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ISSN 2225-5974 ISSUE 9 2013


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EDITORIAL MANAGING EDITOR: Lloyd Macfarlane EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION: Robyn Brown DIGITAL MEDIA: Cara-Dee Carlstein FINANCE & EVENTS: Suraya Manuel LAYOUT AND DESIGN: Brent Meder DIRECTORS: Lloyd Macfarlane Gordon Brown Andrew Fehrsen


SALES EXECUTIVES: Lupumlo Nika Elna Willemse PRODUCTION: Wadoeda Adams PRINTING: FA Print PUBLISHER: Alive2green PHYSICAL ADDRESS: Cape Media House 28 Main Road Ronderbosch 7700 Cape Towm TEL: 021 447 4733 FAX: 086 694 7443 Websites: DISTRIBUTION MANAGER: Edward MacDonald



Company Registration Number: 2006/206388/23 Vat Number: 4130252432 ISSN No.: 2225-5974 Issue 9 Published: Oct 2013

Ndivhuho Raphulu Director: NCPC-SA

All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written permission of the Publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial and advertising contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions. The Publisher does not endorse any claims made in the publication by or on behalf of any organisations or products. Please address any concerns in this regard to the Editor. The Green Business Journal is printed on Hi-Q Titan plus paper, manufactured by Evergreen Hansol a leading afforestation member acknowledged by FOA. Hi-Q has Chain of Custody certification, is totally chlorine free, and is PEFC, ISO 14001, ISO 9001 accredited.

As the role players in our annual corporate theatre production, ‘Strike Season’, run through their lines and prepare for opening night, it is interesting to note some of the socio-economic statistics that relate to the previous ‘sellout’ performance. Cape Argus writer Anel Lewis reports that R66bn in wages was lost in last year’s strike season where many of the 99 strikes recorded involved some form of violence. Almost half of these strikes were unprotected and nearly sixty percent involved workers from the mining sector. In spite of pronouncements, policies and guidelines contained in the world’s best systems and frameworks of corporate sustainability and governance, regarding the importance and process of stakeholder engagement, industry in South Africa (generally) continues to ignore these wisdoms in favour of an all-out stand-off that results in massive erosion of economic and social value. There appears to be an extremely broad interpretation of what qualifies as an acceptable stakeholder engagement process by industry, often characterised by posturing, threats and procedural meetings of bad faith followed by strike action – rinse and repeat. Understandably the parties involved are now disillusioned and have resorted to entirely unreasonable starting points in their sit-downs. The engagement process is simply not working. Ignoring the political drivers of strike action for a second (if that’s possible), and assuming that the widely available principles of good engagement and responsiveness are not in debate, there appears to be a vacuum of good leadership in most labour based sectors of the South African economy. Unbelievable given that our national position is the promotion of labour intensive (low carbon) industry. So what is effective stakeholder engagement? Stakeholder engagement is the process by which an organisation involves people who may be affected by the decisions it makes or can influence the implementation of its decisions. An underlying principle of stakeholder engagement is that stakeholders have the chance to influence the decision-making process. This differentiates stakeholder engagement from communications processes that seek to issue a message or influence groups to agree with a decision that has already been made. An additional principal is that the engagement process should facilitate ‘responsiveness’ from the organisation. Responsiveness in this context means a strategic and reasonable response to dialogue, which is also genuinely and appropriately communicated. How many of our labour centric organisations are doing their best to apply these principles? What are the intentions of those involved? One of the roles of government is to regulate and regulation can be tool that stimulates change. If industry is incapable of proper engagement then surely there is an important and fairly urgent government intervention required in the short to medium term, even if that intervention is the provision and promotion of a framework that contains genuine incentives for its effective application. Such a framework should perhaps also include guidelines for establishing the range of wage increase negotiations using factors such as earnings per share, dividend policy, manufacturing price index and certain key ratios, such as the average wage of collective bargaining council members expressed as a ratio of average management wage. Let’s systematically create an environment of good faith! In the meantime, please take your seats and ensure that your mobile phones are switched to ‘silent’. The performance is about to begin!

Sincerely Lloyd


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Director of the National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa: Ndivhuho Raphulu Ndivhuho Raphulu heads up the National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa (NCPC-SA), which is the Department of Trade and Industry’s (the dti) resource efficiency programme to enhance the sustainability of the South African manufacturing industry’s competitiveness. This is achieved through the mechanisms of water, materials and energy efficiency and waste management which contribute to industrial development, localisation, economic growth and job creation. Raphulu holds degrees in Environmental Science, Environmental Management and Developmental Studies and plays leading roles in various national and international forums. He has been re-elected as the Sub-Saharan Africa representative on the executive committee of RECPnet, a global network of NCPCs facilitated by the UN Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) and its environment programme, UNEP. Ndivhuho was voted into this position by the 12 countries on the African Roundtable for Sustainable Consumption and Production. His leadership role in this domain in South Africa and Africa is expected to open new avenues for collaboration across borders and provide support to the growing number of NCPCs in the region. The NCPC-SA recently hosted its Industry Resource Efficiency Conference, marking ten years of resource efficiency and cleaner production. In delivering his speech, Raphulu took a retrospective look at the impacts and achievements of the NCPC-SA. “We are proud to have unlocked potential savings of around R175 million through our RECP activities in the last ten years.”

06 12 16 20 22

News and Updates

World Rhino Day

Water Use in Agriculture– a Fine Balancing Act

21st Century Coal – Report by the International Energy Agency


Cover Personality

Resource Efficiency–Millions of Rands Saved in the Maunfacturing Sector


The Role of Infrastructure in a Sustainable Society


Jump-Starting Waste Recycling in South Africa



NEWS & UPDATES Sustainability code of Indian tea industry Trustea launched

GXT Green ECOgrade Bag wins Silver

The Indian tea industry’s sustainability code – named Trustea – was launched in Kolkata. The code encompasses all aspects of tea production and seeks to embrace sustainability principles to boost productivity, maintain safety standards to improve quality compliance, and include all stakeholders in the mainstream. The Trustea code, upon full-scale adoption by the Indian tea industry, would lead to the production of certified safe and hygienic teas – safer, healthier and more environmentally-friendly teas. The code is bound to improve the social and economic conditions of the tea industry and give an assurance to consumers that they are getting a safe and good cup of tea. Thus, securing long-term sustainability of the India tea industry will significantly benefit all its stakeholders.

GXT Green’s ECOgrade Bag has been named the Silver award winner in both the Product of the Year and Most Innovative Product of the Year categories in Best in Biz Awards 2013 International. ECOgrade bags showcase GXT Green’s innovative approach to having economics meet ecology, and are an example of GXT Green’s breakthrough sustainable products and services that cost effectively solves everyday concerns of corporations, communities, and governments. They are the safe, convenient, competitively priced, sustainable solution to plastic bag pollution and greenhouse gas reduction. Within 240 days of exposure to sunlight, ECOgrade bags degrade completely, they leave no toxic waste residue, and cost about the same price as regular plastic bags.

USD150 000 Prize for Innovative African Solutions

eThekwini Municipality Registers Second Carbon Credit Project The eThekwini Municipality in Durban, has registered its second Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project with the United Nations. The CDM was registered as a “Programme of Activities” allows projects to be “bundled” together instead of accrediting small individual projects. The PoA registered by the eThekwini Municipality is specific for new installations of solar water heaters and heat pumps at residential facilities throughout South Africa. Its aim is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the roll out of energy efficient water heating technologies which displace the consumption of fossil fuels or electricity.

In an effort to drive African-led development, the Innovation Prize for Africa (IPA) invites African entrepreneurs and innovators to propose projects that unlock new African potential and deliver market-orientated solutions for African development under one of five categories which include: agriculture and agribusiness; environment, energy and water, health and wellbeing; ICT applications; and manufacturing and services industries. The award has been presented annually since 2012 and aims at encouraging innovations that contribute to sustainable development in Africa. For detailed information of competition categories, conditions of entry, and submission procedures, visit and review the detailed call for application prior to applying.



HP retains a top spot in Newsweek Green Rankings

SUSTAINABILITY CONSULTING CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY PRODUCTS AND SERVICES DIRECTED AT MEASURABLE RETURN ON OBJECTIVE • Integrated and Sustainability Reporting (GRI) Hewlett-Packard (HP) was the No. 2 company on the latest Greenpeace Guide to Greener Electronics ranking and the Newsweek US Green Rankings. It also consistently ranks as a leader for corporate responsibility reporting.

• Report Assurance (AA1000AS) • Online Sustainability Tools and Systems • Good Business Framework

• Event Sustainability/Greening Africa’s Greenest Hotel Officially Opens

• Event Greening Framework • Event Sustainability Reporting (GRI ESS)

• Workshops

• Sustainability Plan Development • Materiality & Risk • Stakeholder Engagement & Responsiveness

• Research • Communications and Marketing • Keynote and Corporate Presentations |

Having set themselves the target of building Africa’s greenest hotel, owners Mario and Annemarie Delicio have announced the opening of Hotel Verde, situated 400m from Cape Town International Airport. André Harms, Hotel Verde’s Sustainability Consultant, is the expert behind some of the more technical aspects of the building – an establishment with a level of sustainability not yet seen on the continent. Hotel Verde is a 3 star hotel and has an emphasis on providing a comfortable space for both leisure and business travellers.



NEWS & UPDATES Rand Water receives patent for solution to acid mine water crisis

Rand Water chairperson in water utilisation Professor Jannie Maree has received a United States patent for an acid mine water treatment process. The magnesium-barium-hydroxide (MBO) process, which removes metals and sulphate from mine water, offered South Africa a technically sound and cost-effective solution for the acid mine water problem, Maree said in a statement. Maree said the patented process would be ready for full-scale implementation as soon as the thermal studies on the processing of BaSO4 to Ba(OH)2 had been completed by postgraduate students.

Elon Musk Unveils Plans for Solar-Powered Train

After months of teasers and speculation about the technology, the Tesla Motors and Space X CEO Elon Musk has unveiled an open-source plan for a solar-powered high-speed train that could transport passengers at speeds of up to 1000km per hour (700 mph) between Los Angeles and San Francisco for less than it costs to buy a regular train ticket. Musk has announced that he won’t have time to pursue the project himself, but he is hoping some other inspired person or group will run with his new design for a fast, affordable and environmentally-friendly new transportation link between the two west coast cities.

Google’s footprint reduces as users emit 8 grams of CO2 per day

Google has confirmed that last year it emitted 30.3 metric tons of carbon per million dollars of revenue, compared to 44.3 tons of CO2 per US $1 million in 2011 – representing a significant 32 percent reduction in carbon intensity. The company has calculated that its average “active user” does 25 searches and watches 60 minutes of YouTube per day, while also operating a Gmail account and using some of its other services, resulting in a daily carbon footprint of 8 grams of CO2 a day. The decline Google’s overall emissions was attributed to the inclusion of green power purchase agreements (PPAs) in its carbon footprint calculations for the first time, as required by the Carbon Disclosure Project methodology it used to measure its footprint.

SolarWorld Africa brings power to Timberlea Trust

SolarWorld Africa, together with its distribution partner enerGWorx supplied a 127kWp, roof-mounted solar system to Timberlea Farming Trust, a group most well-known internationally for their blueJay branded fruit, as well as its production of the much-loved locally distributed blueJay fresh juices. The farming consortium which trades under the brand, blueJay, has made considerable upgrades to their infrastructure as part of a firm commitment to sustainable business. In an effort to reduce energy consumption and save costs across all of their agricultural assets, Timberlea Farming Trust opted for the solar system installation at their farm just outside Stellenbosch. SolarWorld supplied its polycrystalline solar panels for the array spanning the multiple rooftops of the farm’s cold storage and packhouse facilities. The installation is expected to subsidise 30% of the farm’s total electrical output.


NEWS & UPDATES Midas celebrates 60th year of operation

Midas Group, now in its 60th year of operation, trades in the replacement automotive parts industry, marketing and distributing quality automotive, DIY, DIFM (do-it-for-me) and leisure travel products. The Group is an international distributor in Southern Africa with 13 distribution hubs and 504 franchisees. Committed to retaining and building shareholder value, Midas Group has a number of sustainability initiatives underway to not only drive awareness around, but also reduce the impact of its activities on the environment. Midas Green entails recycle bins being placed throughout the group’s trade and consumer outlets, prompting staff and customers to place used materials in either of its colourful glass, cans and paper bins. In partnership with the Rose Foundation, Midas Group collects and recycles used oil in an environmentally friendly way. This is supported by the franchisees where collection containers are placed at their respective stores and workshop sites. The Group is also retrofitting their branches to achieve energy savings with the installation of motion sensor lighting and solar energy. Midas Group is also committed to a number of socio-economic developments and programmes across South Africa. Midas plays an active role aside from just being a donor by investing time and effort in various education institutions, ensuring the maximisation of their financial support. Four rural schools and 7 Hospices around South Africa receive annual support. The Group are also involved in sport development at a grassroots, community level, sponsoring a Midas Soccer Team and a Midas Group Athletics Team.

South African Inventor Nominated for an Award

South African, Alan Flemming has won a final place in a global competition which rewards ideas that can improve the lives of ordinary people. There were over 900 entries into the Siemans Stiftung Foundation Award from 90 countries. Flemming’s idea was a fish farm that used filters and tanks built into a 12m shipping container and which produces four tons of fish per annum ensuring food supply for a community.

Ford Builds 2 Millionth Fuel-Efficient EcoBoost Engine

Ford Motor Company today celebrated a manufacturing milestone for its fuel-saving EcoBoost engines: Two million have been produced globally since the 2009 launch of the engine line. EcoBoost technology combines smaller overall size with turbocharging, direct injection and variable valve timing to bring customers outstanding performance and fuel economy. Ford EcoBoost engines deliver up to 15 per cent better fuel economy than larger displacement petrol engines. Ford’s global EcoBoost engine family now includes the 1.0-litre three-cylinder; the 1.5litre, 1.6-litre and 2.0-litre four-cylinder engines; and the powerful and efficient 3.5-litre V6. EcoBoost will be offered on nearly 80 per cent of the company’s global nameplates by the end of 2013. South Africa got its first taste of EcoBoost technology when the Focus ST was introduced in the last quarter of 2012 while the 1.0-litre EcoBoost unit was introduced in January of this year. EcoBoost is offered in South Africa in the Fiesta, Fiesta ST, Focus ST, EcoSport and Kuga. To date nearly 5,300 EcoBoost engines have been sold in South Africa with demand continuing to grow. Growing customer demand for EcoBoost-powered vehicles in Ford’s major markets worldwide is driving engine production. In Europe, exceptional demand for the 1.0-litre EcoBoost engine – International Engine of the Year 2012 and 2013 – has resulted in doubling the production capacity in Germany. Popularity and demand in North America for the award-winning 2.0-litre EcoBoost engine, has Ford investing nearly $200 million to build the engine at its Cleveland, Ohio, engine plant, with production starting in 2014. In Asia Pacific, sales of EcoBoost vehicles are up 202 per cent year-over-year in 2013, including a 189 per cent rise in China. Ford plans to offer the fuel-efficient engine in 20 vehicles in the region by mid-decade, a five-fold increase from 2012. More than 100,000 EcoBoost engines now produced every month. Ford recently doubled 1.0-litre EcoBoost production capacity in Cologne, Germany, to more than 1,000 engines per day; is investing $200 million to build 2.0-litre EcoBoost in the U.S. Ford will soon begin production of the 1.0-litre EcoBoost at the $500 million Changan Ford engine plant in Chongqing, China, which opened in June


World Rhino Day 22 September W

orld Rhino Day is a collaboration of effort on a global scale which unites NGO’s, zoos, organisations, businesses, and concerned individuals. It is aimed at celebrating all five species of rhino: Black, white, greater one-horned, Sumatran and Javan rhinos - Five Rhino Species Forever! More importantly it is an opportunity to highlight efforts to debunk the myths and diminish the demand for rhino horn. World Rhino Day was first announced by WWF-South Africa in 2010. The following year, World Rhino Day grew into an international success, encompassing both African and Asian rhino species, thanks to the efforts of two determined women It all started with an email: In mid-2011, Lisa



Jane of Chishakwe Ranch in Zimbabwe was planning ahead for World Rhino Day. She searched online for ideas and potential collaborators, and found Rhishja’s blog. Lisa Jane sent Rhishja an email, and the two found they shared a common goal of making World Rhino Day a day of celebration for all five rhino species. Meanwhile, the team at Rhino Africa prepared for their second World Rhino Day event in Cape Town, building on the success of South Africa’s popular 2010 campaign. In the months that followed, the teams worked together to make World Rhino Day 2011 an international success, both online and offline. This year the events that took place around the world surpassed all previous years, as each country celebrated World

Rhino Day in their own unique ways. It is a huge and vital success for organisations and charities that rely on funding to further their crucial work on educating and preventing the poaching and inevitable extinction of such a magnificent animal. AUSTRALIA Werribee Open Range Zoo held a fun filled day including Rhino Rap with Rap artist ‘Hugo’ and Zoo Member children, theatre and games. Taronga Western Plains Zoo, in Dubbo, NSW, Australia - All visitors already support the zoo’s breeding programs for 3 of the world’s 5 rhino species. Visitors helped raise funds, with a Rhino trail, raffles, rhino craft and donation buckets for the Zoo’s conservation partner, the International Rhino

Foundation (IRF). Visitors were entertained by keeper talks and rhino feeds and close encounters to discover more about rhino conservation. KENYA Lewa Wildlife Conservancy in Kenya invited everyone to get involved by sharing their rhino photos on their Facebook page and adding a caption. Encouraging messages reached out to millions of people urging them to help save this species. MALAYSIA TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, held a virtual World Rhino Day event and all their rhino photos, facts, and other information is shared on

their Facebook page. Due to the time zones, Malaysia was the first rhino range state to welcome World Rhino Day. Malaysia is home to a handful of wild Sumatran rhinos, as well as a rescue centre, where three rhinos are currently residing. NEPAL In the Chitwan National Park buffer zone, Mrigakunja User Committee held a World Rhino Day celebration featuring a drawing and essay competition among the eco-club members at local schools. NEW ZEALAND Auckland Zoo in New Zealand  raised money for the Auckland Zoo Conservation Fund (which currently supports Rhino

conservation) and all the Rhino keepers shaved their heads on Rhino weekend! Auckland Zoo also had a busy day of exciting activities, from Rhino encounters, a Rhino touch table with rhino artifacts. There was also a competition to guess how much a wheelbarrow full of Rhino poo weighs and a display of how much food a Rhino eats per day. SOUTH AFRICA Thousands of visitors joined Project Rhino KZN and Kinglsey Holgate for World Rhino Weekend at the Boardwalk Shopping Centre, where more than 5,000 pieces of rhino art created by children in South Africa, Mozambique, and Swaziland were on display.


Connect with World Rhino Day at

Kingsley Holgate and other celebrities spoke to an estimated 30,000 visitors over the weekend and South African soccer team — Thanda Rhinos — made a special appearance. White “rhino crosses” were sold to raise funds for Project Rhino KZN’s work and schools. Businesses, artists and conservation leaders banded together in this weekend of targeted action, fundraising and awareness. Project Rhino KZN has also created two three-minute video clips (in English and Vietnamese). In these, children from KwaZulu-Natal speak out vehemently against rhino poaching and their words are supported by thousands of hand-drawn pictures from children in the rest of South Africa, Mozambique and Swaziland. Project Rhino KZN encourages all World Rhino Day supporters to hear the heartfelt pleas of children asking for rhino poaching to be stopped, and to share the videos. UK This year Save the Rhino sent 5 of their famous rhino costumes across the UK to take part in local events as well as holding an event in London. Port Lympne Wildlife Park in Kent, home to 15 black rhinos hosted a World Rhino Weekend, with lots of fun activities which ensured that everyone learnt something new about rhinos. “The Changing Face of the Rhino” was held on September 18th at the Royal Geographical Society in London with Dr. William Fowlds, a South African safari veterinarian. Colchester Zoo supported World Rhino Day, celebrating all five remaining rhino species and raising awareness about the trade in rhino horn. The Zoo hosted a stall near the



rhino enclosure with information on the current poaching crisis, the five remaining rhino species and information about rhinos at Colchester Zoo and on the UmPhafa Private Nature Reserve. Knowsley Safari Park celebrated World Rhino Day – visitors were able to learn more on the largest of the 5 species of rhino – the white rhino. An action packed day with the rhino team devoting the day to giving guided rhino tours. There were also a collection of nail clippings donated by Knowsley staff and visitors to raise awareness of the myths surrounding the medicinal properties of Rhino horn in an attempt to change attitudes and beliefs. USA The Buffalo Zoo in New York held a special event to raise funds for the International Rhino Foundation, with a presentation on the five rhinos species, raffles, snacks, and refreshments. The Henry Vilas Zoo in Madison, WI, held an event which featured Rhino Facts Trivia and Raffle Drawings. The San Diego chapter of the International Rhino Keeper Association also celebrated World Rhino Day. The Saint Louis Zoo celebrated with crafts and activities for kids and talks with a rhino keeper. Milwaukee County Zoo  held two keeper talks to learn about the five species of rhinos, the poaching epidemic, and the Milwaukee County Zoo’s two black rhinos, Mimi and Brewster. The Columbus Zoo and Aquarium had an Education Table set up in front of the pachyderm building with a rhino awareness board, handouts with rhino facts, coloring sheets

and information for a rhino lecture that will be held in November. September marked the return of Megafauna to the Lost Rhino Brewing Company beer menu. The popular offering, introduced last year, pays homage to the Brewery’s rhino namesake. Megafauna translates as “large animal” and is fittingly making its comeback appearance to celebrate World Rhino Day. Annamiticus launched Episode 1 of the educational web series “Ancient Rhinos of Southeast Asia”. These series takes viewers on a historical journey of two Asian rhino species from their once plentiful existence to their decimation, and finally, to today’s unprecedented international effort to rescue these critically endangered megafauna from the edge of extinction. VIETNAM Education for Nature – Vietnam (ENV) has released a new public service announcement to increase awareness about the plight of the world’s rhinos. You can help spread the word by watching and sharing the video on youtube. ZIMBABWE World Rhino Day commemorations at Lake Chivero in Zimbabwe held by the Animal and Wildlife Area Research and Rehabilitation (Aware) Trust with National Parks included a fund-raising Walk, Run and Mountain Bike Ride for Rhino in the National Park in cooperation with parks personnel.




Help protect the rhino with a Nedbank Green Affinity account. Nedbank has always been committed to finding long-term solutions by aiding conservation projects in South Africa. Together with the WWF-SA, we have developed a strong community-based approach to saving the rhino by engaging people living near critical rhino populations to act as custodians who will help protect them. With your contribution, our commitment and their active participation, we can help conserve the rhino population for future generations. Make a difference today. Insure through us or open a Nedbank Green Affinity savings, current, investment or credit card account and we will donate money to the WWF Nedbank Green Trust, at no cost to you. Visit your nearest Nedbank branch, call us on 0860 DO GOOD (36 4663) or visit Twitter @nedbankgreen,

Nedbank Limited Reg No 1951/000009/06. Authorised financial services and registered credit provider (NCRCP16).


Sweet farming success with Senter 360 as irrigation partner Competitively priced; robust quality; And uniquely African.


his is how top South African (sugar cane) farmer Pieter van der Westhuizen describes Senter 360’s centre pivot irrigation systems. He cultivates sugar cane, bananas and citrus fruit on his farm close to Komatipoort in South Africa’s Mpumalanga Province. Van der Westhuizen owns a large Senter 360 centre pivot – a nine tower system capable of irrigating 70 hectares of sugar cane. In addition, he owns another two 7-tower systems covering 51 ha and 55 ha respectively. Van der Westhuizen also plans to use Senter 360’s systems to irrigate a 70 ha banana plantation. Senter 360’s agent in the area has already made sure that the company will be able to provide a special high profile centre pivot with a 5,3m clearance to irrigate the tall banana plants. Van der Westhuizen says the fact that Senter 360 is willing to go the extra mile for its clients is why he will continue to use the company’s products. “Senter 360 is prepared to build long-term relationships with its clients, while producing an excellent product and there is no reason why we have to play second fiddle to the American products!” And Van der Westhuizen knows what he is saying as he was previously involved with the erection of centre pivots for other farmers before he ventured into full time farming himself. He mentioned that he would not degrade any other product, but when he had to buy his own centre pivots, Senter 360 was the logical choice and also provided the best value for money. Centre pivot irrigation offers accurate water distribution at low pressure. It is also the most cost-effective way of irrigating on a large scale. The cost of each centre pivot tower is the same (only differing with the difference in pipe diameter) whether you have a small or a large system. With each additional tower you add, the radius of the circle is extended and the area



under irrigation increases exponentially to the outside making it cheaper per hectare as it becomes larger. By farmers for farmers Designed and built in South Africa since 1994, Senter 360 centre pivots are known for its superior construction quality and strength above industry standards and the company is renowned for its excellent sales and after-sales service. Over the past few years, Senter 360 has also broadened its focus to include the entire African continent. Senter 360 has interests in commercial farming and knows exactly what is important when it comes to centre pivots: reliability and value for money. One of the main factors that sets Senter 360 apart from its competitors is that the company uses pipe trussing, which makes the structure much stronger and lighter. Another advantage would be the I-Wob sprinklers that have a perfectly engineered

droplet size resulting in more water in the soil. In addition, Senter 360 has introduced a number of other features that make a major difference. For example, the company has patented technology to keep the last sprinkler constantly clean, thus maintaining the full irrigation application on the outer hectares of the centre pivot, normally prone to under-irrigation. It doesn’t matter where in the continent you are farming, Senter 360 will offer you the same world-class products and service that has kept the company growing for close to two decades.

Contact Details For more information on Senter 360’s centre pivot irrigation systems, please contact the company at: Email: Website:

0 6 3 R E T N SE n partner in irrigation

Africa’s pivot of success


pivot r u o Y –

COMPANY PROFILE SENTER 360 is a South African company. We have a simple policy of doing business with the highest standards of integrity. We therefore pride ourselves on not merely selling a product, but building long term relationships. Designed and built in South Africa in 1994, SENTER 360 centre pivots are known for their superior construction quality and strength – above industry standards, and we as a company are renowned for excellent sales and after-sales service. We have been in the irrigation industry for more than 20 years, specialising in surveying, system design, installation and commissioning of irrigation systems. We have growing business interests in South Africa, Africa and internationally and offer a turn-key project development service from feasibility study phase to implementation and project management. One of our recent achievements has been the allocation of an international tender for the supply of more than 50 centre pivots to the South African Government for the Taung irrigation scheme.

At SENTER 360 we are passionate about our centre pivots. Apart from building a functional and exceptionally strong and rigid structure, we pay great attention to the ner details, making a day-to-day difference in your life.


The SENTER 360 centre pivot utilises trusses made from pipe being lighter than the traditional angle iron trusses, allowing us to incorporate two more sets of trusses, and so giving enormous strength and exceptional resistance to high wind. Longer 4,5 m base beams (5,8 m for the high prole machines), tower supports, stabilising rods and diagonals add to the exceptional stability.


The simple modular design is also applied to our control panel range. The basic panel with direct millimetre adjustment can be expanded at minimal cost through various stages of automation and communication.


One of the problems in centre pivot irrigation is that the last sprinkler clogs regularly. We came up with a genius yet simple way to constantly keep the last sprinkler clean. SENTER 360 centre pivots are tted as standard with the pressure regulated Senninger I-Wob sprinklers on drop pipes to ensure outstanding water distribution in most climatic conditions.


The drive train of the SENTER 360 centre pivot comprises a heavyduty wheel gearbox as standard with a free optional ve year warranty* driven by the UMC Power Saver centre drive motor and gearbox. *Terms and conditions apply

Tel: +27 (18) 469–1331 Email:

Africa’s pivot of success Since 1994

Upstream and downstream water use in agriculture –a fine balancing act Eye-watering reflections on agriculture and H2O



- by Lani Botha


ncreasingly aggressive competition in the modern commercial agricultural marketplace vies with anecdotal evidence that traditional and small-scale co-operative farming should not be abolished. As water shortages add pressure, the upstream and downstream industry impacts on agriculture are also becoming a hot button begging for bridging collaboration among resource competitors. Although less than a third of the planet’s freshwater is available to sustain life on earth – the remaining two-thirds being on ice at the poles, water cooler exchanges about H2O scarcity have not yet reached the level of popularity they deserve. Industry, on the other hand, is acutely aware of how the uneven surface distribution of this constant affects not only the bottom line, but also the sustainability of mining, agriculture and manufacturing futures. Eye-watering predictions Sunny South Africa, meted out less than half earth’s 985 millimetres of rainfall annually, is water-stressed – increasingly so as you move west. Adding a tinge of rouge to this bleak picture, the warming planet will amplify floods and droughts, higher evaporation rates and soil degradation. While South Africa carries an extensive albeit ageing system of water catchment, damming and man-made transfer tributaries, freshwater quality labours under swelling pollution, wetland and river catchment abolition, and deforestation – as mining, agriculture, manufacturing and energy companies scramble to meet the diverse demands of Africa’s growth trajectory amid urbanisation. When I attended the Gauteng Water Summit in Johannesburg pre-COP17, the Department of Water and Environmental Affairs confirmed that 2015 would be the year that Gauteng water demand would outstrip supply, while in 2025 the buck would stop (drinking) in the rest of the country. Although about 36% more South Africans can access potable water today as opposed to 1994, a hazardously similar percentage of our water is today unaccounted for – that is, R11 billion or half the water in the Vaal dam wasted annually. In a country where we spend one-and-a-half times more on clothing than on education, with a corresponding premium on DStv subscription over retirement

annuities, a shift in thinking to conservation wisdom means a shift in attitude rather than amplitude. Same issues, different industry Resource cost and supply reliability, the pace of technology advances and knowledge transfer, worker rights and compensation, waste management and regeneration, and fluctuating market demographics play devil’s advocate across industries heavily reliant on one another for stability. The trick here is for each industry to invest now in the latest clean and resource-efficient technologies available to market – to ensure their operations do not affect each other adversely. After all, industries are competing for the same scarce resources, while time is agile and balance the golden mean. Also dominating dialogue at the country’s first Industrial Resource Efficiency Conference earlier this year, cleaner production and improved resource use needs to be balanced with employment creation if we are to ensure South Africa’s sustainable global competitiveness. Food for thought: yielding the axe Although the US department of Agriculture’s latest World Agricultural Production report puts South African commercial agriculture productivity safely ahead of our sub-Saharan cousins, we are far behind the yields per hectare achieved further up the Continent and in the European Union. Aside from output per hectare, our productivity is also benchmarked against capital, labour, fertilizers, irrigation, fuel, access to markets and insurance. Interdependence: agriculture and water Agriculture including irrigation requires 60% of the country’s water resources, while mining/industrial and urban/domestic users each require only a tenth of our precious water reserves – the remaining fifth in environmental application, the Water Research Commission reports. To make common sense of agriculture’s mammoth share, consider that affluent households spend nearly half their water just on watering the garden. Although downstream users may use substantially less water, the irreversible damage of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD),

effluent discharge (especially from non-compliant Waste Water Treatment Works) and inefficient distribution systems highlight the murky fact that water services can’t be provided without clean water resources. However, the management of our water resources (rivers, dams, wetlands and groundwater) and water services (access to potable water and sanitation) are dealt with separately in the Constitution and legislation – and perhaps therein lies the problem. Tomorrow’s ‘hydrogarchs’ Rand Water alone provides 45% of the South African headcount and 60% of the economy with water it sells to local authorities, mines and factories, distributed over an 18 000km2 area that includes Gauteng, parts of Mpumalanga, the North West, Free State and Limpopo Provinces. Indirectly, this supplies 12 million homes, schools and businesses with clean water. As chief water consumers, farming and agro-processing communities are natural water custodians. Poorly operated and over-extended wastewater treatment works hold material risk for farmers, as water becomes unfit for irrigation, recreational or livestock watering uses, which directly and severely impacts downstream users. Conversely, commercial farming increases soil erosion through ploughing, overgrazing, logging and road building – creating murky water and raised salt and mineral content; while fertiliser use compounds nitrate and phosphate levels – resulting in algae blooms and eutrophication, and the downstream harm in pesticides. Upstream, pollution due to industry chemical, consumer sewage, mining waste and infrastructure breakdown related to urbanisation and industrialisation adversely affect the pH, colour and murkiness, temperature, as well as nutrient, mineral and salt content of water sorely needed for agricultural use. Whose problem is it any way? Poor water management in the North West Province Water this year afflicted 237 local authorities and was brought on by a high concentration of industries and factories with a correspondingly high concentrated water demand – which brings me back to the importance of a balanced approach. In the Province, business was left to mop



2010 McKinsey report on South Africa’s water challenges estimated demand for water in South Africa will reach nearly 18 billion m3 in 2030, while current supply at 15 billion m3 is severely constrained by low levels of highly seasonal rainfall, insufficient aquifers, and a dependency on water transfers between basins and from other countries. South Africa purchases nearly 25% of its total water supply from nearby Lesotho. What’s more, climate change could exacerbate the problem: even a small decrease in rainfall, and a corresponding increase in irrigation requirements, could result in a gap as large as 3.8 billion m3!

up a problem that rightfully belonged to a District Council (water management) and Municipality (distribution). While industry, climate change and management inefficiencies vie for blame, the truth is alternative decentralised solutions need to be unearthed without delay. Because among the millions affected by the NWP crisis are subsistence farmers, already dealing with the pinch of more frequent droughts of the past two decades, which not only depletes their livestock but also exacerbates stock theft, veld fires and animal diseases. Urban tolling crisis Potchefstroom residents had to survive on 40 litres of water each earlier this year, while metropolitan municipality Ekurhuleni’s 3 million residents receive 340 million kilolitres annually – yet the City will spend an additional R1.3 billion over the next decade just to halve its water waste! Fair trade: a dietary or subsistence issue? A decade-old Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF) report identified sugar cane, rice, cotton and wheat as the world’s ‘thirstiest’ crops, accounting for 58% of the world’s

irrigated farmland. Yet, half the world depends on rice as food and income source, cotton is a vital cash crop for African, Asian and Latin American SMEs, and sugar is too lucrative a cash cow for the EU and US to pass up. Looking at South Africa, where 1.5% of the land mass under irrigation requires 63% of the country’s available freshwater to produce 30% of our crop yield, PR alone will not save these farmers – should a tug of war over water spill over into their fields. Yet only 12% of our land is considered arable and only 3% abundant for crop farming, with 69% of South Africa’s surface area given over to grazing and livestock farming. Of course, the budding, better-off population demands more animal and fish proteins, fresh fruit and vegetables, exacerbating demand and supply complexities. Light at the end of the causeway While farmers grapple with higher input costs and expected yields on smaller tracts of arable land using less water and harmful chemicals, they are also challenged to rethink old farming methods and tools – ears

close to the ground, so as not to miss news of a tested or proven novelty. Globalisation has brought to our shores the definite advantages of technology and farming practice knowledge transfer to the benefit of local agricultural industries. Water-wise agriculture ‘New’ farming models, such as terracing and reforestation to combat soil erosion and improve carbon sinking, improved weather forecasting and insurance, conservation and no-tillage farming, wetland restoration, co-operative small-scale farming practices, animal manure biogas fuel generation and repopulation of mono-culture grassland, are begging local attention by virtue of their proven commercial and environmental benefits. Innovations in soil and water regeneration, seed and fertisliser, and irrigation technologies will be reviewed in depth in the next issue – to see where and how we may be missing the boat that’s certainly out there! About Lani Botha Two decades of dabbling in publishing, journalism and corporate communications arms Lani with ever-evolving insights into the risks and rewards associated with corporate governance and reputation. A news generalist with a soft spot for agriculture, SME development and public-private sector relations , Lani consults to clients operating in ICT, energy, retail, mining and manufacturing, academic, NGO and government spheres.

Where is Earth’s Water? Freshwater 2.5%

Surface/other freshwater 1.3%

Atmosphere 0.22%

Living things 0.22% Rivers 0.46% Swamps, marshes 2.5% Soil moisture 3.5%

Other saline water 1.0%

Groundwater 30.1%

Lakes 20.1%

Oceans 96.5%

Glaciers and ice caps 68.6%

Ice and snow 73.1%

Total global water


Surface water and other freshwater

Source: Igor Shildermanov’s chapter “World fresh water resources” in Peter H. Gleck (editor) 1991, Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World’s fresh Water Resources. (Numbers are rounded)

























GROWING CAPACITY 1GOAL TO MOVE YOUR BUSINESS FORWARD Dube AgriZone, the largest climate-controlled growing area under glass in Africa, is able to produce peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers and flowers of consistently superior quality and longer shelf life all year round. This state-of-the-art facility also includes its own packing and distribution centre, as well as a micro-propagation lab.

21st Century


Report: International Energy Agency Edited by Lloyd Macfarlane


oal: currently supplying more than 40 percent of the world electricity consumption, providing an essential 70 percent input of world steel production, and representing approximately 30 percent of the global primary energy supply. Why is coal such a widely utilised resource today? It is cheap, abundant, easily accessible, widely distributed across the globe, and easy energy to transport, store and use. For these reasons, coal is predicted to be used extensively in the future. But, being a non-renewable resource, its production and use inevitably results in various issues across the value chain. The primary mandate of the International Energy Agency (IEA) is to promote energy security amongst its member countries through collective response to physical disruptions in oil supply, and to provide authoritative research and analysis on ways to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 28 member countries and beyond. In doing so, a report was researched and created by IEA which focuses on the technology path to near-zero emissions (NZE). The phrase “21st Century Coal” was adopted by the US and China to describe the importance of strategic international partnerships to advance the development of NZE technology and the report demonstrates the reasons for confidence in coal’s ability to provide a solution to the global objectives of economic sustainability, energy security, and NZE, and is broken up into four areas of consideration. Conclusions It is technically possible today to incorporate equipment to capture CO2 in all types of new coal fuelled power plants. Depending on available space and other considerations, such equipment also can be retrofitted to



existing coal fuelled plants. The importance of retrofit should not be underestimated based on the large number of new coal units being added. Unfortunately, today’s CO2 capture technology is very costly. A recent review by the IEA of a variety of engineering studies conducted by a range of organisations that showed the cost of electricity from a new coal power plant with CO2 capture was estimated to be from 40 to 89 percent higher than a new coal plant without CO2 capture. Ultimately, in order to get over the hurdle and achieve the cost reductions brought by technology maturity, it will be necessary for governments to specifically support CCS demonstration projects with capital grants as well as support for the power prices. Even if additional revenues can be obtained from the sale of CO2 for EOR, they may not be sufficient to allow full financing in all cases. While coal use remains significant, its continued use has been challenged by growing environmental concerns, particularly related to increases in anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Adding technologies that can reduce CO2 emissions from coal (primarily by using CCS or CCUS) is possible but adds considerable cost, risk, and complexity to coal fuelled power plants, particularly at their current stages of maturity. Coal remains an important and prevalent fuel for the production of electricity. Its low cost, abundance, and broad distribution make it attractive for power production, particularly in emerging countries such as China and India, where coal fuelled power has increased dramatically in recent years as demand for energy and the higher standard of living it brings have grown along with the population.

Edited by Lloyd Macfarlane

Four areas of consideration Coal and the CO2 challenge Discussed here are the benefits of and the need for coal, issues associated with coal use especially related to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, as well as roadmaps to improve coal use and continue on a path toward zero emissions. With the increase in the global demand for energy comes the increase in the release of CO2 emissions. The IEA has found that with attempting to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the costs of achieving climate goals are significantly reduced when carbon-capture and storage (CCS) technologies are implemented. This, along with increasing the thermal efficiency, can effectively lower carbon emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The development and deployment of advanced coal with CCS technologies that is needed to achieve substantial carbon emission reductions will require extensive research, development, and demonstration investment.

Carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) Focus is drawn to the potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) to enable the economic viability of CCS, together with the need for and status of CCUS demonstrations. CCS demonstrations are needed most often on power plants as these plants play major roles in releasing carbon emissions. But, significant government support is needed for these demonstrations to be carried out. The utilisation of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) seems to be the way forward as additional streams of revenue assists the feasibility and capability of the projects. The IEA has found that methods to increase carbon storage in conjunction with EOR may further increase the capacity to store.

Evaluation of advanced coal-fuelled electricity generation technologies The IEA report provides insights into groundbreaking technology innovations for advanced coal plants to improve efficiency and reduce emissions including CO2. The report finds that there are multiple types of coal-fueled power plant technologies that exist or are being developed, but considerable advancement still needs to take place in this regard.. More advanced, future technologies are definitely capable of further improving efficiency. In particular, fuel cells hold the potential of achieving increases in efficiency of up to 60 percent.

Flexibility of coal-fuelled power plants for dynamic operation and grid stability The essential features of fossil fuelled power plants are assessed on their ability to operate dynamically on grids with intermittent wind and solar. Improving the flexibility of existing and developing coal plants can be accomplished through various strategies which involve both technical and operational improvements. These include implementing coal plant flexibility as early in the design process as possible, when it is most effective; optimising use of the capabilities of existing control systems; and collecting and using lessons learned to establish better operating practices.




Manufacturers benefit from cost-saving measures in a slow economy

- by Lani Botha


here is a clear business case for investment in organisational sustainability – smart adaptations that save manufacturers money while cleaning up their environmental act – when slow growth releases pressure on the production line. Sustainable production: a global issue Increased demand and technical advances over the last century raised production levels, often with very little consideration for the environmental ramifications. This century is a watershed, where population growth, consumption patterns and production methods threaten the natural system that has buttressed our road to social and economic wealth. Environmental policy revision, corporate reform and consumer activism share the objectives of accountability and sustainable development. A greener global economy requires industrial development that assures economic growth and increased standard of living, whilst at the same time reducing resource use, pollution, waste and its impact on nature and communities.

With African manufactured output doubling over the last decade, the pressure is on for local producers – big contributors to carbon emissions and massive users of water and energy resources – to realise the investment opportunities presented by improved efficiencies in energy and water conservation, waste and GHG reductions. International and South African authorities have put attractive incentives and support mechanisms in place to aid manufacturers keen on investing in positive change. In short, it is prudent to ‘clean house’ while the economy is slow.

Support mechanisms: industry aided The United Nations’ Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) and Environment Programme (UNEP) have been establishing national cleaner production centres (NCPCs) in developing economies since 1994. These NCPCs roll out resource efficiency and cleaner production (RECP) programmes that equip emerging economies with improved competitive technologies sensitive to best-practice environmental and natural resource use. So far, RECP programmes exist in 47 developing and transition countries to harmonise productivity, environmental

The business case: industrial sustainability in Africa A taxing economic climate fuels the urgency to sharpen any organisation’s competitive edge, thereby liberating resources for investment in growth and job creation. South Africa’s Department of Trade and Industry (the dti) believes Africa’s growing domestic markets – 1 billion plus consumers – must be served by boosting local manufacture and free trade.


Steam Expert Training and social imperatives. The network, known as RECPnet, provides a useful platform for sharing success stories, policies and best practices. In South Africa, the National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa (NCPC-SA) is funded by the dti as its key industrial sustainability programme for the manufacturing industry focused on energy, water and materials efficiency, as well as waste management. The NCPC-SA actively engages producers on resource efficient business practices, and offers support through in-plant assessments and training programmes using the RECP toolkit. RECP assessments are carried out at participating companies targeted using a sector approach, aligned to government’s Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP). The process includes energy, water and material assessments to gauge current consumption levels and opportunities for reduction; as well as waste assessments, to benchmark existing waste generation against reduction targets. Proven cost savings: material drop in energy use By implementing innovative energy-saving measures, resource-intensive manufacturers find that they can meet the growing demands of consumers for more and cheaper goods, whilst migrating to cleaner production processes and methodologies, reducing



their carbon footprint and liberating capital for investment in growth. This is not pure theory, with many South African success stories in the bag. Businesses adapting in a timely manner through innovative and more efficient methodologies have demonstrated remarkable resilience by developing new business models that recognize the need to do more with less. Profitability: a steamy return on energy investment Stanger-based manufacturer Gledhow Sugar Company runs a factory 24/7 nine months of the year to process 1.5 million tons of sugar cane into refined white sugar, fibre for paper production and molasses. Although Geldhow generates enough steam power for internal use by burning coal and bagasse during harvesting, the factory relies on electrical power from the local municipality out of season, three months of the year. In 2011, Gledhow Engineering Manager, Barry Parkin, commissioned the NCPC-SA’s Industrial Energy Efficiency (IEE) Project to conduct a baseline study into the factory’s energy and mass balance, keen to improve the factory’s energy efficiency, reduce the amount of coal used and to increase profitability. Numerous opportunities were identified to improve Gledhow’s steam distribution network, leading to improvements in

thermal insulation, boiler controls and the introduction of a steam trap and steam leak maintenance programme. This saved the company R500,000 in energy costs during 2012 alone! Gledhow invested R210,000 into cleaner production methods, which included courses in energy management; motors; and steam, compressed air and fan system optimisation for the engineering manager, mechanical and electrical engineers, and electrical technician. After attending the courses, the engineering team were equipped to actively champion energy optimisation technologies and initiate energy optimisation projects at the factory, with the tools and insight to ensure success. Because the investment cost was recouped within six months, Gledhow possessed capital to invest a sizeable R2,25 million into four more energy-saving projects during 2013. This year, Gledhow also installed soot blowers and automated boiler blow down systems on its coal-fired boiler. To boot, Parkin not only became one of the country’s first Expert Level Steam Specialists, but Gledhow now operates as a Training Host Plant with the IEE Project, fast-tracking advanced energy efficiency implementation for future gain. As a spin-off, improved energy efficiency may enable GSC in future to bid for renewable energy cogeneration in the Department of Energy’s Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer (REIPP) Procurement Programme.

Put your energy behind smarter savings The Industrial Energy Efficiency Project (IEE Project) teaches South African industries how to use available energy resources more productively, so that energy-intensive industrial stakeholders (such as mining, automotive, metals, chemicals and agro-processing plants) can implement and optimise energy management systems. Now in its fourth year, the IEE Project (run by the NCPC-SA, in collaboration with UNIDO) focuses on implementation of energy saving interventions and training energy experts to drive and manage the processes. To date, 31 experts have been trained and 111 more are undergoing expert level training in energy management systems (EnMS) and/or energy systems optimisation (ESO) – the optimisation of energy systems, including fan, motor, steam, compressed air and pump systems. An increasing number of companies are signing up as demonstration plants, where energy experts practice their newly acquired skills, implementing energy efficiency interventions that result in substantial energy savings and carbon emission reductions. To date, EnMS and ESO interventions at demonstration plants have resulted in energy savings of over 270 GWh, which translates into a cost saving of R 229 million and carbon emission reductions of almost 255 000 tons of CO2. Incentivising savings: return on investment To support industrial sectors in enhancing their competitiveness and job creation targets, the South African government offers a

suite of incentive schemes to bolster cleaner and more resource efficient production with financial support. The dti’s Manufacturing Competitiveness Enhancement Programme (MCEP), launched in May 2012 as a key driver of the Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP) 2012/13 – 2014/15, helps manufacturers to upgrade their pro-

for growth, local companies cannot afford to exclude resource efficiency and cleaner production from their business mandate. And in the face of increasing energy and resource prices, efficiency is now a business imperative – not a nice-to-have... By committing to implementing sector-relevant adaptations and by increasing

A greener global economy requires industrial development that assures economic growth and increased standard of living, whilst at the same time reducing resource use, pollution, waste and its impact on nature and communities duction facilities and methods through one of two mechanisms, co-managed with the Industrial Development Corporation (IDC): • the Productivity Incentive (PI) and • Industrial Financing Loan Facilities. In granting financial assistance for new technology and advanced manufacturing, the dti makes sustainable transformation more accessible to companies, particularly small and medium enterprises, in sectors under threat from international competition, low margins and increased compliance requirements. Call to action: the buck starts here For South African industry to compete in an increasingly environmentally aware global marketplace and on a Continent geared

awareness among employees and supply chains of this imperative, manufacturers can realise substantive downstream business opportunities – not only in garnering customer and industry reputational mileage, but tangible financial benefits at this time while the focus and feasibility for change is at its greatest! In the next issues, we will explore further support, cost-saving and business opportunities that exist, and are being seized by forward-thinking producers, to make the most of their sustainability journey. Manufacturers (particularly those in the key sectors targeted by the NCPC-SA) can email to enquire about an RECP assessment or resource and energy efficiency training.


The Role of Infrastructure in a Sustainable Society By Kristan Wood



“  I

nfrastructure … is probably the single most important need for Africa to develop.” These are the words of Stephen Hayes, president of the Corporate Council on Africa – a major U.S. business organisation linking the United States with Africa. The development of infrastructure is essential for the creation of a healthy, happy and thriving economic climate in communities. Future endorsements, successes and the enhancement of sustainable development rely on an efficient infrastructure programme within any given country. Particularly in developing countries such as South Africa, the planning, design and construction of sustainable infrastructure is of vital importance – how else are we to connect and grow as a nation? If infrastructure is to be of benefit to future generations and contribute positively to the potential of a country, it must be sustainable. Infrastructure in South Africa can and should be viewed as an investment into economic growth, and therefore, it is not only the short term provision of infrastructure that holds weight, but it is the planning and designing which will take full account of its own impact and its operational needs and use. A responsible standard of sustainable infrastructure plans and designs needs to be set in both the short and long term and those who set the standard are held liable for designs that benefit not just the public, but the environment as well. What precautions and plans has South Africa proposed in an effort to achieve these aims? National Infrastructure Plan: The South African Government adopted a National Infrastructure Plan in 2012. With the plan, the government aim to transform the country’s economic landscape while simultaneously creating significant numbers of new jobs, and strengthening the delivery


of basic services. The plan also supports the integration of African economies. Government will, over the three years from 2013/14, invest R827 billion in building new and upgrading existing infrastructures, Minister of Finance Pravin Gordhan announced in his 2013 Budget Speech. These investments will improve access by South Africans to healthcare facilities, schools, water, sanitation, housing and electrification. On the other hand, investment in the construction of ports, roads, railway systems, electricity plants, hospitals, schools and dams will contribute to faster economic growth. Gordhan delivered a good budget from an infrastructure point of view with budgeted spending for public-sector infrastructure totalling R827 billion over the next three years. But the challenge for the state and South Africa is implementation and delivery on the ground and the huge amounts of the budget that are wasted each year through corruption and chronic implementation. South Africa has spent R642 billion over the last three years on infrastructure projects in the public sector and a substantial number of projects are in progress or about to get under way. Weaknesses in planning and capacity, however, continue to delay implementation of some projects. But Gordhan said steps were being taken to address the problem: “Government is improving capacity to plan, procure, manage and monitor projects, as well as working more closely with the private sector at various stages of the project development cycle. Building technical capacity in the public sector is a multi-year effort, and initiatives to strengthen these functions have expanded.” Gauteng Department of Infrastructure Development (GDID) The GDID Green Programme starts from the premise that achieving a green Gauteng is a major challenge, as well as a key opportunity. It is a challenge because it requires a fundamental shift away from historical ways of organising and managing our society and economy. Accelerating climate change; resource constraints and rapidly rising prices; the sudden re-appearance of environmental risks that were previously not accounted for – are all key drivers for change. There are major market opportunities and many decent jobs that can be realised from building a green economy. And fundamental changes in the way we live will bring healthier, happier and more resilient communities and households – something that has huge value evenin isolation. GDID has embarked on a project to quantify the usable roof space in all government owned buildings in the Gauteng province. It



is estimated that all government buildings have approximately 8 million square meters of roof tops that could be used for the mass roll-out of solar panels. If all the roof spaces are utilised, up to 300MW of electricity could be generated from public buildings alone. The department also believes that a mass roll-out of solar panels in the province can be used to spark a massive demand for solar PV technologies. Gauteng can utilise this demand to spark the development of a

Council provides tools, training, knowledge, connections and networks to promote green building practices across the country and seeks to build a national movement that will change the way the world is built. But what does the concept of green building entail? Green building incorporates design, construction and operational practices that significantly reduce or eliminate the negative impact of development on the environment and people. Green buildings are

Government is improving capacity to plan, procure, manage and monitor projects, as well as working more closely with the private sector at various stages of the project development cycle solar manufacturing industry in the province. Experience gained in South Korea indicates that a solar panel manufacturing facility can be built from a demand of approximately 12MW/month and GDID’s potential demand alone could sustain a standard factory for a period of two years. A partnering with Eskom has also been approved to audit and retrofit all government buildings with energy efficient technologies including lighting, air conditioning and water heating. South Africa’s infrastructure plan sufficiently incorporates an inclusive social agenda. It begins from the premise that it is not enough to merely select a limited number of economic firms or clusters for targeted green support, but that rather the sustainability of our economy depends on a fundamental transformation in number of sectors. “These cross-cutting sectors include air quality, climate change, economic development, energy, food security, land use, transport, water and sanitation, and waste, which together form the foundation for a true green economy,” reports GDID. “The department’s view is that investing in these sectors will promote economic growth so that green jobs become the norm, rather than add-ons to inherently unsustainable development. This broader shift in its development path will see Gauteng at the forefront of sustainable economic development.” Green Building Council of South Africa The Green Building Council of South Africa is an independent, non-profit company that was formed in 2007 to lead the greening of South Africa’s built environment. The

energy efficient, resource efficient and environmentally responsible. The green building movement addresses what are becoming the major issues of our time: excess energy consumption and the related CO2 emissions from burning carbon fuels; the pollution of air, water and land; the depletion of natural resources; and the disposal of waste.S Sustainable Infrastructure It is possible to then deduce that sustainable infrastructure design is not just about incorporating new infrastructure into society – it is about the rehabilitation, reuse and optimisation of existing infrastructure. This includes the renewal of existing infrastructure, the long-term economic analysis and considered benefits of infrastructure, energy and cost mitigation in the building process, the protection of existing infrastructure from the environment as well as the conservation of the environment during material selection and the building process. Sustainable infrastructure and responsible design should balance all social, economic and environmental issues. In both developed and developing nations globally, a lack of, or compromised access to clean water, sanitation, energy, transportation and various facilities severely compromises the growth of the economy. Basic infrastructure is therefore not a luxury that can be implemented once a country is established, but a necessity for supporting and creating a sustainable economic environment. The stipulation of appropriate infrastructure is an urgent and ongoing requirement not just for South Africa or Africa, but on a global level.


Fact Sheet Step-by-step guide to help you start recycling from home or at your office. 1. Separate your paper: Here are some useful “do’s” and “don’ts” to help you remember when separating your recycling products:



Old memos / letters Computer paper Used photocopy paper Windowless envelopes Old books Pale coloured paper (invoices, etc.) Newspapers Magazines Cardboard (flattened) Old telephone books and Yellow Pages directories

Polystyrene or paper cups and plates Yoghurt cartons Sweet / chip wrappers Blueprint paper Organic material (such as old food and vegetables) Cigarette ends Tissues and paper towels Cardboard Any bags which include a foiled lining on the inside, e.g. dog food bags Post-it notes (these are not recyclable because of the glues used to make them) Wax paper or waxed cartons (such as frozen fish boxes on paper)

2. The next is to identify what to do with your collected paper: Paper banks and depots There are Mpact Recycling paper banks in place at many churches, schools, old age homes, community centres and dump sites. Choose a paper bank closest to you. Depots can also be found at many shopping centres, and dump sites. Call an Mpact Recycling branch near you to find out where your closest depot is. Kerbside collections Mpact Recycling operates kerbside collections in some suburbs across South Africa. Households are provided with orange Ronnie Recycler bags for paper recycling. This is the easiest, most efficient way to recycling your paper. This is a free service. Call 0800 022 112 to check if your neighbourhood is listed for collections. Schools You can find Mpact Recycling paper banks at most schools. For schools that want to promote awareness about recycling, please contact 0800 022 112 to get more details. Offices Mpact Recycling offers different programmes for offices and businesses. Contact your nearest Mpact Recycling branch to find out how this works and how your office can get involved. To find out about collection initiatives in your neighbourhood, from home or at community depots, please call: 0800 022 112 or email Gauteng Tulisa Park : 011 538 8600 Midrand : 011 315 8450 Pretoria West : 012 386 1383 Springs : 011 360 4460



Cape Town Parow : 021 931 5106 KwaZulu- Natal Richards Bay : 035 751 1722 Durban : 031 274 6600


BlackAfrica Group _ 2541

Let’s not waste our earth’s scarce resources. When you recycle with Mpact Recycling, your waste paper is used to make paper and other products, saving many of these resources and contributing to a sustainable future not only for you but for the next generation. Not only is Mpact Recycling the largest collector of paper for recycling in South Africa, Mpact is the largest producer of paper made from recycled materials in the country. Mpact is involved in the entire process from collecting discarded paper all the way through to making the paper from it and converting it into boxes. What’s more, by recycling, you are helping to employ over 30,000 people involved in the industry. Having empowered over 170 small businesses to facilitate their own recycling collections, Mpact is also actively leading change in the industry through smarter, sustainable thinking.

How do we jump-up the level of waste recycling in SA by Gordon Brown



investments. What is required to overcome this in some part is a greater commitment by large buyers to eco-procurement, which would dictate that buyers always choose recycled content (within certain pricing parameters of course). Recyclability can be dramatically improved through choosing recyclable materials over non-recyclable materials, and within that bracket – choosing materials that are more valuable to recyclers over those that are problematic and earn lower yields. A key to recyclability is also how materials are combined with others – if they are fused their recyclability diminishes, if they are designed for deconstruction and separation, their recyclability improves. Good examples of design interventions to improve recyclability are… Producer and retailer responsibility The key to driving this redesign process is market pressure. As producers and retailers are either being forced or are voluntarily leading the way in placing pressure on producers and packagers to reduce volumes and increase recyclability, things are changing. Great examples of companies taking responsibility for their waste streams include members of the Rose Foundation and members EWASA.


ndustry representatives and experts recently work shopped the question – what can be done to trigger a stepped or jumped level of recycling. Speakers and delegates were attending the Vision Zero Waste Seminar, as part of Sustainability Week, held in partnership with the National Recycling Forum, and co-chaired by Dow Steyn, head of the NRF. The question emerged as fundamental to the discussion – was the blockage to radical step up a supply side problem or a demand side problem? In simple terms was the problem a lack of supply or lack of demand for recycled materials? The view was expressed that industry could and would consume as much recycled content as the recyclers could offer, and this was true of glass, metals, paper and plastics – and more importantly for many waste streams economies of scale only kick in at volume far greater than South Africa

currently generates. The contrary view was that demand was price based and the price of recycled materials was too low to trigger a meaningful response from the supply side. Insight can be found in evaluating the recycling value chain: Producer packager Product design, manufacturing, packaging and materials selection could have the most profound effect on the system. The point was mooted and it was broadly agreed that while some companies were doing great work in this regard, industries could do a lot more. The procurement of recycled materials instead of virgin materials was affected by price fluctuations in the commodities markets – for example, when the oil price is low virgin plastic is cheaper than recycled plastic, and vice versa, making it difficult for recyclers to attract large scale capex

Role of the consumer/user in separating at source It was widely argued by participants across the board that stepping up onsite waste separation by the user/consumer would result in a stepped up level of recycling overall. This being the case, why was it still not a widely facilitated practice by municipalities and collectors? Why, if the demand for waste materials was strong from both collectors and beneficiators, is it that households and businesses are not offered financially creative and service oriented solutions to encourage them to separate their waste? Role of the municipality/collector This brings in the municipality who runs the landfill site, space in which is rapidly being used up. Landfills are expensive to decommission and to commission, the process of disposing of separated waste is inefficient and due to the creation and leaking of methane gas and other leachates, is very harmful to the environment. Landfills also negatively affect land values in the area, among many other negatives. This being the case and given the demand for recycled materials, why are municipalities not doing more to facilitate and encourage separation at source by collecting recyclables separately? At the Zero Waste Seminar in 2012 a cost


comparison illustrated that even at R232 per ton for disposal, it was still the cheapest way to deal with waste – I cannot believe this is still the case, and if it is, why can’t municipalities introduce business models to change this. An example is that in some Swiss cities, there is a split tariff – a low tariff is charged for collection of separated waste and a high tariff for non-separated waste, why can’t we look at something along these lines in SA? Ex tractors and collector/sorters There are two types of operator: those that extract valuable materials from separated waste (dirty MURF), and those that collect and/or receive separated waste (clean MURF). Both are important and not mutually exclusive but do compete. It is desirable and predictable that over the longer term, and as the level of separation at source increases the returns for extractors will diminish, and the returns for collector/sorters will increase.



How can the services of collector/sorters be made more attractive to consumers? If these businesses jumped meaningfully in scale and coverage, the volume of waste materials world spike, and costs to the municipality of waste disposal would plummet. This is because municipalities do not charge per volume – but charge a set rate, so if they have less to collect and dispose to landfill the more they earn. Can this increase in earnings in some way be directed to incentivising households to use collector/sorters? Beneficiator The beneficiator converts separated waste volume back into input materials and sells to industry. He is second from the top of the recycling value chain – at the top are the product producers and packagers, they decide whether to procure recycled materials or virgin materials. For recycling to see a market step up, beneficiators have to be prospering. How will they prosper?

If producers applied eco procurement to ensure that recycled content is always preferred over non recycled content (within price parameters), then the demand for recycled material would spike. Greater profits of beneficiators would lead more entrepreneurs into the sector and advance the business of separator/sorters, who in turn would redouble their efforts in obtaining peoples separated waste. This would give rise to a greater level of service from collectors and in turn make it more convenient for consumers who would be more likely to separate their waste. In conclusion – there is chicken and egg conundrum in recycling: too little and it’s not profitable, too cheap and there’s no incentive to recycle. Can this gap be bridged through a combination of government policy and market instruments? One other question that plagued the panel – was it worth the effort to solve it? To this observer the answer is an unequivocal yes.


Find partnerships in unlikely places. Since 1993, we have collected no less than 950 000 tons of cans from our surrounding environments. By partnering with Collect-a-Can, we can increase this recovery rate and further conserve and sustain the environment. To find out how we can keep our country beautiful contact us on (011) 466 2939 or visit Recycle cans today. Sustain tomorrow.

@raychaplin | 2404 bs

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Green business journal issue 9  
Green business journal issue 9