Canada health

29.7

#7 Sweden

0.42

#15 France

10.00%

29.7 34.4

5.10% 6.90%

#3 Japan

0.9

#35 USA

1.51

#21 Canada

10.00% 5.10%

#15 France #7 Sweden #3 Japan

24

Health consumption expenditures per capita in US dollars,2017

6.90%

#35 USA #21 Canada

$4,826

#15 France

$4,902

#7 Sweden

4.50% 7.60%

$10,224

#3 Japan

18% US GDP

#3 Japan

7.60%

114.9

#35 USA

Health consumption expenditures per capita#35 in US USA dollars,2017

#35 $10,224 USA

479.7

#21 Canada

$4,826 #21 Canada

#15 France

$4,902

#7 Sweden

4.50%

#7 Sweden 4.1 Health Carbon Footprint as % of National Carbon Footprint

Health Carbon Footprin Health Ca

Health Carbon Footprint in Mt

#3 Japan

29.7 18% US GDP #21 Canada

#15 France $5,511

#21 Canada

34.4 #15 France

$4,717

#7 Sweden 4.1 #3 Japan

#7 Sweden 114.9 #3 Japan

#21 Canada

$5,511 $4,717

25


The Break Space

Designing the Sunnyside Yards Edge Urban Design Studio I: Long Island City, Queens Summer 2019 Team: Nina Ndichu, Shuo Han

The Sunnyside Yards development, set to come into the center of Long Island City is proposing to build a deck above the existing railyard, having varying heights with respect to the adjacent streets. The existing community around this development lack or require certain programs such as open spaces, pedestrian friendly walkways and shared work spaces. We attempt to create a human experience through design of this transition space along the edge of Sunnyside Yards Development.

26

27


Queens Boulevard Node

Existing neighbourhoods EXISTING NEIGHBORHOODS

Sunnyside Gardens Historic District

Industrial/ Residential

Low-Mid Rise Residential

Mixed Residential

High Rise Residential Mixed Industrial/ Commercial

Low Rise Buildings Manufacturing

Sunnyside Yards Deck: Heights along the edge

28

29


IBZ Node

30

Standard building Node

31


Organic Waste, NYC Systems Research Urban Design Studio I Summer 2019

SYSTEM SCALE UPSTATE NEW YORK

Team: Moneerah AlAjaji, Yuan Qin

TRANSFER STATIONS LANDFILLS EXPORTED TO OTHER COUNTRIES

COMPOST PLANTS RECYCLING PLANTS INCINERATORS

NYC ORGANICS: THE NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF SANITATION PROVIDES NEW YORK RESIDENTS OF THE FIVE BOROUGHS WITH BOTH CURBSIDE PICKUP OR CONVENIENT DROP OFF SITES

OHIO PENNSYLVANIA

VIRGNIA

BURNSWICK COMMUNITY GARDEN 174 - 176 BURNSWICK ST SATURDAYS 8 AM - 1 PM

W FARMER’S MARKET

AVE BETWEEN BOWERS AND GRIFFITH ST AYS 11 AM - 2:30 PM

NYC Organics CURBSIDE PICKUP AVAILABLE FOR THESE NEIGHBORHOODS BUILDINGS IN THESE NEIGHBORHOODS ARE ELIGIBLE FOR COLLECTION SERVICE FUTURE EXPANSION GREEN LAND

DROP OFF LOCATIONS

DROP OFF LOCATIONS

TIMELINE NEW YORK

THE NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF STREET CLEANING (NOW CALLED THE DEPARTMENT OF SANITATION) IS FORMED. THIS DEPARTMENT WAS TASKED WITH TAKING OVER THE RESPONSIBILITY OF WASTE COLLECTION AND STREET CLEANING PREVIOUSLY HELD BY THE POLICE DEPARTMENT.

1881 1800s

STREETS WERE SITES FOR DISPOSAL OF HOUSEHOLD GARBAGE AND ANIMAL CARCASSES. THE CONTENTS OF CHAMBER POTS OFTEN WERE DUMPED FROM WINDOWS, SOMETIMES LANDING ON PEDESTRIANS PASSING BELOW.

AMERICA’S FIRST INCINERATOR IS BUILT ON GOVERNOR’S ISLAND. THROUGHOUT THE NEXT CENTURY, INCINERATORS WOULD BE THE MAIN SOURCE OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NEW YORK CITY, BURNING ALMOST 1/3 OF THE CITY’S TRASH

1885 1850s IN THE 1850S, NEWARK STARTED BUILDING ITS FIRST UNDERGROUND SEWERS SERVING THE CITY CENTER, WITH THEIR OUTFALL DUMPING UNTREATED HUMAN WASTE INTO THE PASSAIC RIVER, WHICH WAS ALREADY HEAVILY POLLUTED BY THE DISPOSAL OF WASTE FROM UPSTREAM FACTORIES.

GEORGE WARING BECAME THE COMMISSIONER OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STREET CLEANING (NOW DEPT. OF SANITATION) AND PUT INTO ACTION A WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN THAT MADE OCEAN DUMPING ILLEGAL AND MANDATED RECYCLING EFFORTS. PRIOR TO WARING, 75% OF NEW YORK CITY’S WASTE WAS DUMPED INTO THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. 1895

WORLD WAR I LED TO A HALT IN NEW YORK’S RECYCLING PROGRAMS, AS THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT STARTED THE WASTE RECLAMATION SERVICE. DURING THE NEXT COUPLE DECADES, THE DEPARTMENT OF SANITATION BUILT AND OPERATED 22 INCINERATORS AND 89 LANDFILLS.

1877

ALTHOUGH IN 1877 THE LEGISLATURE CREATED THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH TO ADOPT A SANITARY CODE, THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS REMAINED PRIMARILY A LOCAL RESPONSIBILITY OF MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTS AND THEIR BOARDS OF HEALTH. THIS LED TO FRAGMENTED EFFORTS TO FIND SUITABLE GARBAGE DISPOSAL SITES, WITH THE STATE ESTIMATED AT ONE TIME TO HAVE OVER 400 SEPARATE LANDFILLS.

THE FEDERAL CLEAN AIR ACT IS ENACTED, LEADING TO INCINERATOR SHUTDOWNS BECAUSE THEY DID NOT MEET NEW EMISSION GUIDELINES. THE SUPREME COURT RULED THAT WASTE IS PROTECTED BY THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE CLAUSE AND THEREFORE ONE STATE CANNOT BAN SHIPMENTS OF WASTE FROM ANOTHER.

1918

FRESH KILLS, THE LAST REMAINING LANDFILL IN NEW YORK CITY WAS CLOSED. THIS WAS THE FIRST TIME THAT NEW YORK CITY HAD NO PLACE WITHIN THE FIVE BOROUGHS TO BURY OR BURN IT’S GARBAGE. THE CITY BEGAN SENDING MOST OF ITS WASTE TO PRIVATE TRANSFER STATIONS IN NEIGHBORHOODS IN BROOKLYN,

1970s 1930s

IN 1925, NEW JERSEY, PENNSYLVANIA AND NEW YORK SIGNED A COMPACT PROHIBITING THE DISCHARGE OF UNTREATED SEWAGE AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE INTO THE DELAWARE RIVER OR ITS TRIBUTARIES. AS EARLY AS 1934, NEW JERSEY FILED A LAWSUIT SEEKING TO BLOCK THE OCEAN DUMPING OF WASTE BY NEW YORK CITY; THE CASE ULTIMATELY WAS DENIED BY THE US SUPREME COURT.

MAYOR BLOOMBERG RELEASES THE COMPREHENSIVE PLANYC, A SUSTAINABILITY EFFORT LOOKING AHEAD TO 2030 AND AIMED AT PREPARING NEW YORK CITY FOR FUTURE POPULATION GROWTH, CLIMATE CHANGE, ETC. THE PLAN INCLUDES A NUMBER OF INITIATIVES THAT INCLUDE TARGETING RECYCLING INCENTIVES, CREATING OPPORTUNITIES TO RECOVER ORGANIC MATERIALS FROM WASTE.

2001

2007

1970 THE NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION WAS CREATED IN 1970. THE LEGISLATURE ALSO ENACTED THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ACT AND THE SOLID WASTE UTILITIES CONTROL ACT. IN RESPONSE TO THE STRICTER REGULATORY STANDARDS, NEW, MORE ADVANCED SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS BEGAN TO UTILIZE SECONDARY TREATMENT OF SEWAGE

BY THE LATE 1980S, STATE REGULATIONS REQUIRED THE CLOSING OF MANY LANDFILLS AND INCINERATORS, CAUSING THE AMOUNT OF WASTE DISPOSED OF IN NEW JERSEY TO DECLINE SHARPLY, WITH SOME BUSINESSES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS CONTRACTING TO SHIP WASTE TO OUT-OF-STATE LANDFILLS AND OTHER DISPOSAL SITES

IN 2008 APPROVED THE RECYCLING ENHANCEMENT ACT, IMPOSING A TAX OF THREE DOLLARS PER TON OF WASTE, WITH A PORTION OF THE REVENUE PROVIDED TO SUPPORT RECYCLING PROGRAMS OF COUNTIES AND MUNICIPALITIES.

NEW JERSEY

32

33


VISION: NEW JERSEY

VISION: SUNSET PARK

OPPERATIONS-FUNDING OPPERATIONS-FUNDING ORGANIC WASTE ORGANIC WASTE

NEW YORK NEW YORK

PRIVATE: DOESNT PRIVATE: DOESNT COMEOUT OF COMEOUT CITYS OF CITYS BUDGET BUDGET

JERSEY CITYJERSEY CITY

HOBOKEN HOBOKEN

PUBLIC: PARTNERSHIP PUBLIC: PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE BETWEEN CITY OFTHE CITY OF HOBOKEN AND HOBOKEN COMMUNIAND COMMUNITY COMPOST TYCOMPANY COMPOST COMPANY

PUBLIC: NEWPUBLIC: YORK NEW YORK DEPARTMENET DEPARTMENET OF OF SANITATION SANITATION

PICKUP: ORGANIC PICKUP: WASTE ORGANIC WASTE DROP OFF: RESIDENTS DROP OFF: RESIDENTS COLLECTIONCOLLECTION FROM SOMEFROM SOME CAN DROP OFF CANTHEIR DROPOROFF THEIR ORNONPROFITSNONPROFITS AND CITY AND CITY GANIC WASTE GANIC AT 102 WASTE DIF- AT 102 DIFAGENCIES, ENROLLMENT AGENCIES, ENROLLMENT FERENT LOCATIONS FERENT IN LOCATIONS THE IN THE PROGRAM FOR PROGRAM OTHER-FOR OTHERFIVE BOROUGHS FIVE BOROUGHS OF NEW OF NEW BUILDINGS TO BUILDINGS PARTICIPATE TO PARTICIPATE YORK YORK BUSINESS MUST BUSINESS PAY ONE MUST PAY ONE OF THE CITYS OF248 THE CITYS 248 LICENCED WASTE LICENCED HAULERS WASTE HAULERS TO TAKE IT AWAY TO TAKE IT AWAY

PUBLIC: JERSEY PUBLIC: CITYJERSEY CITY DIVISION OF DIVISION SANITATION OF SANITATION

HOBOKEN COMMERCIAL HOBOKEN COMMERCIAL COMPOST PICKUP COMPOST PRO-PICKUP PROGRAM GRAM

VISION: LONG ISLAND CITY

RESIDNTIAL COMPOST RESIDNTIAL COMPOST PICK UP PROGRAM PICK UP PROGRAM

RESIDNTIAL COMPOST RESIDNTIAL COMPOST DROP OFF PROGRAM: DROP OFF PROGRAM: DROP OFF LOCATION DROP OFFATLOCATION AT PUBLIC WORKS PUBLIC GARAGE WORKS GARAGE PRIVATE: WASTE PRIVATE: WASTE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT

PICKUP: PICKUP PICKUP: BULK PICKUP BULK DROP OFF: 3DROP LOCATIONS OFF: 3 LOCATIONS DROP OFF: 6DROP LOCATONS OFF: 6 LOCATONS WASTE FOR WASTE RESTURANTS FOR RESTURANTS 3 TIMES A WEEK 3 TIMES A WEEK IN NEW JERSEY OR ANY BUSINESSES OR ANY BUSINESSES IN NEW JERSEY THAT PRODUCE THATMORE PRODUCE MORE THAN 6 30-GALLON THAN 6 CON30-GALLON CONTANORS OF TANORS GARBAGE OF GARBAGE

34

35


SUMMER DTEQ The Rent Stories Digital Techniques Summer 2019

The diagram was an attempt at tracing the development trends in Long Island City in Queens, in the form of the rent prices in the area. With the incoming developments such as Sunnyside Yard, and many others set to complete in the near future, the rent prices are bound to rise. The expected rent was extrapolated off the current gross rent.

36

37


Silver Lining: Imagining Circular Bio-economies at the Amazonian Frontier Speculative City: Crisis, Turmoil, and Projections in Architecture Spring 2020

The Amazon is the world’s largest rainforest, home to about 34 million residents1 spread over an expanse of 6.7 million sq. km over nine rapidly developing countries in South America. For centuries the Amazon has existed in a reciprocal relationship with its inhabitants in a slow and continuous process of anthropogenic exchange. Recently, however, “inside the crucible of this ancient forest, relentless colonization is combining with environmental vandalism and a warming climate to create a crisis.”2 This paper looks at projected futures for the rainforest, which tend to oscillate between a spiraling collapse of the ecosystem (also referred to as a “dieback”) and absolute preservation of the forest, allowing it to regrow. It seeks to suggest a third alternative which lays a framework for inhabiting the edges of the forest while responsibly co-existing at the threshold of the two dominions.

1 Sandra Charity, Nigel Dudley, Denise Oliveira, and Sue Stolton “Living Amazon Report 2016: A regional approach to conservation in the Amazon,” WWF Living Amazon Initiative, Brasília and Quito, 2016. 2 Matt Sandy, “Why Is the Amazon Rain Forest Disappearing?” Time, 2019, https://time.com/amazon-rainforest-disappearing/

38

Map of the the Amazon Basin showing Indigenous territories and Protected areas

39


Circular Economy at the edge of the the Amazon Forest - Settlement section

40

41


impact levels from most to least vulnerable.

Project : Group with 3 members; MSAUD Fall 2019 GIS Location : Amazon Forest, Brazil Role : GIS operations, Research, Presentation Drawings

Vulnerability Assessment in the Brazilian Amazon

Pratibha Singh 549 Riverside Drive, #4H, New York, NY 10027 +1 347-891-3609 ps3135@columbia.edu

Geographic Information Systems Fall 2019 Team: Nikita, Vasanth Mayilvahanan

Vulnerability Assessment in the Brazilian Amazon Project : Group with 3 members; MSAUD Fall 2019 GIS Location : Amazon Forest, Brazil Role : GIS operations, Research, Presentation Drawings

The projet sought to understand the impacts of various human activities on the protected areas and indigenous territories in the Amazon Forest. Analyzing the ovelraps of impacts of various human interventions (deforestation, mining, hydropower extraction and forest res) on the ecosystem, we created a ranked model which classiies areas based on various hierarchies of impact levels from most to least vulnerable.

Pratibha Singh 549 Riverside Drive, #4H, New York, NY 10027 +1 347-891-3609 ps3135@columbia.edu

The project sought to understand the impacts of various human activities on the protected areas and indigenous territories in the Amazon forest. Analyzing the overlaps of impacts of various human To be able to assess the vulnerabilities interventions (deforestation, mining, of these municipalities hydropower extraction, and forest fires) on we perform a nal weighted the ecosystem, a ranked model wasoverlay createdoperation combining which classifies ares based the on human variousinterventions hierarchies of impact from most to to assess andlevels the ecosystems layers. We assign a To be able the vulnerabilities least vulnerable. positive weightage of 8municipalities to 0 to thewe perform a of these nal weighted overlay human interventions ranking 2 tooperation 10

combining the human interventions A weightedrespe overlay Similarly, operation respectively. a negative the ecosystems layers. We assign a was performed combining the and human weightage of -7positive to 0 is weightage assignedofto8 to the 0 to the intervention and ecosystem layers. A ecosystem layerhuman ranking 3 to 10 ranking 2 to 10 interventions positive weightage of 8 to 0 was assigned respectively. Similarly, a negative respe respectively.Similarly, to the human interventions. a of -7 to 0 is assigned to the weightage negative weightage of -7 to 0 is assigned ecosystem layer ranking 3 to 10 When theseoverlaid, tworespectively. maps to the ecosystem layer. When theare overlaid, the To be able to assess the vulnerabilities of these municipalities we perform a more the positive value the resultant more positive resultant value, the more nal weighted overlay operation When these two maps overlaid,combining the vulnerable the area. The of vulnerable the map has,ranking the more it isare and the human interventions more the positive value the resultant and the ecosystems layers. We assign a resultant map is based values -2 to of the resultant viceon versa. Thefrom ranking map has, the more vulnerable it is positive and weightage of 8 to 0 to the 4 where -2 is the least and 4 is human interventions ranking 2 to 10 mapvulnerable is based on values -2 to of 4 the resultant vice versa.from The ranking respectively. Similarly, a negative respe the most vulnerablewhere area. -2 represents map isthe based on values from -2 to weightage 4 least of -7 to 0 is assigned to the

ecosystem layer ranking 3 to 10 thethe least vulnerable areaswhere and -2 4 represents represents respectively. vulnerable areas and 4 represents the vulne most vulnerable areas. most vulnerable areas. vulne When these two maps are overlaid, the

42

more the positive value the resultant map has, the more vulnerable it is and vice versa. The ranking of the resultant

43


Cyprus Buffer Zone

Peacemaking Operation or Scar of Division? Difference and Design Seminar Fall 2019

UN-administered Buffer Zone

Nicosia

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Republic of Cyprus

UK Sovereign base areas

Mediterranean Sea

Greece

Turkey

50 km 50 miles

Egypt

Fig: The divided island of Cyprus and its location between East Europe, Middle East and Northern Africa

A small island country in the Mediterranean, Cyprus is uniquely located between Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa. This strategic location ensued that the island was occupied by the Assyrian, Egyptian, Persian, Byzantine, Venetian, Ottoman and British Empires, resulting in layers of history that have assimilated over the years to create the urban fabric that exists in Cyprus today. The island is home to two distinct ethno-religious communities namely the Greek Cypriots (that form about 78% of the island’s population) and the Turkish Cypriots (9.8% of the population). The country was administered by the British until they gained independence in 1960. Differences in visions for the country amongst the two communities and tensions over political representation in the Constitution led to inter-communal violence. This led to the establishment of a demilitarized zone, monitored by the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus, known as the ‘buffer zone’ or the green line’. Following the Greek coup d’état in 1974’, and a responding Turkish invasion of Cyprus, the Buffer zone was extended to create a defacto partition of the island in to the Republic of Cyprus in the south and the internationally unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in the North. Hundreds of thousands were forced to displace to the side of their respective ethnicity.

44

The buffer zone stretches for 180km varying in width from 20m to more than 7kms. There are several small villages and special areas within the buffer zone where people can enter freely and more than 10,000 people are living or employed. Everywhere else, civilian movement requires UN authorization. In Nicosia, the capital city of Cyprus, the historic walled city was divided in half, right along where the prosperous neighborhoods and commercial activities were located, forcing them to be abandoned overnight. Over time the areas adjacent to the buffer zone faced steep decline and some had to evacuate. Light industries and workshops moved in to areas which used to have high commercial value, turning the core of the city inside out, while uncontrolled centrifugal development continued on the outskirts of the city. The physical decay of the urban core of Nicosia is starkly evident in contrast to the thriving city on either side and has prompted a number of civil interventions in the area.

Fig: Differences are evident even in the tourist maps produced on both sides Source: http://www.cypnet.co.uk/ncyprus/city/nicosia/maps/index.html; https://www. cyprus-maps.com/nicosia-maps.html

Fig: Comparison of the built fabric of Nicosia (left) and the deteriorated condition of structures within the buffer zone (right). Source: http://cyprusconferences.org/clc6/about-nicosia/; cyprus-mail.com/2018/10/28/a-rare-view-from-inside-nicosias-buffer-zone/

45


The Nicosia Masterplan was a successful planning instrument that brought together people from both communities to protect their shared heritage within and around the buffer zone.

Greek Cypriot settlement Turkish Cypriot settlement

THE CYPRUS PROBLEM

Other settlements

The geography, culture, politics and daily life of the people continues to be characterized by the ‘Cyprus Problem’.1 People are ‘tired of the political maneuvering’ and desire reunification. Lack of interaction between the two communities had led to conflicting visions and prejudices that are projected in the education systems on both sides.

Major Commercial Corridor Connections between the two sides

The Greek children are taught that the island belongs to Greece and should be returned, while the Turkish side teaches them that the island is inherently Turkish and should become a part of Turkey. The general consensus amongst the two groups with regards to the events of the past also varies. While Greek Cypriots believe that the Turkish invasion was a catastrophic intervention for the country, the Turkish population tends to celebrate it as ‘Peace and Freedom Day’.2 The animosity between the two groups, however, is based in “nationalism and arguments over political representation, not religion or culture. The majority blame the errors committed by leadership and intervention of foreign states for creation and perpetuation of the conflict.”3 LOOKING FOR A SOLUTION Both sides have agreed on a “bicommunal, bi-zonal federation” in principle, but their ideas of how this works are very 1. https://culturalatlas.sbs.com.au/cypriot-culture/coreconcepts-5cd3c52c-722d-40fe-9477-a519daf858b1 2. https://culturalatlas.sbs.com.au/cypriot-culture/coreconcepts-5cd3c52c-722d-40fe-9477-a519daf858b1 3. https://culturalatlas.sbs.com.au/cypriot-culture/coreconcepts-5cd3c52c-722d-40fe-9477-a519daf858b1

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Buffer Zone Greek Cypriot settlement

Fig: Nature has reclaimed parts of the buffer zone over the 45 year period that it has been empty. Source: Google Maps; https://petapixel.com/2018/10/24/rare-photos-inside-the-united-nations-buffer-zone-in-cyprus/

Turkish Cypriot settlement Major Commercial Corridor

Fig: Impact of the Buffer Zone on the center of the city of Nicosia

different.4 Turkish Cypriots demand political equality but Greek Cypriots, however, are not that keen on the idea of sharing power. Disagreements have stalled talks of reunification, with issues such as rotating presidency terms, territorial boundaries, return of displaced Cypriots and the scope of rights to their property, demilitarization of the island, repatriation of Turkish immigrants, and the role of Greece, Turkey and Britain being major points of discussion.

Checkpoint

Greek Cypriot Activity

Turkish Cypriot Activity

Checkpoint

Greek Cypriot Activity

Turkish Cypriot Activity

Tourist Activity

Fig: Social media mapping of Greek and Turkish Cypriots, overlapped with tourist activity indicating that there are areas of communal overlap that occur, and these are mostly concentrated in commercial, religious and cultural areas. Source: Andreas Papallas, “Terra Nullius”, July 2015, http://cargocollective.com/cdrspapallas/Nicosia-Social-Media-Mapping

4. https://www.turkheritage.org/en/publications/issue-briefs/the-cyprus-dispute-at-a-glance-3300

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DESIGN The buffer zone can become a place where differences can be forgotten and people can unite under a shared heritage and memory of the place. Buildings with environmental value will be left as they are with no interference. On the other hand, buildings that are of architectural value will be retrofitted and made accessible to children and young people. We can invite institutions like schools, NGOs, etc. that play an influential role in shaping young minds to accommodate structures right next to the buffer zone. In times of inter-communal conflict, the children can be gathered in safe environments and given a space where they can mingle and interact with each other. This will allow them to have a dialogue free from communal biases, and contribute to a more harmonious society.

In case there are buildings that have deteriorated to an extent that does not permit retrofitting to be done, a walking trail can be built around them. Using technologies like VR, people can be shown a simulated version of what these buildings may have looked like in better times. This will help them connect with their shared heritage. Trails can be proposed based on areas that are most frequented by people of either community and include areas of communal overlap, that mostly occur in commercial streets, religious complexes and areas of shared heritage such as museums. Allowing walking trails through a part of the buffer zone will help bind the two sides in a stronger manner and lead to development in shared ownership of the place. A tourism boom is expected to follow, bringing back life and economy to the center of the city, and make it a cohesive whole.

CONCLUSION Shared ownership and acknowledgment of the multicultural past of the city as well as the scars of the conflict that came with it; is necessary in moving forward. The best chance at reconciliation is through allowing children and the youth to experience the other side of the city, and mingle

with the other community, so that they realize that in spite of the differences, they essentially belong to the same nation. The buffer zone can act as a middle ground here, considering that it has been detached from any communal differences that occurred after 1974, while it preserves the memory of the history of Cyprus.

Monumental Value Architectural Value Environmental Value Complementary for Urban pattern Exceptional Architectural Value Do not fit with the Environment

Fig: Mapping of heritage buildings in and around the buffer zone. Structures of architectural value could be utilized as spaces for institutional uses. Source: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Designing a Difference: Social Sustainability in Cyprusâ&#x20AC;?, 2016, Pantheon Cultural Association, Nicosia, Cyprus

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The buffer zone could become a place for education and intermingling for kids of both communities while they are at an impressionable stage. They can also gradually be informed of the memory and importance of the place for the country.

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ps3135@columbia.edu

Profile for GSAPP_Digital Publishing

Pratibha Singh '20 MSAUD Columbia GSAPP  

Pratibha Singh '20 MSAUD Columbia GSAPP