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LASZLO KOVACS U R B A N

D E S I G N

P O R T F O L I O

MSAUD 2020 | GSAPP | COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY


DESIGN I (LOCAL)

SUMMER 2019

DESIGN II (REGIONAL)

FALL 2019

DESIGN III (GLOBAL)

SPRING 2020

THEORY OF CITY FORM

FALL 2019

COTTON KINGDOM

SPRING 2020

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs

TABLE OF CONTENTS

lbk2133@columbia.edu 410.562.7639

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MANUFACTURING PUBLIC SPACES REALIZING THE INDUSTRIAL BUSINESS ZONE IN BUILT SPACE LONG ISLAND CITY, NEW YORK Partners: Laszlo Kovacs + Scott Guo + Nina Lish + IsabellaYi Zhang Instructors: Nans Voron+Tricia Martin + Hayley Eber+ Sagi Golan + Quilian Riano SUMMER 2019 5

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN I | SUMMER 2019

The objective for this studo project is a design proposal which realizes the Industrial Business Zone (IBZ) in built space. In 2006 sixteen IBZs were established to protect existing manufacturing districts and encourage industrial growth citywide. The IBZ in Long Island City (LIC) is economically vital, centrally located in the New York City region and a well-connected mass-distribution center.


INDUSTRIAL BUSINESS ZONES - NYC REGION Establised to protect existing manufacturing districts and encourage industrial growth.

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34,974

eST.

IBZs

WORKERS

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN I | SUMMER 2019

2006

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IF we improve internal accessibility within the IBZ, it improves

the social connections of the workers and locals, which in turn improves the industrial community.

IF WE...

Our design is to protect, connect and improve the IBZ developed by the people and for the people. The industries and businesses are currently protected with a special zoning designation, but it requires a new built plan to ground it in this area for generations. We propose to protect the industries, economy and jobs.

IMPROVE ACCESSIBILITY

IMPROVES SOCIAL CONNECTION

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN I | SUMMER 2019

IMPROVES INDUSTRIAL COMMUNITY

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INDUSTRIAL BUSINESS COMMUNITY - WHO ARE WE DESIGNING FOR? WHO is working there and who could potentially work there in the future?

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN I | SUMMER 2019

We are designing for the local residents coming into the IBZ and the products that get distributed. The zoning laws will keep residential developments out of the IBZ, but the local residents still want it to offer more.

PEOPLE COMING IN PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTING OUT

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ACCESSIBILITY - TRANSIT HIERARCHY Improve the transit experience and introduce a hierarchy of transportation.

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN I | SUMMER 2019

We identified three transit nodes where regional and local commuters enter the IBZ. Currently there is a lack of clarity and hierarchy of traffic within the IBZ, which results in collisions. Goals are to connect Industries and Businesses through physical and systematic connections, connect local and commuting workers to their jobs with safer circulation and spaces to interact outside of work and to connect external transit to an internal network with a hierarchy of traffic systems. We are proposing a local bus route to streamline the workers commute to their jobs. And we are proposing improved bike and pedestrian routes with separate streets for truck traffic and loading areas to increase productivity.

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STREET DESIGN - INDUSTRIAL STREETSCAPE

BEFORE

AFTER

Creating hierarchy between industrial buildings.

WALK, BIKE, CAR

The new combined street has improved walkways, bike and run path, and an electric car road.

There is a designated street for walkers, bikers and cars. This is the existing condition, proposed and this highlights the materials and products displayed.

TRUCK AND BUS

There is a designated street for truck and bus traffic. This is the existing condition where the street is dead. Now businesses can more efficiently load and unload products without impediment. At night the street is transformed into a night market for workers to bring in their families and friends.

The street accomodates loading and traffic for the industries and businesses plus the local IBZ bus.

GREENWAY

The new truck routes will aleviate alternate streets for designated pedestrian and bike paths.

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MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN I | SUMMER 2019

We are proposing a new Industrial streetscape for hierarchy of traffic.

There is a designated street for pedestrians and bikes. This is the existing condition which adds nothing to the office workers experience. With new materials and products the space becomes enjoyable for workers. The street re-design improves the experience for all. members of the IBZ.

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MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN I | SUMMER 2019

RE-VISIONED STREETS

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INDUSTRIAL BUSINESS COMMUNITY INDUSTRY TYPE AND LIFECYCLE

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN I | SUMMER 2019

The IBZ encompasses a diversity of existing businesses and industries including manufacturing, institutional, entertainment, warehouse and storage and commercial. We are proposing Futureworks Buildings which are workshops and incubator businesses and testing grounds. They will be designed as pilot sites.

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MATERIALS - LIFECYCLE Using

recyclable local materials to manufacture public spaces for local businesses and users.

By studying the lifecycle of existing industries and businesses we identified recyclable waste. Concrete, lumber rubber, metal and plastic can all be reinvented and produced into innovative products. The industries will have new opportunities for workers and more retail product from waste materials. The IBZ public realm will be improved through public spaces and better transit experience and efficiency.

CONCRETE - LIFECYCLE

Proposing concrete as an example, closed-loop recycling process is reinvented. By engaging new collaborators, they can RE-INVENT and RE-PRODUCE waste materials into new products like urban furniture, pedestrian bridges, sculptures, canal wall and paving.

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In order to truly be built by the people, for the people we have designed a REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL to be sent out to the IBZ community members. They will design their own proposals for a vacant lot. The design finalists will be constructed and opened for public use.

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MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN I | SUMMER 2019

Using concrete as an example of local recyclable industrial materials to reinvent CLOSED - LOOP recycling processes.


The graffiti and chain link fence is unwelcoming, but could be used as material testing facades to represent the company’s designs in the IBZ. The materials are all developed through collaborative design. We selected one pilot site for the RFP to begin with. Imagine if this underutilized parking lot on the canal became a lively space for workers and their families and friends to enjoy. Built by them and for them.

TEST FACADE

The testing facades are opportuninties to demonstrate and weather materials.

Our proposal is realizing the Industrial Business Zone in built space.

PILOT SITE

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN I | SUMMER 2019

The testing ground is an active public space for the workers and local residents to enjoy.

CANAL SITE

The water and canal walls are a testing surfaces for the 3D printed objects and a new walkway.

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TESTING GROUND - MATERIAL PROCESS Material being tested on site through collaborative design.

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN I | SUMMER 2019

We are connecting existing businesses to new FUTURE WORKS incubators to test recycled products on testing grounds. For instance, the recycled concrete at Hunters Point Recycling is workshopped at FUTUREWORKS. This is the existing canal with a dilapidated rip rap. We are proposing a reclaimed lumber wall and walkway with 3D printed concrete panels to clean the water. The FUTUREWORKS building collaborates artists, LaGuardia Community College students and Hunter’s Point Recycling. Their design is manufactured at the shape ways 3D print factory. The designs are tested before mass production.

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MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN I | SUMMER 2019

RE-VISIONED WATERWAYS

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CRADLE TO CRADLE BUILDING WITH THE GREEN NEW DEAL HUDSON RIVER VALLEY, KINGSTON, NEW YORK Collaborators: Laszlo Kovacs + Victoria Vuono + Sophie Lee + and Ritchie Ju Instructors: Kaja KĂźhl (Coordinator)+Anna Dietzsch+Jerome Haferd+Liz McEnaney+Justin Moore+Shachi Pandey+Raafi Rivero+ David Smiley+Dragana Zoric FALL 2019 29

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN II | FALL 2019

The Building industry accounts for 30% of Global Carbon Emissions with 40% coming from production and 60% coming from building efficiency. The Green New Deal calls for our building stock to be upgraded to reduce our emissions, but how can we build better and use less energy in manufacturing? The Hudson River Valley has a long history of building material production. Many of these industries have been moved abroad leaving us with a carbon intensive building process and post-industrial disinvestment. By creating recycling and localized building material production infrastructure, we can foster a new co-operative of sustainable industrial facilities. This infrastructure can facilitate symbiotic production relationships towards holistic quality building materials.


Prior to WWII we see the building industry thriving, extracting gravel, cement, various stones and clay for brick. With globalized markets we see these industries decline and new industries become the major employers in the area.

POST WAR INDUSTRY TECH IF we could recycle this we could save 844,000 tons of carbon in the production of new building materials and create hundreds of jobs.

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN II | FALL 2019

PRE WAR INDUSTRY - MATERIAL EXTRACTION

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GLOBAL CARBON EMISSION

Buildings account for 30% of global Carbon Emission

PRE VS. POST WWII BUILDING INDUSRTY

The Hudson River Valley has historically produced building materials for the region but with globalization we have seen a shift in where we are receiving our building materials from: farther distances, and even outside of the country.

OUR CARBON INVESTMENT

The main building on the site is half demolished and the soil is heavily polluted. There are other buildings that have the potential to be renovated.

CURRENT TENANTS

If we rethink the relationship between industrial processes we can create a symbiotic relationship using less energy and less waste.

INDUSTRIAL BUSINESS MODEL

But how can we transition our already struggling industries towards more sustainable practices. We can create cooperatives that can provide a suite of sustainable amenities and foster new industrial relationships.

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MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN II | FALL 2019

MATERIAL LIFECYCLE

The former IBM site, known as Tech City is currently home to a few remaining tenants. The owner has 12 million dollars in back-owed taxes and the land is going through foreclosure with the county.

GREEN NEW DEAL POLICY SHIFTS

The sites primary strength is that it has been built for production with on-site electrical facilities, water tower and water treatment plant. The site is framed with the freight train line to the East and convenient truck routes.

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POST WAR INDUSTRY TECH

Post WWII we see IBM become a major force in the Hudson River Valley. With their location in the town of Ulster, just north of Kingston, During their operation they had employed thousands and catalyzed much of the towns growth. After their closure we see this special investment left behind.

OUR CARBON INVESTMENT

GREEN NEW DEAL POLICY SHIFTS

The project vision requires a suite of policy shift to incentivise building material recycling. Encouraging the removal of unusable structures through financial incentives and restructure the commercial property tax system to require owners to maintain their building to higher efficiency standards.

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN II | FALL 2019

The transformation of industries have left structures vacant with significant carbon investment. If the land is cleared, these materials are destined for the landfill.

CURRENT PRACTICES

Our Current Construction and demolition practices have created 970,000 tons of waste with our State Landfills anticipated to be at capacity by 2040.

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SITE

PROPOSAL

PROGRAM DIAGRAM

SITE CIRCULATION

The site provides facilities for recyclers, material researchers, administration spaces, construction and demolition education facilities, space for technological innovation and warehouse distribution space. All with manufacturing at the center.

The site circulation keeps automobiles servicing the perimeter and provides an automated freight trolley system for the manufacturers in the center. This configuration keeps heavy industries the farthest away from the adjacent residential neighborhood.

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SOLAR ENERGY PRODUCTION

STORM WATER MANAGEMENT

To generate funds for the initial phases of the Cooperative we will create a solar panel network that can sell energy to the grid and as tenants move in then provide them with clean energy.

The first tenants will be the recyclers to recycle the existing materials on site. The recycled and newly manufactured materials will be used to develop the grey water management infrastructure, controlling runoff and providing grey water to the tenants.

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MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN II | FALL 2019

Our group envisioned this site would be an ideal location for building material recycling and manufacturing.


PROGRAM

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN II | FALL 2019

With these programs organized primary located on main site, the wetlands across the street will be preserved and accessed by pedestrian and bike route. This route crosses the site and loops towards Esopus creek to the West.

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MODULAR PANELIZED CONSTRUCTION

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN II | FALL 2019

The modular panel system can be dismantled and reassembled with ease and without deteriorating the material. Providing new opportunities for recycled materials that can be reused without further energy investment.

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MATERIAL RESEARECH

To support the manufacturers the project incorporates a series of Permanent Facilities on site. Along Enterprise Drive to the west we have a material research center affiliated with SUNY New Paltz existing 3D printing facilities supporting manufacturing innovation.

ADMINISTRATION AND SERVICE

At the south west corner of the site we have our administration and co op service building providing space for tool rental and a machine repair hub affiliated with existing repair cafe.

EDUCATION AND TRAINING

Towards the south side, demolition and construction training for both continuing education and BOCES will be provided.

VIEW BY THE MATERIAL RESEARCH CENTER

This is an image showing the solar canopy and manufacturers adjacent to the SUNY new paltz 3D printing center.

VIEW BETWEEN SOLAR CANOPY

This is an image showing flexible manufacture tenants in the center of the site with the trolley system delivering their goods.

VIEW BY BOCES TRAINING CENTER

This is an image of the community using the space by the Educational and training facilities.

KILN AND WATER MANAGEMENT

Further north will be a shared kiln that provides spaces for wood seasoning, pottery and glass blowing. Adjacent to the kiln there is a detention marsh pond for Stormwater Management. 42

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN II | FALL 2019

TECH INCUBATOR

At the north an incubator will facilitatate the technological innovations. Adjacent to the main truck loop and automated delivery cart system will service the warehouses, distribution center and manufacturing.

VIEW NEAR INCUBATOR

This is an image of enterprise drive with wasted building materials in the back still being cleaned up.

VIEW BY THE KILN

This is an image by the shared kiln facility on the left and the detention marsh pond on the right.

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MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN II | FALL 2019

TECH CITY - INDUSTRIAL CO-OP

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The project aims to provide alternative housing options for PIAZZA beyond the binaries, embracing the neighborhoods historic and cultural fabric. It will revitalize the Gorge that has divided the two sides of PIAZZA as a catalyst to knit these top-down and bottom up approaches. The river has acted as a boundary because of its neglect however its neglect is due to the lack of waste management infrastructure. There will be proposed a suite of green infrastructure that will process and recycle waste water to improve the quality of the river, welcoming people into the Gorge. We will also create a social capital economy for river stewardship to further clean and maintain the river. This Gorge landscape of social and ecological infrastructure will penetrate the residential fabric to welcome residents and visitors into the Gorge. Simultaneously will be proposed a series of options that will provide culturally sensitive housing in the Kebele Housing area, as well as between the condos over a generation. By identifying family clusters, we can incrementally build up green infrastructure and vernacular housing while preserving community ties all within the neighborhood.

TRAVERSING THE RIFT WATER URBANISM STUDIO THE GREAT RIFT VALLEY: URBAN DESIGN AND CLIMATE RESILIENCE ALONG A GLOBAL TRANSECT PIAZZA, ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA Partners: Laszlo Kovacs + Victoria Vuono + Tal Fuerest + Claudia Kleffmann Instructors: Kate Orff+Geeta Mehta+Thad Pawlowski+Julia Watson+Adriana Chavez+Dilip Da Cunha+Lee Altman+Fitse Gelaye SPRING 2020 47

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN III |SPRING 2020

Residents may choose when they would like to move within a generation, allowing for flexibility of phasing. Residents can choose to move to a newly densified HAILE SELASSIE Road or move into temporary rental while their Kebele House is being rebuilt using long-lasting local materials, or moving to the infill housing adjacent to the condos. All of the new construction will speak to Ethiopia’s vernacular construction and its progression through time, bringing this historic center to the 21st century.


TRAVERSING THE RIFT

The Gorge is surrounded by a combination of multiple urban fabrics representing three historic stages. These historic periods create a gradient of activity where vibrant, broad boulevards surround intimate Kebele Housing streets. These intimate streets have insulated the Gorge on its west face. The eastern Gorge face is met with the barren streets of tower-in-the-park condo blocks. We propose to utilize the diversity of streets in order to address the stresses that each street faces, ultimately enhancing both sides of the Gorge.

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN III |SPRING 2020

The following image shows the three studio sites located along the Great Rift Valley and a micro - rift, nested within Piazza. There are a number of similarities and parallels that we found on these two scales, amongst them the FOREIGN INVESTMENT squeezing local interest, but the one aspect we wanted to highlight is the need and aspiration to connect both sides of the rift. Therefore we are addressing the physical and metaphorical rift of the Gorge by creating a network of traverses that can stitch Piazza together in order to support, spread and preserve the neighborhood’s resilient vibrancy.

GRADIENT OF STREETS

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INCREMENTAL IMPLEMENTATION

The Sheger project proposes to use foreign investment to create a generic park along the river that will concretize the gorge. This park will displace thousands. We propose to use Piazza’s vibrancy to stitch across the Gorge to support the local community and ecology. This approach will empower residents though stewardship.

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN III |SPRING 2020

This stewardship will be facilitated by a cooperative that will manage the 3 major layers towards street improvement: commerce support, water filtration and construction training. The Co-Op Hub branches will be established with government funding as the beginning of a symbiosis between government and community. These Hubs will become the Co-op administrative and empowerment centers where knowledge and support is shared to seed opportunities of intervention throughout the community over a generation of change.

WORKING TOWARDS GOVERNMENT AND COMMUNITY SYMBIOSYS

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CLAIMING STREETS TOWARDS RESILIENCE

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN III |SPRING 2020

The Kebele Housing on the site suffers from dilapidated or non existent infrastructure. The resilient community that lives here has persisted by using the vibrant street life and the gorge to make up for their infrastructural deficiencies. This community can be supported to improve their streets in more durable and sustainable methods.

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USING STREETS AS THE UNIT OF CHANGE

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN III |SPRING 2020

Street design principles will guide our proposal. Densifying the neighborhood will allow us to carve out new spaces to support the community. These spaces will provide green infrastructure, wastewater infrastructure, shared working spaces and small commercial spaces.

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TRAVERSES ACROSS THE GORGE

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN III |SPRING 2020

The 3 Co-Op groups will facilitate 3 traverses across the Gorge. A traverse is composed of the Co-Op Hub, a crossing point and a number of seeded catalytic interventions. Each traverse will focus on a specific layer of Piazza’s street to: -Increase commerce opportunity for locals -Improve the Kebele Housing street infrastructure -Empower local community through cooperative stewardship

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TRAVERSING THE GORGE WITH STREET VENDORS AND LOCAL COMMERCE AT THE NORTH SUPPORTING COMMERCE 1. Haile Selassie Street Densified and Closed to Private Vehicles, which will be pedestrianized and built up by the commerce Co-Op. Street vending opportunities will grow, residents will build up their streets to connect Haile Selassie St to the Gorge, allowing for locally owned tourism. 2. Storm and Waste water Management Infrastructure in Kebele Housing Streets. The new businesses will bring funds into community to build Green Infrastructure. This facilitates more commerce opportunities, allowing for Kebele housing residents to improve their streets and homes, creating shared public space that will act as an extension of their homes, and provide amenities such as water tap. 3. Local Owned Tourism The green infrastructure will control waste water and allow for the Co-Op to open the Gorge for tourism that will encourage maintenance of the Gorge’s rich ecology. This will occur where Raz Makonnen and the Gorge meet, creating a commerce hub.

5. Condo Streets occupied by Light Commerce When traversing the Gorge, commerce will fill barren spaces between the condos blocks, with light structures made by construction waste found on site, and tying in to existing retaining walls. These infills will form the streets with activity, public transportation and social connections.

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4. Gorge Stewardship Tourism will bring new value to the local ecology, spurring stewardship to maintain the Gorge and will catalyse light plastic reuse. This plastic will be deployed as street commerce shades and seats between the clusters, the Kebele Streets and the condos.

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN III |SPRING 2020

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TRAVERSING THE GORGE WITH WATER INFRASTRUCTURE INTRODUCING GREEN AS INFRASTRUCTURE

6.The street starts claiming enclaves between the condos, making space for vendors for public space. 7.The streets then extend into the Gorge. Street fur nishings of woven recycled plastic are deployed along Gorge paths allowing them to be used like streets.

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8.The gorge paths connect ecology and the street, as the Co-Op builds waste water filtration terraces. This will leave clean water to flow back into the river. 9.Green storm and wastewater infrastructure soften the streets while the construction Co-Op builds up new housing of ver nacular materials. 10.Building up a new kebele housing typology will house more people while maintaining streets for commerce and an extension of the home.

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MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN III |SPRING 2020

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TRAVERSING THE GORGE WITH STEWARDSHIP AND AGENCY BUILDING WITH THE COMMUNITY

1 1 . H a i l e S e l a s s i ’s v i b r a n c y c a n b e s u p p o r t e d by the Kebele Housing residents, spreading e c o n o m i c g r o w t h t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o m m u n i t y. 12.The commercial growth will help provide funds for the construction co-op to facilitate kebele housing improvement within their community clusters.

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13.These self built improvements will be supported b y t h e v e r n a c u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n C o - O p c e n t e r. It will be an education and employment hub. 14.This Co-Op center will be a resource for both the K e b e l e H o u s i n g a n d c o n d o r e s i d e n t s . Tr a v e r s i n g the Gorge to promote the sharing of resources. 1 5 . Tr a v e r s i n g t h e g o r g e c a n s p r e a d a n d p r o t e c t Piazzas vibrant streets for generations to come.

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MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs |DESIGN III |SPRING 2020

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By creating this network of traverses we will stitch Piazza together. Preserving and supporting Piazza’s vibrant streets and pulling that vibrancy across the gorge to engage the condo

streets. The Gorge will no longer be a boundary but rather a common ground on Piazza’s own terms. Terms supported by the government and implemented by the residents. Piazzas streets could provide a vision to allow Addis Ababa to return to its rivers.

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | DESIGN III |SPRING 2020

VISION TO ENABLE ADDIS ABABA TO RETURN TO ITS RIVERS

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THEORY OF CITY FORM PRESERVE A MANIFESTO FOR A CITY FOR THE FUTURE SALT FLATS, UTAH Partners: Laszlo Kovacs+Dylan Sun Belfield+ Manuela Hansen+Mengzhe Zhang+Ting Zhang+Yerin Won Instructors: Vishan Chakrabarti + Skylar Bisom-Rapp FALL 2019 67

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | FALL 2019

Circa 2050. Singularity has arrived, and with it, cyborgs and biotech upgraded Sapiens. (Artificial super) intelligence is no longer restrained by human consciousness and sensibility. It deploys a brutal force. Humans have lost their value and their authority, and natural geography has been replaced by cyber-space. PRESERVE is our utopian city for this dystopian (although probable) future. A place for the preservation of Sapiens, preservation of humanity. A place that emphasizes live interaction and connectedness between community members and inter-species. Envisioned as a forest constellation of artifact-trees on a dessert, the structures’ form draws their inspiration on the Joshua Tree that is native to the arid southwestern United States. Five thematic super-trees, each hold a function within society: food, education, health, culture, and memory. Interconnected to each other by a super-sonic gondola transportation system, the structures ramify into smaller trees and family units.


PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SMALLER-TREES FROM STREET LEVEL

SECTION OF CULTURE SUPER-TREE

DISTRIBUTED SMALLER-TREES FOR INHABITATION

INTERIOR CULTURAL PRODUCTION AND ENGAGEMENT AREAS

VIEW FROM STREET LEVEL

CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER FIELD

REJUVENATED FARMLAND AND NATURE PRESERVE

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | FALL 2019

AI-DRIVEN MANUFACTURING AND PRODUCTION

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Memory

Culture

Food

SMALLER TREE

Education

CONNECTION DIAGRAM OF 5 SUPER-TREES

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | FALL 2019

NUCLEUS AREA

Health

BIRDS EYE VIEW PERSPECTIVE OF PRESERVE 71


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THE FOUNDATIONAL ROLE OF SLAVE LABOR IN THE LANDSCAPE OF HIGHER EDUCATION: THE CASE OF RIVERSDALE PLANTATION AND THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND RIVERDALE, MARYLAND Laszlo Kovacs Instructor: Sara Zewde SPRING 2020 73

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | SPRING 2020

COTTON KINGDOM, NOW


OLMSTEAD’S OBSERVATION OF RIVERSDALE PLANTATION

Olmsted’s Observations of Riversdale Plantation

Cattle raising ad

University of Maryland - Property donated by Calvert for education and experimental purposes

Octogonal Cow House - Calvert is an innovative and scientific farmer, interested in progressive modern farming techniques. Octogonal shaped buildings were considered to have conductive properties of good health and spiritual well being.

Octogonal Cow House Plan This plan makes it possible to house several kinds of farm animal in a single building. Building burned in 1904.

AGRICULTURE INNOVATION & EXPERIMENT

EDUCATION

20 min ride on rail to Washington

to

Riversdale Plantation Owner: Charles Benedict Calvert Entrance to Turnpike

Rail road

Pasture

Horse Stable

Corn House

Carriage house

Steam sawmill

SUPPORTING STRUCTURES

LIVESTOCK INNOVATION & EXPERIMENT AREA

far

m

“The residence is in the midst of the farm, a quarter of a mile from the high road - the private approach being judiciously carried through large pastures which are divided only by slight, but close and well-secured wire fences.” ~ Olmsted 1862

Packed gravel road with wire fence and pasture for security

“Mr. C. is a large hereditary owner of slaves, which, for ordinary field and stable work, constitute his labouring force. He has employed several Irishmen for ditching; and for this work, and this alone, he thought he could use them to better advantage than negroes.”~ Olmsted 1862 Mansion

Stable Hickory Forest

Slave Houses Path traveled by Olmsted

Old tobacco fields turned over to pasture for cattle raising “Land may be purchased, within twenty miles of Washington, at from ten to twenty dollars an acre. Most of it has been once in cultivation, and, having been exhausted in raising tobacco, has been, for many years, abandoned, and is now covered by a forest‘ growth” ~ Olmsted 1862

Least Fertile Soil Ideal for pasture and forest

Old tobacco fields turned over to forest for lumber production Some tobbaco is still produced on the plantation, but predominently grasses are being tested.

il Ra hio ore ltim

nch

“There is a fountain, an ornamental dove-cote, and ice-house, and the approach road, nicely gravelled and rolled, comes up to the door with a fine sweep.” ~ Olmsted 1862

a rm Br

en rd

Note: Geography is on a coastal plane that developed after the second Ice Age. There’s wast navigable waterways with healthy fish and wildlife and fertile soil. This is the reason why humans settled in the area.

Easte

ga

&O

Fertile Soil Ideal for Agriculture

Less Fertile Soil Ideal for pasture and grasses

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GARDEN AREA

Ba

WASHINGTON

Improved drainage and irrigation system to existing river

Ice House

Smoke House

Wash House

Servant Quarter

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | SPRING 2020

Crystalline Rock

W Balashin Tur timo gton npi re ke

Travel writer Fredrick Law Olmsted arrived to Riversdale Plantation in Maryland in late 1862. This was the first stop of his observations through The Cotton Kingdom to document and understand slavery in the plantations of America. He was pleased by the beautiful, well-kept, organized landscape owned by Charles Benedict Calvert, just twenty minutes from Washington D.C. on the Baltimore and Ohio (B&O) railroad.

Orchard

Vegetable and fruit garden Dove-cote Flower garden

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RIVERSDALE PLANTATION THEN AND NOW

Riversdale Plantation Then and Now

Train Station

South facing Mansion on the hill to overlook workers and create separation

ore

Baltim

Riversdale Plantation - Maryland (2020) Maryland House (Museum)

iles

6m

4

1/ ile m

Washington 15min

Access to rail

Workers housing close to water with several wells Cowhouse Progressive Innovation

Property activity distribution 1/4 Acreage 1/2 Pasture Acreage Cultivated 1/4 Acreage Forest

Riversdale Plantation - Maryland (1856)

Rossburg Farm Donated in 1856 to Univ. Maryland by Charles Benedict Calvert

Current Site Maryland House Museum 1993 (9 AC)

Sold by siblings in 1930

Rossburg Farm Sold in 1856 to Univ. Maryland Riverdale Park sold in 1887 to NY developer

Property inventory 15 dwellings, 4 barns and 3 mills

Sold to Professor Solomon early 1880’s

Original Farm (729 AC) - grew to (2,000 AC) Remainder of the property divided between 5 siblings

University of Maryland

re altimo

Train Station

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Riversdale Plantation - the split of the property ovet the years

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | SPRING 2020

Calvert was a Congressman and Agricultural Scientist who had particular interest in agriculture, horticulture and livestock research. He co-founded the Department of Agriculture and donated a large portion of his plantation as a trustee and president to develop the Agricultural University, which eventually became the University of Maryland. His donation towards the founding of a university was not solely based on the greater good of developing agricultural or engineering breakthroughs in antebellum America. Universities were predominantly attended by children of wealthy slave plantation owners, solidifying political power and perpetuating the elite status of similarlyfounded institutions such as Harvard, Princeton, Yale and Brown that have shaped the society we have today.

Washington 15min

Industrial Site Site

Riversdale Plantation - Maryland (2020) Maryland House (Museum)

Riverdale Park

Alluvium Soil - Fertile soil Terrace Deposit Soil - Fertile soil Forest / Green Space Train / Tram Anacostia river - used on farm for irrigation and transport Highway Riversdale property Rossenburg Farm - now University of Maryland Views

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RIVERSDALE PLANTATION RE- PRESENTED

Riversdale Plantation Re-Presented Morill Land Grant Act Colleges and Universities - 1862

Univ.Maryland

S L AV 1862 Morill Land Grant Act voted, End of Civil War, Olmsted travel to Cotton Kingdom

-Opportunities that would allow a young nation to grow and prosper. -Military training required in the curriculum of all land-grant schools -Educational program for future army, navy, and air force officers is mandatory

- Wealth transformed into political power that will help shape the states culture - Gain knowledge from University experiments

1916 State takes over the

school

1864 - Charles Benedict Calvert 1951 The first African American

1860

- Abraham Lincoln elected president

dies, Maryland abolishes slavery

undergraduate student, Hiram Whittle, is admitted to the University of Maryland

Bal

tim

ore

Rossburg Farm donated to University of Maryland - 1856

STUDENTS Many of the students came from the slaveholding families

RM G FA SBUR

LAND

6)

(185

RO

Univ.Maryland

16 of the 24 original trustees had slaves and they helped build this university

ROSSBURG FRAM

University of Maryland - 2020 Formerly known as Maryland Agricultural College

SLAVE LABOR

ERCO Defense

Riverdale Park

ERCO Plant manufacturing aircraft for WWII Job opprtunity for suburbian incomers

10 min walking distance from train station Riverdale Park growth beginning with 70 houses around train station

Ecology

Pros

River water used for irrigation and transport

Soil is rich in minerals and ideal for farming

Cons

Flood in early 1800’s forces C.B. Clavert to change from tobacco to grasses, corn, livestock Pollution and Erosion from Farming and Settlers narrows river, not navigable anymore

Tobacco Farming depleats the ground from nutrients even with crop rotation

Riverdale Plantation

University of Maryland

Middle Class Migration to Suburb

MSAUD | GSAPP | Laszlo Kovacs | SPRING 2020

1856

School gets established and receives donation of the Rossburg farm

Morill Land Grant Act Colleges - 1862

TES A T S E

Turnpike

Proximity

Washington

B&O Rail

Baltimore

Anacostia River

Early Transit Oriented Development

15 min to Penn Station

Riversdale Plantation

ton

Strategic location

ing

Easy access to shipping

Wa sh

After the Civil War, the Morill Land Grant act was established with the focus of helping existing or proposed universities obtain federal lands that could be sold for funds that enhance agricultural and engineering education for the public, providing more opportunities and military training for graduates. Slaves were used as commodities in these sales, and their labor directly contributed to the construction and maintenance of these facilities until the early 1900’s, when universities became owned by states. Many of the universities established by slaveowners and part of the Morill Land Grant Act, including University of Maryland, researched their history regarding the role of slaves in shaping their systems and have issued public apologies for their prior ignorance in their role in the slave trade.

Economics

Riverdale Plantation

Producing tobacco

Bladensburg

Ship to buyer

England

Riverdale Plantation

Growing grasses breeding horses and cattle

Octogonal Cowhouse

crop diversification, fertilizers, horticultural innovations and new technologies

1812 War / Flood

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LASZLO KOVACS | SPRING 2020

Profile for GSAPP_Digital Publishing

Laszlo Kovacs '20 MSAUD Columbia GSAPP  

Laszlo Kovacs '20 MSAUD Columbia GSAPP