Page 1

2012 Semester 2

LINUS GRUSZEWSKI

NATURAL SYSTEMS STUDIO


0/INDEX 1/SCALE

3/PERSPECTIVE 4/DRAWING 5/CELLS 6/STACKING

GHELFI + GRUSZEWSKI

2/DNA


SCALE


SCALE Population density, Paris, 2008, IAURIF

Brain CT scan,

cedars-sinai hospital


It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world.

SCALE

Aristotle

“The mind cannot visualize the whole infinite self-embedding of complexity. But to someone with a geometer’s way of thinking about form, this kind of repetition of structure on finer and finer scales can open a whole world. Exploring these shapes, pressing one’s mental fingers into the rubbery edges of their possibilities, was a kind of playing, and [Benoit] Mandelbrot took a childlike delight in seeing variations that no one had seen or understood before. […]” (James Gleick, Chaos - Making a new science, 1988) page 100

Satelite image of delta, NASA

Cabbage leaf, Flikr.com


SCALE

Man-made constellations, composed on Illustrator using punctuation markes as building blocks.Galaxies of semicolons, clusters of questions and exclamations make up this artificial sky.

MARSHA COTTRELL

GALAXY, HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE


SCALE

Satelite image of Kamchatka, NASA

Painting,

Bianca-Lua Ayrosa, Middle, 2008


Fractal morphologies can be understood regardless of scale is this why we can see similar organisational logics in clouds and in smoke? “The mind cannot visualize the whole infinite self-embedding of complexity. But to someone with a geometer’s way of thinking about form, this kind of repetition of structure on finer and finer scales can open a whole world. Exploring these shapes, pressing one’s mental fingers into the rubbery edges of their possibilities, was a kind of playing, and [Benoit] Mandelbrot took a childlike delight in seeing variations that no one had seen or understood before.”

SCALE

James Gleick, Chaos - Making a new science, 1988 page 100

Cloud formations

Fractal generation , Ultra Fractal 5.0


SCALE “Nature isn’t so poor that she needs constant improvement” Albert Renger-Patzsch

Tokyo: night-time satelite image,

NASA

Slime Mold experiment, Tokyo rail system Urban future organization/ blog


PERSPECTIVE


Janine M. Benyus, Perennial, 1997), 237

Albert Renger-Patzsch (1897-1966)

Biomimicry, (New York, Harper

2001: Space Odyssey

PERSPECTIVE

“[...] the biomimics are showing us that nature is the ultimate inventor, and there is much more that we as observers do not know – perhaps cannot know. By forming alliances with her, by using biology-friendly materials and letting evolution work its magic (even without knowing how it works), we’re bound to come out ahead of where we would be with our own linear, digital, rigidly controlled logic”


Quantity has a quality all its own

PERSPECTIVE

Joseph Stalin

Plexus - installation, Gabriel Dawe

Looking for the Vanishing Point, Still image from film 2001: Space Odyssey, Stanley Kubrick


PERSPECTIVE


GHELFI

PERSPECTIVE


PERSPECTIVE

Processing experiment

GHELFI

[1]Alberti, LĂŠon Battista, De pictura, Paris, Macula, 1994, p. 199


DNA REFERENCE

Douglas Rushkoff argues that our tools are set up with a certain bias, programmed with an agenda completely independant from our intended use of them.

GALAXY, HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE


1. Weinstock , The Architecture of Emergence, (West Sussex, John Wiley & Sons, 2010), p29 2.Weinstock , Emergence, p30 3.Weinstock , Emergence, p186 4.Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species,(UK, John Murray, 1859), Chapter 5 Laws of Variation 5.Weinstock , Emergence, p202

DNA

Can one define or ultimately plan a suburb? Or even a whole city? There are so many elements at play, that if, architects, urban planners and landscape architects were to study all aspects of a city design and compile all the relevant data – cultural, historical, ecological, topographic, atmospheric, etc – a design would take decades to start taking shape into the tracing paper. By then, dozens of other elements have come into play and the data collected in the past would have been outdated. Cities are living organisms. They expand in size, grow in population, and acquire new cultural heritages without any predictable control. However, there is an underlying behavioural pattern within each of the City’s elements that can be traced back from its origin, or at least identified of its function. “The pattern of energy flow through living forms, and through all the forms of human culture, the networks of cities and states, is subject to many fluctuations and perturbations. The flow is modified by ‘feedbacks’, but occasionally there is such an amplification or inhibition that the system must change, must reorganize or collapse.”1 The DNA code for any living form can today be written with demonstration of its structure and elements; similarly to our cities, it can also pose a striking complex task if one was to fully manipulate all its functions and behaviours. Although with much simpler array of elements, the DNA can arrange itself in thousands of different combinations resulting in a multitude of systems – a scale of a fish, the human skin, and a snake’s eye. “The consequence of multiple interactions at many different levels of hierarchy that coevolves across many spatial scales is that the higher level system is organized from within.” 2 Following the same parallel, cities and living forms depend on a fundamental element for their own existence: energy. It can be harvested from nature from various sources: solar, wind, water, etc. For their survival, cities rely largely on a combination of available ecological resources. In their absence, cities collapse into extinction, forcing its inhabitants to migrate to areas where nature can still provide means of minimal survival. 3 Conversely, living forms thrive in environments in which are suitable for their liveability; abundance in food, appropriate air / water temperature, capability for stable reproduction. When the surrounding natural environment becomes too severe, species are required to change their behaviour within the same or following generations (genetic code alteration causing mutation)

[…] the whole organization is so tied together during its growth and development, that when slight variations in any one part occur, and are accumulated through natural selection, other parts become modified. […] Whatever the cause may be of each slight difference in the offspring from their parents and a cause for each must exist it is the steady accumulation, through natural selection, of such differences, when beneficial to the individual, that gives rise to all the more important modifications of structure, by which the innumerable beings on the face of this earth are enabled to struggle with each other, and the best adapted to survive. […]4 To engage with the city, architects and urban designers must then embrace other disciplinary aspects in addition to the built environment; the understanding of the complexity of human condition and ecological systems - and their constant evolution - become a central role to the design process which in turn can be effectively sympathetic in form and function – rather than purely aesthetically driven - to the ‘megasystem’ called city. “City forms are material constructs that are composed of a spatial array of dwellings, a pattern of streets and public spaces together with differentiated buildings of varying sizes associated with a regulation of energy and material flow; and the extension of a metabolic network across the surrounding territory. City forms emerged within different topographies and ecological systems, evolving from regional variations of the founding system and the established patterns of settlements from which they condensed. The forms expanded and developed, strongly coupled to the dynamic changes of climate and ecology within which they were situated.”5 The parallel between the DNA code and the urban fabric of a city lies on the similarities of their complexity. Both are heavily structured and dependant on a network of interactions within the very elements that they are made of. For the DNA, the nucleobases A-G-T-C are arranged in a multitude of base-stacking interactions which structures the doublehelix whereas in a city, socio-cultural-political and environmental relationships are at play. The hierarchical intricacies and complexity between those interactions define the forms, functions and behaviours of a much larger system: a living being or a city.

GHELFI

DNA and City


DNA

Mitosis,

digitally enhanced microscopic view, UNSW

DNA sequencing

(stock)


Barcode 3 Code //----------declare import toxi.geom.*; //ArrayList walkerCollection; Bar myBar; Walker1 walk1; Walker2 walk2; ArrayList lineWalker; Paralel par; int dim = 5; float mX, mY, dist; float downX, downY, dragDist; float speed = 50F; int num = 1000; avoid[] things; //---------initialize void setup() { size(800, 400); smooth(); background(0); lineWalker = new ArrayList(); walk1 = new Walker1(); walk2 = new Walker2(); Vec3D startLoc = new Vec3D (width/4, height/4, 0); par = new Paralel(startLoc);

//--------draw void draw() { //background(0); fill(0, 25); rectMode (CENTER); rect(400, 200, width, height); //-------run Paralels par.run(); // ---------bar actions myBar = new Bar(random(0, 800), height-300); myBar.run(); //------------walker actions walk1.display(); walk1.step(); walk1.rerun(); walk2.display(); walk2.step(); walk2.rerun();

DNA

// ----cluster white things = new avoid[num]; for (int i = 0; i < num; i++) { things[i] = new avoid(random(width), random(height), random(width), random(height)); } }

// line walker Walker3 w3 = new Walker3(random(0,800), random(0, 400)); lineWalker.add(w3); for (int i = 0; i < lineWalker.size(); i++) { Walker3 mw3 = (Walker3) lineWalker.get(i); mw3.run(); }

}

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

PHASE 3

saveFrame(â&#x20AC;&#x153;barcode3_####.jpgâ&#x20AC;?);

CODE

GHELFI

//mouse avoid for (int i = 0; i < num; i++) { things[i].update(); things[i].run(); }


DRAWING


DRAWING

GRUSZEWSKI bad workmen blame their tools


//YELLOWTRACE pseudo-constructivist paint tool

void draw () { //framecount is set as greyscale value stroke(frameCount*3); noFill(); rectMode(CORNER); //previous rectangle rect(pmouseX, pmouseY, 100, 100); //current rect(mouseX, mouseY, 100, 100); //lines from previous rect to current line(pmouseX, pmouseY, mouseX, mouseY); line(pmouseX+100, pmouseY+100, mouseX+100, mouseY+100); line(pmouseX, pmouseY+100, mouseX, mouseY+100); line(pmouseX+100, pmouseY, mouseX+100, mouseY); }

DRAWING

void setup() { size(800, 500); background(255, 255, 0); smooth(); //slow down frameCount frameRate(5); }

void keyPressed() { //reset background if (key == ‘b’) background(255, 255, 0); //reset color to black if (key == ‘x’) frameCount=0; }

iteration

YELLOWTRACE code

GRUSZEWSKI

//extra functionalities


DRAWING the Third International, 1920

YELLOWTRACE.pde

GRUSZEWSKI

Vlavimir Tatlin, model for the Monument to


CELLS


CELLS

cell drops

GRUSZEWSKI

GEORGE WARD TJUNGURRAYI


CELLS

RenĂŠ Descartes, Voronoi cells

Amethist


CELLS

multiplier sketch

GRUSZEWSKI

Mitosis


STACKING


STACKING

GRUSZEWSKI

GHELFI

processing raindrops

STALACTITES/STALAGMITES stacking drops


“In his seminal writings on morphology Goethe (17961 1987) draws the profound distinction between GESTALT, the specific shape, and BILDUNG, the process from which a specific shape unfolds. In this sense gestalt is a momentous snapshot in space and time. Thus the complex morphology of material gestalt always needs to be perceived in relation to morphogenesis,the continual process of becoming. Recognising that the gestalt of natural systems is always inheretly and inseparably related to their processes of materialisation is of critical importance. ” Material systems, computational morphogenesis and performative capacity

Processing provides a context for experimenting with frame by frame animation, basically redrawing a shape in on a loop, in several positions or incarnations. Trianglesweep.pde gives the illusion of a stack of triangular slices. The 3D version aims to create that stack on the Z axis, and export the result as 3D linework, so as to be able to build a physical model of this simple twisting and morphing triangle. Based on raindrops.pde, we could imagine a similar process, as the raindrops ripple out and fade, by adding an increment on the Z axis, we might be able to generate a landscape of stalactites and stalagmites.

Marilene Olivier, Family Portrait

GRUSZEWSKI

The slice is one of the tools we as architects utilize most. Plans, sections, contour curves are two-dimensional slices drawn from a three-dimensional construct. Whether we are working on drawings, with layers of tracing paper, or cutting sheets of cardboard to build up a landscape model, this process of stacking is firmly anchored in the discipline’s culture. It is of no surprise therefore that architects are fascinated with medical imagery, allowing to view slices of a body without physically cutting someone in half.

STACKING

Joachim Menges


STACKING

agglomerating cell sequence

GRUSZEWSKI

Noriko Ambe, a piece of a flat globe


STACKING GRAND CANYON

NORIKO AMBE :

laser cut paper sculpture, contour lines


= = = =

0; 0; 0; 255;

//set floating points //(with z for P3D) float x; float y; float z; float x1; float y1; float z1; float x2; float y2; float z2; //set speeds int xSpeed = 20; int ySpeed = 20; int zSpeed = 20 int xSpeed1 = 10; int ySpeed1 = 10; int zSpeed1 = 10; int xSpeed2 = 25; int ySpeed2 = 30; int zSpeed2 = 30; void setup() { //size(800, 500); smooth();

}

xSpeed1 *= -1; if (y1 > height-100 || y1 < 100) ySpeed1 *= -1;

void draw() { //transparent layer noStroke(); fill(0, 0, 0, 20); rect(0, 0, width, height);

//point2

// draw triangle stroke(r, g, b, a); fill(0, 150, 0, 100); triangle(x, y, x1, y1, x2, y2); strokeWeight(10); point(z, z1); line(x, y, z, z1); line(x1, y1, z, z1); line(x2, y2, z, z1); // move x += xSpeed; y += ySpeed; z += zSpeed; x1 += xSpeed1; y1 += ySpeed1; z1 += zSpeed1; x2 += xSpeed2; y2 += ySpeed2; z2 += zSpeed2;

}

if (x2 > width-100 || x2 < 100) xSpeed2 *= -1; if (y2 > height-100 || y2 < 100) ySpeed2 *= -1; //point z if (z >= x || z <= zSpeed *= -1; if (z1 > x1|| z1 < zSpeed1 *= -1; if (z >= y || z <= zSpeed *= -1; if (z1 > y1|| z1 < zSpeed1 *= -1;

x1 ) x2) y1 ) y2)

STACKING

r g b a

//extra functionalities void keyPressed() { // reset background to black if (key == ‘b’) background(0, 0, 0); //save pdf if (key==’s’ || key==’S’) saveFrame(timestamp()+”_##.pdf”); }

//point0 if (x > width-100 || x < 100) //reset triangle coordinates and grow xSpeed *= -1; void mousePressed () { if (y > height-100 || y < 100) if (mousePressed == true) { //scale window to screen ySpeed *= -1; x = mouseX; size(screen.width - 10, y = mouseY; screen.height - 50); //point1 x1 = mouseX; background(100); y1 = mouseY; stroke(frameCount); if (x1 > width-100 || x1 < 100) x2 = mouseX; strokeWeight(2); xSpeed1 *= -1; y2 = mouseY; strokeJoin(ROUND); if (y1 > height-100 || y1 < 100) z = mouseX; frameRate(100); ySpeed1 *= -1; z1= mouseY; } } //point2 else { void draw() { } if (x2 > width-100 || x2 < 100)} //transparent layer xSpeed2 *= -1; noStroke(); if (y2 > height-100 || y2 < 100) fill(0, 0, 0, 20); ySpeed2 *= -1; rect(0, 0, width, height);

TRIANGLESWEEP code

2D stacking of triangle

GRUSZEWSKI

float float float float


//create dxf file if (key == ‘R’ || key == ‘r’) { // Press R to save the file record = true; } }

float float float float

r g b a

= = = =

0; 0; 0; 255;

//-------------draw

//set floating points (with z for P3D) float x; float y; float z; float x1; float y1; float z1; float x2; float y2; float z2; //set speeds int xSpeed = 20; int ySpeed = 20; int zSpeed = 30; int xSpeed1 = 10; int ySpeed1 = 10; int zSpeed1 = 30; int xSpeed2 = 25; int ySpeed2 = 30; int zSpeed2 = 30;

//dxf file if (record == true) { dxf = (RawDXF) createGraphics(height, width, DXF, “output.dxf”); beginRaw(dxf); dxf.setLayer(1); } lights(); background(255); translate(width / 3, height / 3, -200); rotateZ(map(mouseY, 0, height, 0, PI)); rotateY(map(mouseX, 0, width, 0, HALF_PI)); for (int y = -2; y < 2; y++) { for (int x = -2; x < 2; x++) { for (int z = -2; z < 2; z++) { pushMatrix(); translate(120*x, 120*y, -120*z); //draw triangle

void setup() { //size(800, 500); smooth(); //PEASYCAM camInit();

//point2

void draw() { rotateX(1); rotateY(1);

}

}

stroke(r, g, b, a); fill(0, 150, 0, 100); triangle(x, y, x1, y1, x2, y2); popMatrix();

}

if (x2 > width || x2 < 0) xSpeed2 *= -1; if (y2 > height || y2 < 0) ySpeed2 *= -1;

PVector currentCamPos = new PVector(0, 0, 0); void camInit() { cam = new PeasyCam(this, 100); cam.setMinimumDistance(500); cam.setMaximumDistance(500); cam.lookAt(0, 0, 0, 500, 0); } void updateCam(PVector ppp) { float speed = .0005; currentCamPos.x +=(ppp.x -currentCamPos.x) *speed; currentCamPos.y +=(ppp.y -currentCamPos.y) *speed; currentCamPos.z +=(ppp.z -currentCamPos.z) *speed;

STACKING

PeasyCam cam;

if (x1 > width || x1 < 0) xSpeed1 *= -1; if (y1 > height || y1 < 0) ySpeed1 *= -1;

cam.lookAt(currentCamPos.x, currentCamPos.y, currentCamPos.z, 0); }

} //scale window to screen if (record == true) { size(screen.width - 10, screen.height endRaw(); - 50, P3D); record = false; // Stop recording //colorMode(HSB, 100, 100, 100, 100); to the file background(255); } stroke(150); strokeWeight(1); // move //strokeJoin(ROUND); x += xSpeed; frameRate(100); y += ySpeed; } z += zSpeed; //extra functionalities void keyPressed() { // reset background to black if (key == ‘b’) background(0, 0, 0); //reset triangle coordinates and grow if (key == ‘n’) { x = mouseX; y = mouseY; x1 = mouseX; y1 = mouseY; x2 = mouseX; y2 = mouseY; }

x1 += xSpeed1; y1 += ySpeed1; z1 += zSpeed1; x2 += xSpeed2; y2 += ySpeed2; z2 += zSpeed2; //point0 if (x > width || x < 0) xSpeed *= -1; if (y > height || y < 0) ySpeed *= -1; //point1

TRIANGLESWEEP 3D code

3D expansion of triangle

GRUSZEWSKI

import peasy.*; import processing.dxf.*; boolean record; RawDXF dxf;


“Thinking about parameters provides a bridge between repetition and transformation, as well as visualization and simulation. While transformation describes a parameter’s effect on form, repetition offers a way to explore a field of possible designs for favourable variations. Both visualization and simulation require the use of parameters to define the system, and they describe how data or other inputs will influence the behaviours of that system” Casey Reas ,

stack.DXF

sequence of 3D triangles

GRUSZEWSKI

STACKING

Form and Code, (New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 2010), 95

folio joined  

(to be split)