Page 1


»

e

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i

OCCULT CHEMISTRY A SERIES OF

Clairvoyant Observations on the

Chemical Elements

BY

ANNIE BESANT,

P.T.S.

AND

CHARLES W. LEADBEATER.

Reprinted from the Theosophist.

Theosophist Office, Adyar, Madras, S. Theosophical Publishing Society, London and Benares City.


Printed by Thompson & Co., at the “ Minerva 33 Popham’s Broadway, Madras. ,

C

<3

Bv /

Bt S

Press,


Wellcome Library for the History

and Understanding of Medicine

FOREWORD. This

an excursion into a hitherto unoccupied

is

field,

and

is

offered merely as a series of careful observations, subject to correction

by

and repeated

fuller

The cases

articles

on the

if

are reprinted

early pages, as

the magazine obliged,

on page

any errors are noted

new

to

Adyar,

edition of the

for helium read occultum.

Adyar

,

December

from the

Theosopliist,

1th, 1908.

in

in

the text

We

in a

required.

should be

or diagrams,

few

much

that they

may be corrected, On page 28, line 8,

order that they

book be

and

15, the reference to the pages of

was unfortunately not corrected.

should be forwarded should a

investigations.


CONTENTS. Page.

Article

I

Article

II

Article

III

Article

IV

— Dissociations V — The Tetrahedral

Article Article

Article

Article

15

VI

...

43

VII

...

50

...

59

...

64

XII ;

...

25

Bars and Spike Groups

Star

Article

11

33

—The Octohedral X— Dissociations XI — The Group

Article

1

...

...

IX

Article

...

...

Groups

—Dissociations —The Cube Groups VIII — Dissociations

Article

Appendix

— Introductory —Groupings —The Dumb-bell Group

— Radium

— The .dSther

...

of

Space

...

77

...

83

...

89

...

i

—Luciftr November 1895 —The Platonic Solids

...

xi

...

XX

— Notes

...

xxi

article of


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OCCULT CHEMISTRY.


OCCULT CHEMISTRY. %

T may I

be remembered that an

— hydrogen,

bearing the above

1895, and was

appeared in Lucifer, November

title,

reprinted as a

In that article three chemical elements

separate pamphlet in 1905.

and

article,

oxygen and nitrogen —were clairvoyantly

examined,

The

were presented tentatively to the public.

their analyses

The

work was done by Mr. Leadbeater and myself.

pressing nature

of our other labors prevented further investigation at the time, but

have, however,

had the opportunity of pursuing these

lately

amount

searches further, and as a considerable

done,

it

and

seems worth while,

still

it is

possible that

than ourselves, observer’s duty

readers,

may is

re-

work has been

of

tentatively, to report the observations

Certain principles seem to

made.

we

emerge from the mass of

who

are

better

which we are

see suggestions to

to state clearly

versed in

his observations

;

details,

chemistry

blind.

An

for others to

it is

judge of their value, and to decide whether they indicate lines of research that

may be

The drawings

profitably followed

of the

elements

up by

scientists.

were done by two Theosophical

Herr Hecker and Mrs. Kirby, whom we sincerely thank ; the diagrams, showing the details of the construction of each “ element,”

artists,

we owe

to the

whose

aid

clearly

and

it

most painstaking labor

of

would have been impossible definitely

the

Mr. Jinarajad&sa, without for us to

complicated arrangements

have presented

by which the

chemical elements are built up. YVe have also to thank him for a ber of most useful notes,

implying

much

careful research,

incorporated in the present series, and without which written these papers. for kindly lending his

Lastly,

we have

to

I

num-

which are

could not have

thank Sir William Crookes

diagram of the grouping of the elements, showing


2

them

as arranged

on successive “

as will be seen, receives

much

figures of eight/’ a

As we study these complex arrangements, we the old Platonic

H.

idea

realise the truth of

geometrises

nature

statement that

Blavatsky’s

P.

Logos

the

that

grouping which,

support from clairvoyant observations.

ever

and we

:

recall

by form and

builds

number.

The method voyance myself

there

;

— and

of

examination

were

only two

is

it

The

observers

very desirable that

by others who can

same

use the

was

employed

— Mr.

our

results

extension

etheric

only

tion of ordinary vision

that

necessary,

is

by the outside world,

and

should be tested physical

of

sight.

— the forms

and many should,

They cannot be regarded

therefore, be able to test our observations. as established,

clair-

— a very slight intensifica-

examined being gaseous and all

of

Leadbeater

upon the physical plane

researches being carried on

is

that

others have corroborated

until

them; and we put them forward in the hope of stimulating work along this line, and of thus bringing to science, when its instruments fail

it,

human

the old, old instrument of enlarged

The

first

forms seen on focussing the sight on gases. tentatively.

Thus, a very

dumb-bell shape

(see

Plate

common form I)

rough sketches, and counted

number

of ultimate

atoms

vision.

faced us was the identification of the

difficulty that

in

We in

we examined

;

atoms

its

;

could only proceed

had a

the air this,

comparing our

divided by 18

these,

hydrogen— gave

sort of

weight, and this offered the presumption that

it

was sodium.

then took various substances— common

in

sodium was

present,

and found Ihe dumb-bell form

cases,

we

gold

in others, again,

for

;

the

salt, etc.

took small fragments of metals, as iron,

rarest

museum, a few

pieces of

substances, miles

off.

ore,

In

all,

57

visited

We

which we knew in

all.

tin,

mineral waters,

Mr. Leadbeater

— the

us 23 ‘22 as atomic

In other

zinc,

silver,

etc., etc.,

and,

mineralogical

a

chemical elements were ex-

amined, out of the 78 recognised by modern chemistry. an unrecogIn addition to these, we found 3 chemical waifs :

nised

stranger

between hydrogen

and helium which we named

occultum. for purposes of reference, and 2 varieties of one element,

which we named kaion and meta-kalon, between xenon and osmium we also found 4 varieties of 4 recognised elements and prefixed meta ;

to the

name

of each,

and a second form

of platinum, that

we named


Plate

Sodium.

I.


3

Thus, we have tabulated in

Pt. B.

atoms, completing three of

cal

65 chemical elements, or chemi-

all

Crookes’ lemniscates,

William

Sir

some amount of generalisation. In counting the number of ultimate atoms in a chemical elemental atom, we did not count them throughout, one by one when, for instance, we counted up the ultimate atoms in sodium, we

sufficient for

;

*

number

dictated the

each convenient group to Mr. Jinarajadasa,

in

and he multiplied out the

Thus: sodium

the result.

divided part

the

and

;

number

necting rod

;

— 14.

,

a lower part, similarly

counted the number in the upper

Mr

1

;

;

reckoned: 10 + (16 x 2) = 202 ; By divided by 18 = 23 22 recurring.

Jinarajadasa

1

-

:

method we guarded our counting from any

this

was impossible on

result

for us to

know how

moment came when we gold, with

3546 atoms,

atom without preliminary

quite

errors

may,

in this

unnecessary

some

;

the

first

or as

it

of

may

time,

to

count each

when making

a

be worth while to count

some we noticed that two groups, or 2 atoms, and some very slight

1

way, have crept into our calculations. table

column

is

a

list

of the chemical elements

The second column

atoms contained

in

ex-

gives the names, the asterisk affixed to

indicating that they have not yet been discovered

chemistry.

The

in

by

exciting

our results endorsed

if

waste

Later,

differed

In the following

amined

numbers would and the

would have been impossible

it

investigation.

sight alike,

various

division,

as

pre-possession,

In the heavier elements, such

waited to see

each division separately, as at first

the

and

multiplication

addition,

approached any accepted weight.

cal

I.)

number in two or three of the funnels— each 16; in the con2 the same for the lower part

the

of funnels

hence: 202 +-202+ 14 = 418

it

We

a connecting rod.

—10

globe

:

(see Plate

1

and 12 funnels

a globe

divisible into

part,

by 8, and announced is composed of an upper

divided

total,

number

gives the

by orthodox

of ultimate physi-

one chemical atom of the element concerned.

compa ed with hydrogen, taken as 18, and this is obtained by dividing the calculated number of ultimate atoms by 18. The fourth column gives the recognised third

column gives the weight

as

weight-number, mostly according to the the

“ International List ”

Anorganischen

Chemie.

1

latest list

of 1905, given in

These weights

of atomic weights,

Erdmann’s Lebrbuch der from those hitherto

differ

accepted, and are generally lighter than those given in earlier text-


4 books.

It is

numbers,

interesting to note that our counting endorses the earlier

for the

most

part,

and we must wait

tions will endorse the last results

of

to see

if

later

observa-

orthodox chemistry, or con-

firm ours.

Hydrogen Occultum Helium

*

18 ...

Lithium

...

Bary Ilium Boron Carbon

...

Nitrogen

Oxygen Fluorine

Neon *

Meta-Neon .. Sodium Magnesium ... Aluminium ... Silicon

Phosphorus Sulphur

418

••

432 mmA

...

...

Chlorine Potassium ... ...

Vanadium

Chromium

...

Manganese

...

Iron Cobalt Nickel

,,,

Copper Zinc Gallium

Germanium

...

...

Arsenic

Selenium

Bromine Krypton

,..

* Meta-Krypton

Rubidium Strontium Yttrium

...

Zirconium

Niobium Molybdenum... Ruthenium

Rhodium Palladium Silver

••

Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony

486 520 558 576 639 701 714

Argon Calcium * Metargon Scandium Titanium

54 72 127 164 200 216 261 290 340 360 402

...

...

720 756 792 804 918 936 992 1008 1036 1064 1139 1170 1260 1300 1350 1422 1439 1464 1506 1530 1568 1606 1624 1719 1746 1848 1876 1904 1945 2016 2052 2024 2169

1

1

o

J

4

3-94

706 911

698

11-11 12 14-50

1611 18-88

20 22-33 23-22

24 27 28-88 31 32 35-50 38-914 39 66 40 42 44 48 51

52 55-11

56 57-55 69-11 63-277 65 70 72-22 75 79 79-9 44 81-33 83-66 85 87-11 89-22 90-22 95-50 97 102-66 104-22 105-77 108-055

901 10-86 11-91 14-01 15-879 18-90 19 9 ..

22-88 24 18 26-91

2818 30-77 31 82 35 473 38-85 39-60 39 74 ..

43 78 47-74 50-84 51 74 54-57 56-47 57-7 58-30 63.12 64-91 69-50

7193 74-45 78-58 79-953 81-20 ...

84-85

86 95

8834 89-85 93 25 95 26 100-91 102-23 105-74

10793

112 114 118

111-60 114'05

12050

119 34

118T0


Plate

Male

II.

Female.


1

5

Tellurium

229,3

Iodine

2287 2298 2340 3054 3096 3430 3458 3486 3614 3510

Xenon *

Meta-Xenon. Kalon * Meta-Kalon. *

Osmium Iridium Platinum A ... * Platinum B...

Gold

it is

172

190-55 192-11 193 66 195-22

189 55 191-56 193 34

197

195 7

As the words “ ultimate physical atom " must frequently occur, Any gaseous necessary to state what we mean by the phrase.

may

chemical atom

these, again, into less

still

be dissociated into complicated

less

These

complicated.

will

but one

third dissociation

physical plane, but

more

it

;

again, into presently.

the

f

further dissociation

atom

into the

is

*

is

outside like

like a hole, into

of

'

save the

will

is

atoms

penetrate

positive,

their

one case

vanishes from the physical

i.e.,

or male

;

We

;

the

the atoms

call

which

those through

observed,

are

a sphere, slightly flattened,

and

(Plate II.)

is

form.

Each atom

of the

four higher planes,

is

f

world.

physical

All atoms, so far as

be seen that the atom

surrounded by a

causing

in,

field,

formed of

which surround and

inter-

it.

The atom can material

In

and out through

a depression at the point where the force flows

a heart-like the

In the

into the

which water disappears.

one or other of these two forms. It

the

it.

of

direction

physical world,

again,!

disappears, negative or female.

there

on

a spring, from which water bubbles out

from which force comes out it

the

from fourth-dimensional space,

outside,’

pours in from the

The one

world. other

it

After

matter two types of atoms have been

and passing through the atom, pours In the second,

still

from

vanish

whorls and of the force which pours through them. force pours in from-the

;

yet

dissociation

fourth

may

This

they are alike in everything

;

with

possible

is

can undergo no

this ultimate state of physical

observed

be dealt

complicated bodies

less

these,

;

ultimate physical atom.*

gives the

the

126 64 126 01 127-10

123 50 127 055 127-66 130 169-66

out

of

scarcely be said to be a

which *

f

all

things physical

The atomic sub-plane, The astral plane.

thing,’

are

though

it

composed.

the

is

It

is


*

6

formed by

and vanishes with

the flow of the life-force

When this force arises

in

'

space

f

—the apparent

ebb.

its

void which must be

with subtance of some kind, of inconceivable -tenuity— atoms

filled

appear

be

this

if

;

disappears

there

;

stopped for a single atom, the atom

artificially

nothing

is

Presumably

left-

were

away

as a cloud melts

empyrean.

in the

flow J which

ence of that

maintains

It

only

is

the

physical

the

flow

that

would vanish,

checked but for an instant, the whole physical world

persist-

basis

of

the

universe. §

In order to examine the artificially

made

then,

;

||

immediately appear,

two and a

flows

force

surrounding the

to

a space

and

three

is

thus

wall

the

in

in,

hole

and returning

half coils,

of the atom,

construction

an opening be made

surrounding

constructed, the

of

if

whorls

with their

triple

spiral

origin

by a

spiral

their

the atom these are at once followed by seven finer whorls, which following the spiral of the first three on the outer surface, and

within

;

returning to their origin by a spiral within that, flowing in the site

direction

—form

a caduceus with the

first

Each

three.

oppoof

the

makes a closed circle each of the seven finer ones, similarly flattened out, makes a closed circle. The forces which flow in them, again, come from outside/ from three coarser whorls, flattened out,

;

a fourth-dimensional space.

seven yet finer ones,

each finer than

predecessor

its

of the finer wdiorls

these

;

we

be said to have a wall of

its

be

1

*

formed of

each other, 1

call

spirillae.f

designated

;

its

own, unless these whorls

wall

'

is

the

back

pressed

said in 1895, of the chemical atom, the force “ clears

forces

is

angles to

be understood from the foregoing, that the atom cannot

It will

so

Each

If

set successively at right

Known

to

Thcosophists as Fohat, the foice of which

all

force

can

space.’

As

of ‘

a space,

itself

the physical

plane

— electricities — are differentiations,

f

When

I

The

§

A

||

By

Fohat

first

maya,

“ digs holes in space.”

life-wave, the

work

of the third Logos.

truly.

a certain action of the will,

known

a space, by pressing back and walling If

Tf^f

Again the

Each

off the

to students,

it is

possible to

make such

matter of space.

astral world.

spirilla is

normally active, one

animated by the for each

round.

prematurely forced by yoga practice.

life-force of a plane,

and four are

at

Their activity in an individual

present

may be


7

pressing back the undifferentiated matter of the

The

to itself a whirling wall of this matter.”

and making

plane,

wall belongs

space,

to

not to the atom. In the three whorls flow currents

of

different

seven vibrate in response to etheric waves of light, heat, etc.

they

;

show

they

— to

sound, give

;

a variety

in

pulsing

singing,

motions

of

turns incessantly

It

describes a small

upon

with

circle

spinning top

moved

contraction

and expansion,

a force

gyrations,

rapid persist.

If it

any one

;

axis,

as

axis,

in a small circle

it,

it

i.e.,

from out-

it

spinning like a top;

though the

it

the

of

axis

has a regular pulsation, a

it

like the pulsation

wildly from side to side,

itself

own

its

its

brought to bear upon

is

any imposed upon

of

of

bodies,

own, independent

side.

its

the

;

move incessantly, inconceivably beautiful and brilliant.* The atom has as observed so far three proper motions,

out

respond

;

vibration— flashing,

physical

to

kinds

all

seven colors of the spectrum

the

out the seven sounds of the natural scale

ways

electricities

of

the

When

heart.

dances up and down,

flings

performs the most astonishing and

but the three

be made to vibrate, as a whole,

of the seven colors, the

motions

fundamental

at the rate

whorl belonging

to that

incessantly

which

gives

color glows

brilliantly.

An

electric current

proper motions,

i.e.,

arrange themselves

brought to bear upon the atoms checks their

renders them slower

in parallel lines,

and

;

in

the atoms

each

exposed to

line the heart-

it

shaped

depression receives the flow, which passes out through the apex into

The atoms always

the depression of the next, and so on.

The well-known

selves to the current.

paramagnetic depends generally on action on molecules, as

* “

The

ten

numbers

may be

of the sun.

this

set

them-

division of diamagnetic

or on

fact,

and

an analogous

seen in the accompanying diagrams.!

These are called Dis

— in

reality

space

— the

Atman, or seventh principle, and seven are the rays shot out by the Sun. The atom is a sun in miniature in its own universe of the inconceivably minute. Each of the seven whorls is connected with one of the Planetary Logoi, so that each Planetary Logos has a direct influence playing on the very matter of which all things are constructed. forces spread in space, three of which are contained in the Sun’s ’’

It

may be supposed

that the three,

conveying

electricity, a

differentiation of Fohat,

are related to the Solar Logoi. f

The

with here.

action of electricity opens up ground of large extent, and cannot be dealt

Does

it

act

on the atoms themselves, or on molecules, or sometimes on


;

Tw) attract

atoms,

;

positive

and

stable

relatively

negative, brought near to

commence

each other, and then

forming a

;

duality

;

to revolve

such a molecule

Combinations of three or more atoms are neutral, according to the internal molecular

are relatively

the

stable,

arrangement

with a view to

or

the neutral

;

in

a

establishing

description,

solid

states.

â&#x20AC;˘

our purposes

for

For the sake

we have been obliged

state

to

breaking up chemical

Meta., and

next

state.

higher,

These are

ignore

the

and brevity

these states

the state which

elements, proto-elemental; the

then comes the atomic

Hyper.*

we may

of clearness

name

of the chemist elemental

meta-proto-elemental

and the

state

which the chemical atoms are found, the

in

state

recognised chemical elements

and

between the atomic

of matter exist

states

gaseousâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;'the

atomic

neutral.

permanent union.

Three

liquid

is

negative

positive,

and negative are continually

positive

search of their respective opposites, relatively

each other,

round each other,

the

;

we

call

results

in

the

from

next higher,

hyper-meta-proto elemental briefly

marked as

El., Proto.,

*

The simplest unions of atoms, never, apparently consisting of more than seven, form ihe first molecular state of physical matter. Here are some characteristic combinations of the Hyper state ;

one and sometimes on the other ? In soft iron, for instance, are the internal arrangements of the chemical atom forcibly distorted, and do they elastically return to their original relations when released ? and in steel is the distortion permanent ? In all the diagrams the heart shaped body, exaggerated to show the depression caused by the inflow and the point caused by the outflow, is a single atom *

These sub-planes are familiar

etheric, sub-atomic,

atomic ;

to the

Theosophist as gaseous, etheric, super-

or as Gas, Ether 4, Ether 3, Ether

2,

Ether

I,


9

the

atom

is

conventional,

with

the

lines,

always entering

show

the resultants of lines of force

at the depression

the depression, the force wells

where no

line

where no

at

appears

line

the

;

apex,

the

entering

up from fourth-dimensional space

appears leaving the apex, the force disappears

fourth-dimensional space is

;

emphasised

depression

and coming out

outside the atoms,

;

where the point

of entry

;

into

and departure

indicated by a dot. *

it is

Types of Hyper-Meta-Proto-Elemental Matter.

The molecules show

all

kinds of possible combinations

;

the

combinations spin, turn head over heels, and gyrate in endless ways.

Each aggregation circle

by

its

is

surrounded with an

or oval, due to the pressure

whirling motion

dart hither

and

The Meta

;

apparent cell-wall,

the

on the surrounding matter caused

they strike on each other

we have

thither, for reasons

f

and rebound,

not distinguished.

some of its combinations, appears at first sight to repeat those of the Hyper state the only obvious way of distinguishing to which some of the molecules of less complexity belong is to pull them out of the â&#x20AC;&#x153; cell-wall â&#x20AC;? if they are Hyper state,

in

;

;

molecules they

Meta

at

molecules

containing

molecules

pearance

once they

atoms

fly off as separate

break up

smaller

number

cf

iron,

containing

with

a

Hyper heptad,

atoms.

of

seven but

if

they are Hyper-

two

into

a

;

or more molecules Thus one of the Meta

atoms,

is

the latter

identical

in

ap-

dissociates into

* It must be remembered that the diagrams represent three-dimensional objects, and the atoms are not all on a plane, necessarily. f That is, the surrounding magnetic fields strike on each other.


10 seven atoms, the former into two triads and a single atom.

Long-

continued research into the detailed play of forces and their results is

necessary

details

we

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; are

are here only able to give preliminary facts

opening up

characteristic

Meta types

The

way.

the

may

following

and

serve

as

:

Types of Meta-Proto -Elemental Matter.

These are taken from constituents from G1

1

C

;

8

from

Na. Others

and 3 from Fe

2

;

He

;

9

from FI

;

4 from

;

Bo

6

5,

;

from Li

10, 11, 12

elements

various

of the

;

;

and 7 from

13 and 14 from

be seen in the course of breaking up the elements.

will

The Proto

state preserves

many

of the

forms in the elements,

modified by release from the pressure to which they are subjected in the

chemical atom.

In

various groups are thus

this state

re-

cognisable which are characteristic of allied metals.

Types on Proto-Elemental Matter. These are taken from the products the

chemical atom,

groups less

where

assuming a great variety

fly apart,

geometrical indicated,

represent the

;

the

of

by forcibly removing

the lines between the

no longer represent

impression

of form,

of

it

first

its

hole.

forms often

constituents

lines of force,

i.e,,

disintegration

from

of

the

of

The

more or groups,

but are intended to

of the relative position

and

motion of the constituents, made on the mind of the observer. They


11

are illusive, for there are

no

but the

lines,

caused by the rapid motion of

the

appearance of

along them backwards and forwards.

The

dots represent atoms,

groups of atoms, within the proto elements. 3 in

He

Co

11 in

;

4 in FI

;

Fe

12 in Se.

;

and

the elements,

5 in Li

;

shall

;

N

6 in

We

;

7 in

lines

Ru

found

is

1

8 in

;

is

up and down, or

constituents

shall return to these

in

C

;

2

or

and

Na 9 and 10 in when analysing ;

meet many other proto-elemental groupings. II.

The his

thing which

first

attention

to

the

and

definite forms,

is

noticed by the observer,

chemical atoms,

that

is

when he turns show certain

modified in various

these forms,

within

they

that

ways, sub-groupings are observable which recur in connexion with the

The main types are not very numerous, when we arranged the atoms we had observed,

same modified form.

and we found

that,

according to their external forms, they

when

these,

classification,

in

turn,

they proved

to

be

arrangement of the elements, as

it

the Royal Society, in a paper read

the

fell

were compared with

into natural classes

Sir

singularly

William

alike.

;

Crookesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Here

is

his

appeared in the Proceedings of

on June

9th,

* Our indebtedness to Sir William Crookes for above picture was acknowledged last month.

his

1898.* courtesy

in

lending us


12

This

H, He,

is

to be read, following the lines of the “ figures of eight

” :

B, C, N, and so on, each successive element being heavier than the one preceding it in order. The disks which fall Li, Gl,

immediately below each other form a class

thus

;

these resemble each other in various ways, and, as see, the

H,

:

we

Cl, Br,

I

;

shall presently

same forms and groupings re-appear.

Another chart— taken from Erdmann’s Lehrbuch arranges the elements on a curved line, which curiously resembles the curves

The

within the shell of a nautilus. the whole diameter there

is

building up

placed occultum there

details will

;

on the opposite

be dealt with

The dumb-bell.

later

;

it

will

show

the classes,

be observed that

classified

The

and gold, * and gold

extremely

The

fifth

member

as follows

;

the

projecting funnels, grouped

is

modified example *

rubidium and

iron,

internal

characteristics of this are a higher

and a connecting rod.

central body,

radius,

:

lower group, each showing 12

silver,

a family

an empty radius between hydrogen and helium, and we have

osmium are seen. The external forms may be I.

radiating lines

given

of

of this

this

It

(1

and

round a

appears in sodium, copper,

on Plate

form.

III.),

The

group was not sought

12 for.

as the

most

almond-like


fca.nl

l-Cfl

si ? _

Jg£Ji3L«.fc.

TTv 2JO


Plate

lit

Vi'.''.

-

;

2

6

.

.


13

above and below, are severally contained

projections,

funnels, impossible to reproduce

drawing

in the

in

shadowy

the central globe

;

contains three globes, and the connecting portion has swollen out into

The dumb-

an egg, with a very complicated central arrangement.

trace of it

bromine and

appears also in chlorine,

bell

elsewhere.

scheme,

and are

&

II

be remarked

which they are

in

are the nearest series,

may

It

the

to

classed

all

neutral

We

a central

example

We

on Plate

(2

The

strontium.

denum, but orthodox

characteristics

on

Another

allied.

form

:

pair

element, with a star

two

is

violently

and bend

sensitive

beam

a

if

mouth

the

and

light,

of light

show

falls

on

same

the

positive

;

in

and

negative,

sulphur,

a peculiarly

is

is,

marked

are

and

groups

of

Selenium

to

from

oxygen, which

groups

positive

across

floating

extremely

this star

face of a

radiate

chromium and molyb-

of

magnesium, zinc and cadmium,

selenium and tellurium, negative. ful

form

respectively

as

the

group belong calcium and

this

These

sui generis.

chemistry

tetrahedral

to

the

is

form

this

(glucinum) as the simplest

beryllium

and

of

not always,

not that of the head of their group,

closely

are

III.),

tetrahedron

hydrogen,

like

give

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

and negative.

funnels generally, but

globe.

no

monads, these two groups

as

The

The tetrahedron.

The

is

William Crookes

Sir

are four funnels, containing ovoid bodies, opening

tetrahedron.

there

have not met

on the ingoing and outgoing

line,

respectively positive

II.cz,

in

that,

but

iodine,

hydrogen, the head of the group.

in

it

beauti-

of each funnel

its

All

it.

;

tremble

rays

these

are

duads.

The

tetrahedron

not confined to

is

above atoms it seems to be one and repeatedly appears in the ;

one

tetrahedron

cube, as has germanium

;

the

unknown

within the

appear in helium (3 on Plate

of

internal

III.)

;

the

external

favorite

form

forms of nature,

arrangements.

element

of the

There

occultum

;

two

yttrium has also two within

five, intersecting,

is

its

are found in neon, meta-

neon, argon, metargon. krypton, meta- krypton, xenon, meta-xenon, kalon, meta-kalon,

tin,

titanium and zirconium.

less

than twenty tetrahedra.

six

funnels, containing ovoids,

III .The cube.

cube.

Boron

is

Gold contains no

The cube appears to be the form of and opening on the

chosen as

an example

(4

on

triads.

faces

Plate

It

has

of

the

III.).

Its


14

group members, scandium and yttrium have the same form we have not examined the fourth the group is positive. Its negative ;

;

complement

vanadium and niobium, and we like hydrogen and oxygen,

consists of nitrogen,

have again to note departs from

its

that

group

nitrogen,

Two

type.

aluminium, gallium and indium

other triad groups, the

positive

fourth unexamined)

(the

and the

negative phosphorus, arsenic and antimony (the fourth unexamined),

have also

six funnels

opening on the faces of a cube.

The

IV. The Octahedron. (5

on Plate

now

We

III.).

there

eight funnels opening

are

octahedron.

simplest example

In

titanium

by the protruding arms

,

like titanium in

ovoids,

look into

clearly.

Zirconium

form, but contains a larger

members

not examine the remaining two

carbon

is

on the eight faces

when we

comes out

carbon type

the

this its

(6 on Plate III.) the form which give the appearance

Rosicrucian Cross and Rose, but later,

of

have again the funnel with

number

but

of the

is

masked

of

the old

the details

exactly

is

We

of atoms.

did

The group

of this group.

is

Its negative pendant shows the same form tetratomic and positive. again, the fourth was unexamined. in silicon, germanium and tin ;

V.

The

These

Bars.

radiate

from a

centre, as in iron

;

on Plate

be given

with

later.

(see

Manganese

is

“ lithium

lithium

(2

re-appears

in

out

VI. The Star. in

the

centre,

Plate IV.)

it

is

leaving

is

its

;

iron,

fourteen

(proto-element

the details

5)

nickel,

protruding

and

are

This would appear to connect

often classed.

and

potassium

more

but

on Plate IV.) rather than with

with which

come

,

spike ”

succession

grouped with

often

Crookes’ lemniscates) the

repeat

orderly

increasing in

Plate IV.),

will

(or seven crossed)

and the members

;

grouped round a central ovoid. it

IV.),

closely allied

and cobalt bodies

Fourteen bars

(1

weight of each bar, will

of

set

ruthenium, rhodium, pallagroup iron, nickel, cobalt osmium, iridium, platinum differ from each other by the

of each

dium

a

characterise

groups, termed “ inter-periodic.”

rubidium.

The

fluorine

(3

in

“ lithium spike

These

details,

again,

clearly later

A

flat

the

star,

with

characteristic

apart

helium,

five

of

interpenetrating tetrahedra

neon and

which, as

may

ferring to 3, Plate IV., has an entirely different form.

its

allies

(4

be seen by

on re-


Plate IV

t


15

There with two

—lithium and fluorine -

forms, typical of classes,

defined

thus six clearly

are

of doubtful affinities.

It

of tetrahedra

tetratomic,

;

on

funnels

eight

have a regular

sequence of

suggests

will

itself,

on the

six funnels

in triatomic,

the

faces

worthy

faces

faces

cubes

of

in

;

Thus we

octahedra.

of

is

on the

of notice that in diatomic elements four funnels open

and the question the evolution develop elements shaped to platonic

further

the dodecahedron and the icosahedron

solids,

?

III.

We now chemical

pass from the consideration of the outer forms of the

elements

arrangement groups

groups

dissociation

further

or

less

capable

of

may be

dissociated into

and resolvable

dependent existence,

atoms, the irreducible substratum

independent,

separate,

capable

yet

simpler in-

separate,

of

physical

into single ultimate

the

of

;

simpler groups

into

— equally

— hyper-meta-proto-elements — also

complicated

independent, existence

once more,

meta-proto -elements ;

more

of

the

structure,

internal

—-capable of separate,

these are susceptible of

these,

element

the

proto-elements

existence

study of their

a

to

within

world (see ante,

physical

pp. 354-356).

We

shall

have

study the general

to

then the breaking up of each element, patiently

worked

and

and the admirable diagrams,

by Mr. Jinarajadasa,

out

structure,

infernal

make

will

the study

comparatively easy to carry on.

The

diagrams, of course, can only

of the facts they represent

much

but

of

effort

give a very general idea

they give groupings

;

the imagination

is

and show

needed

relations,

transform the

to

two-dimensional diagram into the three-dimensional object. wise student will try to

Thus

two

the

triangles

circles are spheres,

to

each

visualise

of

other their

iodine,

above the plane

they

four,

triangles

forming

a

figure

hydrogen are not

The

from the diagram one plane

in

;

the

and the atoms within them, while preserving relative positions,

Where

three-dimensional space.

and

the

are

and

generally

their

— meeting

square-based

five

are

in

swift

in

in

bromine

arranged with the central atom

motion indicates

lines

apices

— on

at

movement

atoms are seen, as

their

four-sided

pyramid.

which a

erect four

square

Each dot

base,

rep-


16 resents

a single

ultimate

impression of form the atoms

element

do not not

groups

the

;

broken up, so that the

is

of

vibrations.

enclosing lines indicate the

the observer, and

along

divide

will

exist as stable walls or

lines,

The

atom.

made on

lines

the groupings

these

of

when

lines,

the

have significance, but they

enclosing films, but rather

mark

should be noted that

not possible

It

it

is

limits,

show five of the prisms in the five intersecting tetrahedra of prisms, and 30 atoms must, therefore, be added in counting. The diagrams are not drawn to scale, as such drawing would to

impossible

be

compared

small

a scale drawing

;

sheet of

many

The

atom

the dot representing the

;

large

with

the

enclosures,

would mean an almost

use of the words

1

positive

'

and

We

Britannica.

ordinary text-book meaning, and have characteristics

When

are

'

negative

appearance

disengaged or

at

electric

opposite

basylous elements,

difference

degree

only,

Chemis-

words

the

so

in

their

detected any

far,

at sight, to

be

compounds

current,

poles.

the

Those

of

two elements,

two elements make

which

elements

are

the negative pole are termed electro-positive or positive

at

while those disengaged at the positive pole

are termed electro-negative or

the

not,

on

article

use

needs to be

'

:

binary compounds, or

decomposed by an

their

dot on a

invisible

whtreby an element can be declared,

either positive or negative

too

yards square.

the Encyclopcedia

in

absurdly

are

guarded by the following paragraphs from the try

enormously too

is

which

negative or chlorous

between these two

classes

of

elements.

elements

and they gradually merge into each other

;

But

one

is

of

moreover

the electric relations of elements are not absolute, but vary according to

the state of combination in

which they

exist,

so that

it

is

just

as

impossible to divide the elements into two classes according to this

property as

it is

to separate

them

into

two

distinct classes of metals

and non-metals.”

We the

follow here the grouping according to external forms, and

student

should compare

lemniscate arrangement

February), reading the other

;

thus the

bromine,

first

iodine)

shown

it

with

the

groups marked

in Article ll.(p.

group by the disks that

group

is

and a blank

fall

the

below each

H,

Cl, Br,

for

nn undiscovered element.

I,

in

377, properly p. 437,

(hydrogen,

chlorine,

The


S

17 elements grow denser in descending order invisible gas

liquid

chlorine a denser gas visible

;

iodine

;

is

a

solid

By

normal.

pressure are

all,

the

increase of pressure, an element

a liquid, and then a solid.

changeable

by changing

constitution it

a solid, a

liquid,

atoms

or a gas

and denser, as

atom

far as

of gold, as

chemical

a

inter-

alter ‘

its

atom

for investigation

is

from the

become denser complex arrangements necessitated by as they

3546 ultimate atoms contained

the presence of the

the

but the internal arrangements of

;

seen by the

is

temperature and

be drawn

become much more complicated

a

normally gaseous becomes

is

So it

is

when temperature and

liquid, gaseous, are three

state.

its

;

an

is

bromine

and an element does not

matters not whether

concerned,

4

which

color

its

lowering of

Solid,

matter,

of

states

by

course,

of

thus hydrogen

;

in

the

compared with the simple arrangement

chemical of the

1

ultimate atoms of hydrogen.

According

mence

to

the

as

it

differs

it

by

itself.

of

the

is

the lightest of

We

take

it

it,

the

therefore taken as 1 in ordinary chemistry,

are multiples of this.

negative

first

wholly from those placed with

Hydrogen

we should com-

arrangement,

lemniscate

with hydrogen as the head

known and

as 18, because

take

to

elements,

all it

group, but

better

is

it

and

is

atomic weights

contains eighteen

number we have found in a chemical number weights are obtained by dividing the number of atoms in an element by 18 (see p. 349, January). Hydrogen (Plate V., 1). Hydrogen not only stands apart from

ultimate atoms, the smallest

element. total

its

So our

1

reputed group by not having the characteristic dumb-bell shape,

well

shown

in

sodium

(Plate

opposite p. 349, January), but

I

it

also

stands apart in being positive, serving as a base, not as a chlorous,

or acid, radical, thus “ playing the part of a metal,” as in hydrogen chloride (hydrochloric acid), hydrogen sulphate (sulphuric acid), etc. It is

most curious

most widely spread

hydrogen,

that

gases,

all

differ

the groups they reputedly head.*

oxygen and nitrogen, the

fundamentally

Hydrogen was

the

in

form from

first

chemical

*

Since writing the above, I have noticed, in the London Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science conducted by Dr. John Joly and Mr. William Francis, in an article entitled “ Evolution and Devolution of the Elements,” the statement that it is probable that in “ the nebulous state of ,

matter there are four substances, the being hydrogen and the fourth

first

two being unknown upon earth, the third helium. It also seems probable that

....

3


18 element examined by us, nearly thirteen years ago, and here the substance of what

nothing

to

I

add to nor amend

I

reproduce

wrote in November, 1895, for in

we have

it.

Plate V. 2

3 .

.

.

.

hydrogen, the two unknown elements, and helium are the four original

elements from which all the other elements form. To distinguish them from the others we will term them protons.â&#x20AC;? This is suggestive as regards hydrogen, but does not help us with regard

to

oxygen and nitrogen.


19

Hydrogen form

bodies, contained in an egg-like

consists of six small

outer forms

(the

not given

are

which are not interchangeable, but are

The six

object

and image.

three

ultimate physical

atoms are arranged

bodies are not

atoms, but

and

in a triangle,

Hydrogen:

I.

related all

alike

and iodine)

each other as

to

they each contain

;

bodies the three

in four of the

remaining two in a

in the

6 bodies of 3

Atomic Weight Number Weight

i|-

The dumb-bell

group.

This group consists of Cl, Br, and

la.

I,

...

18

...

1

...

1

line.

bromine

(chlorine,

they are monads, diamagnetic and negative.

;

Chlorine

— As

(Plate V., 2).

of the dumb-bell,

twelve funnels,

of

six

bodies are arranged in two sets of three, forming two triangles

little

that

The

diagrams).

in the

six

already said, the general form

and upper

the lower

parts each

upwards and

sloping

is

consisting

downwards, the

six

funnels radiating outwards from a central globe, and these two parts

being united by a connecting rod

The its

(shown

funnel

apex)

somewhat

a

is

(see,

as an

flat

again, sodium, Plate isosceles

complicated

structure,

I).

standing on

triangle,

of

the

same

type as that in sodium (Plate VI., 2), the difference consisting in the addition of one central globe differs.

We three,

have here a regular arrangement of four,

has only

copper and

silver,

exactly the

same

reappears

in

point to

globe, containing nine additional

the same as in sodium, but the

is

taining

sodium

more

some

four, three

five,

three its

bodies,

congeners,

pattern as the

atoms

real relation

the

five

have their

chlorine rod,

similarities

between these groups of elements, which

in

on the swing which is going towards on the swing away from it.

lemniscates, equi-distant from the central

Upper Part

\ (

Lower

But

and the chlorine rod

is

Chlorine:

whereas

four.

These close

are placed,

is

six,

connecting rods of

though one the other

The

globes, con-

respectively,

containing four,

both bromine and iodine.

atoms.

connecting rod

Part

1?

Central

that

25 atoms

Globe

line

••• ...

Same _

Connecting Rod Total

...

line,

and

3 °0 io 3 jo jg

639


20

Atomic Weight

...

Number Weight

...

35-473 35-50

(The Atomic Weights are mostly from Erdmann, and the Number Weights are those ascertained by us by counting the atoms as described on

p.

349, January, and dividing by IB.

T.

Prof.

W.

Richards, in Nature, July 18, 1907, gives 35-473.)

Bromine

(Plate V.,

thus are

made without any

added

— In

bromine, each funnel has three

shape,

an addition of 33 atoms being

3).

additional bodies, ovoid in

disturbance of form

to the central globe,

two

;

pairs

and a rearrangement

of

atoms

atoms

of the

is

by drawing together and lessening the swing of the pair of

effected

room for the new-comers. The connecting rod remains unchanged. The total number of atoms is thus making symmetrical

triplets,

thus raised from the 639 of chlorine to 1439. in these investigations,

scription

builders

of

crystal

busied

Over and over again,

were we reminded of Tyndall’s fascinating de-

building,

and

his fancy of the

tiny, ingenious

Truly are there such builders, and the

therein.

ingenuity and effectiveness of their devices are delightful to see.*

B—

:

...

Upper Par,

...

Lower Part Same

...

Connecting Rod

...

Total

Atomic Weight Number Weight Iodine

(Plate

gains 4 atoms, the two

^f 9

We

V., 4).

pairs

...

...

becoming 2

quartets

;

79"953 79-944

central globe

find herein that the

exactly reproduces the rods of chlorine

...

696 14 710 19 1439

the connecting rod

and bromine

;

the funnel

is

also that of bromine, except that five bodies, containing 35 atoms, are

added

to

it.

The 1439 atoms

of

bromine

are thus raised to 2887.

f 12 funnels of 93 atoms

...

1116 18

Lower Part Same

...

1134

Connecting Rod

...

tt t. Iodine: Upper Part j.

...

( Central Globe Total

Atomic Weight Number Weight

2

ff

7

...

19 2287

126-01 127-055

* Theosophists call them Nature-Spirits, and often use the mediaeval term Elementals. lleings concerned with the elements truly are they, even with chemical elements.


2i

The plan underlying the building up of groups is here clearly shown a figure is built up on a certain plan, in this case a dumbbell in the succeeding members of the group additional atoms are ;

;

symmetrically introduced, modifying the appearance, but following

connecting rod remains unaltered,

the general idea

;

while the two

ends become larger and

in this case the

Plate

more and more

larger,

VI.

2

1

3

4


(

22 overshadowing additions.

and causing

it,

Thus a group

is

it

to

become

the undiscovered remaining

In

we may suppose

that the rod will

and

shorter

by additional

formed

gradually

member

have become

thicker.

symmetrical the group

of

more

still

egg-like,

as in the case of gold. I

(

The corresponding

b ).

copper, silver and gold),

an

which we

that

to

Au

Ag, and

of Na, Cu,

empty disk between

an

with

showing where

gold,

group

positive

have been considering consists

ought

element

to

(sodium,

and

silver

These

be.

four

elements are monads, diamagnetic, and positive, and they show the

much

dumb-bell arrangement,

although

we may presume

undiscovered element between

that the

is

it

modified in gold

gold would form a link between them.

Sodium

(Plate

January), as a type internal

of

arrangement

the dumb-bell group. bodies,

and

is

order to Its

same as we and which is

the simplest of

therefore take

it

that

(p.

349,

,

we need only

so

note that

twelve funnels

it

refer

to

its

the simplest

is

show only

of

four enclosed

see in chlorine, bromine, iodine, copper

the

silver,

globe

the group,

in

and

has been already described

VI., 2)

;

silver

ver) as

all,

modified in gold.

little

sodium

is is

its

the

Its central

We may

connecting rod.

ground-plan of the whole

group. ^

TT â&#x20AC;&#x17E; Part Upper .

Sodium

:

f

12 funnels of 16 each Central Globe

192 10

Same Connecting Rod

202

Lower Part

14 Total

that

Atomic Weight

...

Number Weight

...

COPPER (Plate we shall find

VI., 3)

tional enclosed

bodies,

funnel from the sixteen the central globe peculiar cigar or

is

e.g.,

in

silver,

gold,

iron,

arrangement near the mouth

and adds to the ten atoms

in

thus of

23â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;88 23â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;22

introduces an addition in the funnel,

elsewhere,

zinc, tin, the triangular

418

...

this

sodium

doubled,

more

in

number

of

nineteen

raising the to

forty-five.

and we meet

for

platinum,

of the funnel

three addi-

atoms

in

The number the

first

a in

time the

prism- shaped six-atomed arrangement, that

is

one


23

common

of

definite quality, with

its

of the

is

most

the three, four,

atomic groups.

The

i, Upper Part ,

12 funnels of 45 atoms

C

G

Cenh al Same Lower Part Connecting Rod .

!

,

bodies

the

copper

VI., 4) follows

enclosed in

the

each containing three bodies with

by

decreased

necting rod

a funnel

Part Upper n

:

,

Lower

..

1139

.

63-277 of

and three ovoids,

ten,

The

num-

the

raise

globe

central

12 funnels of 79 atoms Centra , G|obe

(

is

The con-

Total

it

...

19

...

1945

107-93 108-055

Atomic Weight Number Weight atomic weight

...

...

Same

Part

489 15 963

...

Connecting Rod

(This

19

But the triangular

eleven atoms,

seventy-nine.

to

j

29, 1907, but

...

unaltered.

is

TT

Silver

560

the constitution

in

funnels.

and the prisms have disappeared.

five,

20

...

...

group contains twenty-one atoms as against ber of atoms in

...

6312

Atomic Weight Number Weight Silver (Plate

540

..

obe

Total

five of

column

central

arrangement already noted.

five, four, three,

tt

Copper:

ought to imply some

It

continual recurrence.

by

given

is

has been argued

later

Nature,

in

Stas,

that

August

weight should

the

not

be above 107-883.)

Gold plate to

(Plate VII.)

itself.

It

in

the

characteristic

so complicated that

is

difficult

elongated

bell

this

is

egg,

groupings

their

and below,

central

with

shadowy funnel almond

is

globes

and

the

the upper

almond-like

are the

the

central

ovoid.

(not

drawn

in

the collection

demands a whole familiar

when we come appear. The egg

but

mously swollen connecting rod, with

recognise

to

it

the

of bodies

to is

dumb-

examine the

and lower

Round

each almond

and within

in

e,

parts

projections above

diagram),

shown

it,

enor-

is

a

the

wherein the two


24

Plate

same

lowest bodies are the

and

positive

groups

the

;

cation of the other thirds of the fourth

and

fifth

;

VII.

as in every other third,

ascending,

the fourth

;

the

fifth, of

it

copper and

may

body

silver,

bodies on

ovoid

each

is

a union and re-arrangement

;

the triangular

in

iron

group

is like

that

are each

prisms

The central shown in c. The two tetrahedra, one

has also 28.

very complicated,

side, d,

with four six-atomed

of the negative

a very slight modifi-

though with 28 atoms instead of 10 or 21, and

be noted that the cone in the

is

four ovoids, adds one to the three

ovoids of bromine, iodine and silver in

is

member

and

made up

at its angles,

of

is

and the other with four


T

25 a pair

spheres,

come

with four atoms and a

One

to the connecting rod.

centre

is

of the four similar

enlarged inn, and one of the

enlarged in

groups

then in the

groups

sixteen circling

These groups are arranged

b.

We

pair with three.

two planes inclined

in

is

to

one another.

U PPer

Par

Lower

Part

T

Gold

.02

funnels of 07 atoms {central ovoid c 2 d, 33

1164 101 76 1341 336 528

Same

Connecting Rod

4 a 84 116 b 33 (

Total

Atomic Weight Number Weight

may

It

sixteen

and

of occultum,

...197

atoms

of

is

made up

of exactly

such atoms contain 864

that sixteen

member

ultimate atoms, the exact

19.r74

...

be noted that the connecting rod

atoms

3546

...

in titanium.

IV.

Occultum was observed by us

was so that

it

obtain

light,

and

a

its

composition,

that

it

we thought

of which we were unable, at the time, to When, however, helium itself came under

sample.

before observed, so

proved

it

shall find

Occultum

We here

be quite different from the object

to

we dubbed

orthodox science

the it

label

(Plate VI.,

meet the tetrahedron

the end triangles of a prism. last

month, as seen

extreme rapidity around

sharpened

at

in

its

for

habitually spoke of

it

as

the

the

proper fashion.

21).

1, p.

time,

first

with

atoms arranged

copper (Plate VI.,

3)

;

it

each

on

as

and was

revolves

with

longitudinal axis, and looks like a pencil cigar

the cigar.’

herent, for, as will be seen below,

4

in

it

This form recurs very often,

both ends, or a ‘

object Occultum,

unrecognised

and

angle occupied by a six-atomed group,

noted,

and, finding

in 1895,

in

might be helium,

observation in 1907,

until

simple

so

its

tapering It

six

at

both

ends

;

we

appears to be strongly co-

atoms remain

attached to


26 each other as meta-compounds, and even when divided into

two

hyper-compounds, they revolve round each other.

triplets as

Above the tetrahedron is a balloon-shaped figure, apparently drawn into shape by the attraction of the tetrahedron. The body below the tetrahedron looks like a coil of rope, and contains fifteen atoms

;

they are arranged on a slanting disk in a

force goes in at the top of one atom,

little

spheres, each containing a

to a compositor

— they

when

of the

bottom

of

circuit.

The

it

are like fill-up paragraphs

triplet,

be kept standing, and popped in

to

The sphere marked x

where wanted. balloon

seem

and the

ring,

and so on, making a closed

into the top of the next,

two

and out

flat

is

a

proto-compound, the

set free.

As was noted under gold

sixteen

(p. 25),

make up the connecting Occultum Tetrahedron

re-arranged,

occullum bodies,

rod in gold

24

...

:

Balloon

...

Triplets

...

9 6

Rope-Circle

...

15

...

54

Total

Not known

Atomic Weight Number Weight

3

...

Dissociation of Atoms. Before proceeding to the study of other chemical atoms, as to their general internal

arrangements,

those already shown, the

way

in

it

is

desirable to follow out, in

which these atoms break up

simpler forms, yielding successively what

we have

and hyper-compounds. It is naturally easier simpler atoms than in the more complex, and ations are shown, the latter can be

more

to if

called proto, meta,

follow these in the the earlier

and more

readily

into

dissoci-

intelligibly

described.

The its

first

thing that happens on removing a gaseous atom from

‘hole’ (see

pp.

5—7)

contained bodies are set

free,

or

encircling

wall,'

the

that

is

and, evidently released from tremen-

dous pressure, assume spherical or ovoid forms, the atoms within each re-arranging themselves, more or ‘wall.’

The

remind one

figures

of crystals

are, ;

of

less,

within the

new

course, three-dimensional,

tetrahedral, octagonal,

and other

hole

and like

'

or

often

forms


27

being of constant occurrence.

the diagrams

In

of the

pounds, the constituent atoms are shown by dots. of the

meta-compounds the dot becomes a same plan

the

is

In the diagrams

heart, in

order to

The

followed.

letters

a, b

show hyper-

In the diagrams of the

the resultants of the lines of force.

compounds

proto-com-

,

c,

etc.,

enable the student to follow the breaking up of each group through its

successive stages.

Hydrogen The

six

(Plate V., 1, p. 18).

bodies contained in the gaseous atom instantaneously

re-arrange themselves within two spheres unite with one triangular tions which,

with a

if

triplet at

triplet,

;

of

lines,

would form a

second sphere.

linear triplets joining each other

comrade, while two

These form the

hydrogen.

In the dissociation of these, each group breaks

two

triangle

the remaining three triangular triplets

similarly arrange themselves in the

proto-compounds

the two linear triplets

holding to each other relative posi-

connected by three right

each angle

;

and

of the triangular triplets similarly

casting out the third, so that

hydrogen

up

into two,

the

setting free their triangular

yields four

remain together,

meta-compounds.


28 In the hyper-condition, triplets

is

like ix, in

the

arranging their internal relations

up

into

two

The

pairs

and a

On

two

the

itself

separates

out within

marked

ring within a sphere,

atoms

gaseous atom,

its

a

;

two

a and

within this

parts of helium,

with ‘

cigars

ring.

its ’

four

cigars,’

and

are positive

The rope becomes

a'.

and the two bodies

come

21).

1, p.

whole,

a

hole,

free.

component

of the

as

respectively b,

two remaining groups break

(Plate VI.,

dissociation

first

negative,

in the

the

final dissociation sets ail the

tetrahedron

flattening

;

unit.

Occultum the

connexion between the double

the

become four independent groups, two hyper-types (p. 9), and two remaining linear, but re-

broken, and they

d, d,

a

which are loose

The balloon becomes

a sphere.

On

dissociation,

further

showing two

which become

independent

again to

quintet and a parts.

cigars

go

off

independently, into

triplets,

B, on the meta-level, casts out the two triplets,

two, a close ring of seven atoms

subdivide

1

and these again each divide

types,

meta-compounds-

the

pair,

and

and

the

‘rope’

d

breaks

a double cross of eight.

into

These

form hyper-compounds, the ring yielding

and the double cross separating

into

as

bodies,

its

a

two


29

The

balloon,

being

parts

and these

c,

slight

set free,

;

becomes much it

forms two

on further

the

divided,

a

triplets,

no

dissociation,

less

cohesion of

its

pair

and a

than

five separate

unit,

atoms and two duads.

The two

triplets

and form two

pairs

of

d each

and two

It is

convenient to

out

an atom on dissociation,

units.

Sodium

basic pattern

cast

(Plate VI., 2).

consider sodium next,

on which not only copper,

silver

because

it

is

the

and gold are formed,

but also chlorine, bromine and iodine.

When sodium up

is

set free

into thirty-one bodies

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

from

its

twenty-four

gaseous condition,

divides

separate funnels, four bodies

derived from the two central globes, and three

The

it

from the connecting

become spheres, and each contains four enclosed Each central spheres, with more or less complicated contents. globe yields a sextet and a quartet, and the rod sets free two rod.

quartets

funnels

and a peculiarly formed

sextet.


30

When

pioto-compounds are

the

sets free

:

within a

common

(1) the contents of

compounds

sphere the

(2)

;

contents

of

each

The atoms break

in different directions.

;

and

(3)

their separation

the atoms

but the spheres

other,

common

round a

revolution

their

themselves

entirely independent,

sphere revolving round

the

ceasing

duads as hyperunite

which maintain

c,

meta-compounds, and become

within

which

b,

two duads as hyper-compounds

two spheres,

the contents of the

dissociated, the funnel-sphere

rearranged into two groups of four

sphere yields four

the

;

into a quartet, yielding

as

a,

axis,

and

going

off

from each other, and

off

Thus each

gyrate in independent solitude as hyper-' compounds.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

funnel yields finally ten hyper-bodies.

The

common

whirling round a stage,

globe,

the central

part of

preparing for the complete

The second

bodies.

cross, with state, in

part of the

an atom

which

at

of the

ing rod, shows

e

two

pairs,

atom

is set

at

in the

for,

and divide

The body marked^ joined atoms

its

is

free, leaving

apex

into

chlorine, until

we come

;

two

cling

still

funnel

free five bodies, of

three separate

common

centre, ex-

them-

with two closely

each in mutual

to

by a ring

of

of

on the

sodium

body nearest

to the

dissociation, so that

sodium, and yield

unit.

four,

and

this

hyper-level.

(Plate V., 2, p. 18).

the

funnels as proto-compounds

and a

from the connect-

as hyper-bodies.

encircled

containing three additional bodies in the first

triplet

the

in

meta-state, they re-arrange

these

;

Chlorine of

hyper-

a whirling

e,

but there must be some differ-

leads to the further dissociation into three pairs

description

a

/, liberated

a four-sided pyramid,

revolution as a meta-body,

The

meta-

each point, becomes a quartet in the meta-

appearance

in

ence of inner relations, selves as

of these as

separation

atoms whirling round a

four

atoms,

six

its

triplets, at the

same globe, marked

two bodies marked

actly resembling

with

d,

atoms revolve round a fourth, and

three

hyper-state, this central

Each

marked

becomes two

centre,

;

;

this

again

the

applies to that of

mouth, the sphere

remains within

the funnel

we have twenty-four

the central globes are the

separate

same

as in

same four bodies the connecting rod sets which two are the same we have thus thirtythe

bodies as

;

;

the result of the

dissociation of

chlorine


-

31 inlo

proto compounds.

its

As

all

compounds which

the

are in

sodium break up in the same way into meta and hyper-compounds, we need not repeat the process here. We have only to consider the new meta and hyper-compounds of the highest sphere within and the two

the funnel,

triplets

and one quintet from the connecting

rod.

The simple

On

sphere.

body within the

additional

character,

contained

three

release

proto-funnel

a very

of

the

flattened

from the funnel, on the meta-level, the atoms

arrange themselves in a whirling set of three off

is

triangles within

from each other

as

triplets,

hyper-compounds.

re-

and these break

The two

triplets

from

the connecting rod. also, are of the simplest character and need not

The five-atomed body,

delay us.

compound, becomes and two

a

pairs with a unit

otherwise repeats that of chlorine.

The

at the

top of the funnel,

triplets

Each

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; each

a

of the three

triangle

and

which

The connecting rod is the same become more complex.

central globes

additions are, however, of very easy types,

dealt with.

as a proto

(Plate V., 3).

Three additional bodies appear

The

pyramid

round a centre on the meta,

on the hyper.

Bromine

and may be disregarded.

a four-sided

ring whirling

similar

a

and hence

are readily

ovoid bodies contains

quintet

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

four-sided

two

pyramid,


32

These are the same, as may be seen

and we need not repeat them.

in the connecting rod of chlorine,

bodies,

cc,

is

merely

set free,

whirling on a plane at right angles to the other.

two disengage themselves, forming a quartet and two

dissociate themselves into four pairs

Iodine (Plate

new

Iodine has nothing

to give us,

pairs in the central globe.

The ovoid and a

the sphere.

off,

The atoms

apex, and the

except

is

In the central globes, the a of bromine

breaks up into two

is

is

indicated within

triplets

and a

unit

on the hyper-

repeated twice in-

is

cc.

Copper

(Plate VI., 3).

already disposed of occultum,

sodium, which

two

two tetrahedra with a com-

level.

We have

ovoid of

maintained in the meta-body, a

The

stead of the pairs in

instead

become spheres when

form

septet.

latter

these further

similar

five

quartets

bodies

crystalline

are arranged in

relationship

;

triplets.

V., 4).

bodies at the top of each funnel, and two

the funnels are thrown

These

a meta-compound,

as

while a makes a whirling cross and bb a single sextet

mon

a and the

plane vertical to the paper and the two smaller

whirling in a

2 bs

This does

Only the globe remains.

not break up as a proto-compound but

lies at

the root of both groups.

on

this

plate,

Copper, we

and

now

of

find,

also very largely off our hands, as the funnel provides us with only


33

two new types— two spheres - each containing

atoms in a new

five

arrangement, and the triangular body at the mouth

atoms. This triangular body, with an increased

The

appears in various other chemical elements. different

from any we have had

with

number

its

ten

of atoms, re-

globes are

central

before, in their internal arrangement,

but the constituents are familiar

two contained spheres

there are

;

with four atoms each, the a in the globe of bromine (see above)

and 2

The ‘cigars’ may be The connecting rod is as

'cigars.’

(see above).

followed under occultum, chlorine,

in

bromine and

iodine.

The atoms sists of

in the

bodies a and

b are curiously

two square-based pyramids turned so

and breaks up

into

first.

;

the second apex

The pyramids

is

not seen, as

separate as meta-bodies,

and

it

is

units

on the hyper

is

con-

apices,

again two

set at right

directly

A

angles

below the

and the atoms assume

the peculiar arrangement indicated and then break

and two

at their

B

two quartet rings and a duad.

four-sided pyramids, but the bases are in contact to each other

arranged.

meet

as

up

into four pairs

level.

V.

Silver (Plate Silver are only

presents us with only

new by

shaped body

slight additions

at the

a proto-element

it

of

models.

to old

The

21 atoms,

copper and

triangles, joined

at

triangular-

iron.

is

As

their apices,

which no atoms are distributed on the fourth on the meta level and give three seven-

faces separate

atomed figures, and each

The

two new bodies, and even these

the similar bodies in

becomes three

in fact a tetrahedron in

The

4 and Ag. below).

apex of the funnel, containing

intermediate between

face.

VI.,

of these breaks

central globe only differs

from

up

two triplets and a unit. bromine by the addition four-sided pyramid with a into

that of

one atom, which gives the familiar

square base as in chlorine (see p. 31).

Gold (Plate The

disintegration of gold

VII and Au. below).

first yields forty- seven bodies on the the twenty-four funnels separate, and the central globes ; which hold each twelve together set free their six contained globes

proto-level

0


34 (c, cl),

with

The

thirty bodies being thus liberated.

central inclined planes,

its

marked

b,

four contained globes, remaining unchanged.

dition does not

The motion

last.

the funnels cease to exist

and

of the funnels

each

;

;

the four a liberate five each

the four

cl,

But

con-

this

changes and thus

their contents are set free, each funnel

thus liberating nine independent bodies

two each

on the

sixteen bodies

break away, their central globe,

;

;

the sixteen b separate into

two

the

two each

finally liberate

:

c

set

free thirteen

302 proto elements

in

all.

The first

funnel

is

almost that of iodine, re-arranged.

by

ring in the iodine funnel are replaced

which becomes a four-sided pyramid with an occupied second ring of three ovoids internal

in iodine

arrangement of each ovoid

becomes four is

the

Four base.

in gold,

same.

The

the gold

funnel.

The

fifth

in

iodine

arranged to form the fourth in descent in gold, and

two are the same.

B

is

the

The

but the

next two

spheres in the iodine funnel coalesce into one sphere, with contents, in

of the

the triangular body,

similar

slightly re-

remaining

has been broken up under occultum

(p.

628)

and can be followed there. The sixteen rings set free from the four a, after gyrating round the central body, now become a sphere, break up, as in occultum (see p. 28) into a meta seven-atomed ring and an eight-atomed double

cross,

and so on

to the

hyper

level.

The


T

L

35 sphere with

its

on the meta a unit.

The

iodine (see

two contained bodies breaks up

and each

level,

32) and pursue the same course, while

body, a four-sided pyramid with

meta

level into six

as in chlorine

(p.

31), the

its

two quartets and two

duads and two units as

complex

as gold

II.

on the

and

I

independently on the

off

as in

The

chlorine.

1

cigar

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

course as in occultum, and the other sets

on the meta

triplets

hyper compounds.

composed

is

is, it

of

yielding

level,

be seen

will

It

constituents already

six that,

familiar,

nearest allies.

its

la.â&#x20AC;&#x201D; he Tetrahedral Groups.

group

This

in

central

its

six attendants, divides

duads going

and has iodine and occultum as II

duad and

duads, revolving round a ring with a central atom

tetrahedron of d follows free

its

and the ring breaking up

hyper-level

into a

assume the form of prisms as

twelve septets of c

p.

eight triangles

into

on the hyper,

of these,

consists

strontium and barium,

of

beryllium

(glucinum), calcium,

and

diatomic, paramagnetic

all

positive.

The

corresponding group consists of oxygen, chromium, molybdenum,

wolfram (tungstan) and uranium, with a blank disk between wolfram and uranium these are diatomic, paramagnetic, and negative. We :

have not examined barium, wolfram, or uranium.

Beryllium

Plate

III.

four funnels are found, the its

faces.

The

mouth

In the tetrahedron

1).

of each funnel

opening on one of

with

ten

atoms within

In the accompanying diagrams one

three spheres.

ovoids

and Plate VIII.

funnels radiate from a central globe, and each funnel

contains four ovoids each

four

2

is

shown and

a single

ovoid with

containing severally three, four, and three atoms, corner of the plate (7

arrangement,

a).

differing

The members

only

in

bodies contained in the funnels.

the

of

is

Beryllium,

it

arranged in its

its

three spheres,

seen

at the left-hand

this

increased

it

funnel with

group are

alike in

complexity of the will

be observed,

very simple, whereas calcium and strontium are complicated.

Beryllium

:

4 funnels of 40 atoms Central globe Total

Atomic weight

Number

weight

L-6 4

g

...

ioo

...

4

...

164

...

g*o

...

911

is


36

Plate Calcium spheres, of

(Plate VIII., 2)

which the

central

VIII.

shows

in

each funnel three contained

one has within

it

seven ovoids identical

with those of beryllium, and the spheres above and below 2

5

iJL&juah,

CL Knrcrrrvuu/rn/

6

3

each

five

ovoids

(7 b) in

spectively, two, five,

contain

it

which the three contained spheres have,

and two atoms.

The

central

globe

is

re-

double,


37 globe within

and

globe,

from the centre

like

divided

is

an orange

segments, radiating

eight

into

the internal part

;

segment

of the

belonging to the inner globe has a triangular body within taining four atoms (7

encircling globe,

c),

and

shows the

external

the

familiar

cigar

atoms are packed into the simple beryllium

Calcium

:

d ).

(7

type.

Total

the

Strontium funnels, no

Each

(PlateVIII., 3) less

°

T8

shows a still

instead

The second

identical with

...

720

within

each.

The g groups

g,f).

y

five,

are

but difference of pressure makes the of

ovoid

;

similar

seen in the top ring of the iodine funnel, where also

ovoid in form.

80

subsidiary spheres, with

seven, seven, five atoms, respectively (7 c

containing body spherical

640

further complication within

than eight spheres being found

of the highest pair contains four

identical with those in gold,

... ...

...39-74 40*00 ..

Atomic weight 7 2

way 720

In this

4 funnels of 160 atoms Central globe

Number weight

con-

it,

belonging to the

part,

groups are

the

*

hole

'

is

pair of spheres contains ten ovoids (7 b )

those of calcium.

The

third

pair contains fourteen

ovoids (7 a) identical with those of beryllium, while the fourth pair repeats the second, with the ovoids

sions of the double sphere of the

calcium,

but the

— and

central globe

differ.

The

the external

segments contain

internal divi-

are the

cigars

in

replaced by seven -atomed ovoids (7 h )

segments are ovoids

contents

The

re-arranged.

same

as

in

the external

— the

iodine

five-atomed triangles

Thus 1 568 atoms have been packed into the beryllium type, and our wonder is again aroused by the ingenuity with which a type is preserved while it is adapted to new conditions. (7

i).

Strontium

:

4 funnels of 368 atoms Central globe

...

...

Total

...

1472 96 1568

Atomic weight

...

86*95

Number

...

87-11

weight -f§-

The corresponding group, headed by oxygen oxygen, chromium, molybdenum, wolfram and uranium- -offers us another problem

in its first

member.


r

38

Oxygen diagram of

This was examined by us

(Plate VIII., 4).

may be reproduced

description

the

here with

The gaseous atom

very peculiar constitution.

its

in 1895,

and

much improved

a

an

is

ovoid body, within which a spirally-coiled snake- like body revolves at a

high velocity,

The appearance

five

brilliant points of light

shining on the

given in the former diagram will

coils.

be obtained by

placing the five septets on one side on the top of those on the other,

so

that the ten

become

in

appearance

five,

and thus doubling the

whole, the doubling point leaving eleven duads on each side.

composition

On

whole.

however,

is,

much

the proto level the

by

better seen

flattening

The

out the

two snakes separate and are

clearly

seen.

Oxygen

-d snake, Positive i

:

f 55 spheres of 2 disks of 7

( + J

Negative snake

atoms atoms

Total

Chromium tetrahedron

weight 2t9s°

funnel

is

units in beryllium

denum.

Two

spheres are

a quintet (7

j),

ring, as

first

and calcium, and the

of these

(7 /),

its

is

290

...

...

15*87

...

16T1

identical with

identical in

in

the

its

and molybcontents

their

and two quintets

the highest

of

compared with the

pairs in strontium

being to each other as object and image. (7 b )

145

widened by the arrangement

contents, three spheres forming

two quintets

...

,. c

(PlateVIII., 5) “reverts to the ancestral type, " the

the

;

^

}

Atomic weight

Number

-

>

(7

e),

e

and /

The remaining sphere calcium funnel. The

remaining two spheres, one below the other, are identical with the corresponding two regards

its

spheres

external segments,

in is

calcium.

The

central

but in the internal segments a six-atomed triangle tuted for the calcium four-atomed one (7

Chromium

:

(7

Total

Number weight Molybdenum (Plate VIII., 6) from

it

as

k)

is

substi-

e).

4 funnels of 210 atoms Central globe

Atomic weight

differing

globe,

again identical with that of calcium,

...

840

...

96

...

... ...

936 51*74 52*00

very closely resembles strontium,

only in the composition of the highest pair of


;

39 spheres in the funnels and in the presence of a

sphere, contain-

little

The

ing two atoms only, in the middle of the central globe.

most spheres contain no each

the highest of these (7 e) has four

;

have

four, seven

all septets,

(7 g),

eg

and four

(7

and the

last

e),

making a

has four

Molybdenum

:

difference of

atoms

respectively

160

in

it

in

the next three

;

the next three

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; making in

spheres 88 atoms, as against the 48 strontium,

top-

than eight subsidiary spheres within

less

all,

are

two

for these

corresponding spheres of

in the four funnels.

4 funnels of 408 atoms Central globe

1632 98

... ....

Toial

1730

...

Atomic weight

...

Number

...

weight --[f-

95*26 96*11

This group contains magnesium, zinc, cadmium, and

II a.

mercury, with an empty disk between cadmium and mercury not examine mercury.

All are diatomic,

;

we

diamagnetic and positive

;

did the

corresponding group consists of sulphur, selenium and tellurium, also

all

istics,

The same

diatomic and diamagnetic, but negative. funnels

of four

character-

opening on the faces of a tetrahedron are

found in

in all, but magnesium and sulphur have no central globe, and cadmium and tellurium the globe has become a cross. Magnesium (Plate IX., introduces us to a new arrangement

:

1 )

each group of three ovoids forms a ring, and the three rings are within a funnel

;

at first glance, there are three

on examination each of these

is

seen to consist of three, with other

bodies, spheres, again within them. tion

is

triplet,

simple enough,

Apart from

the ovoids being alike,

this,

the

composi-

and composed

of a

a septet and a duad.

Magnesium

Zinc the

all

bodies in the funnel

:

4 funnels of 108 atoms

...

Number weight 4t3^2

...

(Plate IX., 2) also brings a

same type

the triplets,

as that of

angles, each

tep-atomed

new

magnesium, while

device

:

the

adding 144 atoms to the triangle, already

met with

24*18 24*00

the funnel

is

of

septets are substituted for

and 36 additional atoms are thus slipped

see four spikes, alternating with

432

...

Atomic weight

in.

Then we

funnels and pointing to total.

The

in other

spikes

the

show

metals, three

the

very


40 regular

pillars,

four, three,

each with six spheres, containing two, three, four,

two atoms,

respectively.

The supporting

spheres are

on

Plate IX.

1

the

and

model

of the central globe, but contain

spikes alike radiate

from a simple central globe,

contained spheres are arranged crosswise,

developed cross of cadmium.

bottoms of the funnels.

more atoms.

The ends

in

Funnels

which

five

preparing for the fully of

the

cross

touch the


41

Zinc

4 funnels of 144 atoms 4 spikes of 144 atoms

:

576 576

...

18

...

Central globe

Total

Cadmium

...

1170

...

Atomic weight

...

Number weight

...

64-91 65-00

an increased complexity of funnels

(Plate IX. 3) has

the diagram shows one of the three similar segments which

within the funnels as cylinders

and three ovoids,

three pillars

;

lie

each of these contains four spheres,

;

upside

the spike of zinc turned

like

down, and the zinc ten-atomed triangle changed into three ten-atomed ovoids. The centre-piece is a new form, though prefigured in the central globe of zinc. r

Cadmium

:

|

3 segments of 164 atoms = 492 4 funnels of 492 atoms Central

1

1963

...

)

48

body Total

2016

...

Atomic weight

..

Number

..

weight

111-60 112-00

The corresponding negative group is headed by Sulphur (Plate X. 1), which, like magnesium, has no globe, and consists simply of the zinc funnels,

than zinc but the same

Sulphur

(Plate X- 2)

funnel, It is

is

known

that the star

is

by the exquisite pe-

star,

violently

its

it,

floating

when a

that the conductivity

some way connected with

31-82 32-00

...

distinguished

and dancing

576

...

...

with the intensity of the light falling upon star is in

central

compressed

composition.

already noticed, of a quivering

mouth of each falls upon it.

less

4 funnels of 144 atoms Atomic weight Number weight 5T7g6

:

Selenium culiarity,

in

much

and

of it

conductivity.

across the

ray

of

light

selenium varies

may It

a very complicated body, and in each of

be that the will

be seen

its six

points

two five-atomed spheres revolve round the seven-atomed cone. The bodies in the funnels resemble those in magnesium, but a

the

reversed image of small duad, is

the

same

the top one

and each

pair has

as that of zinc. 6

is its

interposed between

own

enclosure.

The

itself

and the

central globe


42

Plate X. Zulxihxjur

S eXjtyrwxym

,

Selenium

4 funnels of 198 atoms 4 stars of 153 atoms Central globe

1422

Total

Tellurium

Atomic weight

...

Number

...

,

weight

(Plate X. 3),

cadmium, and has three

78‘58 79 00

it

will

cylindrical

be

seen,

segments

closely

— of

resembles

which one

is


43 figured

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; making

pillars

run

two

;

up

the

The contained

funnel.

bodies

three, four, five, four, thiee, two, instead of

and a quartet

central cross only differs

atomed instead

from

duad

a

replaces

in the

starting with

The

globes above.

cadmium

that of

in

having a seven-

So close a

four-atomed centre.

of a

the

in

similarity

is

striking.

Tellurium

!

:

(

3 segments of 181 atoms = 543 4 funnels of 543 atoms Central

)

2172

...

j

body

51 Total

2223

...

Atomic weight

...

Number

...

weight

126-64 123-50

VI.

We

must now consider the ways

tetrahedral groups break

we

shall

how

find

combinations her

and

we proceed

as

continual are the repetitions,

number

with a limited

up,

infinite variety of

with this study,

and how Nature,

forms.

III.,

consist of

and

2,

VIII., 1).

funnels and

Beryllium offers us four similar

and the proto-elements

of the

fundamental methods, creates by varied

of

Beryllium (Plate

funnel, released

which the members

in

a

central

these five bodies, set

globe,

free.

The

from pressure, assumes a spherical form, with

its

and the central globe remains a On the meta level, the ovoids sphere, containing a whirling cross. are set free, and two from each funnel are seen to be positive, two within

four ovoids spinning

negative

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; sixteen

bodies in

it,

all,

plus the

force-lines are changed, preparatory

on the hyper triplets

and a

level.

On

cross, in

to

its

breaking into two duads

that level, the decads

quartet, the positive with

the

which the resultant

disintegrate into

depressions

two

inward, the

negative with the depressions outward.

Calcium (Plate

The level,

funnels,

as

usual,

VIII., 2).

assume a spherical form on the proto

and show, in each case, three spheres containing ovoids. These on the proto level, break free from their containing still

spheres, funnel,

as in

the case

of gold

(p.

34),

iberated, while the central globe breaks

twelve bodies

up

being thus

into eight segments, each


44 of

which becomes globular, and contains within

somewhat heart-shaped body.

atorned ovoids of a different type, set

duads

become

single is

and a

free,

On

and can be

on

containing the

meta

—forty positive and forty negative— and forty

are identical with those in chlorine.

quintet

cigar

in beryllium,

Eight spheres, each

diagram.

its

a

Four spheres, each containing seven

ten-atomed ovoids, are identical with those followed in

it

the

hyper

five

level,

nineeighty

quintets,

which

the

duads

level,

atoms within a sphere, and the central atom from the

also set

free,

one hundred and twenty in

all.

The

re-

maining four atoms of the quintet divide into two duads.

The

central globe, dividing into eight,

spheres on the meta, the

cigar

becomes eight six-atomed

behaving as usual, four

cigars

being positive and four negative, and becoming dissociated into the four atoms within the heart-shaped body appear as a triplets ;

tetrahedron,

remain together on the meta

level,

and break up

into

duads on the hyper.

Strontium (Plate

The

third

member

of

this

VIII., 3).

group repeats the a groups of

beryllium and the b groups of calcium, and they dissociate

into

the

bodies already described under these respectively. The two upper globes in each funnel repeat each other, but each globe contains


45

showing three

four smaller spheres

marked

which are repeated

g,

in

the central

The two

forms.

varieties of

globe as

seven-

h, are

atomed, and appear as spheres or ovoids according to pressure. They

and / are related as object and image, and we have already seen them in copper (pp. 21 and 32)

are figured

on

p. 32,

under iodine

;

e

;

in

each case, as

on the meta

in

copper, they

level the

fifth in

There

unite

pair of fours

two atoms form a duad

;

i,

into

form a

which repeats

ten-atomed figure

a

/,

makes a ring with the

the centre, as in the five-atomed b of calcium, as

is,

thus, nothing

new

;

and the remaining

ring,

shown above.

in strontium, but only repetitions of

forms

already studied.

Oxygen (Plate The here,

disintegration of

and the

as given in

better presentation given

follow the process. the

oxygen

On

brilliant disks are

VIII., 4).

on

the proto level

seven-atomed,

p.

the

but

1895 may be repeated 36

renders

two

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

snakes

are differently

it

easier to

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

divide

;

arranged,

the positive snake having the atoms arranged as in the iodine ovoids,

whereas the negative snake has them arranged as

The snakes show

the

same extraordinary

activity

in a capital

on the proto

on the gaseous, twisting and writhing, darting and

H.

level as

coiling.

The


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

46

body

On

of the snake

meta

the

level the

two-atomed beads,

of

is

on one side and

They

ing as lively as the original snake.

and beads on the hyper

disks,

and

and

and

negative.

snakes break into ten fragments, each consisting

of a disk, with six beads

five positive

positive

five

on the other, remain-

shiver into their constituent

yielding the ten

there

level,

and the 110 beads,

five negative,

disks,

fifty-five positive

fifty-five negative.

Chromium (Plate

When we

go on

to

VIII., 5).

chromium and molybedenum, we

return

to

our familiar funnels and central globes, and the secondary spheres quickly set free, as before, on the proto level within the funnels

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

give us

no new combinations

in their

The a

of beryllium,

of calcium

calcium, thee and

same k

is

as the

the

/of

b

contained spheres and ovoids.

strontium, are

central sphere

in the

level revolve

two duads and two

units

,

round each

chromium

In the

central

of only

consisting

other,

is

of

the

globe,

atoms,

six

and break up into

on the hyper.

Molybedenum (Plate Molybdenum

and strontium, and d there ;j in

b ovoid.

a pair of triangles as in hydrogen

which on the meta

all

presents us with only

VIII.,

6).

two new forms, and

these

are merely four-atomed tetrahedra, occurring in pairs, as object and

AH

image.

II a.

the other bodies have already been analysed.

We

come now to

the second great tetrahedral group, which

though very much complicated,

is

yet, for

the most

part,

a repeti-

tion of familiar forms.

Magnesium (Plate

We

are

still

among

tetrahedra,

IX., 1).

so have to do with four funnels,

but each funnel contains three rings, and each ring three ovoids the proto level a triple dissociation free the rings as large spheres, in

takes place,

for the

;

on

funnels

let

each of which rotate three twelve-

atomed ovoids, and then the ovoids break loose from the spheres, and themselves become proto

spherical, so

compounds from

contained bodies, a are set free

triplet,

the

Mg

that

tetrahedron. a, a septet,

we have

On

Mg

b,

finally thirty-six

the meta level

and a duad,

the

Mg

c,

from each globe, thus yielding one hundred and eight

meta compounds.

On

the hyper level the triplet becomes

a duad


47

and

a unit

and a

;

the

duad becomes two

units

Zinc (Plate

We it

;

and the

septet a triplet

quartet. 2).

can leave aside the funnel, for the only difference between

and the magnesium funnel

for the

IX.,

triplet,

We

diagram.

and the

already

is

shown

the

in

magnesium

have, therefore, only to consider the spikes, pointing

to the angles of the

These are

septet

second septet

the substitution of a

is

set free

and the

enclosing tetrahedron,

on the proto

level

central globe.

and the spikes immediately

release their contents, yielding thus thirty-two separate bodies.

The

the

same

and can be there followed.

One

triangular arrangement at the top of the spike

as occurs in

copper (b on

p. 32),

is shown The compressed long

in the

of the three similar pillars

under Zn

a.

bodies revolving within

it

round each other

middle

a slanting ellipse

angle with the

in the ;

oval

accompanying diagram

becomes

in a rather peculiar ;

way

same on an

somewhat

gold

as in

(a

crossâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; the cross

gration.

is

a

Zn

favorite e,

:

the quartets turn

round them

ellipse slanting at

and

spheres within the globes at the base of the spikes,

the central globe,

globe, with six

a

the triplets revolve

the duads do the

first,

device in

follows the

is

the

II

b, p.

Zn

b,

24).

an

The

behave as a

a groups.

same cruciform

in

Finally,

line of disinte-


48

Cadmium (Plate

Cadmium

IX., 3).

follows very closely on the lines of zinc

of the zinc spike are reproduced in the rings of the

the globes are also the globes of

We

attention.

cadmium

;

;

the pillars

cadmium

funnel

;

so neither of these needs

have only to consider the three ten-atomed ovoids,

which are substituted the central cross.

for the

one ten-atomed

The ovoids become

triangle of

spheres, (Cd a,

b,)

zinc,

and

the contained

bodies revolving within them, a whirling on a diameter of the sphere, cutting

in halves, as

it

the cross also

it

were, and b whirling round

becomes a sphere, (Cd

maintained within

it

in their revolution.

by the

at right angles

but the cruciform type

c ),

relative positions of the

The subsequent

it

stages are

;

is

contained spheres

shown

in

the

dia-

gram.

Sulphur (Plate

X., 1).

Sulphur has nothing new, but shows only the funnels already figured in

the

magnesium, with the substitution

of

a second

septet

for

triplet, as in zinc.

Selenium (Plate

The ovoids of

funnel of selenium

magnesium and

is

X., 2).

a re-arrangement of the twelve-atomed

the ten-atomed

ovoids of cadmium.

The


49 funnels,

on

disintegrating

On

nine spheres.

,

set

free

twelve groups, each

containing

the meta level, the ten-atomed bodies are set free,

and the twelve-atomed divide

into

duads and decads, thus yielding

seventy-two decads and thirty-six duads

duads, however,

the

;

at

once recombine into hexads, thus giving only twelve meta elements, or eighty-four

The

from the funnels.

in all

central

together on the proto level, but yields five meta also at

first

remains a unit on the proto

into seven bodies, the centre

level,

globe holds

elements.

The

star

and then shoots

off

keeping together, and the six points

becoming spheres, within which the two cones, base to base, whirl the centre, and the globes circle round them. On the meta level the thirty bodies contained in the star separate from each other,

go on

their

Selenium

offers

a

beautiful

most

example of the combination of

exquisite whole.

Tellurium (Plate

X., 3).

Tellurium very closely resembles cadmium, and they

chlorine

all

and

independent ways.

simple elements into a

fore placed

in

on the same diagram.

and

its

ten-atomed ovoid 7

congeners, is

the

same

The

pillars

are the

are,

same

thereas in

with a duad added

at the base.

The

cadmium and

follows the

same

as in


50 course in breaking up.

duad remains

as a

other

which

reason.

duad

it is

The

cadmium, except

know why

interesting to

this

selenium and breaks up into a septad and

in

members

triad in the other

pressure to

would be

It

of the group. It

may

be due to the greater

may

subjected in selenium, or there cross

tellurium

in

that the centre

be some

with

identical

is

that in

seven-atomed instead of four-

is

atomed. VII. Ill

We which

and

The Cube Groups.

Ilia,

have here four groups to consider,

are triads,

and have

all

funnels, opening

six

members

the

on the

of

six faces of

a cube. III.

Boron, scandium and yttrium were examined

and

triatomic, paramagnetic,

consists of

vanadium and niobium

nitrogen,

We

paramagnetic, and negative.

members and

figured

make

on both

they are

all

;

they are triatomic,

have not examined the remaining

In these two groups nitrogen dominates,

of these groups.

in order to

;

The corresponding group

positive.

the comparison easy the nitrogen elements

Plate

scandium and yttrium,

XI and of the

XII.

Plate

positive

group,

from vanadium and niobium,

of the negative

plan on which they are built

the same.

is

It

We

are

be seen that

will

only in details

differ

group

;

the ground-

noted a similar close

resemblance between the positive strontium and the negative molyb-

denum.

Boron

(Plate III,

4,

simplest form of the cube

;

and Plate XI,

six-atomed ovoids and one six-atomed has but four five-atomed spheres.

congeners as

BORON

is

:

1).

We

have here the

the funnels contain only five bodies

beryllium to

its

It is

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

cigar.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

as

The

simple in

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;four

central globe relation to

its

group-members.

6 funnels of 30 atoms

...

...

...

180

Central Globe

...

...

...

20

...

200

...

10'86

...

Total

Atomic Weight

Number Weight

^

...11-11


51

Scandium different types,

and

B

above

A

and

B

negative, but this

In

A

its

,

is

companion ovoids

;

is

first

three of each kind

must be

the boron funnel

in respect to this funnel

110.

For the

(Plate XI, 2).

time ;

A

we meet

funnels of

appear to be positive

stated with reserve.

reproduced, the

*

cigar

'

having risen

but the most important matter to note

our introduction to

This body was observed by us

first in

the

body marked a

nitrogen, in

1895, and

Plate XI.

4

,


52

we gave

name

the

it

of the

nitrogen

takes the balloon form, which

Here

elements.

appears as a sphere

it

on the proto level— and diagram 4

a, to

with three, four,

nitrogen

in

it

assumes in other gaseous

— the

form always assumed

on reference

be seen,

to

the detailed

be a complicated body, consisting of

six fourleen-

will

it

round

atomed globes arranged observed that

balloon,' for

also often

it

six, six,

this

four,

long ovoid containing spheres

a

three,

balloon appears

atoms

respectively.

member

in every

It will

be

two

these

of

groups, except boron.

The B

runs largely to

funnel

triads, c

and

not only a triadic arrangement of spheres within but each sphere has also a

b (see 4 b) having

its

contained globes,

In c (see 4

atoms.

triplet of

b,

triadic

arrangement of spheres, but each contains duads.

pleted

by a five-atomed sphere

be noted that

The

a, b

and

top of the funnel.

at the

repeats

in the

that of

(B) of 116 „ Central Globe

Atomic Weight

of bodies within the

Two

cigars

...

own

round them, spinning madly on

axes in the

in all

their

one type only.

centre

near the top,

arrangement

a-nitrogen element— replacing

the

is

each other

own axes— this

contained bodies

in the funnel, a similar

43’78 44'00

of

funnel— the funnel being

while four eight-atomed globes (see 4 c ) chase

seems constant

792

Here we have a quite new arrange-

3).

whirl on their

...

...

-g

XI,

...

420 348 24

...

Number Weight 7T9 2 ment

a

should

It

...

Total

(Plate

is

com-

middle.

3

Yttrium

is

boron, with an additional

3 funnels (A) of 140 atoms

Scandium:

there

B

c all are constituents of nitrogen.

central globe

four-atomed sphere

c)

all

the

time.

axial

in a circle

spinning

Lower down

seen, with a globe (see 4

cigars,’

d)—

and six-atomed ovoids

replacing the globes.

The

nitrogen balloon

now showing

occupies the third place

in the funnel,

usual shape in combination, while the b

globe

scandium takes on a lengthened form below it. The central globe presents us with two tetrahedra, recalling one the combinations in gold (see Plate VII d, p. 24), and differing

(see

of

its

4

b) of


53

from that only by the substitution

of

two quartets

two

for the

triplets

in gold.

One atoms as

funnel of yttrium is

and d are

nitrogen

all

We

elements.

put on

their significance,

b,

these facts,

record

Some

them.

and

of

Further, a,

nitrogen.

without trying to draw any conclusions from

— or others — may find out

same number

the

contains exactly

contained in a gaseous atom of

we

day,

through them

trace

obscure relations.

Yttrium

6 funnels of 261 atoms Central Globe

:

Total

...

Atomic Weight Number Weight IffS

The corresponding niobium,

is

a

part— pervades so which renders

there in nitrogen

and make

the fiery oxygen

some

active in ful

...

vanadium and

negative group, of nitrogen,

which— like many of the

explosives

of

its

the

bodies

which

of

we

breathable, while

it

compounds

that

the secret in the arrangement of

it

of

its

that

fact,

it

What

is

conveniently dilute

it is

enters into

so extraordinarily the most

future, perhaps,

the

is

it

forms so large

are studying.

so inert as to

it

Some chemist

?

air,

88‘34 89'22

...

rendered particularly interesting by the

headed by nitrogen,

1566 40 1606

...

...

constituent parts,

power-

will

find

which we are

able only to describe.

Nitrogen (Plate relatives,

but

is in

investigations, floats in the

XII,

shape

1)

does not assume the cubical form of

an egg.

like

middle of the egg, containing

and a long ovoid

body

and

(see

4

b)

positive,

with

two

its

our 1895

its

in the

six

midst

small

spheres in two

this

balloon-shaped

;

drawn down towards the negative body b seven-contained spheres, each of which has nine is

atoms within it— three the

to

quote from them. The balloon-shaped body (see 4 a)

I

horizontal rows, is

Referring again

larger bodies

;

triads.

two

of

Four spheres

are seen, in

addition to

these (see 4 d), each containing

smaller globes, are positive, and two (see 4

c)

five

containing four smaller

globes, are negative.

Nitrogen

:

Balloon Oval 2 bodies of 20 atoms 2 „ „ „ 24

...

110 63 40

...

_48

...

...

Total

261


)

54

Atomic Weight Number Weight

Vanadium

...

(Plate XII, 2) closely follows scandium, having

types of funnels.

Funnel

A only

differs

from

that

of

has a six-atomed, instead of a five-atomed globe

slips

a third globe containing twenty

atoms

(see

at

two

scandium by

having a globe (see 4 d inserted in the ring of four ovoids

B

14*0i 14-50

...

?JiJ

;

funnel

the top,

and

4 d) between the

Plate XII.

4


55

two

identical with those of

has seven atoms in

its

(see 4 c ).

middle body

does vanadium succeed

Vanadium

scandium

in

The

(B) „ 137

3 „ Central Globe

Atomic Weight Number Weight

Niobium (Plate XII, 3) is vanadium to scandium. The cigars

'

to

related

closely

The

rest of the funnel is the *

cigars/

and a

yttrium as

globes that scamper

contain twelve atoms instead of eight (see 4

tetrahedra have

918

...50*84 ...51*00

j-|

little

...

...

9

as

...

480 411 27

...

Total

*

way

In this

instead of four.

overtopping scandium by 12G atoms.

3 funnels (A) of 160 atoms

:

globe

central

is

round the

e).

In the central globe both the

same.

central nine-atomed globe spins

round

in the centre (see 4/), seventeen atoms being thus added.

Niobium

Total

Atomic Weight Number Weight III a.

group.

...

1662

...

57

...

1719

funnels of 277 atoms Central Globe

6

:

...

9

x

...

J-£

Aluminium, gallium and indium were examined from

They

are triatomic, diamagnetic,

and

The

positive.

ponding group contains phosphorus, arsenic and antimony also

belongs to

it,

but was

diamagnetic and negative.

Aluminium simple.

93*25 95*50

(Plate XIII, 1), the

There are

below which

is

;

they

are

triatomic,

central globes.

head of the group,

six similar funnels,

bismuth

:

is,

as usual,

each containing eight ovoids,

a globe.

Aluminium

Gallium

not examined

They have no

this

corres-

:

81 atoms Atomic Weight Number Weight $23 6 funnels of

(Plate XIII, 2) has

the segment to the in that of the right,

left

a

*

in

486

...

26*91

...

27*00

every funnel

;

in

cigar’ balances a globe, equally six-atomed,

and the globes

as against three-atomed.

two segments

...

to right

and

left

are

four-atomed

In the next row, the smaller contained

globes have six atoms as against four, and the cones have respectively


56 seven and

five.

By

-

these

little

additions the

left

hand funnel boasts -

one hundred and twelve atoms as against ninety-eight.

Gallium

:

Left segment 112 atoms') _ w91 n ~ U

Right segment 98 6 funnels of

,,

210 atoms

Atomic Weight Number Weight

^l

0

Plate XIII.

)

1260 69 50 70 00


57

Indium

(Plate XIII, 3) repeats the segments of gallium

save in the substitution

atomed cone

a sixteen-atomed

of

one

A

three contain two of type B,

and one

;

and one

three funnels out of the six of type

B

the

;

B A

([242 + 107] 3) ([214 + 121] 3)

Total

Atomic Weight Number Weight -y§-

The corresponding

XIV,

...

2052

...

...

114*05 14*00

1

phosphorus, arsenic, and

negative group,

(Plate

1047 1005

...

...

antimony, run on very similar lines to those

Phosphorus

remaining

of type A.

Segment A 121 atoms Segment B 107 „ 3 funnels of 2 A and 1 3 „ „ 2 B and 1

:

seven-

But each funnel

in gallium.

has three segments instead of two

contain two segments of type

Indium

the

for

hand segment, and a fourteen-atomed body

of the left

for the five-atomed corresponding

now

body

exactly,

we have just examined.

1) offers us a

very curious arrange-

some new forms

ment

of atoms,

Two

segments are in each funnel, in fact the only two of group

which

which do not show aluminium and

give

will

breaking up. III

a

arrangement, or a modification thereof, are

this

arsenic.

Phosphorus

Left segment 50 atoms') _ ~ qq Right segment 43 ,, ) 6 funnels of 93 atoms

:

Atomic Weight Number Weight

Arsenic

in

(Plate

XIV,

558

...

... -5 5

2) resembles

8

...

rg

aluminium

in

30*77 31*00

having eight

and the ovoids which form the top a minute difference that in aluminium the

internal sub-divisions in a funnel,

ring are identical, save for

ovoids stand the reverse

way from

those in arsenic.

It will

be noted

that in the former the top and

apices upwards,

bottom triangles of atoms have the and the middle one has its apex downwards. In

arsenic, the top

and bottom ones point downwards, and the middle Arsenic inserts sixteen spheres between the ovoids and

one upwards. globe

shown

in

aluminium, and thus adds no

and forty-four atoms

Arsenic

8

:

to

less

than one hundred

each funnel.

225 atoms Atomic Weight Number Weight -f-g-

6 funnels of

...

...

1350 74*45 75*00


58

Plate XIV.

Antimony

(Plate

arrangement of types middle rings of both

XIV,

3)

the centre of the larger globe. *

cigar

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

has vanished, and

line form.

is

a

close

A and B in the A and B, a triplet is

copy of indium, and the

funnels is

is

identical.

substituted

In the lowest

body

for

In

the

a unit at

of type

A the

represented by a seven-atomed crystal-


59

Antimony

:

Segment

Segment

A B

1

28 atoms

113 atoms

A and Band

3 funnels of 2

3

„ 2

1 1

B A

([256 + 11313) ([226 + 128]3)

...

1107 1056

...

2163

...

Total

Atomic Weight

Number Weight

...

1 19*34;

..

120T6

VIII.

Boron (Plate The

boron

disintegration of

four globes each containing two set free

with

the

triplets

the

four quintets,

its

meta level the

on

is

very simple

hyper

cigar

cigar

level,

In funnel ‘

balloon,’

A

the

a 110

cigar

the

in

and

is

also

cigar

central globe

once

two.

triplets

On

the

separate.

and the quintets

its

usual

into triplets

and duads.

XI., 2).

and the ovoids behave

(XI., 4) escapes

*

course,

and these are resolved

central

The globe forms two

follows

units.

the funnels are set

:

The at

breaks up as usual, and

'

level, the

become duads and meta

triplets.

and breaks

Scandium (Plate

the

XI., 1).

and assume the spherical form, showing a

free

On

Plate

III, 4 and

as in boron, but

from the funnel as

it

changes to


60 d sphere, and holds together on the proto level

duads on the hyper

level

;

the ovoid

also

is

becoming a sphere, and on the hyper

tained bodies, as

In funnel

B

two

triplets,

there

is

a

set

level

behaves

quintet, that

remain on the proto

On

free as

on the meta

liberates its

con-

sextets. like

those in the

which the bodies

with the exception of b 68, which escapes.

level,

the meta level, c (Plate XI., 4) c assumes a tetrahedral form with

atoms

hyper

at

each point, and these hold together as sextets on the

At the meta

level.

b

stage,

nine-atomed bodies, which become central globe

shows a cross

whirling round set

in

yields

it

all set

free

two quartets and two

globe of boron, on escaping from the funnel,

six

on the meta,

each containing seven duads, and these are

six globes

level

;

free,

quartet

it,

the meta level,

on the meta

as

level,

XI, 4 b) sets free seven

centre,

type,

On

on the hyper.

with

the

the meta,

The

four quintets

the quintets are

while the cross

becomes

a

and two duads on the hyper.

In yttrium, on the proto

and behave

its

level.

and follow the boron

on

the funnel, set free

at

on the proto

(Plate

free triplets

level,

in

a 110 and

behave as

b

63 both escape from

The ovoids and cigars boron. The central globe *

scandium. in

breaks up as in gold (pp. 34 and 35), four quartets being set free in-

ยงead of two quartets and two

triplets.

We

have only to consider


61

and d 20 on the meta

e

8

ÂŁ

(Plate XI., 4).

a tetrahedral arrangement of duads

is

duads on the hyper.

as

free

set

level,

8

arrangement of pairs of duads

at

pyramid on the meta, and again

free

new

XII.,

show

to

D

20

an

is

a square-based

of

duads on the hyper.

Nitrogen (Plate Nitrogen has nothing

angles

the

1).

us, all its constituents

having

appeared in scandium and yttrium.

Vanadium (Plate The A

vanadium

funnel of

XII., 2).

A

repeats the

funnel of scandium,

B

with the addition of

d

B

an addition of d 20 and a sextet for a quintet

is

repeated, with

the sextet

is

the

c

the

of

In the

20, already studied.

follows boron, save that

it

nitrogen

'

balloon.

has a septet for

its

funnel scandium

The

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

centre

;

this

;

globe

central

was figured

in iodine (p. 32).

Niobium (Plate XII.,

Niobium only triplets for

duads

on

;

the

on the hyper, each

and

only other difference

body

level

yields

triplet

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

cigars

simple,

is

meta

we have a duad

The

in the central globe.

is

as usual, but liberate eight

the central

yttrium by the

from

differs

in e

3).

a triangle on the meta

level,

'

and a

of

triplets,

The

unit.

tetrahedra separate

instead of four with four quartets

becoming

and

introduction therefore

three

three triads

at

the angles

;

of

duads and three units on the

hyper.

Aluminium (Plate

The

funnels

1).

go the globes, but the eight ovoids remain

let

within them, so that seven bodies are

When

XIII.,

let

loose

on the proto

the ovoids are set free at the meta stage they

body

and a

nine-atomed

triangles

on the hyper

level.

is

produced,

The

become

which breaks up

globe becomes a cross

one atom from the duads

level.

spherical

each arm in

at

into

the

meta

stage, with

to

own, and these form four duads on the hyper, and a unit from

its

at

addition

the centre.

Gallium (Plate In gallium the funnel disappears its

two contained segments, each

of

XIII., 2).

on the proto

level,

which forms a

setting free

cylinder,

thus


62 yielding twelve bodies

upper globes

each liberating a cigar and two

On

septets,

the hypei the quartet yields

The second

set of

On

on the proto level. hand segment are

in each left

the

meta, the three

and soon vanish, the quartet and triad uniting. set free,

two duads but the

bodies divide on the meta

level,

triangle

persists.

forming a sextet

and a cross with a duad at each arm these on the hyper level divide into two triangles, four duads and a unit. The seven-atomed cone becomes two triangles united by a single atom, and on the meta level these forma ring round the unit on the hyper they form ;

;

three duads and a unit.

In the right triads

hand segment,

becoming two

the number.

sextets,

The second

the

same policy

is

followed, the four

while the central body adds ring

a third to

has a quartet instead of the sextet,

but otherwise breaks up as does that of the

left

;

the quintet at the

base follows that of boron.

Indium (Plate XIII.,

The complication

of three

3).

segments of different types

in

funnel does not affect the process of breaking up, and indium little

attention.

A

is

gallium, save for the *

cigar

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

exactly the

same

as

the

substitution of a globe

and two square-based pyramids.

left

each needs

hand funnel

of

containing the familiar

B is

the

same

as the right


63

hand funnel

of gallium,

except that

its

lowest

square-based pyramids and a tetrahedron.

body

Phosphorus (Plate XIV., The atoms

in

the six similar spheres

1).

in the

segments of the

phosphorus funnel are arranged on the eight angles the central one

is

attached to

the nine atoms hold together and a square-based

pyramid

duad, and a unit.

;

and

of a cube,

the meta level five of

on the angles of

place themselves

the remaining four set themselves on the

They

angle of a tetrahedron.

On

of them.

all

two

consists of

All these are familiar.

on the hyper

yield,

The remaining bodies

level,

are simple

Arsenic (Plate XIV.,

two

and

triads,

a

familiar.

2).

Arsenic shows the same ovoids and globe as have already been

broken up

aluminium

the remaining sixteen spheres form nine-atomed bodies on the meta level, all similar to those of aluminium, thus yielding twelve positive and twelve negative the in

(see ante )

;

;

globe also yields a nine-atomed body, twenty-five bodies of nine.

Antimony Antimony follows

closely

the upper ring of spheres triplet is substituted for

(Plate in the

XIV,

track of gallium

being identical.

the unit,

and

3).

and indium,

In the second

this apparently

ring, a

throws the cross


'

64 out of gear, and

we have

up

and two

into a triplet

new eleven-atomed

a

seven-atomed sphere of the three

figure,

on the hyper

quartets

the base,

at

The lowest same as we met

the

is

which breaks

level.

with in copper. IX.

The Octahedral Groups.

IV.

These groups are Crookes'

lemniscates

with below

rounded

the angles and

at

recognise

it

a

;

and have

The

octohedron.

are not

closely

have

group

is

allied

did the

it

The members

silicon,

the faces

not, ‘

at

first,

corded bale,

of the

on the eight

group are

faces of the

paramagnetic and positive

the

;

The two groups

both titanium and

composition, though

in

carbon,

an octohedron,

is

diamagnetic and negative.

is

common

in

we

fact,

eight funnels, opening

first

corresponding one

tin

in

an octohedron, and we called

as

William

is

other

the

form

Sir

side

depressed between

little

the nearest likeness that struck us. all tetrads,

on

;

characteristic

consequence of the rounding

in

the one

zirconium

The

tin.

On

12).

p.

and

titanium

it

with germanium and

turns of the spiral in

at the

(see

intersecting tetrahedra at their respec-

the five

tive centres.

Carbon conium.

but they

said

their

at

characteristic contents,

fellow a funnel

losing

in

in the centre of the its

own

and each holds a this

This

link.

leaves

and

will

from each

justify their relationship.

cigar

;

these

c

cigars,’

cigar

is

lie

a globe

at the base

in a triangle.

and

the

arms

and

will

The

zir-

in

rose, their

funnels

and having as

truncated, its

base,

thus

and

containing four atoms,

on the dividing together.

be more clearly seen when we It

is

has a leaf-like body at

pair of the funnels

other.

of

of the cross

It

atom had been economically taken from the

parts

the fundamental

titanium

protrusion

showing three

octohedron wall

in

symbol

which the middle

Each

one atom.

each within

gives us

ends the eight carbon funnels with

and thus

are in pairs, one of each pair its

the

14),

(p.

Rosicrucian

the old

show

1)

which becomes so masked

As before

suggests

these

and XV.,

(Plate III., 5

octohedral form,

lines of the faces,

seems as though ‘

come

cigar' to to

form a

separate the

be noticed that the atoms

in

the

vary in arrangement, being alternately in a line


65 -

27 right 26 = 54

(left

Carbon

:

One

pair of funnels < (,

4 pairs of funnels Atomic Weight

of

centre

54 atoms

Number Weight Plate XV.

9

111

216 91 12 00


66

Titanium (Plate

atom

distributed

and XV.,

6

III,,

over the ends of

its

with their linking atom, being seen

comes

A

a sextet

new

a

is

the central

body

among

diagram

four arms,

as 3c, with

its

device for crowding in

of

itself

— two

with a

fifteen

one hundred and twenty-eight atoms are

Into this elaborate body

...

Atomic Weight

is

Only

identical.

them with 4 fifteen

c

and

in 5 c

d.

8 e4

3)

...

864

...

47-74 48-00

has exactly the same outline as

and d do we c

168 128

...

T ff

similarly distributed,

The

...

...

Number Weight XV.,

216 352

...

Total

is

cigar

built.

One Carbon Atom

(Plate

comes ‘

can be shown

4 c of 88 Atoms 12 d of 14 „ Central Globe

Zirconium

and

atoms round an eighth, that

forms the minute centre of the whole.

nium, the carbon atom

fourteen

quartets

Lastly

material.

which only

of seven

each arm,

in

eighty-eight atoms.

(4c) of five intersecting tetrahedra,

— and a ring

Titanium:

a pair of funnels

Then,

in each.

three contained globes

each of their twenty points

in the

complete carbon

has a

o voids (3 d) each holding within

ring of twelve

atoms, distributed

at

body shown

the elaborate

2)

and the

find a difference

tita-

body

central

on comparing

ovoid in zirconium shows no

than

less

secondary globes within the five contained in the ovoid, and

these, in turn, contain altogether sixty-nine smaller

hundred and twelve atoms within them, arranged quartets, quintets, a sextet

and

septets.

Finally,

spheres, with in pairs,

two

triplets,

the ovoids of the

of fourteen.

made more elaborate, showing thirty-six atoms instead In this way the clever builders have piled up in zirco-

nium no

than

ring are also

less

1624 atoms.

Zirconium: One Carbon Atom 4 c of 212 Atoms 12 d of 36 „

...

1624

...

Central Globe Total

Atomic Weight Number Weight

...

216 848 432 128

... ...

... ...

89.85 90-22


6'7

Silicon (Plate XVI.,

ponds

to

usual eight funnels,

cated

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

1) is at the

head

of the

group which corres-

carbon on the opposite turn of the lemniscate.

cigar

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

It

has the

containing four ovoids in a circle, and a trun-

but no central body of any kind.

All the

funnels are

alike.

Silicon:

...

520

Atomic Weight

...

28*18

Number Weight

...

28*88

8 funnels of 65 atoms


68

Germanium

XVI.,

(Plate

each four segments (XVI., ‘

cigar

In

’.

formed

within which are three ovoids and

funnels radiate from

case the

this

shews the eight funnels, containing

2)

4),

two intersecting tetrahedra, with

of

1

a

a central globe,

cigars

each point

at

enclosing a four-atomed globe.

Germanium

8 funnels of 156 atoms

...

1248

...

52

...

1300

Atomic Weight

...

71*93

Number Weight

...

72*22

:

Central Globe

Total

Tin

(Plate XVI., 3) repeats the funnel

central globe

we met with

carrying twenty

atomed centre

cigars

hundred

germanium, and the

in titanium, of five intersecting tetrahedra,

the

;

latter,

however, omits the eight-

globe that was

the

of

hence has one

'

of

and

atoms

twenty

one hundred and twenty-eight.

found

Tin, to

and

titanium,

in

therein

make room

instead

of

for the

neces-

sary increase of atoms,

adopts the system of spikes, which

we met

with

40 Plate

zinc

in

(see

funnels, radiate

p.

from the

IX.,

2)

;

these

spikes,

like

the

number.

central globe, but are only six in

The twenty-one-atomed cone at the head of the spike we have already seen in silver, and we shall again find it in iridium and platinum the pillars are new in detail though not in principle, the ;

contained

globes yielding a series of

a

triplet,

quintet,

sextet,

septet, sextet, quintet, triplet.

Tin

:

atoms

8 funnels of 156 6 spikes of

126

Central Globe

...

1248

...

756

...

120

Total

Atomic Weight Number Weight

...

2124

...118*10 ...118*00

2-j-p

V. The, Bars Groups. Here, for the

first

time,

the accepted system of

we

find

chemistry.

ourselves

a

little

Fluorine stands

at issue at_

with

the head


69 of

a

group

members nickel If

we

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

called

the

are (see Crookesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

inter-periodic table,

p.

all

these

as

group

V.,

the

12) manganese,

remaining

iron,

cobalt,

osmium, iridium, platinum. we find that fluorine and

ruthenium, rhodium, palladium take

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; whereof

;

Plate XVII.

manganese are

violently

forced

into

company with which they

have hardly any points of relationship, and that they intrude into


70

an otherwise very harmonious group

composi-

similar

Moreover, manganese reproduces the characteristic lithium

tion. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

of closely

spike

and not

'

and

thrust,

the

bars

those into whose

of

thus allied with

is

it

company which,

with

lithium,

it

is

indeed

almost identical. But lithium is placed by Crookes at head of a group, the other members of which are potassium, rubidium and coesium (the last not examined). Following these is

it

the

composition,

identities of

and fluorine from

and

lithium tity

of

its allies

number,

I

think

it is

as

V

a,

Sir

William Crookes,

relations of the

remove manganese

by the iden-

the Spike Groups, marking,

arrangement which

similarities of

separation the differences of composition.

what

to

better

companions, and place them with

their incongruous

It is

and by the

exist,

worth while noting

in his Genesis of the Elements, remarks

inter-periodic

group with

its

He

neighbors.

on the says

:

â&#x20AC;&#x153; These bodies are interperiodic because their atomic weights exclude

them from the small periods

into

which the other elements

fall,

and

because their chemical relations with some members of the neighboring groups

show

that they are probably interperiodic in the sense of

being in transition stages.â&#x20AC;?

Group V in every case shows fourteen bars radiating from a While centre as shown in iron, Plate IV., 1 (opposite p. 14). the form remains unchanged throughout, the increase of weight the number of atoms contained in a is gained by adding to bar. all

The group

is

made

up, not of single

other cases, but of sub-groups,

and the

relations within

weights only

differ

chemical elements, as in

each containing

each sub-group are very close

by two atoms per

bar,

;

moreover the

making a weight

Thus we have per bar

of twenty-eight in the whole.

elements,

three

difference

:

Iron

72

Ruthenium

132

Osmium

245

Nickel

74

Rhodium

134

Iridium

247

Cobalt

76

Palladium

136

Platinum

A 249 B 257

Platinum It will

sections,

be noticed (Plate

and

are identical

XVII., 3,4,5,) that each bar has two

that the three lower sections in iron, cobalt ;

in the

upper sections, iron has a

cone

and

nickel

of twenty-eight

atoms, while cobalt and nickel have each three ovoids, and of these the middle ones alone differ, this globe being

and

that

only in their upper globes,

four-atomed in cobalt and six-atomed in nickel.


71

The long ovoids of the bar, axis

;

within each bar revolve round the central axis

remaining parallel with

while

it,

each spins on

own

its

the iron cone spins round as though impaled on the axis. 55-

Iron.

(Plate IV., 1,

and XVII.,

3).

56-

14 bars of 72 atoms

1008

Atomic Weight

Cobalt.

57-

1008

Number Weight

1

00

8

(Plate XVII., 4).

14 bars of 74 atoms

1036

58-

Atomic Weight

59- 70

103

Number Weight Nickel.

,

0

57-55

8

(Plate XVII., 4).

14 bars of 76 atoms

1064

Atomic Weight

30 1064

Number Weight (The weight of 58-55, but

47

Messrs.

&

11

8

Erdmannâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Lehrbuch,

given in

as

cobalt,

Parker

1

Sexton,

Nature, August

in

is

1907,

1,

give the weight, as the result of their experiments, as 57 "7.)

The

next sub-group,

nothing to detain eight

segments,

us.

It

ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium, has

be observed that each

will

instead of

the six

of

and

cobalt

ruthenium and palladium have the same number upper ovoids, although the septet of palladium

in ;

ruthenium a

and

lower ovoids are

identical,

fourteen,

sixteen,

fourteen

fourteen,

sixteen.

One

that in

triplet

of

bar contains nickel

atoms

and quartet represent

ruthenium and rhodium the

though one has the order: ;

and

the

significance of these minute changes

other

asks

constantly ?

that

;

in their

:

fourteen,

oneself

Future

:

What

sixteen,

sixteen, is

the

investigators will pro-

bably discover the answer.

Ruthenium

:

(Plate XVIII., I).

14 bars of 132 atoms

...

1848

Atomic Weight

...

100 91

Number Weight

...

102-66

Rhodium:

(Plate XVIII.,

-

2).

14 bars of 134 atoms

Atomic Weight Number Weight

J-yg-

...

1876

...

102-23

...

104*22


72

Plate XVIII. V- u2 h^uAX/nv

J^JtoeLiiLrn/

~Pet lZajR.iivyrv

r\ w

/C\

©N

© fa (©\ /©\

©\

/

(r\

O, IQ Palladium

:

(Plate XVIII., 3).

14 bars of 136 atoms

...

1904

Atomic Weight Number Weight

...

105-74

...

105-77


73

The third sub-group, osmium, iridium and platinum, is, of more complicated in its composition, but its builders

course,

succeed crease

by a multiplication

Osmium

marked

ovoids, ovoids,

c,

it.

the lower

In

round the central axis.

revolve

marked two forms

A

platinum

as

in=

4)

upper half of the bar, and the three

round

revolve

b,

necessary

spheres within the ovoids.

marked a (Plate XVIII.,

the ovoid

:

in the

of axis

gaining the

of contained

has one peculiarity

takes the place

form,

bar

the

preserving

in

In

half,

we have

platinum,

and platinum

four

the

B, the

latter

having two four-atomed spheres (Plate XVIII., 6 b ) in the place of the

two

addition the

marked

triplets

platinum

B

is

of

two atoms

a.

not a variety

other elements

in a

It

of

may

well be that

what we have called

platinum, but a

new

bar being exactly that

within

each

of

noticed that the four lower sections

the

element, the

which separates

sub-groups.

of the bars

are

will

be

identical in

all

It

members of this sub-group, each ovoid containing thirty atoms. The upper ring of ovoids in iridium and platinum A are also

the

identical, triplet

in

but for the substitution, in platinum A, of a the second and third ovoids

;

their

cones

containing twenty-one atoms, like those of silver and

Osmium

quartet for a are identical,

tin.

(Plate XVIII., 4).

:

14 bars of 245 atoms

...

3430

Atomic Weight

...

189-55

...

190-55

Number Weight

3

^g°

(Plate XVIII., 5).

Iridium:

14 bars of 247 atoms

...

3458

Atomic Weight

...

191-11

...

192-11

Number Weight Platinum

A

:

(Plate

3

8

jg

XVI II., *6

a).

14 Bars of 249 atoms

...

3486

Atomic Weight

...

193-66

...

193-34

...

3514

...

195-22

Number Weight Platinum B

:

(Plate XVIII., 6

14 bars

of

5

^yf

251 atoms

b).

Atomic Weight

Number Weight 10


74

The

Va. within

place

I

fluorine,

Spike Groups.

group

this

and manganese, because

rubidium,

potassium,

lithium,

com'

of their similarity in internal

Manganese has fourteen spikes, arranged as in the iron group, but radiating from a central globe. Potassium has nine, rubidium has sixteen, in both cases radiating from a central globe. position.

IV., 2) and fluorine (Plate IV., 3) are the two types which dominate the group, lithium supplying the spike which is re-

Lithium (Plate

produced

in all of

appears in

tic

;

save lithium.

all

It

lithium, potassium

and manganese

are

We

nitrogen balloon

which

affini-

monads and paramagne-

all

and rubidium

are negative.

be seen that the natural

will

They

strongly marked.

are

ties

them, and fluorine the

positive, while

are

seem thus

have a

to

fluorine

pair, corres-

ponding with each other, as in other cases, and the interperiodic group is left interperiodic and congruous within itself.

Lithium (Plate beautiful form, with petals

(x)

at

upright

spike revolves

which

is

swiftly

on

the spike are two globes

1)

and the

is

a striking and

its

eight radiating

plate-like

on which the spike

a globe, its axis,

revolves equally swiftly

XIX.

cone, or spike,

the base of the cone,

the centre of

plate

2 and Plate

IV., its

in

support in

The

rests.

carrying the petals with

it

the

Within

opposite

and a long ovoid

;

direction.

;

the

the spheres within the

globe revolve as a cross; within the ovoid are four spheres containing

an

axis

atoms arranged on tetrahedra, and a central sphere with of three atoms surrounded by a spinning wheel of six.

Lithium

:

Spike of 63 atoms

• • •

63

8 petals of 6 atoms

...

48

Central Globe of 16 atoms

...

16

Total

POTASSIUM

...

127

Atomic Weight

...

6-98

Number Weight

...

7-05

(Plate 2 XIX.,

)

consists of nine radiating

lithium

its central globe contains one hundred spikes, but has no petals encirand thirty-four atoms, consisting of the nitrogen balloon ;

cled

by

six

four-atomed spheres,


75

Plate XIX. I

Potass xjji'rru

Potassium

:

9 bars of

63 atoms

567

Central Globe

134 Total

...

701


Atomic Weight

^

Number Weight (The weight, 1907]

spheres

by

38-94

...

38-85

Richards [Nature, July 18,

39-114.)

is

Rubidium

it

as determined

...

(Plate XIX.,

:

— two

and a

triplets

has sixteen, and

its

Rubidium

3) adds an ovoid, containing sextet

central globe

to the lithium spike, of

composed

is

Central Globe

Total

Atomic Weight

Number Weight The corresponding manganese, so

far as

Fluorine

negative

which

of three ‘balloons.’

16 spikes of 75 atoms

:

three

1

group consists only

...

1200

...

330

...

1530

...

84-85

...

85-00

of fluorine

and

our investigations have gone.

(Plate IV., 3,

and Plate XVII.,

most peculiar

1) is a

looking object like a projectile, and gives one the impression of being

ready to shoot

off

reversed funnels,

on the

coming

provocation.

to a point,

The

are probably

The remainder

this warlike appearance.

two

smallest

of the

eight spikes,

responsible

body

is

for

occupied by

balloons

Fluorine:

8 spikes of 15 atoms

...

120

2 balloons

...

220

...

340

Atomic Weight

...

18-90

Number Weight

...

18-88

Total

MangaNESR a central

(Plate

XVIL,

2)

has fourteen spikes radiating from

balloon/

Manganese

:

14 spikes of 63 atoms

...

Central Balloon

110 Total

Atomic Weight

Number Weight

882

^

...

992

...

54*57

...

55-11


77

X.

We

now

have

to consider the breaking

up

we

proceed, do

most complicated arrangements

are

reducible

we

as

more and more,

groups, and

which are already

III.,

5

typical octohedron,

the

is

to

and XV., and a

1).

understanding

clear

of this will enable us to follow easily the constitution and

of the various

tion

a chemical

XV.

Plate

atom

is

members shown on

On

1, 64).

these groups.

of

Plate

the proto level the chemical

of

each

meta

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

the

level

binations,

the

;

arm

leaves

this

is

the proto element

14,

five

six-atomed

and the truncated '

yield

and

two forms

1

1

cigars

cigar

'

of

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

atoms

at

is

the end

On

neutral

level

has

triplets,

the

com-

also neutral

;

of triplet, five different types being thus

yielded by each pair of funnels, exclusive of the linking atom.

hyper

see

connected by

zirconium.

show two

five

and

atom breaks up

which appears

cross in titanium

of the

disintegra-

appearance as

Its

(opposite p.

III.

into four segments, each consisting of a pair of funnels

a single atom

the

find that

simple elements

familiar.

Carbon (Plate Carbon

the octohedral

of

duads and

units.

The


,

78

Titanium (Plate

On the

and XV.,

6

III.,

the proto level, the cross breaks

pairs of funnels with

{a

and

b),

setting

free

carbon,

as in

marked d and the central up again, setting free its cigar-bearing tetrahedra, which follow their usual marked

the four bodies

globe marked

e.

five intersecting

the

c,

The

twelve

breaks

latter

Occultum,

course (see

up completely,

atom

the linking

2, 3).

The eight-atomed body

28).

p.

centre

makes a

ring of

that in

occultum

(see p. 28,

seven

in

the

atoms round a central one,

like

diagram B), from which

it

only

differs in

having the central atom, and breaks up similarly, setting the central

atom

The ovoid c

free.

ovoid d

sets

are yielded

On

by titanium.

into star-like

;

on the hyper

behaves as in carbon,

quartet

j.

four contained globes,

Thus

;

the

level, of

and the others

cruciform quintet yields a

two

its it.

triplet

and

On

and the elements

(titanium 3) breaks

component

up

parts of these are

the four forms of triplets one are

shown,

a duad, c

and d

a, b ;

and

/

;

the

the tetrahedra

g and h, and two units the septet, a triplet and a the meta level, the bodies from d behave like their

triplets

equivalents in

sixty-one proto

the meta level, c

and cruciform bodies

easily followed

yield

free

sets

free the three within

li

;

sodium, each d shows two quartets and a

breaking up, on the hyper

level, into four

duads and two

sextet,

triads.


79

Zirconium (Plate XV., Zirconium reproduces already followed these are set

on the proto

on the meta and hyper central globe of

we need

is

its

is

also figured

companions unite

five bodies, four

crosses

and

of

;

not

and an

octet.

and which

its

will

carbon

The d ovoid

The and

liberates

in titanium, as

the

under titanium

are figured

;

be

their

;

usual course,

the four quartets within the larger globe also follow a

and

;

it

followed there.

which we have already seen

sextet of sodium,

The

them.

diagram

cigar’ of

the cigar follows

into a sextet

as

nine contained bodies

easily

is

and

same course

the

repeat

in the

the truncated

behavior on the meta and hyper levels central sphere

its

and are figured

observed that the central body

we have

titanium,

of

c

and follow

sets free

c

5).

2,

four forms that

the

level,

levels,

zirconium

eight of these are similar

c

its

corresponding

the

in

free

in

;

sodium model,

are given again.

Silicon (Plate XVI.,

1).

In Silicon, the ovoids are set free from the funnels on the level,

and the truncated

liberated.

ovoids,

This,

and

the

pass along their

cigar,’

four usual

playing the part of a ‘

cigars,’

course.

leaf,

proto is

which escape from

The

quintet

and a

triplet

on the hyper.

their

and quartet

remain together, and form a nine-atomed body on the meta yielding a sextet

also

level,


so

Germanium (Plate XVI., The

central globe, with

not delay us

the

;

and the

disintegration,

had

level,

and the

along

its

central four

The

two

into

Tin

The

spike, as in

zinc,

planes.

as

and we

central globe

The cone

see,

shall

we

on the meta

it is

is

of titanium,

that

on

set free

the proto level.

shown. IV.,

(Tin

1.,

is

round

on

it

septet

differing

Sn.)

and XVII.,

3).

affinities of this

peculiar

in the disintegration, even more

which

we have

the spike

of

large sphere, with the single

already dealt with the

close relationships

on the proto

way through and goes

its

six bodies circling

Iron (Plate

We have

liberated

to consider, as the funnels are the

May), and

becomes a

They break up

are

(Plate XVI., 3, 4).

remaining

in the centre, the

and follow the occultum the sodium cross that we

and a quintet on the hyper.

triangles

omitting the eight-atomed centre. in silver (see p. 729,

need

is

others remain linked

Here we have only the spike same as in germanium, and the had

4)

bursts

usual,

cigar,â&#x20AC;&#x2122; as

2, 4).

cigar '-bearing tetrahedra,

atoms

(XVI.,

accustomed path.

and break up

level,

two

are set free

The ovoids

in titanium. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

its

tetrahedra

1

group,

clearly,

the

according to the classification which

exist

here follow.

The each

fourteen bars of iron break asunder

sets free

its

contents

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

on

the

proto

level,

cone and three ovoids, which as

and

usual,

become spheres. The twenty-eight-atomed cone becomes a four-sided and the ovoids show crystalline contents. They break up, on the meta level as shown in the diagram, and are all reduced to triplets figure,

and duads on

the hyper level.

Cobalt (Plate XVII.,

The

ovoids in cobalt are identical with those of iron

ovoids, which replace the cone

of iron,

forms so noticeable throughout

this

show persistently

The two

;

the higher

the crystalline

group.

Nickel (Plate XVII.,

from

4).

5).

additional atoms in a bar, which alone separate nickel

cobalt, are seen in the upper sphere of the central ovoid.


81

Ruthenium (Plate XVIII., The lower ovoids

in

ruthenium are

Rhodium has

a septet,

(see k in the titanium

identical

may be

with those of iron, cobalt and nickel and 'phe upper ones only differ

1).

by the addition of a

which

in

composition

studied under iron,

triplet.

to be seen in the c of titannium

is

diagram above) and

only in this from

differs

its

group.

Palladium (Plate XVIII., In palladium this septet appears

as

the

8).

upper sphere

every

in

ovoid of the upper ring.

Osmium (Plate

We

have here no new constituents

the proto level

leave

unite into

;

4).

the ovoids

are

and the contained globes on the meta,

familiar forms.

and

XVIII.,

their

The

cigars, as usual, break free

ovoid with

only four

two nine-atomed bodies

free

set all

on

being of

on the proto

level,

contained spheres, which

as in silicon, (see above).

Iridium (Plate XVIII.,

5).

The twenty-one atomed cone of silver here re-appears, and its may be followed under that metal (see diagram, p. 729, May). The remaining bodies call for no remark.

proceedings

11


82

Platinum (Plate XVIII., Again the free

silver

on the proto

cone

level,

and

The remaining bodies

with us.

is

6).

Lithium (Plate

and XIX.,

IV., 2,

are set

on the meta.

their contained spheres

1).

Here we have some new combinations, which recur

persistently

The bodies a in Plate XIX., 1, are at the top and bottom of the ellipse they come to right and left of it in the proto state, and each makes a twelve-atomed body on the meta level. The five bodies within the ellipse, three monads and two sextets, show two which we have had before d, which behaves like the quintet and quartet in silicon, after their junction, and b, which we have had in iron. The two bodies c are a variant of the square-

in

its allies.

,

;

:

based pyramid, one atom at the apex, and two angles. level splits

The

globe, e ,

making a up

silicon

into

models

single triplets ;

d

is

a

new

at

each of the other

form, the four tetrahedra of the proto

twelve-atomed one on the meta.

on the hyper

yields four

;

and d follow

b

duads and a unit

;

e

The body a

their

iron

and

breaks into four

quartets.

Potassium (Plate XIX., Potassium repeats the lithium spike (

nitrogen balloon/ which

we

;

the central globe shows the

already know,

(DŠ

0@

s

2).

and which

is

surrounded


;

83

on the proto

with six tetrahedra, which are set free on the meti

level

and behave as

Hence we have nothing new.

cobalt.

in

Rubidium

Plate XIX.,

(

Again the lithium spike, modified an ovoid,

of the top sphere

in place

;

3).

by

slightly

the

introduction of

forms here are somewhat

the

unusual, and the triangles of the sextet revolve round each other on

the

meta

and

units.

level

;

the triads break

all

Fluorine (Plate

The

set

1

the

free,

funnels, as usual,

balloons

become

5

also

spheres,

The

level,

independently. level set free

from each

of the

balloons disintegrate in the usual way.

Manganese spikes

triplet

duads

1).

on the proto off

and on the meta

Manganese (Plate ’

floating

and a

their contained bodies, three quartets eight.

level into

and Plate XVII.,

3,

reversed funnels of fluorine split asunder

and are

The

IV.,

up on the hyper

and

offers us

XVII., 2).

nothing new, being composed of

lithium

nitrogen balloons.’

XI.

The Star Groups.

VI.

We Sir

now

have

William

column der are

formed

the groups, as

of

last

lemniscates,

form

in the

of a

of five intersecting

flat star

and

forming

that

headed by helium, which

it is

;

reached the

Crookes’

(see

is

sui generis.

arranged on ‘

the

neutral

The remain-

Plate IV., 4), with a centre

cigar ’-bearing

and

tetrahedra,

six

Ten of these have been observed, five pairs in which second member differs but slightly from the first they are Neon,

radiating arms.

the

:

Meta-neon

;

Meta-xenon

Metargon

Argon, ;

are not yet discovered

a periodic law

we

find the

;

;

by chemists.

taking an

number

Krypton,

;

Kalon, Meta-kalon

of

arm

atoms

Meta-krypton

the last pair and the

These

of the

star

all

five pairs,

:

40

99

224

363

489

47

106

231

370

496

It will

Xenon,

the presence of

each of the

in

to be as follows

show

;

meta forms

be observed that the meta form, in each case shows

seven more atoms than

its

fellow.


HelIUM

(Plate

and

III., 5,

XX.,

Plate

shows two

1),

1

cigar’-

bearing tetrahedra, and two hydrogen triangles, the tetrahedra revolving round an egg-shaped central body, and the triangles spinning on

own

their

axes while

performing a similar revolution.

The whole

has an attractively airy appearance, as of a fairy element.

Helium: Two

tetrahedra of 24 atoms

Two

atoms

triangles of 9

...

18 6

...

72

Atomic Weight

...

3‘94

Number Weight

...

TOO

Total

(Plate XX., 2

in 2, radiating

Neon

:

48

...

Central egg

Neon

...

from the

Six

arms

and

arms

has six

6)

of the pattern

shown

central globe.

of

40 atoms

Central tetrahedra

Total

Atomic Weight ~tb°~

Number Weight

...

240

...

120 360

...

...

19‘90

•••

20*00

Plate XX.

Meta-NEon

(Plate

XX., 3 and 6)

the insertion of an additional in the

second body within

group

for

one

its

atom

:

Six

arms

differs

from

its

neon.

of

47 atoms

Central tetrahedra

Total

Atomic Weight

Argon

(Plate

the

balloon,’

congeners.

XX.,

4, 6

and

7)

in nitrogen, yttrium,

which we

shall

...

282

...

120

402

...

...

Number Weight which we met

comrade by

each of the groups included

arm, and substituting a seven-atomed

of the triplets in

Meta-Neon

in

2

YV

•••

22*33

shows within its arms the b 63 vanadium and niobium, but not

find

with

it

in

krypton and

its


85

Plate XX. 1

fYsliMjrns

4

Argon

:

Six

arms

5 of

99 atoms

Central tetrahedra

Atomic Weight

Number Weight

7

1

4

18


86

Metargon

(Plate

additional seven atoms

Metargon

:

XX., in

arms

Six

and

6

5,

7)

shows only an

again

each arm. of

106 atoms

636

Central tetrahedra

120 Total

Atomic Weight Number Weight

Krypton the nitrogen

(Plate

XXI., 1 and

-

7 * 6

4,

42

and Plate XX,

by

balloon,' elongated

756

...

its

and

6

juxtaposition

7) contains

to b 63.

The

central tetrahedra appear as usual.

Krypton

:

Six arms of 224 atoms

...

1344

Central tetrahedra

...

120

...

1464

Total

Atomic Weight Number Weight -yf-

81 '20 81‘33

... •••

Meta-Krypton differs only from krypton by y in each arm of the star.

the substitution

of z for

Meta-Krypton

:

Six arms of 231 atoms

...

1386

Central tetrahedra

...

120

Total

Atomic Weight Number Weight

1506

...

...

83‘66

...

Plate XXI.

Zenon

(Plate XXI.,

peculiarity shared only

2

and

by kalon,

centre of one having three atoms Is this

done

comrade

in

4,

that

and Plate

XX

6

and

7)

has a

x and y are asymmetrical, the

and the centre

of

the

other two.

order to preserve the difference of seven from

its

?

Zenon

:

Six

arms

of

363 atoms

...

Central tetrahedra

120 Total

Atomic Weight

Number Weight

2178

2298

127T0 2-298 1

8

127*66


87

Plate XXI.

Meta-Zenon two

zs

for

x and

differs

from zenon only by

the substitution of

y.

Meta-Zenon

:

Six arms of 370 atoms Central tetrahedra

2

2220 120

...

2340

...

Total

Atomic Weight Number Weight

...

540 1

8

169-66


a

83

Kalon

(Plate XXI.,

3 and 4, and

curious cone, possessing a kind of

tail

Plate XX.,

7) has a

which we have not observed

x and y show the same asymmetry Kalon Six arms of 489 atoms

elsewhere

and

6

;

as in zenon.

2934

...

:

Central tetrahedra

120 Total

...

3054

...

169-66

...

2976

Atomic Weight

Number Weight Meta-Kalon again substitutes 2 zs for x and Meta-Kalon Six arms of 496 atoms

y.

:

120

Central tetrahedra

Total

3096

...

Atomic Weight

Number Weight Only a few atoms

of kalon

172

and meta-kalon have been found

in

the air of a fair-sized room.

does not seem worth while to break up these elements, for component parts are so familiar. The complicated groups b 63 and c 120 have all been fully dealt with in preceding

It

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

their

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

110,

pages.

There remains now only Radium, have, so to

far,

an end

work

examined, and that

this

will

be

series of observations.

of the elements

now

A

piece of

of this kind, although necessarily imperfect,

in the future,

when

science along

its

own

which we

described and will bring close will

and

have

detailed its

value

have confirmed

lines shall

these researches.

have been observed

It will

that our weights,

ing, are almost invariably slightly in excess of the

interesting that in the latest

(November Society of

13, 1907),

London, Vol.

report

obtained by count-

orthodox ones

of the International

:

it is

Commission

printed in

the Proceedings of the Chemical

XXIV, No.

33,

and issued on January 25,

1908, the weight of hydrogen is now taken at P008 instead of at 1. This would slightly raise all the orthodox weights thus aluminium rises from 26-91 to 27-1, antimony from 119-34 to 120-2, and so on. ;


89 XII.

Radium.

Radium has groups (see

the

article

form V)

of a tetrahedron,

that

calcium, strontium, chromium,

and

it

is

in the tetrahedral

we shall find its nearest congeners molybdenum resemble it most closely in

;

general internal arrangements, with additions from zinc and cadmium.

Radium has

a complex central sphere (Plate XXII), extraordinarily vivid

and

the whirling motion

living

;

observation

is

very difficult

;

is

so rapid

the sphere

the centre-piece in other elements, and *he funnels and spikes than

is

reference to Plate VIII will

show

is

is

that continued

more closely compacted than

much

larger in proportion to

the case with the elements above that in

12

named much

these the funnels are

Plate XXII. CuLlJJ/nb-ciyrit/rc

accurate

8^ atoms

;


90 larger than the centres, whereas in

radium the diameter of the sphere and

the length of the funnel or spike are about equal.

Its

heart consists of a

globe containing seven atoms, which assume on the proto level the pris-

matic form shown in cadmium, magnesium and selenium. This globe is

the centre of

two

arms

crosses, the

on

which show this

and a

across the

septet

mouth

surface of atoms.

— and

of the

On

gather together and

six loose

respectively three-

sphere are arranged, as

twenty-four segments, each containing

radii,

quintets

of

Round

atomed and two-atomed groups.

five

atoms, which

bodies

—four

float horizontally

segment the whole sphere has thus a kind of ;

the proto level these six atoms in each segment

form a

cigar.’

In the rush

Plate XXIII. 6/ 8

atoms

of

the streams


'

91 presently to be described one of these atoms

but

is

which

generally, is

and they resemble the funnels

The

side.

which are

The

bodies, though numerous, contain

contained

spikes alternate with the funnels,

top, floating

and point

to the angles of

cadmium each spike contains three XIX) with a ten-atomed cone or cap at the or cigars three (Plate XXIV). The petals ;

(see Plate

above the

atomed groups which form the lithium funnels, so that the

So much

for

whole

unobserved elsewhere, the central sphere.

A

plate

and the four-

may be

seen in

the

of lithium appears in radium.

But a very peculiar

composition.

its

'

of lithium exist in the central globe in the floating atoms,

arises

so far

result,

from the extraordinarily rapid whirling of

kind of vortex

is

and powerful indraught through the in

forms

familiar.

all

lithium spikes

formed, and there

By

funnels.

is

a constant

are

this, particles

from without, and these are swept round with the sphere,

becoming much

their temperature

shot out though the spikes.

away an atom from the

It is

raised,

and they are then

these jets

surface of the sphere.

cases these bodies break

fact lithium

seems

breaking up,

like a

violently

which occasionally sweep These

particles

be atoms, or they may be bodies from any of the etheric

some

They

a triangle, not side

at the angles of

the tetrahedron as in zinc and

drawn

and molyb-

of strontium

but contain three pillars instead of four (Plate XXIII).

stand within the funnel as though

another

capture of

the

opens, as usual, on one face of the

funnels

of the four

tetrahedron,

by

by

not always, replaced

occasionally torn away,

flung into the vacated space.

Each

denum

if

is

may

'

levels

;

up and form new combinations.

kind of vortex of creative

recombining, shooting

forth

—a

activity,

in

In

drawing

in,

most extraordinary

element.

Lithium

:

4

funnels of 618 atoms

4

spikes

of

199 atoms

2472 ...

Central sphere

796

819

Total...

4087

Atomic weight

Number weight

1

” l

...

227*05


92

Plate XXIV.

Rculiumi - sj)iJcÂŁ,

Kjcj alorris


APPENDIX THE AETHER OF Much

SPACE.

discussion has taken place, especially between

and chemists, over contends that frictionless

is

it

infinitely

thinner than the thinnest gas,

float, like

supposed

electricity are

other asserts that

the

;

to

be

motes in a sunbeam, and

Theosophical investigators, using methods not

head two entirely

One

all

side

absolutely

denser

it is

different

and widely separated

able to deal with states of

gaseous and have observed that finer matter that light, heat

and

light,

heat

and

vibrations.

its

physical science, have found that this hypothesis

They have been

which

filled.

In this substance the ultimate atoms of

solid.

matter are thought to

hypothesis, be

scientific

and without weight

than the densest

of the substances with

nature

the

space must, according to

physicists

it is

at the

disposal of

includes

under one

phenomena.

sets of

matter

by means

higher than

the

of vibrations of this

manifest themselves to us.

electricity

Seeing that matter in these higher states thus performs the functions

called these states etheric,

name

convenient scientific

in

moment name

to

fulfils

the other part of the

is

the inconceivable

to

mulaprakrti there

no

—not

direct

means

must be various of estimating

universes,

solar system merely

suns.

stages,

their

it fills

mulaprakrti, of

totality

to our

all visible

since

What

empty space.

our particular universe

but to the vast unit which includes

and

themselves without a

left

substance koilon,

this

the habit of calling

or ‘mother-matter,’

present

which

for that substance

Let us for the

is

have (perhaps unadvisedly)

and have thus

requirements.

what we are koilon

they

to the ether of science,

attributed

Between koilon

we have

but

number or

at

knowing

of

anything whatever about them.

In an ancient occult less spiritual fluid

” “

treatise,

which

however,

is

found

universe.

on

in

its

...

pristine purity only

As

its

substance

earth, the inhabitants of the

is

is

read

between the

latter,

seeing

“ color-

Outside the

built.

of a different

of a

and forms the

everywhere

exists

foundation on which our solar system it

we

first

latter^

[suns]

of the

kind from that

known

stars

through

it ,

believe, in


11

and ignorance,

their illusion

that

empty space.

it is

There

not one

is

finger's breadth of void space in the whole boundless universe.”* “ The mother-substance ” is said, in this treatise, to produce this

aether of space as

are said to have this for their

To any power

which we can bring

of sight

alone.

since homogeneity

out of

It is

though

can belong

upon

to bear

this

it,

probably nothing of

is

it

the mother-substance

to

denser than any other substance

proportion

all

suns

objective

all

substance.’

koilon appears to be homogeneous, the kind,

and

seventh grade of density,

its

known to us, infinitely denser if we may be pardoned the expression much denser that it seems to belong to another type, or order, of density. But now comes the startling part of the investigation we ;

so

:

might expect matter

to

Matter

of the kind.

is

emptiness has become

To

solidity, solidity

one

help us to understand this

which

lie

untwisted from surface,

it

will

its

be seen that

can be unwound, and

still

have changed places, and

process

of

bigger circle

seven sets of

is itself

will

it

unwinding obtained,

spirillae are all

spiral

then

may and

and

the atom,

shape

a complete a

composed

It is

of ten

but never touch one another.

side,

spiral

it is

examine the ultimate

clearly let us

away from

peculiar

This coil

endless coil.

This

by

side

of these wires be taken

;

nothing

it is

has become emptiness.

of the physical plane, (see pp. 5-7),

rings or wires, If

this koilon

but the absence of koilon, and at

not koilon,

matter and space appear to

first sight,

atom

be a densification of

be, as

and

laid out

circle

—a

it

were,

on a

containing 1680 turns

make

much

a

flat

tightly twisted ;

it

larger circle.

be again performed, and a

this

be repeated

can

unwound, and we have a huge

the tiniest imaginable dots, like pearls threaded

on an

till

the

circle of

invisible string

*

These dots are so inconceivably small that many millions of them are needed to make one ultimate physical atom, and while the exact

number

is

not readily ascertainable, several different lines of calcula-

tion agree in indicating

it

as

closely

approximate

conceivable total of fourteen thousand millions.

so huge, direct counting different parts of the

an estimate *

in

is

atom

obviously impossible,

Where

almost in-

figures

of error

in The Secret Doctrine.

is

are

but fortunately the

are sufficiently alike to enable us to

which the margin

Quoted

to the

not likely to be

H.P. Blavatsky,

i.

309,

make very


Ill

The atom

great.

consists

two groups

naturally into

which divide themselves

ten wires,

of

— the three which are thicker and more pro-

minent, and the seven thinner ones which

and

These

planets.

correspond to the colors

appear to be

latter

identical

though the forces flowing through them must sponds most readily counting of the

order in each

different orders of

own

each

since

differ,

By

special set of vibrations.

wire

spirillae

1680

is

one another

to

is

equal in

works

quite

accurately

very curious variation

with

the thinner coils,

with regard

prominent, and this increase of size tation

(so

one another

of the

the

dots in

the set

be barely perceptible)

as to

slight

different

orders of

but there

is

a

spirillae

of, three.

in the

and

proportion to

number

in the

This augmentation, amounting

lowest.

of dots

sevenfold

As may obviously thicker and more is produced by an augmen-

to

be seen from the drawings, these are

of the

cases that

all

The ordinary

ultimate spirillae of the lowest order.

re-

actual

spirillae

and the proportion

;

been examined, and correspond with the number

have in the

rule

its

has been discovered that the numbers of coils or

it

first

to

constitution

in

of

at present to

not more than *00571428 of the whole in each case, suggests the

unexpected

possibility that this portion of the

actually

undergoing a change

as there

is

nally

reason

may

atom may be somehow

be

in fact

in process of

growth,

suppose that these three thicker spirals origi-

to

resembled the others. observation shows

Since

sented by forty-nine

astral

each physical atom

us that

is

repre-

atoms, each astral atom by forty-nine

mental atoms, and each mental atom by forty-nine of those on the

buddhic plane, we have here evidently several terms of a regular progressive

probability if

,

p.

sixth plane,

of

to

is

our

planes (as

is

to

series

Further

it.

assumption by the remarkable

what corresponds

the

that

observe

fact

that

an atom on the

suggested in The Ancient

so

2401

that that

49 dots of

the

shall

fifth,

form the atom

and so on

—we

of the next or

find that

the

atom (49 G ) corresponds almost based upon the actual counting of the

indicated for the physical

exactly with coils.

no longer able

42) and then suppose the law of multiplication to begin

operation,

number

are

dot to be

or highest

Wisdom its

we

lent to this

is

we assume one

seventh

and the natural presumption

series,

continues where

the calculation

Indeed,

it

seems probable that but

for the slight

growth

of


IV

the three thicker wires of the

been

It

up

atom the correspondence would have

perfect.

must be noted

into astral atoms.

atom cannot be directly broken which whirls those millions

that a physical

the unit of force

If

of dots into

the complicated shape

back by an

effort of will over the threshold of the astral plane, the

atom disappears

unit of force, working

through one of pressing

2401 of

now upon

a higher level,

back the unit of force

we

is

repeated, so that

it

not

itself

the process

If

energises

upon

group there enlarged to the number of

find the

Upon

of those higher atoms.

buddhic plane the number

the

atoms formed by the same amount

still

express

atom, but through a group of 49.

astral

the mental plane,

But the same

dots are released.

the

instantly, for

atom be pressed

a physical

of

force

of

very

is

much

greater

— probably the cube of 49 instead of the square, though they have

not been actually counted.

Therefore one physical atom

posed of forty-nine astral or

2401 mental atoms, but corresponds

not com-

is

them, in the sense that the force which manifests through

to

would

it

show itself on those higher planes by energising respectively those numbers of atoms. The dots, or beads, seem to be the constituents of all matter of which we, atoms are tal units,

at present,

built of

anything

we may

;

spherical

all alike,

Though they

themselves matter

regard them as fundamen-

are

and absolutely simple

the basis of

all

they are not blocks but

resemble bubbles floating in the

air,

both an

outer and an

rather with the bubbles that

the surface, bubbles which that of the water

which

is

we

may

is

koilon in

it,

absent, so

these

That

is

power

it is

of

is

be said to have only one surface

units are

the startling,

the

see rising in water, before they reach

air.

Just

from which

not koilon, but the absence of

not

—specks of nothingness floating

so to speak, for the interior of these space-bubbles

lute void to the highest

film of

Their analogy

pushed back by the contained

—the only spots where

not

air outside, so that

surface.

as such bubbles are not water, but are precisely the spots

water

con-

They do not

which consist of a thin

inner

in

matter, they are

bubbles.

water separating the air within them from the film has

mental and buddhic

astral,

;

fairly

the basis of matter.

These units are struction.

know

them, so

vision that

well-nigh

we can

incredible,

turn

is

an abso-

upon them.

fact.

Matter

is


V

back an

by pressing

obtained

spaces

nothingness, the

dense substance; Fohat“digs holes in space” of a holes are the airy nothingnesses, the bubbles,

of

infinitely

verity, 1

which

and

solid

the

uni-

'

verses are built.

What density

ancients

symbol, which seems

that force

called

the

who

imply that they

to

waters

of

space,

may

Scientists

nothing

are

know

He

Being

;

a graphic

had seen the

it

breathed into the

;

call

Theosophists,

treatise

likely, since in the

suns are said to have this as

visible

all

Logos, we

solar system or of a yet

of this

would seem the more

the latter

above-quoted occult

the Breath of the

is

it

Logos

not whether of the

mightier

their

is

and made the bubbles which build universes. this Force by what names they will names

to us,

;

Breath,

used

kosmic process, had seen the Logos when ‘

what

rather,

in a substance of infinite

which can blow bubbles

force

The

?

they, then, these bubbles, or

are

content, the

their substance.

The spaces

;

Breath of the Logos, then,

pressure

the koilon

of

everything

we

;

they are

these

;

His

full of

units

of force,

of

truly

;

portion of

is

it

And when He draws

the

in

in-

is

with

bricks

scattered through

universe

with

a

His breath, the waters

the universe will have disappeared.

only a breath. outbreathing which makes these bubbles

from, and long antecedent familiar

the

to

up these

catches

ments which we

them cal

and

life

established this

I

:

close in again,

will

The so

written

of myself.”

space

It is

these

Himself, and

Life, of

life,

which He builds His universe, are His very space

fills

on however high or low a plane,

matter,

call

with divinity

stinct

which

the force

is

His the force which holds them open against the tremendous

into the

elements.

nesses,

matter

Life-Waves,

bubbles, and whirls them call the

atoms

The worlds to

The

first

Life-Wave

into the various arrange-

of the several planes,

substance

13

us

and aggregates

are built out of these voids, these empti‘

nothing

but are divine force.

How true

the privation of matter.

The

Secret

aggregation of atomic primitive

the three outpourings, or

molecules, and, on the physical plane into the chemi-

made from in

quite distinct

theosophical student.

which seem

statements

to,

is

is

Doctrine

forces” eternal

(iii.

:

“ Matter is

398)

;

Buddha

and unchangeable.

It is

were H. P. B.’s

nothing but an taught that the Its

vehicle

is

the


VI

pure luminous aether, the boundless ing from the absence of ” tion of all

forms

How

402).

(iii,

how

vividly,

us the great doctrine earthly things,

the

not avoid, result-

but on the contrary, the founda-

forms,

all

infinite space,

home to

unmistakably this knowledge brings

Maya, the

of

and unreality

transitoriness

deceptive nature of appearances

utterly

!

of

When

candidate for initiation sees (not merely believes, remember, but

the

what has always before seemed to him empty space a solid mass of inconceivable density, and that the matter

actually sees ) that is

in reality

which has appeared is ‘

not only

to

by comparison tenuous

Father-Mother'), but

ness

be the one tangible and certain basis of things

is itself

is

actually

as

gossamer (the

composed

the very negation of matter

web

of emptiness

—then

for

spun by

and nothing-

the

time he

first

thoroughly appreciates the valuelessness of the physical senses as guides to the truth.

Yet even more

clearly

ous certainty of the immanence of the Divine ensouled by the Logos, but even part of Spirit

Him,

is

built of

becomes sacred

The

not only

is

everything

visible manifestation

is literally

;

His very substance, so that Matter as well as

to the student

koilon in which

represents a part,

its

stands out the glori-

still

all

who

really understands.

these bubbles

and perhaps the principal

are

part, of

Whether it

scribes as the luminiferous aether.

formed undoubtedly

is

what science de-

actually the bearer of

the vibrations of light and heat through interplanetary space

undetermined.

It is

certain that these vibrations impinge

are perceptible to our bodily senses only through of the physical plane.

But

conveyed through space of the extent to tary

and

The all

it

scientific

is

lengths

and

intensities

some

—that

may

be true of koilon, and

municating those waves

to

if

very

little

it is

of meteoric matter

scattered there.

has some

quality

definite velocity transverse

velocity being

called the speed of light, 190,000 miles per this

of

that the aether

to transmit at a certain

that they are

we know

etheric matter exists in interplane-

though the examination

that at least

theory

for

as yet

the etheric matter

by no means proves

same manner,

which the physical

interstellar space,

and kosmic dust shows

enables

this

in the

is

upon and

so

it

what

second.

is

which

waves of

commonly

Quite probably

must also be capable

of

com-

bubbles or aggregations of bubbles, and

before the light can reach our eyes there must be a

downward

trans-


when

ference from plane to plane similar to that taking place

awakens emotion or causes

a thought

action.

In a recent pamphlet on The Density of /Ether, Sir Oliver

remarks

:

“ Just as the ratio of mass to volume

system or a nebula or a cobweb,

the space which

it

small in the case of a solar

is

think that the

to

probably an excessively small

substance, or aether, contained in

of the

thus partially occupies

— the

substance of which

it

hypothetically be held to be composed. “

Thus

for instance, consider a

atoms are composed

its

is

have been driven

I

observed mechanical density of matter fraction of the total density

may

Lodge

mass of platinum, and assume that

some

of electrons, or of

structures

not wholly

which these bodies actually fill, as compared occupy,’ is comparable with the whole space which in a sense they to one ten-millionth of the whole, even inside each atom and the dissimilar

:

the space

;

fraction of

is still

minimum

smaller

if it

So that a kind

visible mass.

refers to the

estimate of aetherial density, on this basis, would be some-

thing like ten thousand million times that of platinum.”

And be

fifty

further

on he adds

thousand million times that

matter known,” he says,

is

may

that this density

trivial

well turn out to

of platinum.

The

densest

and gossamer-like compared

with the unmodified aether in the same space.” Incredible as this seems to our ordinary ideas,

it

undoubtedly

is

an understatement rather than an exaggeration of the true proportion

We

as observed in the case of koilon.

be so

if

we remember when examined by a power that koilon

shall

how

understand

this

can

seems absolutely homogeneous and

solid even

of magnification

which makes

physical atoms appear in size and arrangement like cottages scattered

over a lonely moor, and that the bubbles

themselves what

of

when we

further

which these atoms

may be

add

to this the recollection

in turn

are

composed

are

not inaptly called fragments of nothingness.

In the same pamphlet Sir

Lodge makes a very shaking estimate of the intrinsic energy of the aether. He says “ The total output of a million-kilowatt power station for thirty million years exists permanently, and at present inaccessibly, in every cubic milliOliver

:

metre of space.”

Here again he

is

than overestimating the stupendous

that

probably underestimating rather truth.

It may naturally be asked how, if we can move about freely in a solid

all this

be

so,

it is

possible

ten thousand million

times


Vlll

Lodge

denser, as Sir Oliver

where

is that,

densities

can pass through water

air

;

body

many

;

neither

being

we

whether

have seen an

of us

conscious say

and

rock,

we walk about

walks

form walk through a physical

passage

A gnome

passes freely through

the

for

comfortably

as

that consciousness

can

earth, as

deeper answer

is

we

are of the nature of the

sense only those things which are also of His nature.

These bubbles are His essence, His are part of

not matter

through a wall, or

recognise only consciousness, that since

Logos we can

does

it

;

passed

has

within

A

in the air.

form passes uncon-

astral

of the

about

astral

through an ordinary human,

a wall has passed through a ghost. a

an

;

or

a ghost

that

pass through

water or air can

;

sciously through a physical wall,

move through

they can

sufficiently,

differ

each other with perfect freedom cloth

The obvious answer

says, than platinum.

Him, can

and, therefore, we,

life,

which

see the matter

is

built

of

who

also

His substance,

of Him. The koilon is to us we have not unfolded powers which and it may be the manifestation of a loftier

forms are but manifestations

all

because

non-manifestation,

enable us to cognise

it,

order of Logoi, utterly beyond our ken.

As none

of

highest plane

of

interest to explain

our investigators can raise his conciousness to the

our universe, the adi-tattva plane,

how

it

possible

is

for

probably be the atom of that plane. it is

of

essential to

remember

That

power

the result of a

former

is

latent in

upon one or other

to see

is

any other point

in

can see their

tiniest

though he may

as yet

space,

and

round us

are if

a

man

be of

by means

quite apart from the

of the planes.

The

Self,

merely a special development of one of the All the planes

may

may be understood

this

slow and gradual unfoldment of the

man.

it

what may very

of magnification

which these experiments are conducted

faculty of functioning

to

that the

them

latter is

while the

many powers much as

here, just as

sharpens his sight until he

atoms he can make a study of them, even be

far

from the

level necessary to enable

him

understand and function upon the higher planes as a whole, or to

come

into touch with

the

glorious

Intelligences

who

gather those

atoms into vehicles for Themselves.

A

partial

mer with

He can

analogy

may

regard to the

observe

its

be found in the position of the astrono-

stellar universe,

constituent

parts

or

let

us say the Milky

Way.

and learn a good deal about


'

IX

them along various lines, but it is absolutely impossible for him to see it as a whole from outside, or to form any certain conception of its and

true shape, is,

many

as

it is

that

to

know what

Being

tailed

or

is

is

doing,

Suppose that the universe

is.

some inconceivably

of the ancients thought,

here in the midst of

utterly impossible for us,

would mean

for that

comparable with His

height

really

it

raising ourselves to a

we may make

but

;

vast Being,

know what

to

it,

and de-

extensive

examination of such particles of His body as happen to be

within our reach, for that means only the patient use of powers

machinery already Let

not be supposed

it

the wonders of

that has

all

and constitution molecules

Nor ings from

the

us,

we

any way

in

alter or

atom, and of the wonderful and

of the physical

grouped

it is

various chemi-

into the

remains entirely unaffected.

all this

;

of

theosophical books of the shape

in

any change introduced

is

more

little

pushing our investigations to the

possible to

been written

orderly arrangements by which cal

thus unfolding a

that, in

Divine Truth by

very furthest point at present

modify

and

our command.

at

as

regards

Logos, and the marvellous

by them moulded

matter of the various planes

is

service of the evolving

But

life.

the realities underlying

we wish

if

outpour-

the three

facility

with which the

into

forms for the view of

to have a right

manifestation in this

we must

universe,

to a

considerable extent reverse the ordinary conception as to what this matter essentially

apparent void

itself

bubbles in

That

The force

Instead of thinking of

is.

specks floating in

as solid

it.

relative is still

which fact

position

of

for us the

its

is solid,

and

once grasped,

same

ever

as

;

it is

only

other,

seen to be something which

outside our

scheme

is

the

specks are

but

called matter

that,

on

closer exami-

and

the

sacrifice,

sacrifice

splendor

and

it

real

has hitherto been

matter,

altogether

of thought.

concept of the

depth and

and

variants of force, the

In view of this marvellous distribution of Himself in familiar

it

the rest remains as before.

all

what we have hitherto

one ensouling combinations of the is

the

constituents that

realise

that

nation, both of these conceptions prove to be

koilon,

ultimate

we must

a void,

;

may

this

sacrifice of is

His

the

space/ the

Logos,’ takes on a new

dying in matter,’ His

be the very glory of the

Logos

1

perpetua

that

He

can

Himself to the uttermost by thus permeating and making


which

Himself one with that portion of koilon field of

koilon

is,

what

the Divine Breath which *

Bright Space

are questions to

Perchance an

may

chooses as the

His universe.

What become

He

'

its

is

origin,

whether

poured into

at the

it

— does

itself

changed by

Dark Space

beginning of a manifestation

which we cannot

at present

intelligent study of the great

yield replies.

it is

even

indicate

Scriptures

?

'

thus

—these

answers.

of the

world


*

OCCULT CHEMISTRY. Of fic

late years there

men

as

much

has been

among

discussion

scienti-

chemical elements, and as to the

genesis of the

the

to

The

apparatus which forms

existence

and constitution

the only

instrument of research of the scientists cannot even reach

of the ether.

and they apparently never dream

the confines of the ether,

examining

possibility of

vation

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; for

lack,

course,

of

There

chemical atom.

their

both atom and ether a wealth

of speculation of

the

of

in regard to

is

but a poverty of obser-

any means which would render

observation possible.

Now man

possesses senses,

that are able to observe

These

five senses.

latter

numbers

reception

vibrations,

of

them

entirely unaffected.

astral

body

still

comparatively narrow, and

is

physical

in their

The keener and more most

are latent for the

part

in

on the higher

men

character,

leave

delicate senses of the of

our race, and are

Yet they afford

therefore not available for general use. for observation

into activity,

limits of the sensitiveness of the

organs receive vibrations from the physical

world, but their capacity of vast

capable of evolution

beyond the

levels of the physical

instruments

plane,

and bring

under direct ken objects which from their minuteness or subtlety seems worth while to lay before the

escape ordinary vision,

It

public a few observations

made through

it

is

possible that they

some

rapidly

and

may

problems

scientific

will ere

;

and

these senses, partly

hypotheses

suggest

partly

because science

and

it

the

first

statement of facts that will then be accepted

will

variety of combinations.

physical

of

These combinations

solids, liquids

matter,

and

gases,

Ether, to the scientist,

matter, but

is

a something apart

is

by

is

of

an

between infinite

under the three

the recognised substates of

admitted as

not a substate or even a state of itself.

that gold could be raised to the etheric This

into

with the theoretical ether scarcely

material.

*

fall

Society

should have

composed

as being

and seventy chemical elements, aggregated

main heads

advancing

then perhaps be well for the Theosophical

come from members of its body. The physical world is regarded sixty

is

long be investigating some of these matters for

itself, if

because

useful as elucidating

It

would not be allowed it might be to

condition as

repijnted from Lucifer of

November,

1895,


XU

and gaseous

the liquid

;

whereas the occultist knows that the gaseous

succeeded by the etheric, as the solid

is

and he knows

from each other

distinct all

word

also that the

succeeded by the liquid,

is

ether

covers four substates as

’’

and

as are the solids, liquids

and

gases,

that

chemical elements have their four etheric substates the highest

being

common

which

to

all,

and consisting

of the ultimate physical

garded as the ultimate

and unable

indivisible

particle of

to

any element, and

supposed

is

re-

to

be re-

more advanced chemists to regard the atoms more or less complex aggregation of protyle.

searches have led the

compound,

To all

as a

astral vision ether is

substances and

body composed

a visible thing, and

vast

number

body

'

in a particular field at a

the particles are attracted towards each other

;

strongly than they ‘

permeating

seen

solid

by external

are attracted

as

is

a

suspended in ether,

of particles

each vibrating backwards and forwards rate of velocity

A

encircling every particle.

of a

is ‘

to

is

Mr. Crookes’

a free state.

in

exist

atoms

The chemical atom

elements are finally reducible.

all

high

more

and they

influences,

cohere,' or maintain towards each other a definite relation in space.

Closer examination shows that the ether consists of particles of of

numerous kinds,

method

detailed

not homogeneous but

differing in the aggregations

minute bodies composing them

the

is

of analysis reveals that

;

it

and a

and more

careful

has four distinct degrees,

giving us, with the solid, liquid and gaseous, seven instead of four substates of matter in the physical world.

These four

etheric substates will be best understood

be explained by which they were studied. of taking

time,

after

what until

is

an atom

called

what proved

was reached, the breaking up

of gas,

to be

if

the

method

This method consisted

and breaking

the ultimate

of this last resulting in

it

up time

physical

atom

production

the

and no longer physical matter. impossible to convey by words the is, of course,

of astral, It

clear con-

ceptions that are gained by direct vision of the objects of study, and

accompanying diagram— cleverly drawn from the description offered as a substitute, however poor, is given by the investigators

the

for the lacking vision of the readers.

from each ether

4,

The

horizontal lines separate

other the seven substates of matter

ether 3,

ether

2,

three chemical atoms, one

ether of

1.

On

the gas

solid,

liquid, gas,

level are

represented

;

hydrogen (H), one

of

oxygen (0),one


X1U

The successive changes undergone by each chemishown in the compartments vertically above it, the left-

of nitrogen (N).

atom are

cal

hand column showing the breaking up

middle column that of the oxygen atom,

The

that of the nitrogen atom.

and

is

hydrogen atom, the

of the

ultimate physical

drawn only once, although it is the same 18, 290 and 261 are the numbers of the

atom

The

physical

ultimate

a chemical atom.

to exist in

which force

dots indicate the lines along

observed to be

is

and the arrowheads show the direction of the

playing,

marked a, The

is

throughout.

numbers

atoms found

column

right-hand

the

No

force.

made to show this below E 2 except in the case of The letters given are intended to help the reader to upwards any special body thus d in the oxygen chemical

attempt has been the hydrogen. trace

;

It

may

E

E

E

2.

must be remembered that the bodies shown diagrammatically

in

atom on the gas

no way to the

level

be found again on

indicate relative size

as a

;

one immediately above

body

it is

it,

is

raised

4,

by the dot a on the gaseous

The atom

of

first

from one substate

E

On

1

represen-

is

level.

chemical atom selected for

hydrogen (H).

this

examination was an

looking carefully

at

it,

it

was seen

consist of six small bodies, contained in an egg-like form.

with great

rapidity

the internal bodies

spins

on

own

its

The

ming two

triangles

axis, vibrating at the

performed similar gyrations.

and quivers, and has

possible.

six little

to

are not

each other as object and image.

;

lines in

on a plane surface the interpenetration

be clearly indicated).

and

time,

The whole atom is

sets of three, for-

interchangeable, but are related to

(The

the gaseous sub-plane are not lines of force, but gles

rotated

It

same

to

be steadied before exact observation

bodies are arranged in two

that

and

enormously magnified for the

purpose of investigation, and the ultimate atom on ted

3,

Futher, the six

the diagram

show

of the

triangles

bodies are not

of

it

on

the two trian-

all

cannot

alike

;

they

each contain three smaller bodiesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; each of these being an ultimate physical atomâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;but in two of them the three atoms are arranged in a

line,

while in the remaining four they are arranged in a triangle.

The wall

of the limiting spheroid in

ed being composed of the matter of the

away when the gaseous atom bodies are set

free.

14

They

at

is

which the bodies

are enclos-

third, or gaseous, kind,

raised to the

next

level,

once re-arrange themselves

drops

and the

in

two

six

trian-


XIV gles,

each enclosed by a limiting sphere

diagram unite with

shows body

two marked

b in the

form a body which

b' to

a positive character, the remaining three

forming a second These form the hydrogen particles of the

negative in type.

E 4â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ether

lowest plane of ether, marked raising these their

the

;

one of those marked

walls

limiting

becomes two

;

the

body

positive

by the

linear

4,

two

On

diagram.

disintegration,

E

of

bodies, one consisting of the

distinguishable

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; on the

undergo another

they

further,

4

on losing

losing wall,

its

marked

particles,

b,

arrangement of the contained ultimate

atoms, enclosed in a wall, and the other being the third body enclos-

ed

E

in

losing cles

4 and wall,

its

marked

These

b',

now

becomes two

similarly,

of the

two

on

parti-

set

free.

to

E

and negative bodies, each containing two par-

E

hydrogen on

representatives of

the

one consisting

bodies,

E4

do not remain on E 3 but pass immediately

leaving the positive

2,

of

and the second the remaining body, being

free bodies

ticles, as

The negative body

set free.

On

3.

taking these

bodies a step higher their wall disappears, and the internal bodies are set free, those

containing the atoms arranged lineally being positive,

and those with the

E

2,

but similar bodies of this

found entering into other combinations,

state of matter are

seen by referring to

/ on E

These

arrangement being negative.

triangular

two forms represent hydrogen on

2 of nitrogen

(N).

On

as

may

raising

be

these

bodies yet one step further, the falling away of the walls sets the contained atoms free,

and we reach the ultimate physical atom, the

matter of E I. The disintegration of this sets free particles of astral matter, so that we have reached in this the limit of physical matter. The Theosophical reader will notice with interest that we can thus observe seven distinct substates of physical matter, and no more.

The is

ultimate atom,

which

is

the same in

an exceedingly complex body, and only

are given in the diagram. ral

being

in

spirillae.

Light

and

A

its

turn

fairly

pipe run through the centre

may be

ity of this

composed

of spirillae,

accurate drawing

Colour, p. 102.

combinations are entirely

ture

It is

composed

is

all

its

the observed cases,

main

characteristics

entirely of spirals, the spi-

and these again

of minuter

given in Babbitt's Principles of

The illustrations there given wrong and misleading, but if

of

atomic

the stove-

atom be removed, the picgive some idea of the complex-

of the single

taken as correct, and will

fundamental unit of the physical universe, /


XV

Turning

to the force side of

the

atom and

combinations,

its

observe that force pours into the heart-shaped depression

and

of the atom,

by

its

passage

;

more

spirals

and vibrating atom depend on the and with the change

energetic action,

top

out from the

flash

several activities

sometimes one, sometimes another,

;

at the

in character

every spiral and every

changing shades of color that

rapidly revolving of the

changed

is

rushes through

further, force

and the

spirilla,

from the point, and

issues

wd

of

thrown

is

into

from one

activity

another the color changes.

spiral to

The building of a gaseous atom of hydrogen may be traced downward from E 1, and, as said above, the lines given in the diagram are intended to indicate the play of the forces which bring about their

contained atoms setting their points towards each

other and the'centre of

outwards

Speaking generally, positive bodies are

combinations.

the several

marked by

their combination,

;

and

and by a tendency

ions being turned inwards,

each other

repelling

marked by the heart-shaped depress-

negative bodies are

to

move towards each

Every combination begins by a welling up which is to form the centre of the combination

other instead of away. of force at a centre,

;

hydrogen combination,

in the first positive

plane of the paper

at right angles to the

the expression

may

be allowed

forms the centre, and at the

force,

depressions of two

other atoms,

itself

(The left-hand

figure.

atoms each

by

As

itself).

;

an atom revolving

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; turning at its

head over on

shown

indicates the

set

in

to itself a

step

tive

atomic

triad

cally arranged

triads then

is

if

axis,

themselves

+

b,

right-

revolution of the it

clears

of the plane,

whirling wall of this matter, thus taking the

towards building up the chemical hydrogen atom.

first

heels,

own

atomic triad whirls round,

a space, pressing back the undifferentiated matter

and making

its

lower point, rushes in

which then

the lines are

figure

this

2,

also revolving

rushing out

with their points to the centre

hand

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;and

E

similarly formed, the three

round the centre

combine, two

of out-welling

of the linear

A

nega-

atoms being symmetriforce.

These atomic

arrangement being attracted to

each other, and two of the triangular, force again welling up and forming a centre and acting on the triads as on a single atom, and a

formed as the combination revolves round The next stage is produced by each of these combina-

limiting wall being again its

centre.

tions

on

E

3 attracting to

itself

a third atomic triad of

the triangular


xvi

E

type from

by the

2,

setting

up

new

of a

centre of up-welling force,

following the lines traced in the combinations of

and

uniting,

their

formed, and we find

it

contain in

to

E

Two

4.

of these

atom

interpenetrating, the chemical

triangles

eighteen

all

ultimate

is

physical

atoms.

The cated and

much

puzzling body

the difficulties

;

brilliancy of

some

of

an ovoid body, within which a

is

shown by

element

this

The gaseous body

constituents.

its

were very

observation

of

increased by the extraordinary activity

and the dazzling

atom

more compli-

next substance investigated was oxygen, a far

spirally coiled snake-like

revolves at a high velocity, five brilliant points of light shining on the

The snake appears

coils.

the

and

atom is

it

E

to

to

4 the snake

be a solid rounded body, but on raising lengthwise into two

splits

seen that the appearance of solidity

these spin

round a

common

The

of the

one

;

waves

brilliant

itself

fire

to

E

and

in the hollows in the negative

and

five

on the other

with the same extraordinary stimulated to wild gyrations.

bodies each enclose

On

raising these bodies

seven

;

activity, It

On

the fragments of the snakes break

up

atoms contained

disintegrate, setting free the

ultimate

those obtained from hydrogen.

follows

in

d',

oxygen

of

2 in each bead, of which there are 110

ultimate

2x

;

each bright spot, of which there are 10

110 + 70 = 290.

;

;

2,

the

finally

identical

290,

is

E

difference

These again

them.

physical atoms,

:

7 in

enclosed in

the next stage,

showing a

The number

contained in the gaseous atom of

is

each

into their constituent parts

and negative bodies, marked d and

of arrangement of the

brilliant

the beads

eleven beads

still

fire-flies

can be seen that the larger

ultimate atoms, while its

beads

six

reminding one of

a wall, accidentally omitted in the diagram).

positive

it

and writhe about

these twist

(Each bright spot with

enclose two.

which

consists of small bead-like bodies, eleven of

3 the snakes break up, each bright spot carrying with side

fact that

and so pre-

can be made by whirling a

interpose between the larger brilliant spots.

on one

bodies,

bodies seen in the atom are on the crests

in the positive snake,

the snake

due to the

opposite directions,

axis in

sent a continuous surface, as a ring of lighted stick.

is

waved

with

atoms

made up

as


1

XVI

When the

the observers had worked out this, they

number

of ultimate

atoms

hydrogen

in

compared

it

with

:

18) 290

16-11

The

respective

numbers

+ atoms contained

ultimate

of

in

a

bodies are thus seen to closely correspond

chemical atom of these two

with their accepted weight-numbers.

may be

It

as

said in passing that a chemical

an oblate spheroid, with the contained

and widened

in the centre

and two

positive

three,

formed

negative,

raising the chemical

atom

each being enclosed

The chemical atom

in its

most complicated therefore a

little

of

large

all

in

its

deceptive.

in the middle,

and one

it

with

snakes,

one

revolving

body.

On

snake divides into

egg. third

selected

seemed comparatively It

of the

;

this

whole

plete to

be

apparently

below

it,

to

in the midst,

contained in

on

rows became

this

activity

head are too incom-

The balloon-shaped body is positive, and is drawn downwards towards the negative egg-shaped body reliable.

containing seven smaller particles. In addition to these large

two

positive

and two negative, the

containing five and the negative four minuter spots.

atom

to

the six contained bodies,

themselves,

E

4, the falling

away

removal of their propinquity, as

the

smaller bodies within the

egg

one plane, and those within n and

and triangular based pyramids. find the walls

fall

away

On

of the wall sets free

and both the balloon and the egg round

apparently with

though they had exercised over each other some

we

Some

it.

arrangement of these

internal

be connected with a greater

body, but the observations

raising the gaseous

The

its

bodies in two horizontal rows

which the

in

bodies, four small ones are seen, positive

be the

quiet was Most prominent was the balloon-shaped

egg-shaped one

change seemed

con-

quiet in

and

contained bodies was changed and the two horizontal vertical

by the

proved, however, to

internal arrangements,

six smaller

chemical atoms were seen

ozone appears

of three

plane, the

was the

the ever-excited oxygen.

with

body

own

of nitrogen

students for examination, as trast

in a single

next

to the

of

much compressed

spiral

spiral consists

the

;

atom

o

On

as usual,

attractive influence.

—marked q on E 4 — are not on form respectively square-based raising

all

these bodies

and the contents

of

each

to

E

3 ’

cell


,

xviii

are set free are e

shown

— each

E 4 contains six small bodies marked k, and these E 3, as containing each seven little bodies — marked

of

p

:

in k of

of

which has within

p E 4— marked

— appears

l

it

as

two ultimate atoms the long

three

E

3,

and

four

three,

contained

particles, in,

six

with contained bodies,

while

e'

from

E

o of

bodies within

it, e'

e,

i

E —-are

E

and /of

4 becomes j

are raised to

1

,

;

from n

e

E 3, of E 4

each showing

on

becomes

of

E

3,

in

shown, and the

pairs /',

is

indicated

;

the triads in

shown, and the duads

the ultimate physical atoms

of ultimate physical

atoms

in

they amount to 261, thus divided

e

these

are set free,

g and

'

in

—from bodies

identical,

Reckoning up the number

chemical atom of nitrogen

in a

;

the

2,

/—from

and

e

When! all

same way.

of course, with that previously described.

of

i

each

each having Three smaller

On E

— are given in the

E

of

has

this

with two ultimate atoms in each.

similarly

3

and

3,

showing two ultimate atoms

h are seen with the lines of force 3

form

the long

it,/',

particles in

arrangement of these ultimate atoms

of

;

E

on

;

has three

atoms within them

ultimate

/

g and h, containing respecultimate atoms q of E 4, with its seven

three pairs of smaller bodies within tively

form

we

find

:

62 + bodies with 2 ultimate atoms, 62 x 2 = 124

2421-

99

2

99

))

))

3

99

))

3

))

ft

99

t)

2

+

it

M

2

+

t)

99

4

it

4

2+

tt

*5

24x2= 21x3=

2x3= 2x4= 2x6=

9)

48

63 6 8

12

261 This again approaches closely the weight-number assigned to nitrogen

;

18) 261 14-44 +

This

is

interesting as checking the observations, for

weight-num-

and

especially in

bers are arrived at in so very

different a

the case of nitrogen the approximation plexity of the bodies

Some as

which

yield the

other observations

is

fashion,

noteworthy, from the com-

number on

analysis.

were made which went to show that

weight-numbers increased, there was a corresponding increase

in


XIX

the

number

of bodies

tition

and checking.

atom

discerned within the chemical

gold showed 47 contained bodies

but these observations

;

Investigation

the

characteristic

snake of oxygen, the encircling walls of the chemical atoms

an inviting

scientific

being

But here again, further observations are necessary

The

substantiate details. tion of

thus,

of a molecule of water revealed

the presence of twelve bodies from hydrogen and

broken away

;

need repe-

character

present paper

line of research, ;

the

is

only

promising interesting results of a

observations recorded have

several times and are not the

work

to

offered as a sugges-

of a single

are believed to be correct so far as they go.

been repeated

investigator,

and they


THE PLATONIC Some

of our

readers

may be

SOLIDS.

glad

to

have a drawing

of the

Platonic solids, since they play so large a part in the building up of

elements.

It

The regular solids are five, and The lines are equal. 1. The angles are equal. 2. The surfaces are equal. 3.

will

be seen that the tetrahedron

three-sided

pyramid on a triangular

The,

from four dron

;

triangles.

T'-ixre.

Two

P

;

in

each

:

the fundamental form, the

a solid figure formed

i.e.,

ZocZo'ruLc-

S&ZtoLs

of these generate the

five of these generate the

cube and the octohe-

dodecahedron and the icosahedron.

The rhombic dodecahedron and surfaces

is

base,

only

five

is

not regular, for though the lines

are equal, the angles are not.


NOTES. Mr. C. Jinar5jadasa writes

The

and Mr. Travers clairvoyantly. in

same time

at the

LXIII,

Vol.

Society,

in the

of elements should

list

metargon had been discovered by

for

omitted,

:

metargon

asterisk put before

It is

and

p. 411),

neon

as

Weights Commission, so

would seem

it

as

the

elements

of

list

Atomic

International

though

it

Royal

was observed

it

in the latest

Report of November 13,1907, of the

the

Sir

(see Proc. of

therefore before

however, given

not,

be

William Ramsey

were not yet

fully

recognised.

Ramsey and

discovered in 1898 by

Neon was weight given to

was

it

for meta-neon, 22‘33

This almost corresponds with our weight

22.

the latest weight given to neon

;

corresponds within y^th to our weight,

seem

that

Travers, and the

neon was examined

is

From

19-9.

in the later investigations

20, this

and it

that

would

and meta-neon

in the earlier.

He

says further on a probable fourth Interperiodic

Thinking over the diagrams, group

exists,

coming on

cobalt, nickel, just

and they would come I

less

seemed

for the first

than in Osmium.

Ir.

and

element of the

likely that a fourth

after

in

i.e.,

in a bar

,

183,

185, 187.

(in a bar)

less

60= 185

247

less

60 = 187

249

less

60 = 189

less

60

less

60

to say also

132 134

Palladium

136

But

;

Ir.

Rhodium

I

;

the

new

found to

group would have a remarkable

Pt.

(bar)

one column

Here

Pt.

Os.— 245

Ruthenium

rhodium,

a bar postulated only

new groups

Thus

But strange

under iron,

This would make 183 atoms in a bar

surprise that the third postulated

relation to Os.

me

side, directly

also periodically in the table too.

took the diagram for Osmium,

columns

to

:

This would make four interperiodic groups,

group then would follow

my

it

paramagnetic

one complete swing of the pendulum

ruthenium, palladium.

three

the

Group

72, 74, 76, are Iron, Cobalt

— 72 — 74 60 — 76.

less 6(

and Nickel


xxii

So there does probably

exist a

new group

with bars (183), 185,

187, 189, with atomic weights.

X = bar 185 Y= 187, Z=

;

atoms

189,

2590, wt. 143*3

2618, wt. 145*4 2646, wt. 147*0.

They come probably among the rare earths. Probably also Neodymium and Praseodymium are two of them, for their weights are 143*6, 140*5.

Thompson &

Co., Printers Madras.


INDEX Page,

Page.

Aluminium Antimony Argon

It, 55, 5G, 57, 61, G2, 88 14, 57, 68, 59, 63, 64, 88 13, 83, 86, 86 14, 57, 58, 63

...

...

Arsenic

Atom, two types construction

,,

...

effect of electricity

cn

ultimate physical wall of

,, ,,

5,

...

5,

Fluorine

74, 76, 83

Gallium

14,55,56,61,62

...

8

Germanium

6 7

Glucinum Gold ...

67,68, 80

13, 14,64,

...

(see. Beryllium) 12, 13,

2, 3,

15

22, 23-25,

17,

33—35,37,

29,

Helium

2, 10, 11,

...

13, 14, 17 (note) 84,

...

Barium ...

14, 70, 71

10,13,35,36,37,43,44,

...

46

Boron Bromine

...

10,13,50,51,59,61

13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20,

...

1, 2,

85

3, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,

19, 27, 28,

Icosahedron

...

Indium

88

Iodine

...

13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 24,

...

32, 38, 34, 35, 61

Iridium Iron ...

...

14,68,69,70,72,73

2, 10, 11, 14, 22, 24, 69, 70,

71

80, 81,

82

13,39, 40, 41,48,49, 89, 90, 91

Calcium 13, Carbon

35, 36, 87, 38, 43, 44, 46, 89 ... 10, 64, 65, b6, 77, 79 Chlorine ... 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 37, 44 Chromium ... 13, 35, 36, 38, 45, 46, 89 ‘ Cigar (or prism) ... 22, 24, 28, 33,

15

G2 69, 70

14, 55, 56, 57, 58,

...

groups

Ir.terperiodic

22

24, 29, 31, 32

Cadmium

Hydrogen...

.35

...

Bars Beryllium

47, 60

6 .,7, 26

21, 24, 26, 28, 29, 51, 52, 53, 59, 60, 61, 74, 75, 76, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87

Balloon

10,11,14 15,68,69.70,

....

Kalon Krypton

2,13,83,86,87,88

...

13,83,81,86,87

Lithium

10, 11, 14, 15,70, 74, 75,

82 83, 91,

35, 36, 37, 44, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68

77, 78,79, 80, 81, 83, 85, 90,91

Cobalt

Cone

14,69,70,71,80,81,83

...

21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 33, 34, 39, 40, 41, 42, 47, 48 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 80, 81, 82, 91 ...

Copper

...

12, 19, 21, 22, 23, 29,

Counting of atoms ... 3 Caesium 70 ... Cross ... 28,32,34,39,40,43,47,48, 50, 60, 63, 64, 65, 74, 77, 78,79, 80, 90 Cube ... 13,14,15,39,40,50

Magnesium Manganese

new elements

Dodecahedron Dumb-bell ...

Matter, states of

...

Meta-kalon

...

...

Metaneon Metaxenon Molybdenum.

...

39

83, 87, 88 13, 83, 85, 86 13, 83, 86, 87 13, 83, 85, 85

2, 13,

Metargon Metakrypton

90 83

8—11, 17

...

Mercury ,

13, 83, 87 13, 85, 36, 37, 38, 39, 45,

46, 89,

Neon

...

91

13,14,83,85,85

14, 69, 70, 71, 80, 81 14 5 0,53,54,55,61,84

...

...

2

Niobium

...

...

15

Nitrogen

..

2, 12, 13, 17, 19, 21,

14, 69, 74, 75,

...

Nickel Discoveries of

13, 39, 40, 46, 47, 48,

...

22,

1, 11, 14, 17, 18, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 61, 74, 82, 84, 86

23 Elements,

list

of

groupings of ,, Examination, method of

4

... ...

12, 15 ...

'

2

Occultum ...2, Octahedron

Osmium Ovoid

of 63

...

13, 21, 25, 26, 28, 34, 78 .. 14, 15, 64, 77 2, 14,

atoms

...

69, 70, 72, 73, 81

51, 52, 53, 54, 60


.

INDFX,

ii

Page

Pagr.

Oxygen

1,

13, 14, 17, 18, 36, 37, 38,

45, 46

Tellurium ... Tetrahedron

13, 39, 42, 43, 48, 49, ...

Tin

Radium

Types

Y3 79 80

'

Titanium

...

E 13, 14, 25, 64, 65,’66,’77,

78, 79, 80,

Ring

Rhodium Rubidium

11,

..

Scandium Silicon Silver

...

21,24,25,28,34

...

14, 69, 70, 71, 72, 81

Uranium

...

14,50, 51,52,59,60

Vanadium

33, 34, 68, 73, 80, 81, 82 2, 3, 10, 11, 12, 19, 21,

22, 29, 30, 78, 79, 80 39, 41, 47, 48, 68, 74, 80, 83, 90, 91

Stars ,,

...

floating

Strontium

..

...

35, 37

14, 50, 63, 54, 55, 61,

84

35,

37

2, 13, 83, 86,

87

...

14,83,86 ...

Wolfram

Yttrium

13,

...

...

39, 41, 42,

13, 14, 50, 52, 53, 60, 61, 84

Zenon (xenon) Zinc

...

2, 13, 22, 39, 40, 41, 47, 48, 68,

13, 41

13, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 46

...

...

Xenon

Zirconium

89, 91

Sulphur

81

hyper-meta-proto elements... 9 ... 10 „ meta-proto-elements proto elements ... 11 ,,

of

„ „

72,81 14, 70, 74, 75, 76, 82, 83

... 14,64,67,79,81,82 2,12,19,21,22,23,24,29,

...

Spikes

...

,

11, 13, 39, 41, 42, 48, 49, 90

...

Sodium

88, 89, 90, 91

...14, 69, 70. 7],

Ruthenium

Selenium...

92

...

50

13,15,16,24,25,26.

28, 32, 33, 35. 38, 39, 46, 51, 52, 54, 55, 61, 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 74, 78, 80, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 91 ... 2, 13, 14, 22, 64, 67, 68,

Palladium ... 14,69, 70, 71,72,81 Phosphorus ... 14, 57, 58, 63 Platinum 14, 22, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 82 Potassium ... 14, 74, 75, 82 Prism (see cone)

48

Wellcome Library

1

for the History |

and Understanding of Medicine

j

.

80, 89, 91 13, 14, 64, 65, 66, 77, 78 79


<

6^ V


Química oculta uma série de observações  

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