www.gs1kenya.org ISSUE 15 : DECEMBER 2012 - FEBRUARY 2013
Retail Bidco Goes World Class Role Traceability plays in Retail Industry Emerging Retail Trends Curbing losses for retailers Sharing Knowledge to Improve Businesses
GS1 Gateway DECEMBER 2012 - FEBRUARY 2013
GS1 Gateway DECEMBER 2012 - FEBRUARY 2013 ISSUE 15
Emerging Retail Trends CEO's Message
Turning Concepts to Reality Total Solutions
Curbing losses for retailers HIPORA BUSINESS SOLUTIONS
Sharing Knowledge to Improve Businesses PERGAMON GROUP LIMITED
Bidco Goes World Class Powerful insights into consumer goods markets Zuhuracare Venture YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS INITIATIVE
EDITORIAL TEAM PROJECT LEADER CONSULTING EDITOR DESIGN & LAYOUT
: Dorothy Kwamboka : Ritah Munyivah : ovakast
Gateway is published by GS1 Kenya, it’s distributed through out East Africa. Contributions are highly welcome. The editor reserves the rights to edit, amend or alter material in anyway deemed necessary. Comments and/or suggestions to be emailed to email@example.com © 2012 Gateway all rights reserved, and may not be reproduced in any manner, in whole or in part at all times. GS1 Kenya Allbid House, 2nd Flr, Wing C, Opp. ASL Packaging, Mombasa Road Tel: +254 20-231 9414/238 5270, 232 1927 Cell: + 254 71 012 2252, 73 596 5168 Fax : + 254- 20 - 2353520 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Role Traceability plays in Retail Industry
Message from Chairman
Role Traceability plays in Retail Industry Ken Odire Chiairman, GS1 Kenya
enya has a strong domestic market - only 4% of agricultural production is exported. The value of horticultural exports is in excess of US $1 billion (KES 85 billion) per annum. Food safety is inﬂuenced by challenges facing the region, the changing requirements of international markets, the multiplicity of standards, the importance of traceability, and the need for a National Food Safety Control System and quality control standards. This calls for need to build capacity with regard to good safety. Implementing the controls and processes is expensive and major producers drop smallholders. These issues must be addressed together. Food safety, product tracing, and product recalls are currently at the forefront of most government regulations and industry concerns around the world. Companies are facing numerous track and trace requirements, not always easily reconcilable. Moreover technology offers various ways of achieving traceability and many solutions exist for national, regional and global supply chain participants. As a result, to facilitate trade today, it is necessary to implement international standards and ensure interoperability of traceability systems. And that’s where GS1 comes in.
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GS1 offers traceability and recalls standards and supports their implementation to enhance companies’ business processes and to address today’s challenges. GS1 Kenya offers traceability for locally produced goods, a key requirement of exporting products to foreign international markets. The standard is particularly useful in fresh produce, dairy, horticultural and other food products such as ﬁsh, poultry and meat /beef. Traceability is important incase of product recalls from the consumer and a good indicator of safety considerations for the consumer.
The GS1 Traceability Standard deﬁnes business rules and minimum requirements to be followed when designing and implementing a traceability system. • Importance of traceability • Guarantees product safety and ensures product safety • Easy recall mechanism • Requirement for global trade process • International best practice. The beneﬁts far more outweigh the costs of not investing in traceability systems especially with the growing agitation for consumer safety and known product source .The stringent requirement not only applies to foreign market trade products but also locally available products in our grocery shops and Retail outlets.
Recent estimates points to about Kshs 3Billion per annum of the industry’s 100 Billion market value .The huge costs of shrinkage is obviously a concern to both policy makers, law enforcers and key stakeholders in the retail industry.
Dick Waswa Chief Executive Ofﬁcer GS1 Kenya
Emerging Retail Trends
n a global scene, Retail and supply chain is undergoing major changes all aimed at improving visibility and reduced costs for products. Some organizations develop their own proprietary identiﬁcation systems; electronic catalogues which are only functional within their organizations. Others use locally developed systems that are functional within conﬁnes of a single sector or single country. GS1 systems enable all stakeholders to efﬁciently and effectively comply with various local and global requirements by ensuring interoperability and compatibility within an organization, between organizations and across global borders .The GS1 systems enable substantial cost reduction and less complexity across all sectors Generally, GS1 systems are applicable in Retail, health care to enhance safety.
As technology penetrates more into the Kenyan population, Mobile phones are becoming an integral part of our lifestyle. Recent CCK ﬁgures indicate about 29 million people on mobile telephony and an estimated 14 Million on the Internet. The global international scene has witnessed the rise of consumers using smart phones which can scan barcodes and get information about individual products. This brings into question issues touching on data quality from all manufacturers when identifying their products uniquely. GS1 Kenya provides a platform that can enhance trusted source of data so that it can be availed to all consumers as and when they need it and serve the manufacturers incase of product recall. We expect in a short horizon, online shopping and use of mobile phones to scan barcodes which will further enhance safety and information right by consumer’s. GS1 Kenya will stand out as the source of trusted data from the various brand owners and be able to add value to the inquisitive public appetite for knowledge. The ultimate beneﬁciaries will be the consumers of the products with quality data for their interpretation. Through its Global Product registry also known as GEPIR, local manufacturers can enlist their products by acquiring GS1 Kenya Barcodes and be visible to the rest of the world for prospective buyers of locally originating products in addition to the market access beneﬁt through use of standards.
GS1 is afﬁliated to 114 other member organizations across the world with expertise in unique identiﬁcation, traceability and standards that are cross-functional. Here in Kenya, GS1 Kenya is synonymous with Barcodes, a key element in Retail outlets in enhancing supply chain efﬁciency. The beneﬁts of system can be widely demonstrated in Retail, manufacturing, logistics ,service industry and affects every aspect of our lives. Kenya retail trade has of late been experiencing shrinkage in store inventory, a phenomenon that can be addressed to some degree by the elimination of human intervention at the point of sale due to non scanning barcodes.
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In Retail, Concerns about consumer safety, product handlings have called for authorities and all stakeholders to act and address important challenges of poor traceability of products especially fresh produce. More than ever before, the GS1 systems will also be applicable in the tracking product source, optimizing production and ensuring good business practice in line with international practice.
Turning Concepts to Reality bout a decade ago, the development and penetration
delivery and support of the best and hardware and software
of information technology (IT) among businesses was
and settling among businesses in the developed world
When it comes to networking solutions, Mr. Mehta notes
transforming how operations were run, back home, businesses
that building a reliable, scalable and cost-effective converged
were still hooked up into what currently can deemed as
network infrastructure involves the integration of multi-
‘traditional’. The computer, one of the basic ingredients in IT
vendor solutions, products and technologies. “At TSL, our
development was rarely found among local businesses. Then,
approach to building a network involves assessment of the
business operations included hand-written receipts coupled
current infrastructure, understanding the customer's unique
with a variety of manual processes such as balancing of books
requirements, designing an optimal solution and ﬁnally
at the end of each business day and stock-taking, thereby
very minimal. While the IT wave was fast sweeping
reducing the chances of making proﬁts. Thanks to automation of business processes, large and small local companies are now
On the other hand, ESET develops software solutions that
able to realize results effectively and efﬁciently.
deliver instant, comprehensive protection against evolving
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computer security threats. TSL’s extensive line of solutions
Businessmen have become aware that investing in solutions
protects across all types of environments and platforms
such as enterprise resource planning (ERP) able to integrate
from workstations and servers to mobile devices, helping
internal and external management information across an entire
its clients maintain maximum protection across all types of
organization, going ﬁscal through the use of Electronic Tax
environments. ESET NOD32 Antivirus, the company’s ﬂagship
Registers (ETRs) machines; a requirement for all businesses in
product, consistently achieves the highest accolades in all
Kenya by the Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA) or even investing
types of comparative testing and is the foundational product
in automated point of sale (POS) solutions are among the
that builds out the ESET product line to include ESET Smart
IT solutions that keep businesses on the competitive edge.
Security, an integrated antivirus, antispyware, anti-spam and
Today, for instance, a business operating without an Internet
personal ﬁrewall solution that combines accuracy, speed
connection or those in the retail sector operating without a
and an extremely small system footprint to create the most
POS solution can easily be deemed as not ‘serious’.
effective security solution in the industry.
For the past 11 years, Total Solutions Limited (TSL), an
integrated ICT solutions provider continues to provide its existing and new clients IT services able to turn a business’s
In 2005, Kenya became the ﬁrst country in the region to go ﬁscal even as the ETR wave continues to move into other
concept into reality. “Over the years, we have provided these
neighboring countries. Then, the initial ETR implementation
services to companies looking to improve their business
process, was characterized by a lot of debate in the country
processes by identifying their needs; present and future for
between business owners and the KRA on the adoption of
them to implement suitable solutions,” explains Mr. Manish
ETRs, introduced by KRA to replace the manual paper system of
Mehta, the company’s Managing Director.
He says the
remitting Value Added Tax (VAT) returns that was considered
company has focused in bridging the gap between equipment
inefﬁcient and straining. The ETR machines offer unique
and business functions to ensure that information is managed
beneﬁts to traders and the KRA alike by recording transaction
quickly and efﬁciently by designing and implementing quality
data in such a manner that it cannot be deleted.
business solutions. The company’s strength lies in providing ﬁscal and business solutions, ability to provide its clients
TSL is among the appointed ETR suppliers by KRA whose task
with software and hardware solutions, technical services and
includes training, delivery and implementation of the devices
networking solutions as well as ESET security services. Total
to all VAT registered traders in the country. To further ensure
Solutions is the appointed sole distributor of ESET, an IT
that the company is in touch with its clients, TSL has appointed
security company providing ESET anti-virus security solutions.
dealers in different parts of the country who have undergone
The Managing Director notes that TSL helps organizations
training in all types of ETR machines it sells in the market.
enhance their business performance through integration,
With less than ﬁve KRA approved ETR national suppliers, TSL boasts of being among the major suppliers servicing up to 4,000 clients nationwide. The company is also an appointed ETR supplier by the Tanzania Revenue Authority. Perception and cultures change issues with regard to the ETR machines aside, Mr. Mehta notes that businesses have continued to derive efﬁciencies; businessmen are able to control their businesses in all areas while at the same time create an accountability system. Challenging As businesses, small or large realize the need to automate their day to day operations, it is against this background companies such as TSL have thrived in providing the required ICT solutions. “Entrepreneurs want to know what is happening at their businesses when they are away, they want to have a daily update of their stock and sales thus the need for businesses to automate their operations has been on the rise,” Mr. Mehta
At TSL, our approach to building a network involves assessment of the current infrastructure, understanding the customer's unique requirements, designing an optimal solution and ﬁnally deploying it.
adds. Demand for solutions such as POS especially within the retail sector and ERP among various businesses can no longer be ignored. At the same time, the IT sector continues to receive major backing from the Government and contributing to the growth of the economy.
Before the end of 2012, Standard POS by HansaWorld will be rolled out in the market giving SMEs a chance to invest in an integrated system which will enable them control their business. The solution will enable them manage their stock, accounts, orders and re-orders or even sourcing of goods while
But even with such positivity, Mr. Mehta notes that awareness and education capable of changing some of the perceptions associated with the take up of ﬁscal solutions remains a
discouraging issues such as micro-management commonly associated with SMEs. “The solution seeks to achieve business efﬁciency,” Mr. Mehta explains.
challenge. “For instance, much of the concentration and focus on the use of ﬁscal machines remains in the urban areas,” Mr. Mehta notes.
TSL operates from Westlands, Nairobi and has regional presence in Dar es Salaam and Arusha, Tanzania. The company has over 80 employees.
Poor infrastructure development continues to hinder the penetration of IT solutions. “Even though TSL has invested in service vans to help service its wide array of clients, issues such as poor road networks and trafﬁc jams continue to hinder this activity,” he laments. Internet connectivity should also be addressed if the development of ICT is to penetrate deeper into the country among businesses.
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As the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) sector continues to take over the country’s economy, there is need to introduce products and services that suit their businesses. TSL plans to introduce into the market a product known as Standard POS by HansaWorld, a POS and Accounting solution for small businesses. “The product takes into consideration two factors; the product and its pricing. In addition, users will be able to access the solutions even through their mobile phones,” he explains. Some of these SMEs operate their businesses on small devices thus the need for such a product.
BCLB N0. 001857
Ms. Hasina Ismail, Trainer/HR Manager and Mr. John Wanjohi, Director – Hipora Business Solutions (E.A)
HIPORA BUSINESS SOLUTIONS
Curbing losses for retailers
GS1 Gateway DECEMBER 2012 - FEBRUARY 2013
or many shoppers, a good shopping experience is all that matters; whether the retailer/supermarket is making losses or proﬁts, most shoppers are more concerned about being able to access and purchase the goods they need. But on the ﬂip side, while the shopper’s business is to pick whatever brought them at the store, pay at the till and move on, what most people do not know is that businessmen in this sub-sector are grappling with some grieve business challenges.
According to the players, while the industry pilferage rate should always be less than two percent, the growing incidents of organized pilferage have become worrying. What was previously thought to be small time cases of shoplifting have today evolved to become organized crime leading to high shrinkage rates on stockholding despite efforts to implement conventional in-store policing measures. Which are now proving futile as these organized rings have also included the supermarket staff. With the formal retail trade market estimated to be worth more than KShs. 200 billion the industry is estimated to be losing more than KShs. 3 billion annually to shoplifters among other shrinkage avenues. Some of the high value goods likely to be lost through in-store theft include electronics, phones and furniture items. Baby food products, cosmetics and other general food items are also being stolen. “We have seen instances where a customer purchases a refrigerator or deep freezer, get
into an agreement with a supermarket employee. During packaging, the employee will stuff the refrigerator with an item such as a DVD machine or other small but high value goods, mostly electronics, only to split the proceeds of the loot later,” explains John Wanjohi, the ﬁnance and administration director at Hipora Business Solutions. Such are the employees who have devised crafty methods to perfect the vice. In most cases, they enlist the services of customers, suppliers and vendors to steal thereby denting the earnings of large retailers. “A substantial proportion of the loss is due to collusion between the retailer’s staff on one side, and the suppliers or customers on other side,” explains Mr. Wanjohi. The incidences of shrinkage by employees and customer is forcing retailers to not only invest in additional surveillance mechanisms, including closed circuit television cameras but also contract independent ﬁrms that deploy their own staff to undertake on-ﬂoor surveillance in retail outlets. One such independent ﬁrm helping retailers/supermarkets keep some of these vices at bay is Hipora Business Solutions. Set up in 2008, the company is a loss control management company offering solutions in all areas of business losses and providing essential services and respective solutions to managing these business loss (shrinkage) experienced on a day to day basis, generally by the retail and speciﬁcally the supermarket industry. The focus is on all high risk areas within a supermarket/retail environment which include the
front-end till point area, receiving of goods area, overall supermarket sales ﬂoor area, stock (inventory) room areas and proper documentation handling and accountability. Loss Control Management “The desire and need to control shrinkage in the Kenyan retail industry made us see the immediate need to introduce the concept of loss control management services in Kenya focusing on the retail sector,” he explains adding that it is a concept widely used in the developed world thus the need for Hipora to set ground in Kenya. Mr. Wanjohi notes that being a developing market, the Kenyan and at large the East African retail scene is in dire need of loss control management services and training of employees in retail management. Loss control management has been adopted from international standards and best practices related to controlling shrinkage. This includes countries that are developed and using the same concept within their businesses to cater for individual business needs. Therefore, when used in developing countries like the East African market, the beneﬁts of this concept are endless. He insists that Hipora has the knowledge and skills to “foresee” losses before they occur as well as close any gaps as they appear or sooner than they occur. This is on account that the wealth of loss control management knowledge and skills available puts any retailer a step or two ahead and is better equipped to deal with losses on account of shrinkage. Located at the Panari Sky Centre, along Mombasa Road, the Hipora Retail Training College offers speciﬁc retail training for supermarket staff on Loss Control Management, a unique type of training which most stakeholders in the retail industry have been eager to get their staff train on it. The training seeks to expound on the roles of loss control managers while at the same time targeting those responsible for ensuring correct procedures on received stock, inventory control, double checking of all stock received as well as procedures to be followed at the receiving area. The course will also train front end controllers with regards to correct cashier and frontline processes, ﬂoor walkers who are responsible for detecting shoplifters as well as camera room operators who monitor the various movement in the store for both customers and staff.
To further curb losses at the till, Hipora will appoint people referred to as Frontend controllers at the cashiers as well as double checkers at the receiving point where goods are received. These are the people who will authenticate whether what was purchased was indeed the right kind of goods and that they were scanned and paid for. The double checkers at the receiving end ensure that suppliers have brought the right goods and amount as required. Mr. Wanjohi notes that even though all businesses suffer different kinds of losses, Hipora has the mechanisms, knowledge and skills that are easily adaptable and transported to all applicable areas within the wholesale and retail sectors to control all kinds of business losses in line with each client’s need. “We always conduct a survey at the clients’ business premises in order to give our opinion on visible business loss areas where there are poor internal controls,” he adds.
ABOUT HIPORA BUSINESS SOLUTIONS (EA) LIMITED HIPORA is the only EA Company offering loss control management services in the retail sector and its objective is to combat business threats through investigating, evaluating and identifying loss causing factors in retail (mainly supermarket) businesses. They offer “hands-on” superior services which include Loss Control Managers (Team Leader); Double Checkers (receiving area), Front End Controllers (till point area), Floor Walkers (sales floor area), Camera Room Operators (Camera Room) Stock Room Controllers (Stock Room) and Staff Entrance Controllers (Staff Entrance). Other security control measures are offered in line with client’s requirements. Mr. John Wanjohi Director Hipora Business Solutions (EA) Ltd Tel: +254 (20)-300 2688 Mobile 0716-778880 Hasina Ismail Trainer/HR Manager Hipora Business Solutions (EA) Ltd Tel: +254 (20)-300 2688 Mobile 0786-998-800
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"The desire and need to control shrinkage in the Kenyan retail industry made us see the immediate need to introduce the concept of loss control management"
While encouraging supermarkets to conduct regular stock taking exercises aimed at highlighting any disparities while providing directive into stock variations, Mr. Wanjohi points out that annual or semi-annual stock takes are not enough when it comes to theft of stock. A thorough stock-taking exercise should be characterized by a shrinkage computation, which is analyzed and investigated to help determine the losses and whether they were through theft of any other reasons. “Hipora Business Solutions trains staff on how to do thorough stock takes, compute shrinkage and evaluate the extent of losses while giving solutions to the supermarket owners,” he explains.
PERGAMON GROUP LIMITED
Sharing Knowledge to Improve Businesses Pergamon Group Limited’s vision is to be the leading and the most innovative technological business solutions provider in Africa. The company offers customers complete solutions ensuring them success in a rapidly changing competitive and complex market.
Fiscal printers, Bill counters, POS Touch Screens, Currency Detectors, Customer Displays, Telecommunication Systems and Security Systems. Others are Electronic Weighing Scales, card printers and drawers, thermal printers, CCTV cameras and LED Lights.
Gateway Magazine spoke to Alex Muema, Operations Manager, Pergamon Group Limited.
In terms of software, we have Microinvest - Warehouse Pro, a professional system for management of warehouse objects which is designed for working with huge nomenclatures of goods in real time. Microinvest – WarehouseOpen is the newest member of the huge Microinvest product family. Microinvest Warehouse-Open is Open Source software working with Linux Operating System. The product is freeware, available to anyone who wants to enjoy modern, highly efﬁcient Warehouse software, working with Linux OS.
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Brieﬂy tell us about Pergamon Group Limited? Pergamon Group is the holding company of Pergamon Limited which is incorporated in Kenya and approved by the Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA). Pergamon (TZ) Limited is incorporated in Tanzania and approved by Tanzania Revenue Authority as the supplier of Electronic Fiscal Devices (EFDs). In Kenya, Pergamon prides itself for being one of the leading companies with the highest number of devices licensed by KRA while in Tanzania, our main aim is to enhance EFD availability and assist the Tanzanian government in deploying and educating the public on its importance.
The company’s aim is to provide affordable solutions to modern-day businesses through high quality hardware for ofﬁce automation and concrete software for the micro management of small and large enterprises. Brieﬂy explain your range of products and services As a bonaﬁde supplier of some of the world’s leading brands in ofﬁce automation, the company offers a wide selection of hardware and software products that will help customers keep up with the fast paced changes of the business world. We have a wide range of hardware products which include; ETR machines, POS printers, Barcode printers and scanners,
Thirdly, Microinvest - Warehouse Pro Light is an innovative product developed to meet the needs of stores and commercial chains with a vast and fast daily amount of sales. The software product has been optimized to work with barcode scanners, to support additional customer interface, to work directly with ﬁscal and POS printers. Microinvest Warehouse Pro Light works with the same database as Microinvest Warehouse Pro, which allows to the software end user, to be able to take advantage of the functions of both software products. In such way, our clients are getting better ways of analyzing and processing the collected data. What are some of the new products that the company has recently diversiﬁed into? Pergamon Group Limited is already selling General packet radio service (GPRS) enabled ﬁscal machines. There are plans to switch from the electronic to GPRS devices where
businesses will be able to ﬁle tax returns immediately. Similar technology is already in use in Tanzania and Rwanda. We have also introduced security systems for domestic and commercial use; CCTV cameras and access control systems, Biometric time attendance systems for workplaces. Arising from our customer inquiries, we have also seen the need to stock ofﬁce machines such as shredders and laminators. At the same time, our security systems have unique features as they are able to send real-time footage with the use of a smartphone. Security has become a concern thus we have introduced remote data storage solutions where the CCTV system installed replicates data captured to a remote storage area using the cloud computing system.
Malawi. In Rwanda, we have two branches while in the other two countries, we work with patners. Our next stop is Southern Sudan planned for next year. In Kenya, we work with 65 re-sellers. Pergamon CSR Activities In March 2012, Baby Malaika was abandoned in a forest by her mother three days after delivery and attacked by a wild dog in Rabai Kiliﬁ County. Thanks to a Good Samaritan, who is said to have been answering a call of nature when he heard a baby crying and stumbled upon her in a hole a few meters away having sustained several injuries to her
upper right limb and facial structures leading the doctors to amputate it. Having recuperated and discharged, Malaika’s new home is Mji Wa Usalama, an orphanage in Tudor, Mombasa. Pergamon Group Limited have made their contribution to raising Malaika by taking up an insurance cover (in/outpatient) as well as food and clothing.
Our range of banking solutions includes currency detectors, bill and bank note counters all using the ultra violet (UV) technology for detection purposes. Here, the emphasis is on quality thus we source for high end products mainly from Germany and South Korea.
What would you attribute to the company’s introduction of all these products? Pergamon Group’s growth lies in the fact that businesses have fast realized the need to automate their business processes to seal all nature of loopholes likely to cause losses. Other than Kenya and Tanzania, where-else is your presence felt? We are a complete IT solution whose presence is also in Rwanda, Uganda, and
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The new light - emitting diodes (LED) Bulbs consist of a sensor component to detect motion. These are the types of lights that will automatically go on once one walks into a room and will be off when there is no motion. They use the LED technology guaranteeing consumers 5-year warranty while saving them up to 80 percent of their costs. Again, the bulbs can be for domestic or commercial use in areas such as hotels and ofﬁces.
Barcode Veriﬁcation To ensure that your products stand out in the supply chain, one of the important things is to always make sure that the barcodes on them are able to scan ﬁrst every time. GS1 Kenya offer veriﬁcation services which aims at establishing how well barcodes conﬁrm to speciﬁcations that are required for a good scanning performance.
Save on costs No retailer in the market will tolerate barcodes that do not scan or have a number of errors while scanning. It is therefore recommended that you have all products barcodes veriﬁed just to be certain of their conformity. Such barcodes with issue always have proven to be costly to retailers since there is always a hiccup in their system. They have also proven to be costly if for example the products are rejected by the retailers or when there is a need for corrective measures by repackaging or by printing of barcode stickers. When the consumer product, outer cartons and logistics labels are being developed, the marketing team, graphic designers and packaging department typically manage the design and layouts. To ensure the quality of bar codes leads to successful scanning, ﬁrst time every time, it is important to engage GS1 Kenya Bar Code Veriﬁcation Service as a means of quality control of packaging and labeling development to ensure best results.
Why barcodes have errors during scanning? That said and done, what causes barcodes not to scan during the ﬁrst scan process or not scan at all? There are a number of reasons which include but are not limited to:• Wrong colours used • Size of bar code is not correct (height and magniﬁcation) • Insufﬁcient Quiet Zones • Incorrect bar code number (GTIN) used (incorrectly re-used / transposed GS1 Company Preﬁxes / not authorized to be used) • Incorrect location / placement of bar code • And other technical issues required such as: • Decodability • Symbol contrast • Reﬂectance • Edge contrast • Modulation • Defects
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As a manufacturer The Bar Code Veriﬁcation Service will help you:
• Save time and save money by eliminating costly errors • Get your products on the shelves faster • Ensures products can be automatically re-ordered by trading partners based on scanned sales • Build stronger relationships with trade customers who will be happy to range your products, conﬁdent they will successfully scan Are you a retailer, wholesaler by asking all your suppliers to ensure they have a GS1 Bar Code Veriﬁcation Report for all levels of packaging you will be able to:• Eliminate scanning errors during checking in/out of goods • Eliminate the need for manual data entry at POS / dispensing and therefore reduce checkout queues or delay • Improve your inventory management • Improve stock replenishment
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BIDCO OIL REFINERIES GOES WORLD CLASS If there is a company whose brands remain a household name among many Kenyan homes, it is those from Bidco Oil Reﬁneries Limited. Whether in large or small quantities to suit the various levels of income earners, Bidco’s products continue to grace homes generation after generation.
ver the years, Bidco has successfully won over the market, becoming the largest and fastest growing manufacturer of vegetable oils, cooking fats, margarine, baking powder, detergents, beauty & laundry soaps and animal feeds in East & Central Africa.
Bidco’s heritage can be traced to 1970 when the company chairman and founder Mr. Bhimji Depar Shah ﬁrst setup a garment manufacturing company in Nairobi. Later in 1985, Bidco converted from garment manufacturing to soap manufacturing in Nairobi. Six years later, Bidco moved its operations to Thika, which remains its present home; with the opening of Bidco Oil Reﬁneries Limited concentrating on its core competencies of manufacturing and marketing of edible oils, cooking fats and hygiene products. INCREASED CAPACITY & ACQUISITIONS Between 1994 and 1997 Bidco increased its reﬁning capacity as well as acquiring the ‘Elianto’ oil-seed extraction business from Unga Group Limited in 1998. Further, in 2001, Bidco moved into Tanzania where it acquired a soap manufacturing plant in Dar-es-Salaam marking the entry of Bidco into one of Africa’s fastest growing markets. The year 2002 further demonstrated Bidco’s prowess when the company acquired leading Unilever brands in East Africa like Kimbo, Cowboy, Veebol & Tiger which the company has continued to maintain under superior quality and consumer satisfaction. To date, the company has grown to establish a strong presence both locally and within the region, developing strong marketing and technologically advanced manufacturing and distribution systems. According to Mr. Mitul Shah, the Team Leader-Sales and Marketing, the company is home to over 30 different brands marketed in 14 African countries in East, Central & southern African markets. COMPETITIVE BRANDS With affordable pricing, reliable service and the best available brands, Bidco has continued to deliver the best to their customers as the products play an essential role in the daily lives of people throughout Africa. Mr. Vimal Shah, the company’s Chief Executive Ofﬁcer has severally noted that Bidco has transformed from a small and an unknown company to East Africa’s most respected manufacturing company. “Bidco operates manufacturing plants in Kenya, Uganda
and Tanzania. The Group is a market leader, and seeks to attain number one market share in Africa, for all its brand categories by the year 2030,” says Vimal. One of Bidco’s ﬂagship brands falling under the edible oils category is Golden Fry; a super reﬁned vegetable oil which the company ranks as the number one selling cooking oil in East and Central Africa. Notable products under this category include Elianto, a 100% pure corn oil, Soya Gold and Sun Gold reﬁned from local Soya and Sunﬂower seeds respectively. Others are Bahari Fry, Ufuta and the category’s new kid on the block remains Olive Gold, a premium extra Virgin Olive Oil Blend. Kimbo, Cowboy and Chipsy are the company’s most popular fortiﬁed cooking fats no doubt even at the customer’s perspective. Other products here include Yello Gold, Chipo, Mallo and Veebol. Bidco Goldband and Biddy’s form the REAL Margarine category. In June this year, Bidco introduced a new top-notch product known as Pure & Natural Soap ﬂakes, which Mitul describes as being made from a signature blend of 100% pure vegetable oils. The product is the mildest of cleaners, all natural and can be used by people with sensitive skin, allergies and also on pets.“It is chemically free and completely biodegradable, suitable to clean baby’s clothes, blankets, toys and delicate fabrics. This new initiative is a show of our continued commitment and innovation to touch the lives of our customers positively on a daily basis to ensure Happy Healthy living”, explains Mitul. The company has also introduced other hygiene products such as Pure & Natural beauty soap, Nuru multipurpose soap and institutional soaps, as it seeks to further conquer the market. STATE OF THE ART TECHNOLOGY While foreseeing and managing changes in the local and global economic environment, Bidco has been able to adopt modern processing technology for the Reﬁnery and Fractionation plants with zero efﬂuent waste generation. This increases the number of automated ﬁlling lines for cooking fats, margarines and oils as well as adopting a fully automated soap manufacturing plant whose daily capacity is ranking it the single largest factory in East, Central & Southern Africa.
Mr. Mitul Shah BIDCO TEAM LEADER - SALES & MARKETING
Other notable automation investments at the company include an integrated and modern Micro-biology Lab, Biomass Boiler established to curb any inefﬁciencies and introduction of DrumNet; a project that provides access to markets, ﬁnance and information services to improve the farm businesses. The Biomass Boiler is the ﬁrst of its kind able to use any type of agricultural waste such as: coffee, rice or macadamia husk, waste paper, coffee root, and sisal ﬁber or saw dust. Bidco has also developed and adopted a unique proactive distribution network through
appointed channel partners who operate exclusively within a dedicated geographical area, creation of hubs and appointed distributors all aimed at achieving distribution depth through a developed transport system.
competitive on a sustainable basis, Bidco has adopted and implemented a comprehensive strategy for continual improvements across its operations. The company has adopted Global Management Practices such as:
Operating under the fast moving and consumer goods manufacturing category, Bidco remains the 1st marketing company of its kind to enter into e-commerce by networking all its multilocation facilities. Mitul notes that all activities of Channel Partners are well integrated with the network via V-sat and Internet links. “The company has a centralized shared services platform, shared IT Services to group companies to beneﬁt from the economies of scale,” he adds.
The 6K Good Shop-ﬂoor practices: (Kuchagua -Seiri -Sort out, Kupanga -Seiton -Systematic arrangement, Kusaﬁsha -Seiso -Scrub clean, Kudumisha -Seiketsu -State the rules, Kufundisha -Shitsuke -Self-discipline & the newly launched 6th K of Safety)
Through the Pamoja software, the company has been able to have all its direct customers on an online system while at the same time integrating ﬁnance, supply chain, production and multiple sales and service channels through the SAP ERP system. This shared real time online information ensures faster decision making and accomplish multi-tasking activities thereby saving cost and time. Mitul notes that with all these state of the art initiatives, Bidco is able to respond much faster to changing consumer needs and demands, provide quality products with a price advantage, attain an edge over competitors and be ever ready to compete in a global open economy. GLOBAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES In today’s rapidly liberalizing markets, improving competitiveness is the critical factor to survive and grow rapidly. Hence, to be
The Kaizen Principle – "Zero Investment Improvement” Gemba Kaizen – "Continual Improvement at the workplace" Aligning company goals through Hoshin Kanri which is a Step by step planning, implementation & review process for the management of change in critical business processes STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS To achieve its corporate goal, Bidco continues to identify strategic partners for expansion all over Africa. In Uganda, Bidco Group has invested in an Oil Palm development project on 40,000 ha in Kalangala, along the shores of Lake Victoria. The concept of the project is based on “Soil to Pan” and includes palm oil milling, reﬁning, fractionation and soap making, converting the project produce into ﬁnished products. In Tanzania, the company has also made irreversible commitments in the form of huge investments in their Dar-es-Salaam plant.
THE ENTREPRENEUR’S ENTREPRENEUR
Among his other outstanding achievements include: Being named as a ﬁnalist in the Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year 2011; a position he held together with his brother and business partner, Tarun Shah. In 2008, the Kenya Institute of Management bestowed Vimal with the CEO of the Year Award as Bidco was declared the Company of the Year. In 2003, he was rated as the 2nd Top Individual Tax Payer by Kenya Revenue Authority, 3rd East African Business Leader of the Future and 5thMost Respected Chief Executive Ofﬁcer in East Africa in 2002, Professional Manager of the Year 2001 and Winner of Outstanding Executive support for IT 2001.
In recognition of his exceptional effort and contribution to national development, His Excellency President Mwai Kibaki of Kenya rewarded him with the ‘First Class: Chief of the Order of the Burning Spear (CBS)’ during the 48thAnniversary celebrations of Jamhuri Day. Vimal notes that Bidco, a wholly owned Kenyan company whose purpose is to enhance Happy Healthy Living by branding, transforming and distributing the Goodness of Mother Nature, is committed to producing high quality products with a vision of becoming the market leader throughout Africa by 2030. The company believes that the greatest asset to any business is its Customers as Vimal Shah once said, “The market success of these products has led Bidco to look to the future and expand its horizons. We plan to achieve this not just through modern marketing, but through delighting our Customers. We believe that every manufacturer’s greatest asset is its Consumers. We are committed to not just winning Customers, but to keeping their loyalty to Bidco products foreve
Mr. Vimal Shah DIRECTOR, BIDCO OIL REFINERIES
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Vimal Shah’s name remains synonymous when it comes to Bidco having steered the company since its inception, playing a formative role in the strategic planning and management of the company. Regarded as one of the Continent’s most distinguished, visionary business leaders, in August 2012, he was named the East African Entrepreneur of the Year 2012, a title that has continued to rank him as one of the most sought after speakers on various ﬁelds.
Principles of Traceability in Healthcare • Improve patient safety. • Promote efﬁcient interstate commerce by pre-empting varying state pedigree laws. • Employ the most effective technologies to reduce counterfeiting and diversion of prescription of medicine. • Enable each participant in the supply chain access to electronic inventory data at the unit level. • Enable efﬁcient nationwide inventory management and rapid response in times of emergency.
How it works: • Electronic system that enables the tracing of each prescription medicine package at the unit level. • All members of the supply chain must participate in a closed system. • Serialization of prescription medicine at the unit, case and pallet levels. • A robust and standardized data exchange system. • The goal is to protect the supply chain against counterfeit, adulterated or other substandard product by facilitating
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improved ability to identify non-legitimate products.
• Every member of the supply chain will have visibility of expiry dates of all products which should signiﬁcantly lower returns. • For pharmaceuticals products GS1 has a long history. • Inventory control. • Material tracking and logistics. • Tracking of reusable products. • Product recalls and warnings.
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Beneﬁts of using GS1 Standard
Barcode Colours: Dos and Donâ€™ts The Ideal Colour Combination is Black Bars on White Background Other Suitable Colour Combinations: Dark Bars :
Blue / Green / Purple
Light Bars :
Red / Orange / Yellow
GFK EAST AFRICA
GfK Retail and Technology East Africa is a research company based in Nairobi and is part of the global GfK Group with its headquarters in Germany. GfK East Africa Nairobi hub ofﬁce currently oversees operations in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia.
companies in the world operating in over 100 countries and with over 10,000 employees. In East Africa, GfK has been present through the South African ofﬁce from 2006 until June 2010 when an ofﬁce was set up in Kenya to handle the operations in East Africa.
In 2010, the company opened the Nairobi ofﬁce even though it has been conducting research since 2006 from its South African subsidiary. The research was initially limited to tracking the sales of mobile phone handsets. This scope has since expanded to information technology, consumer electronics, white goods and small domestic appliances.
What necessitated the above move? The Nairobi ofﬁce was set up as a regional hub serving Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia markets. The East Africa region has continued to attract new players in the market and this was the key reason for setting up the ofﬁce in Kenya. In addition, many companies have set up their ofﬁces in Nairobi serving the East and Central Africa region from here. As a global company, we offer both local and global clients from the Nairobi ofﬁce. What is GfK Retail and Technology East Africa target market?
Gateway Magazine spoke to John Muthee, Managing Director, GfK Retail and Technology East Africa about the company and its operations. Brieﬂy tell us about GfK Group. GfK Retail and Technology is one of the leading market research
What areas do you look at? In Kenya today, GfK has expanded its scope to cover the following products;
Mobile Phones, Modems
Major Domestic Appliances
Refrigerators, Washing Machines, Cookers, Microwave Ovens, Freezers Consumer Goods CRT TV, Panel TV, Audio home systems, DVD Players
Small Domestic Appliances
Deep fryers, Food preparation appliances, hair dryers, Iron boxes, Juicers, Kettles, Shavers & Toasters
DIY (Do It Yourself)
Paints and Cement
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Powerful insights into consumer goods markets
How is the information collected? GfK generates reports from sales collected from shops that are participating in the GfK panel. These reports are used by manufacturers of electronics products to track the market movements in the segments that they are competing in. Based on this information, companies are able to make decisions on prices, promotions and advertising, distribution and portfolio analysis based on the market trends. What do you look at in conducting these researches? Our research is factual based as we only look at the sale out at retail level basing on the manufacturer (Brand), Models, Units and Price to ﬁnal consumers.
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Does the Kenyan/East African market in need of such information? East Africa is 100% in need of GfK information as we focus on monthly factual behavioural trends of the markets. At the same time, the beneﬁts of the GfK reports are not limited to the manufacturers only. The retails participating in the GfK panel beneﬁt from having an opportunity of tracking the overall market performance on a regular basis and thus understand whether the market is growing or shrinking in size.
With this information, retailers are able to evaluate whether they are matching the growth registered in the overall markets or are performing below the total market. In addition, the GfK reports are able to highlight various factors driving growth in the market and the prices behind the growth. This information is invaluable especially to the buyers as they are able to select products that are driving the market and thus having a lower probability of having dead stock in the outlets. At all times, GfK maintains conﬁdentiality of the information received from the retailers. At the same time, the information received is not shared with industry players who are not part of the panel. We believe that as companies continue to
expand their presence out of Kenya, GfK services will prove to be useful in helping the retailers make better stocking decisions on the electronic products and hence increase their chance of success. Brieﬂy describe the current regional/Kenya retail scene, its growth, potential and opportunities and challenges East Africa retail scene has been changed dramatically over the last 5 years. In Kenya, for example, there was a time when refrigerators could only be purchased from shops located along Luthuli Avenue however, this has been taken over by the mass merchandisers. We expect to see the continued growth of the mass merchandisers following the population. We also expect to see the increase of independent supermarkets serving niche markets. At the same time, there are still many differences between each individual country, for instance, in Ethiopia there is no Hypermarket outlet. Each country is unique but the common trend is that the growth potential for organized retail channels is very real. What gaps/opportunities is GfK eager to close in on under the East African retail scene? GfK East Africa is eager to making sure that our partners in East Africa use our information in improving their business to the next level. The key information gap is how big the market in each country is. This allows companies to evaluate the levels of investments required to tap into these markets. Are there different types of researches that can be done under retail? Yes, there are a host of other research methodologies that can be done under retail space. This can include mystery shopping and observational research to understand the service levels standards and understand shopping behaviour respectively John Muthee can be reached on email@example.com
GS1 standards beneﬁtting company performance
usiness processes that are too often based on manual exchanges (paper, fax, telephone) are affecting the performance of companies on increasingly competitive markets. They generate additional costs due both to dealing with paper, archiving data and managing claims as well as to the lack of reliable information. Thousands of documents throughout the supply chain are exchanged daily between business partners to deal with the design, production, distribution and sale of manufactured products. From the product sheet to the notice of payment, and including vital messages like orders, shipping notice sand invoices, the efﬁciency of the supply chain depends on the smooth and secure ﬂow of a great deal of reliable information.
Barcodes lead to an annual savings of 5.69% of retail revenue. The direct, concrete and quantiﬁable savings from the use of barcodes amounts to 2.8% of sales. These savings are related to the reduction in time at the checkout, fewer errors and the better use of the cashier operators’ time. The indirect savings come to 2.89% of sales, which is related to the increase in sales due to better customer service, better tracking of stocks and store ﬂows and the reduction of unknown markdowns. Using bar codes that comply with GS1 Standards ensures consistency across Retail supply base enabling supply chain visibility throughout the business. The process of ensuring that supplier bar codes are GS1 compliant has improved the barcode quality on all their products.
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Retailers equip their stores with optical readers. Automatic product identiﬁcation thus facilitates the checkout process by reducing data entry errors and waiting time. Use of the barcode is the basis for an automatic resupply system and leads to an improvement of the on shelf product availability. The use of barcodes is now being extended to logistics and is helping optimize inventory and stock management while ensuring product traceability.
ooking beautiful draws its origins from the ancient times. Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen remains one of the beauty queens celebrated in history; known for bathing in fresh milk and honey. Since then, the desire to look beautiful especially among women prevails everywhere as they yearn for beauty above almost everything else.
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To look beautiful, many women will do just about anything and spend as much as they earn. Various consumer researches indicate that in one year, some women even loose count of how many times they change beauty products. A majority of them are always on the lookout for the best anti-aging, anti-wrinkle or anti-cellulite cream… women go to great lengths in an effort to pass the beauty test making the beauty and cosmetic industry one of the most proﬁtable. In their quest to look young and beautiful however, some women end up using dangerous and harmful products. To counter the consequences associated with the harmful products, Zuhuracare Ventures, an indigenous company is seeking a share of the proﬁtable beauty and cosmetics industry through its products made from natural ingredients.
In a market controlled by both multinational companies and other larger local companies, Samuel Kagoma and his business partner mr Kiruthi remain conﬁdent that the market is need of beauty and home care products that are not only unique but safe and made from natural ingredients.
Young Entrepreneurs take advantage of various initiatives promoting local entrepreneurship
“It all started while undertaking my ﬁnal school research project as it came out clearly that the market was in dire need of products that were safe,” explains Mr. Kagoma, whose background is industrial chemistry. At the time, the government had banned some beauty products from the market which had been deemed as harmful especially among women. During his research, Mr. Kagoma came up with a few ingredients as part of the recommendations. But that was just that…it was all about the school project. Later, he graduated to pursue a white collar job. Mr. Kagoma’s ﬁrst employment was at Athi River Mining Limited as a Quality Analyst however, this did not last long as his urge to venture into the entrepreneurship was beckoning. In 2007, together with Mr. Kiruthi they joined hands, set up shop under the Business Incubation program at Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute (KIRDI) and rolled out their ﬁrst product; the face cream with Aloe Vera. He conﬁdently points out that the product; the company’s ﬂagship brand has no side effects as it incorporates natural ingredients. Aloe Vera referred to as the “Miracle Plant” is said to be great for cuts and sunburns, even bug bites further earning the name “First Aid" plant. Scientists say Aloe is also an excellent treatment for skin conditions such as burns and eczema. It is often reported that burns can be healed remarkably quickly and the pain reduced very quickly with topical application of Aloe Vera to the burn area. As well as applying topically, Aloe can also be taken internally so it is just as useful for internal epithelial tissue as it is for the skin. For example, mouth and stomach ulcers, nasal and sinuses, bowels, lungs and genital tracts. Aloe works on membranes and surfaces. The quest to conquer the market saw the two entrepreneurs formally register Zuhuracare Ventures in 2010.
Resources and services open to an entrepreneur might include; provision of physical space (ofﬁces, laboratories and pilot facilities), management support including business planning, training and marketing; technical support, involving researchers and technical personnel as well as data bases, access to ﬁnancing through venture capital funds, business angel networks and other schemes, legal assistance for contractual issues, licensing and intellectual property agreements, administrative services, and networking with other incubators and government services. Mr. Kagoma has no regrets for the business incubation program. “KIRDI’s incubation program has nurtured new ventures such as us. The program supports ventures especially those that lean towards research,” he explains. The other initiative that Mr. Kagoma has fully taken advantage of is the Youth Fund terming it as the “best initiative” which the youth can take advantage of. According to the Youth Enterprise Development Fund (YEDF), unemployment is one of the most daunting economic challenges facing Kenya. The government has consequently placed job creation at the top of its policy agenda. The youth account for 61% of the unemployed. Many of the unemployed youth have no job training other than formal schooling. Hence, unemployment is not just a lack of jobs, but also a lack of job skills due to inadequacy of the training infrastructure as well as the means to acquire skills, due to poverty. Established in 2006, YEDF’s sole purpose is reducing unemployment among the youth. The target of the fund is young people within the age bracket of 18 to 35 years. Objectives of the Fund include; • Provide loans for on-lending to youth enterprises • Attract and facilitate investment in micro, small and medium enterprises oriented commercial infrastructure that will be beneﬁcial to youth enterprises • Support youth oriented micro, small and medium enterprises to develop linkages with large enterprises • Facilitate marketing of products and services of youth enterprises both in the domestic and the international markets • Provide business development services to youth enterprises and • Facilitate employment of youth in the international labour market. “Kenyans and especially the youth should shun perceptions that such programs do not work/favor them,” Mr. Kagoma notes. Through YEDF’s sponsored exhibitions and networking forums, one of the markets that Mr. Kagoma has been able to penetrate is
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...women go to great lengths in an effort to pass the beauty test making the beauty and cosmetic industry one of the most proﬁtable.
Encouraging local entrepreneurship The Kenyan Government, aware of the role Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) play in the economy, has continued to take steps aimed at nurturing and accelerating the growth of the sector. One such initiative is business incubations. According to the Business Incubation Association of Kenya, business incubations are organizations that support the entrepreneurial process and help to increase survival rates for innovative startup companies. Entrepreneurs with feasible projects are selected and admitted into the incubators, where they are offered a specialized menu of support resources and services.
Tanzaniawhich he has no doubt that the products continue to command a following. “At the same time, the brand name “Zuhura” has also scored for us,” he quips. The products are available at Shoprite and Uchumi, Tanzania. In April 2012, President Mwai Kibaki called for 10% of all Government procurement allocated to the youth. Through the Youth Access To Government Procurement Opportunities (YAGPO), the President directed the Attorney General and the Minister for Finance to remove the legal bottlenecks that hinder the youth from being able to access Government contracts to accelerate the growth of youth owned enterprises. Zuhuracare Ventures has not been left behind and is among the hundreds of youth businesses who have so far been pre-qualiﬁed to do business with the government. Business Penetration Other than the face cream, Zuhuracare Ventures manufactures lotions and glycerin and recently moved into Shea butter; the new kid on the block. Also referred to as “Women’s gold”, Shea butter is a solid fatty oil made from the nuts of Karite Nut trees or Mangifolia, that grow in the semi-arid savannah regions of West and Central Africa. The extraction of butter from the nuts gives employment and income to hundreds of thousands of rural African village women thus earning the name “women’s gold”. Shea butter is non-toxic and beneﬁcial and is used in foods and cooking as well as soaps and beauty products. Mr. Kagoma, explains that African healers and beauties have known about Shea butter for its magical healing effects on burns, skin conditions, ulcerated skin, stretch marks, and dryness. It contains beneﬁcial vegetable fats that promote
cell regeneration and circulation, making it a wonderful healer and rejuvenator for troubled or aging skin. It also contains natural sun-protectants. “The product is also an excellent massage product further justifying why the product is deemed a bit costly among its users,” he adds. To further grow and penetrate the business from an online perspective, the company is among the businesses under the Getting Kenya Businesses Online (GKBO) initiative. GKBO is part of Google Kenya’s initiative that aims to bring thousands of SMEs online. Here, businesses have the opportunity to create their own website and develop an online presence .According to Bitange Ndemo, the permanent secretary in the Ministry of Information and Communication GKBO is expected to transform the Kenyan SME landscapeby making it quick, easy and free for businesses to register an online presence, at a time when more and more Kenyans are accessing the internet every year. Through GKBO, Mr. Kagoma has been able to sell the products online. That aside, one can ﬁnd Zuhuracare products at the company’s shop within Nairobi city located at Nairobi Textiles Centre,3rd ﬂoor, shop No 338and Abbey building stall No A5 both along Gaberone Road next to Malindi Dishes. The products can also be found in retail outlets such as Clean Shelf, Grand, Home Depo, Satellite Supermarkets, Fair Matt and is currently seeking to the enter Uchumi and Naivas Supermarkets. “We are engaging some of these larger outlets to increase our shelf presence,” he adds. Zuhuracare Ventures has already introduced hygiene related products. These include detergents, hand wash soaps, carpet shampoos, stain removal and ceramic gel for tiles.
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ith GS1’S Voluntary, userdesigned standards, companies in the transportation and logistics sector can work more efﬁciently, more economically, more sustainably and more competitively by Ian Roberston Director transport & logistics and new sectors & Yuliya Shevchenko Group Manager Transport & Logistics and Customs All of Global Ofﬁce. In the past, logistics were passive, cost absorbing function in an enterprise. Today, logistics are highly strategic factor, capable of providing a unique competitive advantage and variety of other beneﬁts. Indeed, a wide range of value-added transport and warehouse management applications and services are now associated with the movement of goods from the material supplier to the manufacturer to the end customer. The use of state-of-the-art information technologies has also revolutionized the way logistics and transportation activities are organized and conducted. Furthermore, transportation and logistics services have a vital role to play in making sustainability programmes possible and in helping companies meet their energy consumption goals. In fact, considerations about sustainability in the supply chain are playing an increasingly important role in the selection of suppliers and the awarding of contracts. Sustainability has become a business issue.
And in today’s truly globalised supply chain, the importance of efﬁcient logistics management and transportation optimization is becoming all the more clear, because excellent communication and coordination is absolutely necessary as components and goods cross more and more borders than ever before. For all of these reasons, the logistics and transportation aspects of supply chain management are quickly becoming some of the most complex business disciplines, requiring interactions within between many of the traditional functional areas of a given ﬁrm and their partners, suppliers and customers. No longer can a company focus only on its own operations; longterm success is becoming increasingly dependent on the actions and decisions of enterprises both upstream and downstream. In short, transport and logistics activities play crucial role in the modern supply chain. The GS1 System of Standards can help With GS1 Standards as the basis for their operations and service, transportation and logistics teams can standardize information and automate its collection leaving them more time to focus on how to use information rather than how to get information. Concrete beneﬁts can include: 1. Improved efﬁciency, 2. Increased visibility of the ﬂow of goods and shipments, 3. More efﬁcient handling and inventory management,
The GS1 standards used in the Transport and Logistics Sector GS1 Identiﬁcation Keys The Global Trade Item Number(GTIN), is used to uniquely identify trade items that may be priced, or ordered, or invoiced at any point in any supply chain. The Global Location Number (GLN) is the GS1 ID Key used to identify location and legal entities. The Serial Container Code (SSCC) is the GS1 ID Key to identity individual logistic units. A logistic unit can be any combination of units put together in a carton. The Global Returnable Asset Identiﬁer (GRAI) is used to identify returnable assets such as re-usable transport equipment like trays, crates, pallets or beer kegs that are used and then returned to be used again. The Global Individual Asset Identiﬁer (GIAI) is used to identify ﬁxed assets of any value within a company that need to be identiﬁed uniquely for transportation purposes this can include a truck, a trailer etc. The Global Shipment Identiﬁcation Number (GSIN) Is a number assigned by a seller (sender) of the goods. It provides a globally unique number that identiﬁes a logical grouping or physical units travelling under one dispatch advice and/or one bill of lading as per of a speciﬁc seller/buyer relationship: from a consignor (seller) to the consignee(buyer).
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Transport & Logistics in Global Supply Chains
4. Increased security of distribution 5. Faster operations 6. Smoother exchanges with customs and other government agencies. With GS1’s voluntary, user-designed standards, companies in the transportation and logistics sector can work more efﬁciently, more economically, more sustainably and more competitively.
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GS1 welcomes these Organisations who have attained Membership as from March to September 2012.
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NIGHTINGALE PRODUCTS BRAK ASSOCIATES E.A. LTD VENUA AINZ ENTERPRISES UNIQUE ATTRACTION LTD KIBIDAV LTD MIAN LTD ANCHOR FLOUR MILLERS CO. LTD CREATIVE SENSATIONS LIMITED A-TECH LTD NERO COMPANY LTD TIGONI SPRINGS MINERAL WATER JUSMIR BAKERS HIPPO MILLERS LTD FYKO CHEMICALS LTD AMSKEN INTERNATIONAL LTD REVA PHARMACY LTD CLASSIC FOODS LTD NORTHERN HOLDING LTD JUSTLINE LTD KINGS MIMSHACK FOODS KISMART ENTERPRISES MARS COSMETICS LTD J B BAKERS GATAMAIYU DAIRY FARMERS CO-OP SOCIETY LTD DAVEMWO BAKERY RAJ AGRO PRODUCTS PRICEWELL WOODSTICKS BEADS & FLOWERS IMAGEMATE NISSI DAIRY PRODUCTS (U) LTD ULTRA FOODS COMPANY PENNYWISE INVESTMENTS LTD NUTRITION TECHNOLOGIES DELICIOUS SNACKS LTD MIND V AFRICA LTD PRIME STEAKS INVESTMENTS (U) LTD CAPITAL DROPS COUNTY GENERAL SUPPLIES NILE DERIVATIVES (U) LTD AVIAN FOOD AND BEVERAGES LTD SPECIALITIES UNICORN MANUFACTURES ISINYA TRADING CO. LTD COMPASSIONATE GENERAL SUPPLIERS KIRIITA DAIRY FARMERS COOP SOCIETY LTD STAWI FOODS AND FRUITS LTD OREFIELD WATER SUPPLIES BDELO LTD KERICHO TOP CUP TEA TRADERS OAKLAND BAKERS SUPPLIES JOMPAS ENTERPRISES LYCAN (EPZ) ENTERPRISES LTD THIMBALAND COMPANY LTD THE OPTION TWO LTD THE WINDMILL LTD SNAK DELIGHT BABITO FOOD SUPPLIERS GREEN FOOD LTD SUNGURA LTD MATELE CONSTRUCTION COMPANY LTD VIRGO HOLDINGS LTD OYUGIS WHOLESALE AND RETAIL LATEST INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENTS PRECIOUS EAST AFRICA SOLUTIONS RAMA ENGINEERING SERVICES LTD UNION DISTRIBUTORS ANYES ENTERPRISES ROSEMART ENTERPRISES BMS INDUSTRIES LTD ROK INDUSTRIES LTD VOI PLANTATIONS LTD RWANDA AGRI-BUSINESS INDUSTRIES (RABI) LTD MAGIC JUICES LTD
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OCRAM GIRAP MUTHIRU DAIRY SELF HELP GROUP GOLDENAGE FOODS LTD SONA CREATIONS AQUA KENYA LTD BOWIP AGENCIES LTD GRITS INDUSTRIES (K) LTD FAIR CARE SUPPLIES PRECIOUS GARMENTS GOOD BREAD (K) LTD SMART CHOICE VENTURES SOUTH LEMON LTD TABIMU ENTERPRISES AMARION PURE HEALTH FOOD AUKI SPRINGS LTD KISIMA PURE DRINKING WATER NKOOLA AGENCIES INTERNATIONAL LTD ORION PROJECTS LTD SILKWORTH ENTERPRISES BARAKA (K) TRADERS LETWAN ENTERPRISES HOLSTEIN MILK PARLOUR PRESTIGE WEM ENTERPRISE MPANGA GROWERS TEA FACTORY LTD FABIA LTD RIVERSIDE BUSINESS COMPLEX LTD WIFIP EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT AURODA VENTURES YAMMY PRODUCTS MANANE FOODS ENTERPRISES TRUST INDUSTRIES SUTA STORES ZAMEEL SPICES & FOODS PRODUCTS LTD COUNTRYSIDE DAIRY LTD AQUA-LITE MINERAL WATER JEENA FOODS LTD ALPHA HOLDINGS LTD ELANDS BEAUTY CARE TWIN RIVERS FARM LTD ECORAMA PRODUCTS LTD SAFACOM TRADING COMPANY LTD BERACAH INDUSTRIES HONEST INDUSTRIES LTD HOME CHOICE VENTURES MARLAS COMPANY LTD FARMYARD FOOD PROCESSORS CONFINI LTD ERANDA GENERAL SUPPLIES KABIANGA TEA FACTORY LTD AQUA COOL PURIFIERS LTD WESTERN DISTILLERS MUKAMI DESIGNERS JANRO ENTERPRISES CLAIREDO BAKERS KAJUKOS EAST AFRICA LTD RANA INDUSTRIES LTD KERICHO PREMIUM TEA LTD KIJANI AGENCIES LTD UPLANDS SPRINGS GO GREEN BABY LTD PREMIER DAIRIES (U) LTD EMMI KANGARI DAIRIES LTD THE CAKE MASTERS MZIMA MINERAL WATER LTD UTMOST DISTILLERS LTD TAM BAKERS GRACIOUS BAKERY MMACKS INVESTMENTS LTD GLADHOME FOOD PRODUCTS THE BLEND AFRICA LTD BLESSED DAIRIES LTD COFFEE RESEARCH FOUNDATION
JASHO MILLERS NOBICK KENYA LTD ZAWADI WATER HOME BREAD LTD FRESH SNACKS ENTERPRISES BURQA TRADING COMPANY LAMACO AGENCIES PRADIP ENTERPRISES (E.A) LTD CONSUMERS CHOICE LTD COOPER AND COMPANY INVESTMENTS LTD LYNNC CO. LTD SPECIALITY INGREDIANTS TECHNOLOGY E.A. LTD BELSIZE INDUSTRIES LTD BENEFIT MARKETING AGENCIES MAGPIE-ROBIN ENTERPRISES KRONEX CHEMICALS LTD MOSTAR INVESTORS FRANSIAN INVESTORS PALERMA ENTERPRISES LTD SMARTPRICE STORES LTD NYWELE AGENCY REGERIA LTD JAWAMI MWEA PURE PISHORI RICE JOTA COMPANY UGANDA LTD ROYAL CONVERTERS LTD ELIM BEAUTY PRODUCTS LTD ALE BAKING SERVICES TAKENGO ENTERPRISES UGANDA LTD SHARDA BEVERAGES (P) LTD JOYTECH LTD MWONJORIA ENTERPRISES HETMATT ENTERPRISES LTD JOYFUL BAKERS SILEO COMPANY (K) LTD SIGNET DRINKS AND SAUCES HARVESTER FRESH FOODS LTD ETERNAL BOTANICALS MATOTHI INVESTMENTS LTD CREDIBLE ALTERNATIVE ENTERPRISES SMART FOODS LTD ZAIM TRADING HOME COMFORTS MISSION IN ACTION CHILDREN'S HOME CLANSDALE ENTERPRISES AFRI-FRESH (U) LTD VESTA FOOD PROCESSORS FAIRMART SUPERMARKET LTD BROWNIES BAKERY JAMIWA ENTERPRISES LTD KNIGHTS MINING CO. LTD LEO BISCUITS INDUSTRIES LTD JOSCRIN CLEAN UP CLEAN DETERGENT FIRST MASTER ENTERPRISES MARSS FOOD QUALITY LWAHEN FOODS (U) LTD CLASSIC CAKE HOUSE NITEBAN LTD CONSUMER BENCHMARK SOUVENIR DOGS LTD MASII GOLDEN TOWERS LTD JAYTAM GENERAL SUPPLIES RETAN AGENCIES CISSE TRADING ENTERPRISES SPRING CUTS STARFRIC ENTERPRISES ELIZA'S BAKERS H&L VENTURES BURAN LTD ROBI SHINE INDUSTRIES SUNVEAT FOODS LTD KENLAB SUPPLIES LTD NYAMBS ENTERPRISES ALDIN INVESTORS LTD ENVELOPES AFRICA LTD ZION FOODS PRODUCTS DEVON DALYN LTD CHANDARIA PHAMACEUTICALS KENYA LTD KING QUAIL ENTERPRISES KALT BEVERAGES LTD KEVAN TRADERS LIMITED TEXT BOOK CENTRE LTD DOHASHE ENTERPRISES LTD SISIMA COFFEE LTD COUNTY UPDATE LTD BRAND HOUSE MEDIA LTD
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NDIKAWIKE K. ENTERPRISE ROKERA SERVICES AMAYA GAMING GROUP (K) LTD VIC AGENCIES LTD REAL BROTHER ENTERPRISES POKOT BEE PRODUCTS WOODALL ENTERPRISES LTD CENTRE FOR PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS (CEPPS) GERLIC ENTERPRISES LTD BUSINESS MIND AFRICA LTD COUNTY MEDIA LTD MBALUKA DESIGNERS AND SUPPLIES VIP JET LTD ROBUST ENTERPRISES LTD TRAFA ENTERPRISES ONE DEGREE LTD JAZZA PRODUCTS KENYA LTD RUSTIC MOMENTS JAMBO FISH LTD JREMY'S FASHIONS SAHUDA GROUP COMPANY LTD BROAD SPACE INTERACTIVE LTD REAL ESTATE EXCHANGE LTD UZURI WAKO PRODUCTION I-TRADE LTD EASTMAS AGENCIES LESANO ENTERPRISES ZEALTECH AFRICA LTD CONTACT PUBLISHERS CO. LTD CONSUMER BENCHMARK SUGAR & ALLIED INDUSTRIES LTD DEMIURGIC MEDIA LTD PREMIER OIL MILLS LTD WORKINGSMART SKILLS LTD GRAIN DROP PRODUCTS LTD GOODFIRE LTD SOUTHERN HERALD LTD BROWN MAID FOODS DISCHEM PHARMACIE STARTIMES MEDIA KENYA CO. LTD SARANA MANUFACTURES LTD FARM CONCERN INTERNATIONAL LOWRESH COMMERCIAL INSURANCE AGENCIES BARAKA AFRICA COMPANY LTD NUVISION MEDIA LTD VICTORIA-EAST AFRICA FISHERIES BETHESDA TRADERS KENYA CHARITY SWEEPSTAKE IMED HEALTHCARE LTD DONG BAO CO. LTD NAKURU COSMETIC CENTRE LTD NESTLE ANGOLA LTD UNGA FARM CARE E.A. LTD COLLINS TEA AND COFFEE HOUSE LTD MAMA DIA CLOTHING COLOURBULL ENTERPRISES LTD BALAJI IMPEX (K) LTD EASY MART SUPERMARKET LTD HUALONG KENYA COMMERCIAL & TRADING CO. LTD ESSENTIAL FARM PRODUCE ECSTACY LTD MINIMAX ENTERPRISES SNAK KING MASS TRADERS LTD SUNDRIES BALGAINS (NB) LTD STIVYS TRADING LTD YOUYI COMPANY LTD MENISCUS INVESTMENTS OSCAR INDUSTRIES LTD FORTUNES PRINTERS & STATIONERS LTD NASIIB HOLDINGS LTD NASCO PAPER INDUSTRIES LTD SHUMUK ALLUMINIUM INDUSTRIES LTD CHEFAMMEL COMPANY LTD JOSTECHNO EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICA LTD PELICAN SIGNS LTD SANGYUG ENTERPRISES LTD ZEBU EMPORIUM LTD PRADIP ENTERPRISES TARAZO AFRICANA LTD ALIBHAI SHARIFF AND SONS LTD CHASE COLLECTIONS LTD GIFASH STYLE WORLD SILVER OAK JEWELLERS LTD
GS1 Gateway DECEMBER 2012 - FEBRUARY 2013
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dŚĞ ŽŶĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƐŬŝůů ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƌĞĐĞŝǀĞ ĨƌŽŵ ĂĐĂĚĞŵŝĐ ŝŶƐƚŝƚƵƚŝŽŶƐ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ ŽĨ ĂƌŝƚŚŵĞƚŝĐΖƐ͖ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ĐŽ ŽƌĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŽŶ ŐŽŝŶŐ ůŽŐŝĐĂůƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐĂŵŽŶŐŝŶĚŝǀǀŝĚƵĂůƐ͘WĞŽƉůĞŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞ ŬŶŽǁŚŽǁ ŽĨ ĂƉ ƉƉůǇŝŶŐ ĂƌŝƚŚŵĞƚŝĐ ŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƚŝŽŶƐ ƚŽ ĂĚĚŝŶŐ ŶƵ ƵŵďĞƌƐ͕ ƐƵďƚƌĂĐƚŝŶŐ ƉŚĂŶƚƵƐĐŚĞďŝ ŽƚŚĞƌƐ͕ ŵƵůƚŝƉůǇŝŶŐ ĨŝŐƵƌĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĚŝǀŝĚŝŶŐ ĚŝŐŝƚƐ͘ dŚĞƐĞƐĂŵĞŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƚŝŽŶƐĂƌĞ ĞƚŚĞŽŶĞƐƚŚĂƚŐŝǀĞ Ŷ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĚŝĨĨŝĐƵůƚŝĞƐ ǁŚĞŶ ƚŚĞǇ ŽƉĞƌĂƚĞ ƚŚĞŵ ŽŶ ƌĞůĂƚĞƚŽƚŚĞŝƌƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůŝŶĐŽŵĞƐΘĐĂƐŚŵŽŶĞǇǇ͕ǀĞƌƐĞƐ͖ƚŚĞŝƌďŝůůƐ͕ ĞǆƉĞŶƐĞƐ͕ ƐĂǀŝŶŐƐ͕ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉĞƌƐƐŽŶĂů ĂĨĨĂŝƌĞƐ ůŝŬĞ ƚ ĞƚĐ͘ ĞƐƉŝƚĞ ƐŽĐŝĂůŝǌŝŶŐ͕ ƚƌĂǀĞůůŝŶŐ͕ ŐƌŽŽŵŝŶŐ͕ ƌĞůŝŐŝŽƵƐ ƚŝƚŚĞƐ ƵƌƐĐŚŽŽůŝŶŐƐǇƐƚĞŵƐ ŝŶĐŽŵĞƐΘĞĂƌŶŝŶŐƐďĞŝŶŐĂƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůĂĨĨĂŝƌ͖ŽƵ ŶĞǀĞƌ ƉƌĞƉĂƌĞĚ ƵƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚŝƐ ƚĂƐŬ ďƵƚ ůĞĨƚ ƵƐ ƚŽ ƚ ĐĂƌƌǇ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŶƚůĞ ƐŽůĞůǇ͘ dŚŝƐ ŚĂƐ ůĞĨƚ ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƵƐ ďĞŝŶŐ ƐŚŽƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚƌƵƚŚ ĂƐ ƚŽůĚ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐƌĞĂĚŝŶŐ͘dŚĞƚƌƵƚŚŝƐ͖ƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞ ƚŚƌĞĞĂƚƚƌŝďƵƚĞƐƚŚĂƚ ƌĞůĂƚĞ ƚŽ ŽŐŝĐ ŽĨ ƉůĂǇŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐƐ͘ tŚŝůĞ ŝŶ ĐůĂƐƐ͕ ǇŽƵ ŵĂƐƚĞƌĞĚ ƚŚĞ ůŽ ŶƵŵďĞƌƐ͕ĂŶĚŵĂŶŝƉƵůĂƚŝŶŐŶƵŵďĞƌƐĂůŽŶĞŝƐŶŽ ŽƚĞŶŽƵŐŚĨŽƌƐŽƵŶĚ ŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ůŝĞ ƉƐǇĐŚŽůŽŐŐǇ ďĞŚŝŶĚ ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂů ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐƐĂƐƚŚĞƐĞĐŽŶĚĂƚƚƌŝďƵƚĞ͕ĂŶĚƚŚŽƵŐŚƚĂĂƐƚŚĞƚŚŝƌĚŽŶĞ͘dŚĞ ƉƐǇĐŚŽůŽŐǇŽĨŝŶĐŽŵĞŝƐƚŚĂƚƚŝŐŚƚŵĞŶƚĂůĂŶĚ ĞŵŽƚŝŽŶĂůĨŝŐŚƚŽŶĞ ĞǆƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞƐďĞƚǁĞĞŶƐƉĞŶĚŝŶŐŶŽǁ͕ŽƌďƵǇŝŶŐ ŶŽǁ͕ǀĞƌƐĞƐ͖ƐĂǀŝŶŐ ĨŽƌĨƵƚƵƌĞ͕ŽƌďƵǇŝŶŐŝƚůĂƚĞƌ͘/ƚŝƐƚŚĞĂƚƚƌŝďƵƚĞŽ ŽĨƚŚŽƵŐŚƚƚŚĂƚŝƐƚŚĞ ŐŝƐƚĂŶĚƚŚĞƚŽƉĐƌĞĂŵŽĨƚŚĞƚŚƌĞĞ͘ /ƚ͛ƐƚŚĞŽŶĞƚŚĂƚ ŽƵŐŚƚ ƚŽďĞ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĞĚ ĨŝƌƐƚ ďĞĨŽƌĞ ƉƐǇĐŚŽůŽŐǇ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞĞŶ ĞŶĚ ďǇ ƉƵŶĐŚŝŶŐ ŶƵŵďĞƌƐ ŽŶ ŽƵƌ ĐĂůĐƵůĂƚŽƌƐ͘ DŽƐƚ ŽĨ ŽƵƌ ƚƌŽƵ ƵďůĞƐ ƐƚĂƌƚ ǁŚĞŶ ǁĞ ƐůŝƉďĂĐŬǁĂƌĚƐĂŶĚƌĞǀĞƌƐĞƚŚŝƐŽƌĚĞƌďǇďĞŐŝŶ ŶŶŝŶŐǁŝƚŚŶƵŵďĞƌƐ͕ ŚĞŶĐĞŽƵƌǀŝƐŝďůĞĨĂŝůƵƌĞƐĂŶĚƉŽŽƌƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞĞǁŝƚŚŽƵƌĞĂƌŶŝŶŐƐ͘
tŝƚŚ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ Θ ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐƐ͕ ƚŚŽƵŐŚƚ ƌĞŵĂŝŶƐ ƚŚĞ ŚŝĚĚĞŶ ƐĞĐƌĞƚ͕ ŚŝĚĚĞŶŝŶƚŚĞƐƚŽƌǇŽĨĂƌŝǀĞƌĂŶĚĐůĞĂƌůǇƌĞǀĞĂĂůƐŝƚƐĞůĨĂƐƚŚĞƐƚŽƌǇ ƵŶĨŽůĚƐ͘ dŚĞ ƐƚŽƌǇ ŐŽĞƐ ůŝŬĞ ƚŚŝƐ͖ ͞ ƌŝǀĞƌ ƐƚĂĂƌƚƐ Ăƚ Ă ƐŽƵƌĐĞ͕ ŝƚƐ ǁĂƚĞƌƐĨůŽǁĚŽǁŶƐƚƌĞĂŵƚŽĞŶĚ ĞŝƚŚĞƌŝŶƚŚĞ ůĂŬĞ͕ƐĞĂŽƌ ŽĐĞĂŶ͘͟ ŶĚƚŚŝƐŵĂƌŬƐƚŚĞĞŶĚŽĨƚŚĞƐƚŽƌǇ͘
dŚŝƐƐƚŽƌǇƚĞůůƐƵƐƚŚĂƚĂůůĞĂƌŶŝŶŐƐĂŶĚŝŶĐŽŵĞƐƐƚŚĂƚĐŽŵĞŝŶĞǀĞƌǇ ƉĞƌƐŽŶ͛Ɛ ůŝĨĞ ŚĂǀĞ ŐŽƚ Ă ƐŽƵƌĐĞ͖ ũƵƐƚ ůŝŬĞ ƚŚĞ ƌŝǀĞƌ͘ Ɛ ǁĂƚĞƌƐ ŽĨ Ă ƌŝǀĞƌĨůŽǁĚŽǁŶƐƚƌĞĂŵ͕ƚŚĞǇŵĞĞƚƚǁŽĐŽŶĚŝƚŝŽ ŽŶƐ͖ƚŚĞĨŝƌƐƚŽŶĞŝƐ͖ ƐŽŵĞŽĨ ƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌƐƐŝŶŬŝŶƚŚĞ ƐŽŝů͕ƐĂŶĚĂŶĚ ƌŽĐŬƐ ƚŚĂƚůŝĞĂƚƚŚĞ ďĂƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌŝǀĞƌ ďĞĚ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ǁĂƚĞƌƐ ĂƌĞ ŶĞǀĞĞƌ ƌĞĐŽǀĞƌĞĚ ďǇ ƚŚĞ ƌŝǀĞƌďƵƚůŽƐƚĨŽƌĞǀĞƌ͘^ĞĐŽŶĚůǇ͕ƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌƐŐĞƚƚŚĞĂƚĞĚďǇƚŚĞƐƵŶƐ ŚĞĂƚŝŶŐĞĨĨĞĐƚŽŶƚŚĞĞĂƌƚŚƐƵƌĨĂĐĞ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŵĂŬĞĞƐƚŚĞŵƚŽƚƵƌŶŝŶƚŽ ŐĂƐĞŽƵƐƐƚĂƚĞ͕ĞǀĂƉŽƌĂƚŝŶŐƚŽƚŚĞĂŝƌĂŶĚďůŽǁ ǁŶƵƉǁĂƌĚƐƚŽƉĞĂŬƐ ŽĨŚŝůůƐďǇǁŝŶĚ͘tĞĂƌĞĂǁĂƌĞƚŚĂƚ͕ƚŚĞŚŝŐŚĞƌǇŽƵŐŽ͕ƚŚĞĐŽŽůĞƌŝƚ ďĞĐŽŵĞƐ͘dŚƵƐ͕ƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌƐƚŚĂƚĞǀĂƉŽƌĂƚĞƵƉǁ ǁĂƌĚƐĂƌĞŶĞǀĞƌůŽƐƚ ďǇ ƚŚĞ ƌŝǀĞƌ͖ ƚŚĞǇ ŐĞƚ ĐŽŽůĞĚ ĨŽƌŵŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ Ŷŝŵ ŵďƵƐ ĐůŽƵĚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĨĂůů ďĂĐŬ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƌĐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌŝǀĞƌ ĂƐ ƌĂŝŶ ǁĂƚĞƌ Ž Žƌ ƌĂŝŶ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĞĂƌƚŚ ƐƵƌĨĂĐĞ͕ǁŚŽƐĞĚƌŽƉƐŽĨǁĂƚĞƌĞǀĞŶƚƵĂůůǇĨŝŶĚƚŚ ŚĞŝƌǁĂǇďĂĐŬƚŽƚŚĞ ƌŝǀĞƌ͘ZĞŐĂƌĚůĞƐƐŽĨƚŚĞƐĞƚǁŽĐŝƌĐƵŵƐƚĂŶĐĞƐ͕ƚŚ ŚĞƌŝǀĞƌƐƚŝůůƌĞĂĐŚĞƐ ŝƚƐĚĞƐƚŝŶǇǁŝƚŚƉůĞŶƚǇŽĨǁĂƚĞƌƐ͘
>ŝŬĞǁŝƐĞ͕ǇŽƵƌŝŶĐŽŵĞŵĞĞƚƐƚŚĞƐĞƚǁŽĐŝƌĐƵŵƐƐƚĂŶĐĞƐ͖ŝƚŝƐĂƌĞĂůŝƚǇ ƚŚĂƚ Ă ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ǇŽƵƌ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ŵƵƐƚ ƐŝŶŬ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĞĂƌƚŚ ƐƵƌĨĂĐĞĂŶĚůŽƐƚ͘dŚĞƌŝǀĞƌŚĂƐŶŽĐŽŶƚƌŽůŽǀĞƌƚƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌƐƚŚĂƚƐŝŶŬ͖ ŝƚ ĐĂŶ͛ƚ ƐƚŽƉ ƚŚĞŵ ĨƌŽŵ ŐŽŝŶŐ ƵŶĚĞƌ ĂƐ ŝƚƐ ďĞĚ ŚĂƐ ŶĞǀĞƌ ďĞĞŶ Ă ƵŶŝĨŽƌŵůǇƐŽůŝĚƌŽĐŬ͘DŽŶĞǇƐƉĞŶĚŝŶďƵǇŝŶŐǇŽƵƌĨŽŽĚ͕ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͕ ĞŶƚĞƌƚĂŝŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ƚĂǆ͕ ĐůŽƚŚŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƐŚĞůƚĞƌ ;ƌĞŶƚƚ Žƌ ůĞĂƐĞͿ ŝŶ ƐŽŵĞ ĐĂƐĞƐŶŽƌŵĂůůǇŐŽĞƐƵŶĚĞƌ͕ŝƚŶĞǀĞƌĐŽŵĞƐďĂĐŬŬŝŶǇŽƵƌůŝĨĞ͘/ƚŝƐƚŚĞ ƉĂƌƚŝĐƵůĂƌ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ŵŽŶĞǇ ƚŚĂƚ ŵĂŶǇ ŽĨ ƵƐ ŚĂǀĞ ĚŝĨĨŝĐƵůƚǇ ŝŶ ĐŽŶƚƌŽůůŝŶŐ ʹ ũƵƐƚ ůŝŬĞ ƚŚĞ ƌŝǀĞƌ͘ WĞŽƉůĞ ǁŚŽ ĚŽŶ͛ƚ ŚĂǀĞ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚŝŽŶ ůŝƐƚƐ Žƌ ƉůĂŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚŽƐĞ ƚŚĂƚ ĚŽŶ͛ƚ ƉƌĞƉĂƌĞ Žƌ ĨŽůůŽǁ ΞϮϬϭϮŶƚĞƌƉƌŝƐĞZĞǀŽůƵƚŝŽŶ>ƚĚůůƌŝŐŚƚƐƌĞƐĞƌǀĞĚ͘
ƚŚĞŝƌ ďƵĚŐĞƚƐ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ŽŶĞ ĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŵŽƐƚůǇ ŐĞƚ ĂĨĨĞĐƚĞĚ͘ /Ĩ Ăůů ƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌƐŽĨƚŚĞƌŝǀĞƌŚĂĚƚŽƐƐŝŶŬŝŶƚŚĞĞĂƌƚŚƐƵƌĨĂĐĞƚŚĞŶ͕ŽĐĞĂŶƐΘ ƐĞĂƐǁŽƵůĚŶŽƚďĞƚŚĞƌĞ͘dŚ ŚŝƐůĞĂĚƐƵƐƚŽƚŚĞƐĞĐŽŶĚƌĞĂůŝƚǇ͘
ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞŽĨǇŽƵ ƵƌŝŶĐŽŵĞŽƌĞĂƌŶŝŶŐƐŵƵƐƚĞǀĂƉŽƌĂƚĞƚŽ ƚŚĞĂŝƌũƵƐƚůŝŬĞƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌƐŽ ŽĨƚŚĞƌŝǀĞƌ͖ƚŚŝƐŝƐƚŚĞĂŵŽƵŶƚƚŚĂƚŐŽĞƐ ŝŶƚŽ ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂů ƐĂǀŝŶŐƐ ĂŶĚ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ĐŽůƵŵŶ͘ ǀĂƉŽƌĂƚŝŶŐ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĨŝƌƐƚƚƵƌŶŝŶƚŽŐĂƐĞŽƵƐƐƚĂƚĞ ĞĂŶĚĐĂƌƌŝĞĚďǇĂŝƌ͖ƚŚŝƐǁĂǇ͕ŝƚŝƐŶĞǀĞƌ ƐĞĞŶ ďǇ ŽƵƌ ŶĂŬĞĚ ĞǇĞƐ͘ K KŶĞ ŚĂƐ ƚŽ ŝŶĚĞŶƚŝĨǇ ƚŚŝƐ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ĐĂƐŚ ĂŶĚ ŚĂǀĞ ŝƚ ĐŚŽƉƉĞĚ Ě ŽĨĨ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐƐ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƌĐĞ ĂŶĚ ĐŚĂŶŶĞůĞĚ ƚŽ Ă ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂů ŝŶ ŶĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚ ƐĂǀŝŶŐƐ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ ďĞĨŽƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƉĂǇďĞĐŽŵĞƐǀŝƐŝďůĞƚŽǇŽƵƌĞǇĞƐ͘dŚŝƐǁĂǇ͕ǇŽƵǁŝůůĂĚũƵƐƚǇŽƵƌƐĞůĨ ĂŶĚ ǇŽƵƌ ůŝĨĞƐƚǇůĞ ƚŽ ůĞĂǀĞĞ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŵĂŝŶŝŶŐ ĞĂƌŶŝŶŐƐ ĂƐ ǇŽƵ ŵĂŶĂŐĞ ƚŚĞ ďĂůĂŶĐĞ͘ /ƚ ŝƐƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚŝƐ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ ƚŚĂƚ ǇŽƵ ǁŝůů ŐĞƚ ŵŽŶŝĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚŝǀĞ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ͕ ƉƌĞƐĞƌǀĂƚŝǀĞ ŽŶĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ĐĞŶƚĞƌĞĚ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ͘ dŚĞ d ƐĂŵĞ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ ǁŝůů ŐŝǀĞ ǇŽƵ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚŝŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ƐĂǀŝŶŐ ŝŶ Ŷ ^K ƐŽĐŝĞƚŝĞƐ͕ ŵĞĞƚŝŶŐ ƐŚŽƌƚ ƚĞƌŵ ĨŝŶĂŶĐŝĂůŐŽĂůƐĂŶĚĞǀĞŶĂĐĐĐƌƵŝŶŐŵŽŶŝĞƐĨŽƌĞŵĞƌŐĞŶĐŝĞƐ͘
tŝƚŚƚŚĞƐĞƚǁŽĨĂĐƚƐ͕ƚŚĞƌŝǀĞƌŝƐŽĨƚĞŶůĞĨƚǁŝƚŚƐŽŵĞǁĂƚĞƌƐĨŽƌŝƚƐ ŽǁŶ ĂĨĨĂŝƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƵƐĞ͕ Ɛƚŝůů ĨůŽǁŝŶŐ Ĩ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ŝƚƐ ǁĂůůƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ƚĞůůƐ ǇŽƵ ĂŶĚ ŵĞ ƚŚĂƚ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƚ ŽǁŶ ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂů ĂĨĨĂŝƌƐ͘ zŽƵ ŶĞĞĚ ƚŽ ŚĂǀĞĂƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůĂĨĨĂŝƌƐĂĐĐŽƵŶƚǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞůĂƐƚƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞŽĨǇŽƵƌ ŝŶĐŽŵĞŐŽĞƐ͖ƚŚĞƐĞŝƐǁŚĞƌĞǇŽƵŐĞƚŵŽŶŝĞƐƚŽƉĂǇǇŽƵƌƌĞůŝŐŝŽƵƐ ƚŝƚŚĞ͕ŵĂŬĞĚŽŶĂƚŝŽŶƐĨŽƌ ĐŚĂƌŝƚǇ͕ƐŽĐŝĂůŝǌĞĂƐǇŽƵŵĂŬĞĨƌŝĞŶĚƐŝŶ Đ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬŝŶŐĂĐƚŝǀŝƚŝĞƐ͕ƉĂǇĨŽƌǇŽƵƌůĞŝƐƵƌĞ͕ƚĂŬĞĐĂƌĞŽĨǇŽƵƌŚĞĂůƚŚ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ŚĞĂůƚŚ ĐŚĞĐŬƵƉƐ͕ ŐƌŽŽŵŝŶŐ ĞǆƉĞŶƐĞƐ͕ ĞǆĞƌĐŝƐĞ Žƌ ƉĂǇŝŶŐ ĨŽƌǇŽƵƌŐǇŵƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐĂŶĚ ĞǀĞŶƉĂǇŝŶŐĨŽƌǇŽƵƌŵĞĚŝĐĂůŝŶƐƵƌĂŶĐĞ ƐĐŚĞŵĞĨƌŽŵƚŚŝƐĂĐĐŽƵŶƚʹʹƉĂƌƚŝĐƵůĂƌůǇǁŚĞŶŐĞƚƚŝŶŐŽůĚĞƌ͘
KŶĐĞ ǇŽƵƌ ƉĂǇ ĐŚĞƋƵĞ ŚŝƚƚƐ ǇŽƵƌ ƉĂůŵƐ͕ ůĞƚ ƚŚĞ ^ƚŽƌǇ ŽĨ Ă ZŝǀĞƌ ůŝŶŐĞƌŝŶǇŽƵƌŚĞĂĚΘŵŝŶĚ͕ƚŚŝŶŬĂďŽƵƚŝƚ͕ƚŚĞŶĂƐŬǇŽƵƌƐĞůĨ͕ǁŚĂƚ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĂƚ ƉĂǇ ǁŝŝůů ŐŽ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ďŝůůƐ Θ ĞǆƉĞŶƐĞƐ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ͕ ǁŚĂƚŚŝƚƐƚŚĞƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůŝŶĚĞĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚƐĂǀŝŶŐƐĂĐĐŽƵŶƚĂŶĚǁŚĂƚŐŽĞƐ ƚŽƚŚĞƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůĂĨĨĂŝƌĞƐĂĐĐĐŽƵŶƚ͘/ƚŝƐƚŚŝƐƐƚŽƌǇƚŚĂƚůĞĚƚŽƚŚĞ͞ƚǁŽ ƚŚŝƌĚƐƌƵůĞ͟ƚŚĂƚƐĂǇ͛Ɛ͗KŶĞĞƐŚĂůůŶŽƚĐŽŵŵŝƚŵŽƌĞƚŚĂŶƚǁŽƚŚŝƌĚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞŝƌ ŐƌŽƐƐ ƐĂůĂƌǇ ƚŽ ĚĞĚƵĐƚŝŽŶƐ͘ ƚŚŝƌĚ ŽĨ ŝƚ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ůĞĨƚ ĨŽƌ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ŶŽƚ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶ ŶŵĞŶƚ͊ ƉƉůǇ ƉƐǇĐŚŽůŽŐǇ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ďŝůůƐ Θ ĞǆƉĞŶƐĞ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞĞ ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂů ĂĨĨĂŝƌĞƐ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ ŽŶ ƵƌŐĞŶƚ ǁĂŶƚƐǀĞƌƐĞƐŶĞĞĚƐƚŚĂƚĐĂŶ ŶďĞĚĞůĂǇĞĚĨŽƌĨƵƚƵƌĞĂƚƚĂŝŶŵĞŶƚ͕ƚŚĞŶ ƌŽůů ĚŽǁŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŵĂƚŚĞ ĞŵĂƚŝĐƐ ŽĨ ŶƵŵďĞƌƐ͘ dŚĞ ƐƵƌƉůƵƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƚǁŽ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚƐ ƐŚŽƵůĚ Ě ďĞ ƚĂŬĞŶ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƐĂǀŝŶŐƐ Θ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ĐŽůƵŵŶ͘
ZĂŝŶƐ ƚĂŬĞ ƚŝŵĞ ƚŽ ĨŽƌŵ ĂŶ ŶĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŝŵĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƚƵƌŶƐ ĨƌŽŵ ŵŽŶŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĞǀĂƉŽƌĂƚĞĚ ŝŶƚŽ ĨŝŶĂŶ ŶĐŝĂů ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ ƐƚĂƌƚ ĨĂůůŝŶŐ ďĂĐŬ ůŝŬĞ ƌĂŝŶ ƌĞĨŝůůŝŶŐ ǇŽƵƌ ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂĂů ĞǆƉĞŶƐĞ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ ĂŶĚ ǇŽƵƌ ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂů ĂĨĨĂŝƌƐĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ͘ƚƚŚŝƐƚŝŵĞ Ğ͕ǇŽƵǁŝůůŚĂǀĞďĞĐŽŵĞƚŚĞŵĂƐƚĞƌǁŝƚŚ ǇŽƵƌŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐďĞŝŶŐǇŽƵ ƵƌĞŵƉůŽǇĞĚƐĞƌǀĂŶƚƐ͘
ƉŚĂŶƚƵƐĐŚĞďŝŝƐĂĐŽ ŽŶƐƵůƚĂŶƚŝŶƚŚĞĨŝŶĂŶĐĞŝŶĚƵƐƚƌǇĂŶĚ ŚĞƚĞĂĐŚĞƐƉĞŽƉůĞŽŶĂĂĐŚŝĞǀŝŶŐƚŚĞŝƌĨŝŶĂŶĐŝĂůŐŽĂůƐ͕ǁĂůŬŝŶŐ ƚŚĞŵƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƚŚĞƌŽĂĚƚŽĨŝŶĂŶĐŝĂůƐƵĐĐĞƐƐΘĨƌĞĞĚŽŵ͘ ,ĞŝƐƚŚĞĂƵƚŚŽƌƚŽƚŚĞďŽŽŬƚŝƚůĞ͗Η,ĂƌŶĞƐƐŝŶŐƚŚĞ,ŽŶĞǇΘ WŽǁĞƌŝŶzŽƵΗĂŶĚĂƐƉĞĂŬĞƌ͗,ĞƚĂůŬƐŽŶĨŝŶĂŶĐŝĂůĂŶĚ ŵŽƚŝǀĂƚŝŽŶĂůƚŽƉŝĐƐƚŽĂĂƵĚŝĂŶĐĞƐ͘ zŽƵĐĂŶƌĞĂĐŚŚŝŵŽŶƚŚĞĨŽůŽǁŝŶŐĐŽŶƚĂĐƚƐ͖ ƉŚĂŶƚƵƐĐŚĞďŝ W͘Ž͘Žǆ͘ϭϬϬϰϮϲʹϬϬϭϬϭ͕EĂŝƌŽďŝ͘ DŽďŝůĞ͗нϮϱϰϳϮϭϳϬϱϴ ϴϴϭ ŵĂŝů͗ĞƉŚĂŶƚƵƐ͘ĂĐŚĞďŝΛŐŵĂŝů͘ĐŽŵ
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