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OCCULT CHEMISTRY Clairvoyant Observations on the

Elements

Chemical

BY

ANNIE BESANT,

p.t.s.

AND

CHARLES W. LEADBEATER

llevised

Edition edited by

A. P. SlNNETT

London

THEOSOPHICAL PUBLISHING HOUSE 1,

Upper Woburn Place, W.C. 1919

1.


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b\\^'^ \

i

i

1

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EDITOR'S PREFACE.

When I

undertaking to prepare a new edition

from

received permission

form

which you think

in

time."

It

omit."

I

was

left

to

my

have not found

it

the authors to "

would be most useful

discretion, " it

What

of

throw

book

this it

into the

at the

present

and what to myself to any con-

to use

necessary to avail

But as the contents of was ill-prepared to appreciate the importance of the later research for want of introductory matter explaining how it began, and how the early research led up to the later investigation. I have therefore contributed an entirely new preliminary chapter which will, I siderable extent of this latter permission.

book were

the

originally arranged the reader

hope, help the reader to realise the credibility of the results attained

when

the

molecular forms and

numerous bodies examined were

constitution

definitely observed.

attempted to revise the records of the

I

later research in

have not

which

had no personal share, so from the beginning of Chapter the end the

book

in

its

present form

is

simply a

the

of

I

III to

reprint of

the original edition except for the correction of a few trifling misprints. I

have thus endeavoured to bring into clear prominence

the outset the scientific value of the light the constitution of matter.

The world owes

of the ordinary type that

at

book sheds on the

a debt to scientific

men

cannot be over-estimated, but though

they have hitherto preferred to progress gradually, from point to point, disliking leaps in the dark, the leap

the dark for those

who

now made

is

only in

will not realise that the progress to

be

accomplished by means of instrumental research must sooner or later

be supplemented by subtler methods.

Physical science has

reached the conception that the atoms of the bodies hitherto called the chemical elements are each

composed

of

minor atoms.


IV

Instrumental research cannot determine by

how many,

case.

Occult research ascertained the actual number

cases

by

observation

direct

governing the numbers

numbers

and

in all cases,

atomic weights.

to

then

this principle

now

It

to

first

once established the the

remains to be

— not

these

how

is

a

direct observations,

credibility of accounts

arrangement of

seen

law

the

relation of

minor atoms molecules of the numerous elements examined, seems advanced to a degree approximatmg to proof. given as

some

The law thus unveiled

demonstration of the accuracy of the

and

discovered

and the

each

in in

far,

but rather

in

to

the

me

how soon

the scientific world at large will accept the conclusions of this

volume

as

a

science

of

the

definite

contribution

laboratory

been called occult.

with

to

science,

blending

the

that variety that has hitherto


CONTENTS. HAPTER I.

—A

PAGE

Preliminary Survey

i

II.— Details of the Early Research

The Platonic III.

Solids

7

...

The Later Researches

15 ,.

i;


OCCULT CHEMISTRY. CHAPTER

I.

A PRELIMINARY SURVEY. The

deep

interest

book describes

this

and importance

will best

an account of the circumstances out first

edition, consisting

Theosophist, dealt at in a

mainly of

once with the

way which, though

of

if

which

articles later

which

the research

of

be appreciated

introduced by it

reprinted

from the

phases of the research

must These

intelligible to the occult student,

have been rather bewildering to the ordinary reader. later

phases,

The

arose.

however, endow the earlier results with a signi-

ficance that in the beginning could only be vaguely conjectured.

am the better entitled to perform the task that has been assigned me — that of preparing the present edition — by reason of the fact that it was in my presence and at my instigation that the I

to

first efforts were made to penetrate the mystery previously enshrouding the ultimate molecule of matter. I

remember

staying at

my

exercised for the benefit of myself, friends

around

us.

I

had discovered

in the appropriate direction, It

occurred to

could actually willing to try,

he might

Mr. Leadbeater was then

the occasion vividly.

house, and his clairvoyant faculties were frequently

me once see a

and

I

my

wife and the theosophical

that these faculties, exercised

were ultra-microscopic

to ask

Mr. Leadbeater

if

molecule of physical matter.

in their

power.

he thought he

He was

quite

suggested a molecule of gold as one which

try to observe.

He made

the appropriate effort,

and


emerged from

it

saying the molecule in question was far too

elaborate a structure to be described.

evidently consisted of

It

an enormous number of some smaller atoms, quite too many count; quite too complicated prehended.

It

that observation

tion to

I

more manageable,

and

to

be com-

might be due to the

this

might be more successful

low atomic weight, so

possibly

once that

at

to

gold was a heavy metal of high atomic weight, and

fact that

of

me

struck

arrangement

in their

body

suggested an atom of hydrogen as

Mr. Leadbeater accepted the sugges-

be far simpler than the other, so the

directed to a

This time he found the atom of hydrogen

tried again.

constitiiting

if

that

the

hydrogen atom were countable.

minor atoms They were

arranged on a definite plan, which will be rendered intelligible

by diagrams

We

little

later on,

and were eighteen

realized at the

of this discovery,

made

moment

in

the

number.

enormous

significance

in the year 1895, long before the discovery

radium enabled physicists of the ordinary type to improve their acquanitance with the " electron." Whatever name is given to that minute body it is recognised now by ordinary science as well as by occult observation, as the fundamental unit of physical of

matter.

research

To that extent ordinary science has overtaken the occult am dealing with, but that research rapidly carried the

I

occult student into regions of knowledge whither, certain, the

ordinary physicist must follow him

it is

perfectly

no

at

distant

date.

The seen

to

research once started in the

be intensely interesting.

ately co-operated with

way

I

have described was

Mrs. Besant almost immedi-

Mr. Leadbeater

in its further

progress.

Encouraged by the success with hydrogen, the two important gases, oxygen and nitrogen, were examined. They proved to be rather more difficult to deal with than hydrogen but were manageable. Oxygen was found to consist of 290 minor atoms and nitrogen of 261. Their grouping will be described later on. The interest and importance of the whole subject will best be appreciated by a rough indication of the results first attained. The reader will then have more patience in following the intricacies of the later discoveries.

The possible

figures

just

significance.

quoted were soon perceived

The

atomic

weight

of

to

have a

oxygen

is


commonly is

taken

as

i6.

That

is

to say,

sixteen times heavier than an atom of

way,

all

an atom of oxygen hydrogen.

In

this

through the table of atomic weights, hydrogen is taken any attempt being made to estimate its absolute

as unity, without

But now with the atom of hydrogen dissected, so to speak, and found to consist of i8 somethings, while the atom of oxygen consisted of 290 of the same things, the sixteen to one

weight.

290 divided by 18 gives us 16 and a Again the nitrogen number divided minute decimal fraction.

relationship reappears

:

by 18 gives us 14 and a minute fraction as the result, and that is the accepted atomic weight of nitrogen. This gave us a glimpse of a principle that might run all through the table of atomic For reasons having to do with other work, it was weights. impossible for the authors of this book to carry on the research further at the time it was begun. The results already sketched

were published as an article in the magazine then called Lucifer, in November, 1895, and reprinted as a separate pamphlet bearing the title " Occult Chemistry," a pamphlet the surviving copies of

which

will

that will at

some time

investigation

which

this

of

volume deals with does

With patience and industry in a

way

— the

method

be generally applied to the

in the future

Nature's mysteries.

a force that can hardly be resisted

counting

of the

one day be a recognised vindication

For the

later

research

establish the principle with

by any fair-minded reader.

authors being assisted in the

that will be described (and the

method adopted the minor

involved a check upon the accuracy of the counting)

known chemical

—

elements, as they are

atoms of almost

all

commonly

were counted and found to bear the same relahad been suggested by the cases of

called,

the

tion to their atomic weights as

oxygen and nitrogen. This result throws back complete proof on the original estimate of the number of minor atoms in hydrogen, a figure which ordinary research has so far entirely The guesses have been widely various, from failed to determine. unity to

many hundreds,

but,

unacquainted with the clairvoyant

method, the ordinary physicist has no means of reaching the actual state of the facts.

Before going on with the details of the later research some very important discoveries arising from the early work must

be explained.

As

I

first

have already said clairvoyant faculty of the


phenomena

appropriate order directed to the minute

of Nature

Not content with estimating its range. minor atoms in physical molecules, the authors examine the minor atoms individually. They were

practically infinite in

is

number

the

of

proceeded to

found in

to be themselves elaborately complicated structures which,

this

preliminary survey of the whole subject,

to explain (full explanation will be

composed

of

atoms belonging

found

to

an

later

will not stop

I

on) and they are

ultra-physical

realm of

Nature with which the occultist has long been familiar and

Some

rather pedantic critics

fault with the term, as the

''plane" in question

describes as " the Astral Plane."

have found is

of course really a sphere entirely surrounding the physical all occultists understand the word, " plane " simply

globe, but as signifies a

Each condition, and

condition of nature.

many more

there are

than the two under consideration, blends with

Thus

neighbour, via atomic structure. plane in combmation give

rise to

its

the atoms of the Astral

the finest variety of physical

which is not homogeneous but really the minute atoms of which physical character, and atomic in its molecules are composed are atoms of ether, " etheric atoms," as matter, the ether of space,

we have now learned to call them. Many physicists, though not all, the ether of space as atomic. the

of

satisfaction

knowing

But that

will resent the idea of treating at all events the occultist has

the

Mendeleef, preferred the atomic theory.

Russian chemist,

great In Sir

William Tilden's

recent book entitled " Chemical Discovery and Invention in the

Twentieth Century," ventional

view^s,"

supposed the ether

atomic structure, and nise that the Electron

atom

read that Mendeleef, " disregarding con-

I

is

of electricity, but

charge of

Long

time

in

all

to

physicists

not, as so

have a molecular or

must come

many suppose

to recog-

at present,

an

an atom of ether carrying a definite unit

electricity.

before the discovery of radium led to the recognition

of the electron as the

common

constituent of

all

the bodies pre-

viously described as chemical elements, the minute particles of

matter in question had been identified with the

observed

in

Sir

electric current

other gas

it

is

may

cathode rays

William Crookes' vacuum tubes.

When

an

passed through a tube from which the air (or contain) has been almost entirely exhausted, a


luminous glow pervades the tube manifestly emanating from the circuit. This effect was studied

cathode or negative pole of the

by

Sir

Among

William Crookes very profoundly.

other char-

was found that, if a minute windmill was set up in the tube before it was exhausted, the cathode ray caused the

acteristics

it

vanes to revolve, thus suggesting the idea that they consisted of actual particles driven against the vanes

;

the ray being thus

more than a mere luminous effect. Here was a mechanical energy to be explained, and at the first glance it seemed difficult to reconcile the facts observed with the idea

evidently something

creeping into favour, that the particles, already invested with the

name

"electron,"

Electricity

were atoms of

electricity

pure and simple.

was found, or certain eminent physicists thought they

liad found, that electricity per se in the Crookes'

had

So the windmills to be moved by

inertia.

vacuum tubes were supposed

the impact of electric atoms.

Then

in the

progress of ordinary research the discovery of

radium by Madame Curie face

upon

in the year

the subject of electrons.

from radium were soon cathode ray.

The

identified

Then followed

1902 put an entirely

beta particles emanating

with the electrons of the

the discovery that the gas helium,

previously treated as a separate element, evolved

consequence of the disintegration of radium. till

new

then laughed at as a superstition of the

itself

as

one

Transmutation,

alchemist, passed

phenomena, and thj seen to be bodies built up of electrons probably in varying arrangements. So had reached one important result of the on seven years earlier. It has not yet

quietly into the region of accepted natural

chemical elements were in varying at last

number and

ordinary science

occult research carried

reached the finer results of the occult research the hydrogen in

atom with

its

— the

structure of

eighteen etheric atoms and the

which the atomic weights

of

all

way

elements are explained by the

number of etheric atoms entering into their constitution. The ether of space, though defying instrumental examination, comes within scope of the clairvoyant faculty, and profoundly interesting discoveries were made during what I have called the early research in

connexion with that branch of the inquiry.

Etheric atoms combine to form molecules in

many

different

ways, but combinations involving fewer atoms than the eighteen


which give nse

to

hydrogen, make no impression on the physical

senses nor on physical instruments of research. to

varieties

They

give rise

of

molecular ether, the comprehension of which begins to Illuminate realms of natural mystery- as yet entirely untrodden by the ordinary physicist.

Combinations below i8 give rise to three varieties of molecular ether the functions of which when they come to be more fullv studied will constitute a department of natural knowledge on the threshold of which we already stand. Some day we mav perhaps be presented with a volume on Occult in

number

Physics as important

as the present dissertation

on Occult Chemistry.

in

its

way


BSo

2Bj

o o o o

ej

^

Soil o

A^


—

CHAPTER

II.

DETAILS OF THE EARLY RESEARCH. The

article detailing the results of the research carried

the year

1895 (see the

magazine then called

November

that year

for

issue

on

of

in

the

began with some general remarks

Lucifer),

about the clairvoyant faculty, already discussed in the preceding

The

chapter.

original record then goes

on

as follows

:

The sixty

physical world is regarded as being composed of between and seventy chemical elements, aggregated into an infinite

variety

of

main heads

three

of

fall

under the

gases, the

recognised

These combinations

combinations.

solids, liquids

and

substates of physical matter, with the theoretical ether scarcely

admitted as material.

Ether, to the scientist,

or even a state of matter, but

is

a

is

not a substate

something apart by

itself.

It

would not be allowed that gold could be raised to the etheric condition as it might be to the liquid and gaseous whereas the occultist knows that the gaseous is succeeded by the etheric, as the solid is succeeded by the liquid, and he knows also that the word " ether " covers four substates as distinct from each other as are the solids, liquids and gases, and that all chemical elements ;

have their four etheric substates, the highest being all,

and consisting

of the ultimate physical

elements are finally reducible.

indivisible

and unable

researches have led the

atoms

as

compound,

as

The chemical atom

any element, and

as the ultimate particle of

atoms

common

to

which

all

to is

regarded

supposed to be

is

to exist in a free state.

Mr. Crookes'

more advanced chemists to regard the a more or less complex aggregation of

protyle.

To all

astral vision ether is a visible thing,

and

substances and encircling every particle.

a body composed of a vast ether, each vibrating at a

number

;

seen permeating

A

" solid "

body

is

of particles suspended in

backwards and forwards

high rate of velocity

is

in a particular field

the particles are attracted towards

each other more strongly than they are attracted by external


8

"°"'"^P^'"'-

nnti,„

i.

differ

them

'^'°s<=r

examination shows that the ether

"^""^'^'^ °'

"' n.rTr°" 7^^^'^^

and a ! ='f

^''"'^'^ °'

numerous!

d

"'"""^ '-dies composing

°' "'«

.etL-t;:.;^^--^;^^^ consisted of taking what

is

called

.tup

L ZoToTL andTr

time after time, until what proved to physical atom was reached, the breakinE^Tn in the production of astra,; and

b' he

,1

? ™'"

n^t^X^^rrr"'"-

of stud,, and the accompanying diagram he desciiption given by the investigators-is

JcZe^ dtvn tm

"te,

me

however poor,

gas

level

are

olfered as a for the lacking vision of the readers

represented

three

chemin:.!

subr T

cnemical atoms, one of hvdroppn /H\ uyuiogen (H), ^ one ofr ^^^ygt-ii oxygen ^v^) (n) one r.M« Or ^c nitrocfpn u t"K!\ i^u uccessive changes undergone by each chemicj; atom rishown' in the compartments vertically above it the left h. f

,

,

ana

Th^

is

drawn on v once

aIHir^,,rr», '

u

m

^^^'^0"gh

•*

It

IS

.,

the

'^^iivcu a,

same throiiahonf


body

from one siibstate to the one immediately above it, it is enormously magnified for the purpose of investigation, and the ultimate atom on E i is represented by the dot a on the raised

is

gaseous

The atom

level. first

of

chemical atom selected for

hydrogen (H).

On

this

examination was an

looking carefully

at

it, it

was seen

consist of six small bodies, contained in an egg-like form.

to It

its owji axis, vibrating at the same and the internal bodies performed similar gyrations. The whole atom spins and quivers, and has to be steadied before exact observation is possible. The six little bodies are arranged in two sets of three, forming two triangles that are not interchangeable, but are related to each other as object and image. (The lines in the diagram of it on the gaseous sub-plane are not lines of force, but show the two triangles on a plane surface the interpenetra-

rotated with great rapidity on time,

;

tion of the triangles cannot be clearly indicated.)

bodies are not

six

bodies

two

— each of

all

alike

atom

— but

in

are arranged in a line, while in the

remaining four they are arranged

The

Further, the

they each contain three smaller

these being an ultimate physical

them the three atoms

of

;

in a triangle.

wall of the limiting spheroid in

which the bodies are

enclosed being composed of the matter of the third, or gaseous,

away when the gaseous atom is raised to the next They at once re-arrange level, and the six bodies are set free. themselves in two triangles, each enclosed by a limiting sphere the two marked b in the diagram unite with one of those marked // to form a body which shows a positive character, the remaining These form the three forming a second body negative in type. hydrogen particles of the lowest plane of ether, marked E 4 On raising these further, they undergo ether 4 on the diagram. kind, drops

;

another disintegration, losing their limiting walls

;

the positive

losing its wall, becomes two bodies, one contwo particles, marked 6, distinguishable by the linear arrangement of the contained ultimate atoms, enclosed in a wall, and the other being the third body enclosed in E 4 and now set free. The negative body of E 4 similiarly, on losing its wall, becomes two bodies, one consisting of the two particles marked b' and the second the remaining body, being set free. These free bodies do not remain on E 3 but pass immediately to

body

of

E4, on

sisting of the

,


lO

E

2,

two

leaving the positive and negative bodies, each containing particles, as the

E 3. On

on

representatives of hydrogen

taking these bodies a step higher their wall disappears, and the internal bodies are set free, those containing the lineally

atoms arranged

being positive, and those with the triangular arrangement

being negative. These two forms represent hydrogen on similar bodies of this state of

On

falling

away

but

matter are found entering into

be seen by referring to / on E 2 of raising these bodies yet one step further, the

other combinations, as

nitrogen (N).

E 2,

may

of the walls sets the contained

atoms

E

reach the ultimate physical atom, the matter of

i.

free,

and we

The

disin-

we The Theo-

tegration of this sets free particles of astral matter, so that

have reached

in

this the limit of physical matter.

sophical reader will notice with interest that

we can thus observe

seven distinct substates of physical matter, and no more.

The

ultimate atom, which

is

the

same

in all the

observed

cases, is its main characteristics are given in the diagram. It is composed entirely of spirals, the spiral being in its turn composed of spirillae, and these again of minuter spirillae. A fairly accurate drawing is given in Babbitt's " Principles of Light and Colour," p. 102.

an exceedingly complex body, and only

The illustrations there given wrong and misleading, but

of atomic combinations are entirel)'^ if

the stove-pipe run through the

atom be removed, the picture may be taken and will give some idea of the complexity of this

centre of the single as correct,

fundamental unit of the physical universe.

Turning

we

to the force side of the

atom and

its

combinations,

observe that force pours in the heart-shaped depression at

the top of the atom, in character

by

its

and

issues

passage

;

from the

point,

and

further, force rushes

is

changed

through every

and every spirilla, and the changing shades of colour that flash out from the rapidly revolving and vibrating atom depend sometimes one, someon the several activities of the spirals times another, is thrown into more energetic action, and with

spiral

;

the change of

activity

from one

spiral

to

another the colour

changes.

The building of a gaseous atom of hydrogen may be downward from E i, and, as stated above, the lines given

traced in the

diagram are intended to indicate the play of the forces which


II

bring about the positive bodies

combinations.

several

are

marked by

their

Speaking

generally,

contained atoms setting

their points

towards each other and the centre of their combmation, and repelling each other outwards; negative bodies

are marked by the heart-shaped depressions being turned inwards, and by a tendency to move towards each other instead of away. Every combination begins by a welling up of force at a centre,

which

form the centre of the combination in the hydrogen combination, E 2, an atom revolving at is

to

;

positive

first

right angles to the plane of the paper

own

axis,

and

also revolving

forms the centre, and force, rushing out

at its

on

its

lower

point, rushes in at the depressions of

two other atoms, which then set themselves with their points to the centre the lines are shown in + b, right-hand figure. (The left-hand figure indicates ;

the revolution of the atoms each by itself.) As this atomic triad whirls round, it clears itself a space, pressing back the undifferentiated matter of the plane, and making to itself a whirling wall of this matter, thus taking the first step towards building up the chemical hydrogen atom. A negative atomic triad is similarly formed, the three atoms being symmetrically arranged round the

centre of out-welling force. These atomic triads then combine, two of the linear arrangement being attracted to each other, and two of the triangular, force again welling up and forming a centre and acting on the triads as on a single atom, and a limiting wall being again formed as the combination revolves round its centre.

The

E3

next stage

is

produced by each of these combinations on

attracting to itself a third atomic triad of the triangular type

from E2, by the

setting up of a new centre of up-welling force, following the lines traced in the combinations of E4. Two of these uniting, and their triangles interpenetrating, the chemical

atom

is

formed, and

we

find

it

to contain in all eighteen ultimate

physical atoms.

The

next substance investigated was oxygen, a far

more com-

and puzzling body the difficulties of observation were very much increased by the extraordinary activity shown by this element and the dazzling brilliancy of some of its constituents. plicated

;

The gaseous atom is an ovoid body, within which a spirallybody revolves at a high velocity, five brilliant points of light shining on the coils. The snake appears to be a coiled snake-like


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 12

rounded body, but on raising the atom to E 4 the snake waved bodies, and it is seen that the appearance of solidity is due to the fact that these spin round a common axis in opposite directions, and so present a continuous

solid

sphts lengthwise into two

surface, as a ring of fire can be

The

brilliant

made by whirling

a lighted stick.

bodies seen in the atom are on the crests of the

waves

in the positive snake, and in the hollows in the negative one the snake itself consists of small bead-like bodies, eleven of which interpose between the larger brilliant spots. On raising ;

these bodies to

with

six

it

E3

the snakes break up, each bright spot carrying

beads on one side and

five

on the other

these twist

;

and writhe about still with the same extraordinary reminding one of fire-flies stimulated to wild gyrations. been seen that the larger

brilliant

It

can

bodies each enclose seven

ulti-

mate atoms, while the beads each enclose two. spot with

its

eleven beads

is

On

omitted in the diagram.)

activity,

(Each bright

enclosed in a wall, accidentally the next stage,

E

2,

the fragments

up into their constituent parts the positive and negative bodies, marked d and d\ showing a difference of arrangement of the atoms contained in them. These again finally of the snakes break

;

disintegate, setting free

the ultimate physical atoms, identical

with those obtained from hydrogen.

atoms contained as follows

gaseous atom of ogygen

is

of ultimate

290,

made up

:

no;

2 in

each bead, of which there are

7 in

each bright spot, of which there are 10

2

When

in the

The number

xiio + 7o=

;

290.

worked out this, they compared with the number of ultimate atoms in hydrogen the observers had

it

:

18)

290

i6-ii

The

respective

number

of

+

ultimate atoms contained in a

chemical atom of these two bodies are thus seen to closely

correspond with their accepted weight-numbers. It

may

be said in passing that a chemical atom of ozone

appears as an oblate spheroid, with the contained spiral

compressed and widened three snakes, one positive

in

the centre

and two

;

much

the spiral consists of

negative,

formed

in a single


13

revolving body.

On

raising the chemical

atom

to the next plane,

the snake divides into three, each being enclosed in

The chemical atom

own

its

egg.

was the third selected by seemed comparatively quiet in

of nitrogen

the students for examination, as

it

contrast with the ever-excited oxygen. the most coniplicated of

It

proved, however, to be

and its was therefore a little deceptive. Most prominent was the balloon-shaped body in the middle, with six smaller bodies in two horizontal rows and one large egg-shaped one in the midst, all in

its

internal arrangements,

quiet

it. Some chemical atoms were seen in which the arrangement of these contained bodies was changed and

contained in internal

the two horizontal rows to be

became

connected with a greater

vertical

;

this

activity of the

change seemed

whole body, but the

observations on this head are too incomplete to be reliable.

balloon-shaped body

is

positive,

and

is

apparently drawn down-

wards towards the negative egg-shaped body below seven smaller particles.

The

it,

containing

In addition to these large bodies, four

small ones are seen, two positive and two negative, the positive

and the negative four minuter spots. On raising atom to E 4, the falling away of the wall sets free the contained bodies, and both the balloon and the egg round

containing

five

the gaseous six

themselves, apparently with the removal of their propinquity, as

though they had exercised over each influence.

E

4

— are

some attractive The smaller bodies within the egg marked q on not on one plane, and those within n and o form other

and triangular-based pyramids. On these bodies to E 3 we find the walls fall away as

respectively square-based raising usual,

all

and the contents

of each " cell " are set free

contains six small bodies marked

:

/>

of

E

4

and these are shown in k of E 3, as containing each seven little bodies marked c each of which has within it two ultimate atoms the long form of ^ E 4 marked / appears as the long form /on E 3, and this has three pairs of smaller bodies within it,/', ^ and /;, containing respectively three, four and six ultimate atoms ^ of E 4, with its seven contained particles, ;;/, has three particles m on E 3, each showing three ultimate atoms within them e from n of E 4 becomes / of E 3, with contained bodies, e, showing two ultimate atoms in each while e' from of E 4 becomes j of E 3, each having three smaller bodies within it, e', with two ultimate atoms k,

;

;

;

;


2

+


15

THE PLATONIC Some

of our readers

be glad to have a drawing of the since they play so large a part in the building up

Platonic solids,

The

of elements.

(i)

(2) (3)

regular solids are

The The The

TXe Two

HL

SOLIDS.

may

five,

and

five

only

;

in

each

lines are equal.

angles are equal. surfaces are equal. T-iA/c

"PtcxZorntc- SolioLs

tt.lrrajx3.dym.

irCU^hx-cÂŁd.

0c.hjlLe.6ir-<yn rr\.

VJ-

It will be seen that the tetrahedron is the fundamental form, the three-sided pyramid on a triangular base, i.e., a solid figure

formed from four the octahedron

;

triangles.

five of these

Two

of these generate the

cube and

generate the dodecahedron and the

icosahedron.

The rhombic dodecahedron lines

is

not regular, for though the

and surfaces are equal, the angles are

not.

:


i6

NOTES. Mr. C. Jinarajadasa

The

*

writes:

asterisk put before metargon

the

in

list

of

elements

should be omitted, for metargon had been discovered by Sir

William Ramsey and Mr. Travers

Proceedings of the Royal Society, vol.

before

it

was observed clairvoyantly.

in the latest list of

same time as neon (see Ixiii, p. 411), and therefore

at the

It

is

not, however, given

elements in the Report of

November

13, 1907,

it would seem as though it were not yet fully recognised. Neon was discovered in 1898 by Ramsey and Travers, and the weight given to it was 22. This almost corresponds with our ^^^^ latest weight given to neon w^eight for meta-neon, 22-33

of the International

Atomic Weights Commission, so

>

and

is 20,

From

that corresponds within one-tenth to our weight, i9'9.

would seem that neon w^as examined in the later investigations and meta-neon in the earlier. He says further on a probable fourth Interperiodic Group Thinking over the diagrams, it seemed to me likely that a fourth group exists, coming on the paramagnetic side, directly under iron, cobalt, nickel, just one complete swing of the pendulum after rhodium, ruthenium, palladium. This would make four interperiodic groups, and they would come also this

it

:

periodically in the table too. I

took the diagram for Osmium, and

in a

bar postulated only

columns for the first element of the new groups, i.e., one column less than in Osmium. This would make 183 atoms in a bar the new group then would follow in a bar, 183, 185, 187. Here I found to my surprise that the third postulated group would have a ]-emarkable relation to Os, Ir, Pt. three

;

Thus Os. Ir.

Pt.

— 245

(in a bar)

247 249

;

less

60=185 60= 187 60= 189

less

60—72

less

60 60

less less

But strange to say also Ruthenunii (bar) 132

Rhodium

134 136

Palladium •

See footnote

less

in

next Chapter.

— 74

— 76


17

^

But 72, 74, 76, are Iron, Cobalt and Nickel. So there does probably exist a new group with bars

i^5>

187, 189, with

X = bari85;

^= ^^

(183),

atomic weights.

^^7> ^^9,

atoms

2590, wt. 143-3 2618, wt. 145-4

2646, wt. 1470.

They come probably among the rare earths. Probably also Neodymmm and Praseodymium are two of them, for their

weights are 143-6, 140-5.


CHAPTER

III.

THE LATER RESEARCHES. The

first difficulty

that faced us

was the

identification of the

We could only forms seen on focusing the sight on gases.* form in the au- had proceed tentatively. Thus, a very common a sort of

dumb-bell shape

(see

Plate

I)

;

we exammed

this,

atoms these, comparing our rough sketches, and counted its atoms in hydrogendivided by i8â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the number of ultimate offered the presumption gave us 23-22 as atomic weight, and this ;

substances-common was sodium. We then took various sodium was present, and found the salt, etc.â&#x20AC;&#x201D; in which we knew small fragments dumb-bell form in all. In other cases, we took

that

it

gold of metals, as iron, tin, zinc, silver,

;

in others, again, pieces

and, for the rarest substances, of ore, mineral waters, etc., etc., museum. In all, 57 Mr. Leadbeater visited a mineralogical

recognized by chemical elements were examined, out of the 78

modern chemistry. In addition to these,

we found

3

chemical waifs

:

an unrecog-

helium which nized stranger between hydrogen and

we named

varieties of one occultum, for purposes of reference, and 2 meta-kalon, between xenon element, which we named kalon and we also found 4 varieties of 4 recognized elements

and osmium and prefixed meta ;

platinum, that all

to the

we named

name Pt.

of each,

B.

and

a

second form of

Thus we have

tabulated

m

atoms, completing three 65 chemical elements, or chemical

two Theosophical artists, Herr drawings of the elements were done by diagrams, showing the details the thank Hecker and Mrs. Kirby, whom we sincerely owe to the most pa.nstak.ng labour of we .'element," each of construction of the would have been impossible for us to have Mr Jinarajadasa. without whose aid it arrangements by which the chem cal complicated presented dearly and deilni.ely the most useful notes also to thank him for a number of have We up. buiU are elements incorporated in the present series, and

â&#x20AC;˘The

;

tplyt'g

--h

careful research,

which are

these papers. without which we could not have written


Plate

<.as^

I.

iL»>^

SODIUAJ.


19 of Sir William Crookes, lemniscates, sufficient for

some amount

of generalization.

number

In counting the

elemental atom,

we

ultimate atoms in a chemical

of

did not count them throughout, one by

one when, for instance, we counted up the ultimate atoms in sodium, we dictated the number in each convenient group to Mr. Jinarajadasa, and he multiplied out the total, divided by i8, and announced the result. Thus sodium (see Plate I) is com;

:

posed of an upper

counted the number

in the

two or three

the

in

funnels

rod

— 12

:

of

same

the

and

;

upper part funnels

202

+

202

+

14

connecting rod.

a :

globe

— each

for the lower part

Mr. Jinarajadasa reckoned

14.

hence

;

globe and 12 funnels;

part, divisible into a

a lower part, similarly divided

=

418

By this method we guarded

:

;

10

16 ;

+

divided by 18

— 10

We

the

number number of

in the

connecting

;

(16

=

;

the

x

12)

=

202

;

23'22 recurring.

our counting from any prepossession,

it was impossible for us to know how the various numbers would result on addition, multiplication and division, and the exciting moment came when we w^aited to see if our results endorsed or approached any accepted weight. In the heavier elements, such as gold, with 3546 atoms, it would have been impossible to count each atom without quite unnecessary waste of time, when making a preliminary investigation. Later, it may be worth while to count each division separately, as in some we noticed that two groups, at first sight alike, differed by i or 2 atoms, and some very slight errors may, in this way, have crept

as

into our calculations.

In the following table

examined to

some

;

the

first

is

a

list

of

the

chemical elements

column gives the names, the

asterisk affixed

indicating that they have not yet been discovered by

orthodox chemistry.

The second column

number of atom of the

gives the

ultimate physical atoms contained in one chemical

The third column gives the weight as compared with hydrogen, taken as 18, and this is obtained by dividing the calculated number of ultimate atoms by 18. The fourth column gives the recognized weight-number, mostly element concerned.

according to the

latest list of

Chemie."

atomic weights, the " International

Erdmann's " Lehrbuch der Unorganischen These weights differ from those hitherto accepted.

List" of 1905, given in


20

Hydrogen * Occultum Helium

iS

Lithium Baryllium

Boron Carbon Nitrogen

Oxygen Fluorine

Neon * Meta-Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminium

...

Silicon

Phosphorus Sulphur Chlorine Potassium

Argon Calcium * Metargon

Scandium Titanium

Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron

...

Cobalt Nickel

Copper Zinc ... Gallium

Germanium Arsenic

Selenium

Bromine Krypton * Meta-Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium

Niobium

Molybdenum

...

Ruthenium

Rhodium Palladium Silver

Cadmium Indium Tin ... Antimony Tellurium Iodine

Xenon Meta-Xenon â&#x20AC;˘Kalon

* *

Meta-Kalon

...

Osmium Iridium

Platinum A â&#x20AC;˘Platinum B

Gold

... ...


.

Plate

Male.

1 1

P^E^LALE


21

and

are generally lighter than those given in earlier text-books. interesting to note that our counting endorses the earlier

It is

numbers, for the most

and we must wait

part,

observations will endorse the

last results of

to see

if

later

orthodox chemistry,

or confirm ours.

As the words "ultimate physical atom" must frequently occur, necessary to state what we mean by the phrase. Any gaseous chemical atom may be dissociated into less complicated bodies

it is

;

these, again, into

still

These

complicated.

less

less

third dissociation but

complicated will

be dealt with presently.

one more

is

it

This

their whorls

;

and

After the

may

vanish from the

can undergo no further dissociation on

In this ultimate state of physical matter

been observed

still

possible; the fourth dissociation

gives the ultimate physical atom.*

physical plane, but

these, again, into yet

;

two types

of

it.

atoms have

they are alike in everything save the direction of of the force

which pours through them.

In the

one case force pours in from the "outside," from fourth-dimensional space,! and passing through the atom, pours into the In the second, it pours in from the physical world, and out through the atom into the "outside " again, f i.e., physical world.

The one

from which water disappears. We call the atoms from which force comes out positive or male ; those through which it disappears, negative or female. All atoms, so far as observed, are of one or other of these two forms. (Plate II.) It will be seen that the atom is a sphere, slightly flattened, and there is a depression at the point where the force flows in, causing a heart-like form. Each atom is surrounded by a field, formed of the atoms of the four higher planes, which surround and inter-

vanishes from the physical world.

which water bubbles out

penetrate

;

the other

is

is

like a spring,

like a hole, into

it.

The atom can

scarcely be said to be a " thing," though

it is

which all things physical are composed It is formed by the flow of the life -force % and vanishes with its ebb.

the material out of

*

The atomic

t The

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

X

sub-plane.

astral plane.

Known

electricities

to Theosophists as Fohat, the force of

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;are

differentiations.

which

all

the physical plane forces


J

22

When

this force arises in

must be tenuity

'*

space "*

— the

apparent void which

with substance of some kind, of inconceivable

filled

—atoms appear

;

if

this

be

stopped for a single

artificially

Presumably, there is nothing left. were that flow checked but for an instant, the whole physical world would vanish, as a cloud melts away in the empyrean. It

atom, the atorn disappears

is

;

only the persistence of that flowt which maintains the physical

basis of the universe.

In order to examine the construction of the atom, a space artificially

made§

;

then,

if

an opening be made

surrounding force flows

constructed, the

and three whorls

in,

immediately appear, surrounding the " hole

is

in the wall thus

"

with their triple

and returning to their origin by a spiral within the atom these are at once followed by seven finer whorls, which following the spiral of the first three on the outer surface, and returning to their origin by a spiral within that, flowing in the opposite direction form a caduceus with the first three. Each of the three coarser whorls, flattened out, makes a two and

spiral of

a half coils, ;

closed circle

;

each of the seven finer ones, similarly flattened out,

makes a closed circle. The forces which flow in them, again, come from " outside," from a fourth-dimensional space. Each of the finer whorls is formed of seven yet finer ones, set successively at II

right angles to each other, each finer than

we

its

predecessor

these

;

call spirillcC.** It will

be understood from the foregoing, that the atom cannot

be said to have a wall of be so designated

;

its

its

own, unless these whorls of force can is the pressed back " space." As

" wall "

said in 1895, of the chemical atom, the force "clears itself a space,

pressing back the undifferentiated matter of the plane, to itself a whirling wall of this matter."

and making

The wall belongs to

space,

not to the atom.

*

When Fohat "

+ The I

A

§

By

first

maya,

digs holes in space."

life-wave, the

work of the

third Logos.

truly.

a certain action of the will,

known

to students,

it

is

possible to

make

such a

space by pressing back and walling off the matter of space. II

Again the

** ,

Each

astral world.

spirilla is

normally active, one

animated by the life-force of a plane, and four are at present each round. Their activity in an individual maybe prematurely

for

forced by yoga practice.


23 In the three whorls flow currents of different electricities

seven vibrate in response to etheric waves of they

light, heat, etc.;

show

ways

;

the

—to sound,

the seven colours of the spectrum;

give out the seven sounds of the natural scale of

kinds

all

to physical vibration

— flashing,

move incessantly, inconceivably The atom has as observed so far

they

;

respond

in a variety

singing, pulsing bodies,

beautiful

and

brilliant.*

— three proper motions,

i.e.,

own, independent of any imposed upon it from outside. It turns incessantly upon its own axis, spinning like a top it describes a small circle with its axis, as though the axis of motions of

its

;

the spinning top

moved

tion, a contraction

When

a force

is

in a small circle

and expansion,

from

it

has a regular pulsa-

like the pulsation of

brought to bear upon

flings itself wildly

;

it, it

the heart.

dances up and down,

side to side, performs the

most astonishing

and rapid gyrations, but the three fundamental motions incessantly If it be made to vibrate, as a whole, at the rate which persist. gives any one of the seven colors, the whorl belonging to that color glows out brilliantly.

An

electric current

brought to bear upon the atoms checks

them slower; the atoms exposed lines, and in each line the heart-shaped depression receives the flow, which passes out through the apex into the depression of the next, and so on. The atoms always set themselves to the current. The well-known division of diamagnetic and paramagnetic depends generally on this fact, or on an analogous action on molecules, as may be seen in the accompanying diagrams.! their proper motions,

to

it

*

i.e.,

renders

arrange themselves in parallel

" The ten numbers

of the sun.

These are called Dis

—in reality space — the forces

spread in space, three of which are contained in the Sun's Atman, or seventh principle,

and seven are the rays shot out by the Sun." The atom is a sun in miniature in its own universe of the inconceivably minute. Each of the seven whorls is connected with one of the Planetary Logoi, so that each Planetary Logos has a direct influence It may be supposed playing on the very matter of which all things are constructed. that

the three, conveying

electricity,

a differentiation of Fohat,

are

related to the

Solar Logoi. f

The

with here.

up ground of large extent, and cannot be dealt atoms themselves, or on molecules, or sometimes on

action of electricity opens

Does

it

act on the

one and sometimes on the other? In soft iron, for instance, are the internal arrangements of the chemical atom forcibly distorted, and do they elastically return to their In all the original relations when released ? and in steel is the distortion permanent ? diagrams the heart-shaped body, exaggerated to show the depression caused by the inflow and the point caused by the outflow, is a single atom.


; ;

24

Two

atoms, positive and negative, brought near to each other,

each other, and then

attract

forming a

other,

commence

round each

to revolve

relatively stable duality

such a molecule

;

Combinations of three or more atoms are

neutral.

is

positive,

negative or neutral, according to the internal molecular arrangement the neutral are relatively stable, the positive and negative ;

are continually in search of their respective opposites, with view to establishing a relatively permanent union.

Three states of matter and the gaseousâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; the state

exist

in

between the atomic state which the chemical atoms

are found, the recognized chemical elements

we may

ignore the liquid and solid

clearness

name

and brevity

these

we

states;

description,

in

call

a

;

for our

we have been

the atomic

purposes

For the sake of

states.

state

of

obliged to

the

chemist

elemental; the state which results from breaking up chemical elements, proto-eleinental

;

the next higher,

nieta-pro-elemental

the next higher, hyper-meta-proio-eleniental ; then comes the atomic state.

These are

The of

briefly

marked as EL, Proto., Meta, and Hyper.*

simplest unions of atoms, never, apparently consisting

more than

seven, form the

first

molecular

state of physical

matter.

Here are some characteristic combinations of the Hyper state the atom is conventional, with the depression emphasised the lines, always entering at the depression and coming out at the apex, show the resultants of lines of force; where no line appears ;

*

These sub-planes are familiar

etheric, sub-atomic, atomic

;

to

the Theosophist

as

gaseous,

eiheric,

or as Gas, Ether 4, Ether 3, Ether 2, Ether

i.

super-


25 entering the depression, the force wells up from fourth-dimensional space

where no

;

line

appears leaving the apex, the force

disappears into fourth-dimensional space; entry and departure

is

outside the atoms,

it is

where the point of indicated by a dot/'-

Types of Hyper-Meta-Proto Elemental Matter.

The molecules show combinations ways.

all

Each aggregation

wall, the circle or oval,

kinds of possible combinations; the

head over

spin, turn

is

due

heels,

and gyrate

in endless

surrounded with an apparent to the pressure

matter caused by

cell-

on the surrounding

its whirling motion they strike on each otherf and rebound, dart hither and thither, for reasons we have not ;

distinguished.

The Meta

state, in

some

of distinguishing to plexity belong

is

to

of

its

combinations, appears

at first

Hyper state the only obvious way which some of the molecules of less compull them out of the "cell-wall"; if they

sight to repeat those of the

;

Hyper molecules they at once fly off as separate atoms if they are Hyper-Meta molecules they break up into two or more molecules containing a smaller number of atoms. Thus one of the Meta molecules of iron, containing seven atoms, is identical in appearance with a Hyper heptad, but the latter dissociates into seven atoms, the former into two triads and a

are

;

* It must be remembered that the diagrams represent three-dimensional objects, and the atoms are not all on a plane, necessarily. f

That

is,

the surrounding magnetic fields strike on each other.


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 26

Long-continued research into the detailed play of

single atom.

forces

and

their results

The

following

may

necessary

is

and

give preliminary facts

details

;

we

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; are

are here only able to

opening up the way.

Meta types

serve as characteristic

:

Types of Meta-Proto-Elemental Matter. These are taken from constituents of the various elements from Gl 2 and 3 from Fe 4 from Bo 5,6 and 7 from C 8 from He; 9 from Fl 10, 11, 12 from Li; 13 and 14 from Na. Others will be seen in the course of breaking up the elements. ;

I

;

;

;

;

;

The Proto

state preserves

many

of the forms in the elements,

modified by release from the pressure to which they are subjected in

the chemical atom.

In

this state various

groups are thus

recognizable which are characteristic of allied metals.

Types of Pkoto-Elemental Matter. These are taken from the products of the first disintegration chemical atom, by forcibly removing it from its hole. The groups fly apart, assuming a great variety of forms often more or less geometrical the lines between the constituents of the groups, where indicated, no longer represent lines of force, of the

;

but arc intended to represent the impression of form, relative position

mind

and motion

of the observer.

They

of the constituents,

i.e.,

of the

made on

are elusive, for there are

no

the

lines,


27

but the appearance of lines costituents

elements. in

caused by the rapid motion of the

up and down, or along them backwards and forwards

dots represent atoms, or groups of atoms, within the proto-

The 6

is

N

;

is

i

7 in

found

in

8 in

Na

Ru

We shall return

;

to these

and 3 in He 9 and 10 in Co

C; ;

2

;

when

4 in Fl

;

Fe

11 in

;

;

5 in Li

;

12 in Se.

analysing the elements, and shall

meet many other proto-elemental groupings. The first thing which is noticed by the observer, when he turns his attention to the chemical atoms, certain definite forms,

and

that they

is

show

that within these forms, modified in

various ways, sub-groupings are observable which recur in con-

nexion with the same modified form.

very numerous, and

we had

in

;

William Crookes'

Here

alike.

that,

types are not

when we arranged

the atoms

observed, according to their external forms, they

into natural classes Sir

we found

The main

these, in turn,

classification, they

fell

were compared with

proved to be singularly

arrangement of the elements, as

his

is

when

it

appeared

the Proceedings of the Royal Society, in a paper read on

June

1898.

9th,

This eight "

:

is

to

be read, following the lines of the "figures of

H, He,

Li, Gl,

B, C, N, and so on, each successive

element being heavier than the one preceding disks

thus

it

in order.

The

which fall immediately below each other form a class H, CI, Br, I these resemble each other in various ways. ;

:

;


— 28 and, as

we

shall presently see, the

same forms and groupings

re-appear.

—taken

from Erdmann's Lehrbuch arranges the elements on a curved line, which curiously resembles the Another chart

curves within the shell of a nautilus.

The

the classes, the whole diameter building

observed that there helium, and radius, iron,

is

we have placed occultum there on rubidium and osmium are seen.

external forms

I.

may be

be dealt with

The Dumb-bell.

it

will

be

the opposite

;

details will

up a family;

show

an empty radius between hydrogen and

<

The

radiating lines

later

*«-,

classified as follows

;

the internal

:

— The characteristics

of this are a higher

and lower group, each showing 12 projecting funnels, grouped round a central body, and a connecting rod. It appears in sodium, copper, silver, and gold,* and gold is given (i on Plate 111) as the most extremely modified example of this form. The 12 almond-like projections, above and below, are severally contained in shadowy funnels, impossible to reproduce in the drawing; the central globe contains three globes, and the connecting portion has swollen out into an egg, with a very comThe

fifth

member

of this group

was not sought

for.


Plate

III.

~-i..A

K/<3 V. A-^?.

i

^ /^

#

^'^ i)

^:


;

29 plicated central

The dumb-bell appears

arrangement.

also in

bromine and iodine, but there is no trace of it in hydrogen, the head of the group. We have not met it elsewhere. It may be remarked that, in Sir William Crookes' scheme, in which they are all classed as monads, these two groups are the nearest to the neutral line, on the ingoing and outgoing series, and are respectively positive and negative. II and II a. The Tetraliedron, The characteristics of this form are four funnels, containing ovoid bodies, opening on the chlorine,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

The funnels

face of a tetrahedron. radiate

from

a central globe.

the simplest example

(2

We

on Plate

generally, but not always,

give beryllium (glucinum) as

III),

and

calcium and strontium. The tetrahedron

to this

group belong

chromium and molybdenum, but not that of the head of their group, oxygen, which is, like hydrogen, stii generis. These two groups are marked in orthodox chemistry as respectively positive and negative, and are closely allied. Another pair of groups show the same tetrahedral form magnesium, zinc and cadmium, positive; sulphur, selenium and tellurium, negative. Selenium is

the form of

:

is

a peculiarly beautiful element, with a star floating across* the

mouth of each funnel this star is extremely sensitive to light, and its rays tremble violently and bend if a beam of light falls on it. All these are dyads. The tetrahedron is not confined to the external form of the ;

above atoms

;

it

seems

to be

one of the favourite forms of nature,

and repeatedly appears in the internal arrangements. There is one tetrahedron within the unknown element occultum two appear in helium (3 on Plate III); yttrium has also two within five, intersecting, are found in neon, its cube, as has germanium ;

;

metargon,

meta-neon, argon,

krypton,

meta-xenon, kalon, meta-kalon,

Gold contains no

less

tin,

meta-krpyton, xenon,

titanium and zirconium.

than twenty tetrahedra.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; The

form of triads. It has six funnels, containing ovoids, and opening on the faces of the cube. Boron is chosen as an example (4 on Plate III). Its group members, scandium and yttrium, have the same form we have not examined the fourth the group is positive. Its negative complement consists of nitrogen, vanadium and niobium, III.

The Cube.

cube appears

to be the

;

and we have again

to

note that nitrogen, like hydrogen and


30 oxygen, departs from

group type.

its

Two

other triad groups, the

positive akiminium, gallium and indium (the fourth unexamined)

and the negative phosphorus, arsenic and antimony (the fourth unexamined), have also six funnels opening on the faces of a cube. IV. The Octahedron. The simplest example of this is carbon We have again the funnel with its ovoids, but (5 on Plate III). now there are eight funnels opening on the eight faces of the octahedron. In titanium (6 on Plate III) the form is masked

by the protruding arms, which give the appearance of the old Rosicrucian Cross and Rose, but when we look into the details later,

the carbon type

comes out

Zirconium

clearly.

exactly

is

number of atoms. We did not examine the remaining two members of this group. The group is tetratomic and positive. Its negative pendant shows the same form in silicon, germanium and tin again, the fourth was unexamined.

like

titanium in form, but contains a large

;

The Bars.

V. groups,

termed

—These

characterise a set

" inter-periodic."

of

Fourteen

closely

bars

(or

allied

seven

on Plate IV), and ruthenium, the members of each group iron, nickel, cobalt rhodium, palladium osmium, iridium, platinum differ from crossed) radiate from a centre, as in iron (i

;

;

each other by the weight of each bar, increasing in orderly succession

;

but

iron, nickel,

would appear

to

connect

These

The Star.

—A

central ovoid.

come

flat star,

with which

often

it is

out

more

with

five

clearly later.

neon and

worthy

— lithium

six clearly defined

and

fluorine

— of

allies

seen by

forms, typical of classes,

doubtful

affinities.

of notice that in diatomic elements four funnels

the faces of tetrahedra ;

may be

its

Plate IV, has an entirely different form.

There are thus with two

often classed.

interpenetrating tetra-

Plate IV) leaving apart helium, which, as 3,

This

potassium and rubidium.

in

in the centre, is the characteristic of

referring to

cubes

is

Crookes' lemniscates),

with lithium (2 on Plate IV) rather

re-appears

details, again, will

VI.

it

(3 in Plate IV),

The "lithium spike"

on

{see

and are grouped round a

5)

than with fluorine

(4

and cobalt

fourteen protruding bodies repeat the 'Mithium spike"

its

(proto-element

hedra

Manganese

the details will be given later.

grouped with

;

is

funnels on the faces of on the faces of octahedra.

in triatomic, six

in tetratomic, eigJit funnels

It

open on


Plate

h

h,

'K

lY.


31

Thus we have a

regular sequence of the platonic solids,

question suggests

will further evolution

itself,

and the

develop elements

shaped to the dodecahedron and the icosahedron

?

II.

We now

pass from the consideration of the outer forms of

the chemical elements to a study of their internal structure, the

arrangement within the element of more or groups

— proto-elements — capable

existence

groups

these,

;

of

complicated

less

separate,

independent

once more, may be dissociated into yet simpler

— hyper-meta-proto-elements— equally capable of separate,

independent existence, and resolvable into single ultimate physical substratum of the physical world (see

atoms, the

irreducible

TJicosophist,

1908, pp. 354-356)-*

We

shall

have to study the general internal structure, and

then the breaking up of

each

element,

and the

admirable

diagrams, patiently worked out by Mr. Jinarajadasa, will

make

the study comparatively easy to carry on.

The

diagrams, of course, can only give a very general idea of

the facts they represent

but

much

effort of the

;

they give groupings and

imagination

two-dimensional diagram into

the

is

show

relations,

needed to transform the

three-dimensional

object.

The wise student will try to visualize the figure from the diagram. Thus the two triangles of hydrogen are not in one plane the ;

and the atoms within them, while preserving each other their relative positions, are in swift movement Where five atoms are seen, as in three-dimensional space.

circles are spheres,

to in

bromine and iodine, they are generally arranged with the central atom above the four, and their motion indicates lines which meeting at their apices on a square erect four plane triangles

Each dot base, forming a square-based four-sided pyramid. The enclosing lines indicate represents a single ultimate atom. the impression of form made on the observer, and the groupings of the

atoms

element

is

;

the groups will divide along these lines,

when

the

broken up, so that the lines have significance, but

they do not exist as stable walls or enclosing films, but rather

mark

limits,

not

lines, of vibrations.

* This, with references which appear which appeared in the Theoiophist, 190S.

It

should be noted that

it

later (pp. 32, 33, 50, etc.), relates to articles


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 32 is

not possible to show

five of the

prisms

in the five intersecting

tetrahedra of prisms, and 30 atoms must, therefore, be added in counting.

The diagrams be impossible

are not

drawn

to scale, as

such drawing would

dot representing the atom

the

;

enormously

is

loo large compared with the enclosures, which are absurdly too small

a scale drawing

;

many

sheet of

would mean an almost

use of the words " positive " and " negative " needs to

The

be guarded by the following paragraphs from the ^'

Chemistry "

words

in

in their

the Encyclopcvdia

Brltannica.

article

We

on

use the

ordinary text-book meaning, and have not, so

detected any characteristics whereby an

far,

on a

invisible dot

yards square.

element can be

declared, at sight, to be either positive or negative

:

When binary compounds, or compounds of two elements, decomposed by an electric current, the two elements make These elements which are their appearance at opposite poles. "

are

disengaged

at the

negative pole are termed electro-positive or

positive or basylous elements, while those disengaged

at

the

termed electro-negative or negative or chlorous But the difference between these two classes of elements is one of degree only, and they gradually merge into each other moreover the electric relations of elements are not absolute, but vary according to the state of combination in positive pole are

elements.

;

which they

exist,

so that

is

it

just as impossible to divide the

elements into two classes according to this property as separate them

into

two

distinct

classes

of

is

it

to

metals and non-

metals."

We

follow here the grouping according to external forms,

and the student should compare it with the groups marked in the lemniscate airangement shown in Article II (p. 377, properly p. 437, February), reading the group by the disks that fall below group is H, CI, Br, I (hydrogen, and a blank for an undiscovered element. The elements grow denser in descending order thus hydrogen is an invisible gas chlorine a denser gas visible by its all, of course, iodine is a solid colour bromine is a liquid the lowering of normal. By are when temperature and pressure temperature and the increase of pressure, an element which is each other chlorine,

;

thus the

first

bromine, iodine)

;

;

;

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;


33

normally gaseous becomes a liquid, and then a

Solid,

solid.

liquid, gaseous, are three interchangeable states of matter,

an element does not

So

whether gas

"

as a chemical

far

it

by changing

alter its constitution

atom

"

concerned,

is

be drawn for investigation from a

it

matters

not

solid, a liquid, or a

but the internal arrangements of the " atoms " become

;

and

state.

its

much

more complicated as they become denser and denser, as is seen by the complex arrangements necessitated by the presence of the 3546 ultimate atoms contained in the chemical " atom " of gold, as compared with the simple arrangement of the 18 ultimate atoms of hydrogen. According

to the lemniscate arrangement,

mence with hydrogen as it

is

it

differs

by

itself.

as the head of the

wholly from those placed with

Hydrogen

therefore taken as

is i

weights are multiples of

is

better to take

known

elements, and

it,

the lightest of the

found

in a

it

ordinary chemistry, and

in

this.

We

take

it

chemical element.

obtained by dividing the total

all

as 18, because

eighteen ultimate atoms, the smallest

tains

we should com-

negative group, but

first

atomic it

con-

number we have

So our ''number-weights" are number of atoms in an element by

18 (see p. 349, January).

Hydrogen from

its

(Plate V,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Hydrogen

not only stands apart

reputed group by not having the characteristic

shape, well

bell

i).

January), but

shown

sodium

in

(Plate

1,

opposite

dumbp.

349,

also stands apart in being positive, serving as a

it

base, not as a chlorous, or acid, radical, thus " playing the part

of a metal," as in hydrogen chloride

drogen sulphate (sulphuric

most curious

(hydrochloric acid), hy-

acid), etc.

oxygen and nitrogen, the most widely spread gases, all differ fundamentally in form from the groups they reputedly head.* Hydrogen was the first It

â&#x20AC;˘

is

that hydrogen,

Since writing the above

Philosophical Magazine

William Francis,

an

I have noticed, in the London, Edinburgh and Dublin and Journal of Science, conducted by Dr. John Joly and Mr.

"Evolution and Devolution of the Elements," probable that in " the nebulous state of matter there are four substances, the fitst two being unknown upon earth, the third being hydrogen and the helium. fourth It also seems probable that hydrogen, the two unknown elements, and helium are the four original elements from which all the other elements in

the statement that

.

â&#x20AC;˘

.

it

article entitled

is

.

.

.

To distinguish them from the others we will term them protons." This is sugform. gestive as regards hydrogen, but does not help us with regard to oxygen and nitrogen. 3


34 chemical element examined by I

1895, for

we have nothing

to

and November,

us, nearly thirteen years ago,

reproduce here the substance of what

add

to

nor

I

wrote

amend

in

in

it.

Plate V. ChXtrr-i/n^

Š.:

V

â&#x20AC;˘

/O

&.

(D

XotZi/nA

"Brnymk/rut^

3

4

Hydrogen consists of six small bodies, contained in an egglike

form

(the outer

forms are not given in the diagrams).

The

six little

bodies are arranged in two sets of three, forming two

triangles

which are not interchangeable, but are

related to each


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 35

The

other as object and image.

six

bodies are not

all

alike;

they each contain three ultimate physical atoms, but in four of the bodies the three

remaining two

Hydrogen

:

I.

I

a.

atoms are arranged 6 bodies of 3

...

...

18

Atomic weight

...

...

i

Number

...

...

i

weight yf

in the

The Dumb-bell Group.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;This group consists of

and iodine)

and

in a triangle,

in a line.

CI, Br,

and

I

(chlorine,

bromine

they are monads, diamagnetic and negative.

;

Chlorine

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; As already

said, the general form is and upper parts each consisting of twelve funnels, six sloping upwards and six downwards, the funnels radiating outwards from a central globe, and these two parts being united by a connecting rod (see, again, sodium,

(Plate V, 2).

that of the dumb-bell, the lower

Plate

its

I).

The funnel (shown fiat as an isosceles triangle, standing on apex) is a somewhat complicated structure, of the same type

sodium (Plate VI, 2), the difference consisting in the more globe, containing nine additional atoms. The central globe is the same as in sodium, but the connecting as that in

addition of one

rod

differs.

containing

We

have here a regular arrangement of

three,

four,

five,

four,

atoms

three

five globes,

respectively,

whereas sodium has only three bodies, containing four,

six, four.

But copper and silver, its congeners, have their connecting rods of exactly the same pattern as the chlorine rod, and the chlorine rod reappears in both bromine and iodine. These close similarities

point to

some

between these groups of elements, the lemniscates, equi-distant from the central

real relation

which are placed, in line, though one is on the swing which is going towards line and the other is on the swing away from it.

CHLORINE

:

Upper

Lower

part part

K^ ^""f \^ Z^ (Central globe same

Connecting rod Total

^5 atoms

10

...

...

310

...

...

19

...

...

639

..

..

...

Number

^3^9

...

...

weight

300

...

Atomic weight

that

35*473 35*50


36

(The Atomic Weights are mostly from Erdmann, and the Number Weights are those ascertained by us by counting the

atoms as described on

p.

January, and

349,

W. Richards, in Nature, July 18, Bromine (Plate V, 3). — In bromine,

Prof. T.

dividing by

18.

1907, gives 35'473.)

each funnel has three

additional bodies, ovoid in shape, an addition of 33 atoms being

thus

made without any disturbance

form

of

;

two

pairs of

are added to the central globe, and a rearrangement of the is

drawing together and lessening the swing of the

effected by

pair

of

comers.

number

atoms atoms

thus making symmetrical room for the newThe connecting rod remains unchanged. The total

triplets,

of

atoms

is

thus raised from the 639 of chlorine to 1439.

Over and over again,

in these investigations,

were we reminded

of Tyndall's fascinating description of crystal building,

and

his

Truly are

fancy of the tiny, ingenious builders busied therein.

there such builders, and the ingenuity and effectiveness of their

devices are delightful to r, .,^ Bromine

TT

see.''

12 funnels of s8 atoms i u (Central ... globe

,f

Upper ^^

part-^,^

Lower

part

'^

1

same

Connecting rod Total

Atomic weight

Number Iodine

(Plate V, 4).

gains 4 atoms, the two pairs

14

...

...

710

...

...

19

...

...

1439

79'953 79*944

...

weight 1AA§

—We

696

1

find herein that the central globe

becoming

2 quartets

;

the connect-

ing rod exactly reproduces the rods of chlorine and bromine the funnel

is

;

also that of bromine, except that five bodies, con-

taining 35 atoms, are added to

it.

The 1439 atoms

of

bromine

are thus raised to 2887.

Iodine

,, :

Upper

Lower

,(

12 funnels of

partj^^^^^^^.^j

part

same

Connecting rod Total

Atomic weight

Number

90 atoms

^,,^^^^

weight ^^^^

1116 ^^

_

11

...

...

...

...

19

...

...

2287

...

...

34

i26'oi '27*055

• Theosophists call them Nature-Spirits, and often use the medieval term Elementals. Beings concerned with the elements truly are they, even with chemical elements.


.

'

37

The plan underlying the building up of groups is here clearly shown a figure is built up on a certain plan, in this case a dumbbell in the succeeding members of the group additional atoms ;

;

are symmetrically introduced, modifying the

following the general

idea

this case

in

;

appearance, but

connecting rod

the

remains unaltered, while the two ends become larger and larger, more and more overshadowing it, and causing it to become shorter and additional

thicker.

Thus

symmetrical

group

a

additions.

is

gradually formed

by

undiscovered

re-

the

In

maining member of the group we may suppose that the rod will have become still more egg-like, as in the case of gold. I b. The corresponding positive group to that which we

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

have been considering consists of Na, Cu, Ag, and

Au

(sodium,

copper, silver and gold), with an empty disk between silver and

showing where an element ought to be. These four elements are monads, diamagnetic, and positive, and they show

gold,

the dumb-bell arrangement, although

much

is

it

modified in

we may presume that the undiscovered element between and gold would form a link between them. Sodium (Plate VI, 2) has been already described (p. 349,

gold

;

silver

January), as a type of the group, so

we need only

refer to

internal arrangement in order to note that

it

the dumb-bell group.

show only

closed bodies, the same as

copper and

silver,

central globe

is

twelve funnels

Its

we

and which take

it

very

is

that

its

the simplest of

four en-

see in chlorine, bromine, iodine,

the simplest of

We may therefore

is

little

all,

sodium

as is

modified in gold. is

its

Its

connecting rod.

the ground-plan of the

whole group.

Sodium

:

Upper part

Lower

part

Connecting

12 funnels of 16 each

Central globe

192 10

same

202

rod...

14

Total

Atomic weight

Number Copper that

we

.

weight

418 23-88

.

23-22

"^-^^

(Plate VI, 3) introduces an addition in the funnel,

shall find elsewhere,

e.g.,

in

silver,

gold, iron, plati-


38

num,

zinc, tin, the triangular

arrangement near the mouth of the

funnel and adds to the ten atoms in this nineteen additional enclosed bodies, thus raising

a funnel from the sixteen of sodium to in the central

globe

is

doubled, and

more in three the number of atoms in forty-five. The number

we meet

for the first time

the peculiar cigar or prism-shaped six-atomed arrangement, that

Plate

VI.

0<cAAXZu/m/ /So-oLixvrrv

SxIa^^/t-

Oyfyp*.


39 IS

common

one of the most

imply some

atomic groups.

is

ought to

It

The

continual recurrence.

definite quahty, with its

column

central

of

the three, four, five, four, three, arrangement

already noted.

COPPFRCOPPER. UnnerDartl^^ Uppei part

funnels of 45 atoms ...

...

...

54° ^^ 5^°

...

...

...

19

...

...

...

l^^^^^^jgj^^^

Lower

same

part

Connecting rod

Total

Atomic weight

...

Number weight 3J^ Silver (Plate VI, live of the

4) follows

copper as

...

63'i2

63-277 constitution of

in the

But the triangular ten, and three

against

ovoids, each containing three bodies with eleven

the

number

globe

of

atoms

The connecting rod SILVER

:

is

of 79

(Central globe

part

same

Connecting rod

Atomic weight

it

is

948

... ...

15

...

...

...

963

...

...

...

19

...

...

1945

...

weight i||^

(This atomic weight

atoms ...

Total

1907, but

central

unaltered.

^

Number

The

and the prisms have disappeared.

five,

part|i2 funnels Upper ^^

Lower

atoms, raise

a funnel to seventy-nine.

in

decreased by

is

139

...

bodies enclosed in the funnels.

group contains twenty-one atoms

1

1 07*93 108-055

...

...

given by Stas, in Nature, August 29,

has been argued later that the weight should not be

above 107-883.)

Gold plate to

(Plate VII)

itself.

is

so complicated that

It is difficult

it

demands a whole

to recognize the familiar

when we come The egg groupings appear.

in this elongated egg, but

to

characteristic

is

dumb-bell

examine it, the the enormously

upper and lower parts with projections above and almond-like globes are the their central

swollen connecting rod, and the

shadowy the diagram), and within the almond is the

below, with the central ovoid. funnel (not drawn in

Round each almond

is

a


40 collection of bodies are the

same

as in

positive groups

;

shown

and

e,

fifth

;

;

member

the fourth the

fifth,

Plate

^â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

wherein the two lowest bodies

the third, ascending,

tion of the other thirds

of the fourth

in

every other

is

of

is

of

the negative

and

a very slight modifica-

and re-arrangement four ovoids, adds one to the a union

VII.

^----^ d^,-

and silver the triangular group is like that in copper and silver, though with 28 atoms instead of 10 or 21, and it may be noted that the cone in iron has also 28. The central body in the ovoid is very complicated, and is shown in c, the bodies on each side, d, are each made up of two tetrahedra, one with four six-atomed prisms at its angles, and the three ovoids of bromine, iodine

;


41

other with four spheres, a pair with four atoms and a pair with

We

three.

then

come

to the

circling groups

sixteen

arranged

in

is

is

Lower

part

12 funnels of 97

same (

Atomic weight

Number It

may be noted

exactly sixteen

atoms

the

1164 101

... ...

12^,38

...

76

...

..•

1341

336 528

4 a 84

...

...

...

...

Total

...

"...

...

...

•••195*74

...

•••

^97

is

made up

connecting rod

of occultum,

3546

that sixteen such

and

864 ultimate atoms, the exact

contain

atoms

(c

16633

weight ^-^^^ that

These groups are

b.

one another.

to

Central ovoid

Connecting rod

of the four

enlarged in a, and one of the

enlarged in

two planes inclined

Gold: Upper part

One

connecting rod.

similar groups in the centre

member

of

of

atoms

atoms

in

titanium. III.

Occultum was observed by us in 1895, and, finding that it was so light, and so simple in its composition, we thought that it might be helium, of which we were unable, at the time, When, however, helium itself came under to obtain a sample. observation in 1907, it proved to be quite different from the object before observed, so

Occultum,

until

we dubbed

orthodox science

the unrecognised object

shall find

it

and

label

in

it

proper fashion.

Occultum

We

(Plate VI,

i,

p.

here meet the tetrahedron for the

38). first

time, with each

angle occupied by a six-atomed group, the atoms arranged as on the end triangles of a prism. This form recurs very often, and it month, as seen in copper (Plate VI, 3) revolves with extreme rapidity around its longitudinal axis, and looks like a pencil sharpened at both ends, or a cigar we habitually spoke of it as "the cigar." tapering at both ends

was noted,

last

;

;

It

appears to be strongly coherent,

its six

for, as will

be seen below,

atoms remain attached to each other as meta-compounds


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 42

and even when divided

into

two

triplets as

hyper-componnds,

they revolve round each other.

Above the tetrahedron is a balloon-shaped figure, apparently drawn into shape by the attraction of the tetrahedron. The body below the tetrahedron looks like a coil of rope, and contains they are arranged on a slanting disk in a flat ring, fifteen atoms and the force goes in at the top of one atom, and out of the bottom of it into the top of the next, and so on, making a closed The two little spheres, each containing a triplet, are like circuit. they seem to be kept standing fill-up paragraphs to a compositor and popped in where wanted. The sphere marked ;v is a protocompound, the balloon when set free. As was noted under gold (p. 41), sixteen occultum bodies, re-arranged, make up the connecting rod in gold ;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

:

Occultum:

Tetrahedron Balloon ...

...

...

24

...

...

Triplets

...

...

9 6

...

...

15

...

54

...

Rope-circle

Total

Atomic weight

Not known

...

Number weight f|

...

3

Dissociation of Atoms. Before proceeding to the study of other chemical atoms, as to their general internal arrangements,

it

is

desirable to follow out,

which these atoms break up in those already shown, the way into simpler forms, yielding successively what we have called in

and hyper-compounds. It is naturally easier to follow these in the simpler atoms than in the more complex, and if the earlier dissociations are shown, the latter can be more

proto-, meta-,

readily

The its

and more first

"hole"

intelligibly described.

thing that happens on removing a gaseous atom from (see pp. 21 to 23) or encircling "wall,"

contained bodies

are

set

free,

and,

is

that the

evidently released

from

tremendous pressure, assume spherical or ovoid forms, the atoms within each re-arranging themselves, more or less, within the

new "hole"

or "wall."

The

figures are, of course,

three-dimensional, and often remind one of crystals

;

tetrahedral.


43 octagonal, and other like forms being of constant occurrence.

In the diagrams of the proto-compounds, the constituent atoms are

the

shown by dots. In dot becomes a heart, is

in

order to

show

The

followed.

letters

meta-compounds

the resultants of the

hyper-compounds the

In the diagrams of the

lines of force.

same plan

the diagrams of the

a,

b,

&c., enable

c,

student to follow the breaking up of each group through

the its

successive stages.

Hydrogen The

six

(Plate V,

i,

p.

re-arrange themselves within two spheres unite with one triangular

a

*

a

^

a

with

e

2ÂŤ

6

positions which, triangle

a

if

triplet,

;

the

two

linear triplets

holding to each other relative

6

6

connected by three right triplet

at

each angle

triangular triplets similarly arrange

sphere.

34).

bodies contained in the gaseous atom mstantaneously

;

lines,

the

would form

a

remaining three

themselves in the second

These form the proto-compounds of hydrogen.

In the dissociation of these, each group breaks up into two,

the two linear triplets joining each other and setting free their triangular comrade, while

two

of the triangular triplets similarly

remain together, casting out the third, so that hydrogen yields four meta-compounds.


"

44 In the hyper-condition, triplets is

broken, and they

like ix, in

the hyper-types

the connexion between the double

become four independent groups, two and two remaining linear, but

(p. 25),

rearranging their internal relations

;

two remaining groups

the

break up into two pairs and a unit.

The

final dissociation sets all the

OccuLTUM

On

the

first

(Plate VI,

dissociation of the

the tetrahedron

atoms

i,

free.

p.

38).

component

separates as a whole, with

flattening itself out within

its

hole, a;

parts of occultum, its

four " cigars,"

two "cigars" are positive

{^^ ((^P^3)

WiTHIM 8

Oe. SJl.

and two negative, marked respectively a and a'. The rope becomes a ring within a sphere, b, and the two bodies d d, which are loose in the gaseous atom, come within this ring.

The balloon becomes

On

a sphere.

further dissociation, the "cigars"

go

off

independently,

showing two types, and these again each divide into triplets, as B, on the meta-level, casts out the two d meta-compounds. become independent triplets, and the " rope bodies, which breaks into two, a close ring of seven atoms and a double cross of eight.

These subdivide again

ring yielding a quintet into

its

two

parts.

and a

pair,

form hyper-compounds, the and the double cross separating to


45

becomes much divided, the cohesion of its forms two triplets, a pair and a unit, and these set free, on further dissociation, no less than five separate atoms and two duads. The two triplets of d each cast out an atom on dissociation, and form two pairs and two units.

The

balloon,

c,

parts being slight

;

it

Sodium It

is

(Plate VI,

2).

convenient to consider sodium next, because

it

is

the

on which not only copper, silver and gold are " formed, but also chlorine, bromine and iodine. basic

pattern

When sodium up

into

is

thirty-one

set free

bodies

from

its

gaseous condition,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; twenty-four

separate

it

divides

funnels, four

bodies derived from the two central globes, and three from the

connecting rod.

The

become spheres, and each contains more or less complicated contents. sextet and a quartet, and the rod sets

funnels

four enclosed spheres, with

Each central globe yields a two quartets and a peculiarly formed

free

sextet.


46

When sets free

:

proto-compounds are

the

dissociated, the funnel-sphere

the contents of a, rearranged into two groups of

(i)

common

four within a

sphere

;

the sphere yields four duads as

which unite themselves into a quartet, yielding two duads as hyper-compounds; and (3) the contents of the two spheres, c, which maintain their separation as meta-compounds, and become entirely independent, the atoms within the sphere revolving round each other, but the spheres ceasing their revolution round a common axis, and going off in different directions. The atoms break off from each other, and gyrate in independent solitude as hyper- " compounds."

hyper-compounds

;

(2)

the contents of

b,

Thus each funnel yields finally ten hyper-bodies. The part of the central globe, marked d, with its six atoms, whirling round a common centre, becomes two triplets, at the meta-stage, preparing for the complete separation of these as

The second

hyper-bodies.

part of the

same

marked

globe,

e,

a whirling cross, with an atom at each point, becomes a quartet in the meta-state, in

and

which three atoms revolve round a fourth, central atom is set free, leaving a

in the hyper-state this

and a unit. Each of the two bodies marked/,

triplet

liberated from the connectround a common centre, whirling shows four atoms ing rod, but there must be some exactly resembling e in appearance ;

difference of inner relations, for, in the meta-state, they re-arrange

themselves as tw^o pairs, and divide into two as hyper-bodies.

The body marked ^ joined atoms at

its

is

apex

a four-sided pyramid, with

these

;

still

two closely

cling to each in mutual

revolution as a meta-body, encircled by a ring of four, and this leads to a further dissociation into three pairs on the hyper-level.

Chlorine

The

description of

chlorine, until

2, p.

to the

body nearest the mouth, the

sphere containing three additional bodies the

funnel

in

the

first

34).

funnel of sodium applies to that of

tiie

we come

(Plate V,

dissociation,

so

;

this

that

remains within again

twenty-four separate funnels as proto-compounds

;

we have

the central

globes are the same as in sodium, and yield the same four bodies are the

;

the connecting rod sets free five bodies, of which two

same

;

we have

thus thirty-three separate bodies as the


47 result of the dissociation of chlorine into

As

compounds which

its

proto-compounds.

sodium break up in the same way into meta- and hyper-compounds, we need not repeat the process here. We have only to consider the new meta- and hyper-compounds of the highest sphere within the funnel, and the two triplets and one quintet from the connecting rod. The additional body within the proto-funnel is of a very all

the

are in

simple character, three contained triangles within the flattened sphere.

On

from the funnel, on the meta-level, the atoms triplets, and these from each other as hyper-compounds. The two triplets release

rearrange themselves in a whirling set of three

break

ofif

from the connecting rod, need not delay

us.

The

also, are of the simplest character

and

five-atomed body, a four-sided pyramid

proto-compound, becomes on the meta, and two pairs with as a

round a centre on the hyper.

a ring whirling a unit

r^TS ^,^?/

8k. 79. 8,

ci.M.A

Bromine

(Plate V, 3).

Three additional bodies appear

at

the top of the funnel,

which otherwise repeats that of chlorine. The connecting rod is the same and may be disregarded. The central globes become more complex. The additions are, however, of very easy types, Each of the three similar and hence are readily dealt with. ovoid bodies contains two triplets each a triangle and a quintet These are the same, as may be seen in a four-sided pyramid.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;


48 the connecting rod of chlorine,

and we need not repeat them. This does not break up as a protomerely set free, a and the 2 hs whirling in a the paper and the two smaller bodies, cc,

Only the globe remains.

compound plane

but

vertical

is

to

whirling on a plane at right angles to the other. These two disengage themselves, forming a quartet as a meta-compound,

while a makes a whirling cross and bh a single sextet further dissociate themselves into four pairs

Iodine (Plate V, Iodine has nothing bodies

at the

new

and two

these

;

triplets.

4).

to give us, except five similar ovoid

top of each funnel, and two quartets instead of two

pairs in the central globe.

The ovoid bodies become

spheres

(^^S

CuS3-l

S3 37

when

funnels are thrown

and

form is two tetrahedra with a common apex, and the relationship is maintained in the meta-body, a septet. The latter breaks up into two triplets and a unit on the hyper-level. In the central globes, the a of bromine is repeated twice instead of the pairs in cc. the

indicated within the sphere.

Copper

We is

a

(Plate VI,

crystalline

are arranged in

3).

have already disposed of occultum, on

sodium, which hnd,

off,

The atoms

lies at

the root of both groups.

this plate,

and

Copper, we

of

now

also very largely off our hands, as the funnel provides us

I


49

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

new types two spheres new arrangement, and the

with only two

atoms

in a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; each

containing

triangular

body

five

at the

mouth with its ten atoms. This triangular body, with an increased number of atoms, reappears in various other chemical elements. The central globes are different from any we have had before, are familiar

in their internal ;

there are

arrangement, but the constituents

two contained spheres with four atoms

each, the a in the globe of bromine (see above) and 2 " cigars."

The "cigars" may be followed under occultum (see above). The connecting rod is as in chlorine, bromine and iodine. The atoms in the bodies a and b are curiously arranged.

A

two square-based pyramids turned so as to meet at and breaks up into two quartet rings and a duad. again two four-sided pyramids, but the bases are in contact

consists of

their apices,

B

is

and

set at right angles to

seen, as

it is

directly

each other

below the

first.

;

the second apex

The pyramids

is

not

separate as

meta-bodies, and the atoms assume the peculiar arrangement indicated and then break up into four pairs and two units on the

hyper

level.

IV.

Silver (Plate VI, 4 and Ag below). Silver presents us with only

are only

new by

shaped body

two new bodies, and even these

slight additions to old models.

The

triangular

the apex of the funnel, containing 21 atoms,

at

intermediate between the similar bodies in copper and iron.

is

As

becomes three triangles, joined at their apices, in fact a tetrahedron in which no atoms are distributed on the fourth face. The faces separate on the meta level and give three seven-atomed figures, and each of these breaks up into two The central globe only differs from that triplets and a unit. of bromine by the addition of one atom, which gives the familiar four-sided pyramid with a square base as in chlorine (see p. 46).

a proto-element

it

Gold The

(Plate VII

disintegration of gold

the proto-level

;

and Au below).

first

yields forty-seven bodies

on

the twenty-four funnels separate, and the central

globes which hold each twelve together set free their six contained

globes

4

(c,

d), thirty

bodies being thus liberated.

The

sixteen


50 bodies on the central inclined planes, marked their central

globe, with

unchanged.

But

its

break away,

b,

four contained globes, remaining

this condition

does not

last.

The motion

of

the funnels changes and thus the funnels cease to exist and their

contents are set

bodies

;

The first

each funnel thus liberating nine independent

the two c set free thirteen each two each 302 proto elements in all.

each

five

liberate

free,

the sixteen b separate into two each ;

;

;

the four a liberate

the four d finally

:

funnel

is

Four

almost that of iodine, re-arranged.

of the

ring in the iodine funnel are replaced by the triangular

body, which becomes a four-sided pyramid with an occupied

base.

The second

ring of three ovoids in iodine becomes four in

gold, but the internal arrangement of each ovoid

The next two spheres

in

is

the same.

the iodine funnel coalesce into one

sphere, with similar contents, in the gold funnel.

iodine

is

slightly rearranged to

form the fourth

The in

fifth

in

descent in

and the remaining two are the same. B has been broken up under occultum (p. 628) and can be followed there. The sixteen rings set free from the four a, after gyrating round the central body, now become a sphere, break up, as in occultum (see p. 44) into a meta seven-atomed ring and an eight-atomed double cross, and so on to the hyper level. The sphere with its two contained bodies breaks up into eight gold,


1

51

on the meta level, and each of these, on the hyper, into a duad and a unit. The twelve septets of c assume the form of prisms as in iodine (see p. 48) and pursue the same course, while its central body, a four-sided pyramid with its six attendants, divides on the meta level into six duads, revolving round a ring with a central atom as in chlorine (p. 47), the duads going off independently on the hyper-level and the ring breaking up as in chlorine. The " cigar " tetrahedron of d follows its course as in occultum, and the other sets free two quartets and two triplets on the meta level, yielding six duads and two units as hyper compounds. It will be seen that, complex as gold is, it is composed of constituents already familiar, and has iodine and triangles

occultum as II II.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;This

its

nearest

AND

\\a.

allies.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; The

Tetrahedral Groups.

group consists of beryllium (glucinum), calcium,

strontium and barium,

all

diatomic, paramagnetic and positive.

The corresponding group consists of oxygen, chromium, molybdenum, wolfram (tungsten) and uranium, with a blank disk these are diatomic, parabetween wolfram and uranium magnetic, and negative. We have not examined barium, :

wolfram, or uranium.

Beryllium

(Plate III,

2,

and Plate VIII,

i).

In the tetra-

hedron four funnels are found, the mouth of each funnel opening on one of its faces. The funnels radiate from a central globe,

and each funnel contains four ovoids each with ten atoms within In the accompanying diagrams it arranged in three spheres. one funnel with its four ovoids is shown and a single ovoid with its three spheres, containing severally three, four, and three atoms,

is

members in

seen at the left-hand corner of the plate (7 a). of this

group are

alike in

the increased complexity

funnels.

Beryllium,

it

will

bodies contained in the

of the

be observed,

is

very simple, whereas

calcium and strontium are complicated.

Beryllium

:

4 funnels of 40 atoms Central globe ... Total

Atomic weight

Number weight

The

arrangement, differing only

...

...

'j^/

...

160

...

4

...

164

...

9*0

..

9*11


52

Calcium spheres, of

(Plate VIII, 2) shows in each funnel three contained which the central one has within it seven ovoids

identical with those of

beryllium, and the spheres above and

Plate

VIII.

^CaXcui/ntr

CK^TCnruAJU^riy

^^nrylZiu/m^

®

®

®

®

% ©

©

§e©0 00©00§g,

# ©

y^-o^y^-i-t'^A

©

©

St^rtyriJtLtjym^

©

© §>©©©0©©©O§5* © ©

©

©

©

G>f^ ©n 8o©0©©oeoV

© ® o e

below

Q©Q

@ ®

*©W

contain each

five ovoids (7 b) in which the three contained spheres have, respectively, two, five, and two atoms. The central globe is double, globe within globe, and is divided into it


53

from the centre Hke an orange the segment belonging to the inner globe has a triangular body within it, containing four atoms (7 c), and the external part, belonging to the encircling globe, shows the familiar "cigar" (7 d). In this way 720 atoms are packed into eight segments, radiating

;

internal part of the

the simple beryllium type.

Calcium

:

4 funnels of 160 atoms Central globe ... Total

Strontium

weight

(Plate VIII, 3)

'^^£

shows

a

640 80

...

720

...

...

Atomic weight

Number

...

...

...

3974

...

...

40-00

still

further complication

within the funnels, no less than eight spheres being found within each.

with

Each five,

of the highest pair contains four subsidiary spheres,

seven, seven, five atoms, respectively (7

e,

g, /).

The

g groups are identical with those in gold, but difference of pressure makes the containing body spherical instead of ovoid similar ;

groups are seen the

" hole "

is

where

in the top ring of the iodine funnel,

ovoid in form.

The second

pair

of

also

spheres

contains ten ovoids (7 b) identical with those of calcium. The third pair contains fourteen ovoids (7 a) identical with those of beryllium, while

the

fourth pair repeats the second, with the

The

ovoids re-arranged.

internal divisions of the double sphere

same as in calcium, but the contents " cigars " in the external segments are replaced by

of the central globe are the

The

differ.

seven-atomed ovoids

(7

//)

— the iodine

segments contain five-atomed triangles

ovoids (7

/).

have been packed into the beryllium type,

— and the

again aroused by the ingenuity with which a type

while

it

is

external

Thus 1,568 atoms and our wonder is is

preserved

adapted to new conditions.

Strontium

:

4 funnels of 368 atoms Central globe ... Total

Atomic weight

Number weight

...

1472 96

...

...

1568

...

...

86'95 87-11

^-||^

...

...

— oxygen, — offers us

The corresponding group, headed by oxygen chromium, molybdenum, wolfram and uranium another problem in its first member.


54

Oxygen (Plate VIII, 4). This was examined by us in 1895, and the description may be reproduced here with a much improved diagram of its very peculiar constitution. The gaseous atom is an ovoid body, within which a spirally-coiled snake-like body revolves at a high velocity, five brilliant points of light shining on the coils. The appearance given in the former diagram will be obtained by placing the five septets on one side on the top of those on the other, so that the ten become in appearance five, and thus doubling the whole, the doubling point leaving eleven duads on each side, The composition is, how-

much

ever,

better

On

seen by flattening out the whole.

the

proto level the two snakes separate and are clearly seen.

Oxygen:

55 spheres of 2 atoms|

Positive snake

+

Negative snake

,,

Atomic weight

Number weight

Chromium

^^

atoms

5 disks of 7

...

145

290

Total

...

...

...

...

...

15*87

•••

•••

i6*ii

Y^o

(Plate VIII, 5) "reverts

to the ancestral type,"

widened by the arrangement of its contents, three spheres forming its first ring, as compared with the units in beryllium and calcium, and the pairs in strontium the tetrahedron

;

the funnel

is

and molybdenum. Two of these spheres are identical in their contents two quintets (7 /), a quintet (7 ;), and two quintetsThe (7 e), e and / being to each other as object and image.

remaining sphere calcium funnel. other,

are

calcium. is

again

(7

identical

The

b)

is

with the highest in the

identical

The remaining two

spheres, one below the

with the corresponding

central globe, as regards

identical

{y k) is

spheres

the

internal

substituted for the calcium

(7 c).

Chromium: 4

funnels of 210 atoms

Central globe

Total

Atomic weight

Number

in

external segments,

with that of calcium, but in

segments asix-atomed triangle four-atomed one

its

two

weight ^^^

...

840

...

...

96

...

...

936

...

...

5174

...

52*00


;

55

Molybdenum differing

from

(Plate VII

1,

6) very closely

resembles strontium,

only in the composition of the highest pair of

it

spheres in the funnels and in the presence of a

little

sphere,

containing two atoms only, in the middle of the central globe.

The topmost spheres contain no within each

;

less

than eight subsidiary spheres

the highest of these (7

e)

has four atoms in

it

;

the

next three have four, seven and four (7 e g e), respectively; the next three are all septets (7 g), and the last has four making in

two spheres 88 atoms, as against the 48 in corresponding spheres of strontium, making a difference of 160 in the

all

for these

four funnels.

Molybdenum

:

4 funnels of 408 atoms ... Central globe Total

Atomic weight

...

1632 98

...

1730

...

95*26

•••

96-11

...

...

Number weight ^^1^

—This

group contains magnesium, zinc, cadmium, and mercury, with an empty disk between cadmium and mercury we did not examine mercury. All are diatomic, diamagnetic and II a.

positive; the corresponding

and

tellurium, also

The same

all

characteristics of four funnels

a tetrahedron are found in

no central globe, and

become

group consists of sulphur, selenium

diatomic and diamagnetic, but negative.

in

all,

opening on the faces of

but magnesium and sulphur have

cadmium and

tellurium the globe has

a cross.

MagnEvSIUM (Plate IX, i) introduces us to a new arrangement each group of three ovoids forms a ring, and the three rings are

:

within a funnel

funnel

;

;

at

first

glance, there are three bodies in the

on examination each of these

is

seen to consist of three,

Apart from

this,

the ovoids being alike,

and

with other bodies, spheres, again within them. the composition

composed

is

simple enough,

of a triplet, a septet

Magnesium: 4

all

and a duad.

funnels of 108 atoms

Atomic weight

Number weight

^^-^

...

432

...

...

24*18

...

...

24*00

Zinc (Plate IX, 2) also brings a new device the funnel is of the same type as that of magnesium, while septets are substituted :


56 for the triplets,

Then we

see

and 36 additional atoms are thus slipped

four

spikes,

alternating

with the funnels

pointing to the angles, each adding 144 atoms to the

Plate

total.

in.

and

The

IX.

IdL-CLgrxe^iu/m^

T^VTVC

Coud/TTiAAA/rrv

spikes

show

the ten-atomed triangle, already met with in other

metals, three very regular pillars, each with six spheres, containing

The two atoms, respectively. globe, but model of the central supporting spheres are on the two, three, four,

four,

three,


1

57

Funnels and spikes alike radiate from a which five contained spheres are arranged

contain more atoms.

simple central globe, in

cadmium.

crosswise, preparing for the fully developed cross of

The ends

bottoms of the funnels.

of the cross touch the

Zinc

:

4 funnels of 144 atoms 4 spikes of 144 atoms ... Central globe

...

...

...

...

576 576

...

...

18

Total

Atomic weight

Number Cadmium (Plate the diagram

weight ii|^

...

...

...

...

1

170

64*9 65*00

IX, 3) has an increased complexity of funnels

shows one

of the three similar

within the funnels as cylinders spheres, three

...

pillars

segments which

;

lie

each of these contains four

;

and three ovoids,

like the spike of zinc

turned upside down, and the zinc ten-atomed triangle changed into three ten-atomed ovoids.

The

though prefigured

globe of zinc.

PAT.MITTM ^^^^'"^

in the central

centre-piece

segments of 164 atoms = 492| I4 funnels of 492 atoms Central body J3

. â&#x20AC;˘

)

is

-

Number The corresponding Sulphur (Plate X,

i),

which,

iii'6o

...

like

'^^S

2016

weight ^-Ji^

negative group

new form,

48

Total

Atomic weight

a

II2*00 is headed by magnesium, has no central

and consists simply of the zinc funnels, much compressed than zinc but the same in composition.

globe,

Sulphur

Selenium

:

4 funnels of 144 atoms... Atomic weight ... Number weight ^^ ...

(Plate

X,

2)

is

distinguished

...

576

...

3i"82

...

32-00

less

by the exquisite

peculiarity, already noticed, of a quivering star, floating across

mouth of each funnel, and dancing violently when a ray of upon it. It is known that the conductivity of selenium varies with the intensity of the light falling upon it, and it may

the

light falls


58

be that the star It

will

is

in

some way connected with

be seen that the

each of

its

six points the

the seven-atomed cone.

its

conductivity.

complicated body, and in

star is a very

two five-atomed spheres revolve round

The bodies

in

the funnels

resemble

magnesium, but a reversed image of the top one is interposed between itself and the small duad, and each pair has

those in

its

own

enclosure.

The

central globe

is

the

same

as that of zinc.


59

Selenium

:

4 funnels of 198 atoms

atoms

stars of 153

4

Central globe

...

...

792 612

...

...

18

...

1422

...

Total

Tellurium

Atomic weight

...

...

78*58

Number weight i^|^

...

...

79*00

(Plate X, 3),

cadmium, and has three figured making up the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

pillars

run three, four,

will

it

be seen, closely resembles

cylindrical segments

funnel.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; of

which one

The contained bodies

five, four, three,

is

in the

two, instead of starting

and a quartet replaces a duad in the globes above. The central cross only differs from that of cadmium in having a So close a seven-atomed instead of a four-atomed centre.

with two

similarity

;

is

striking.

segments of 181 atoms 4 funnels of 543 atoms 3

Tellurium

Central

body

= 543)

...

Total

Atomic weight

...

Number weight ^^^

-

|

7-

...

51

...

2223

...

126*64

...

123*50

V.

We

must now consider the ways in which the members of the tetrahedral groups break up, and as we proceed with this study we shall find how continual are the repetitions, and how Nature, with a limited

number

by varied combinations her

Beryllium

of

fundamental methods, creates

infinite variety of forms.

(Plate III,

2,

and VIII,

i).

Beryllium offers us four similar funnels and a central globe,

and the proto-elements consist of these five bodies, set free. The funnel, released from pressure, assumes a spherical form, with its four ovoids spinning within it, and the central globe remains a whirling cross. On the meta level, the and two from each funnel are seen to be

sphere, containing a

ovoids are

set free,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

two negative sixteen bodies in all, phis the cross, which the resultant force-lines are changed, preparatory to

positive,

in its


6o breaking into two duads on the hyper

level.

On

that level, the

decades disintegrate into two triplets and a quartet, the positive with the depressions inward, the negative with the depressions outward.

Calcium

(Plate VIII, 2).

The

funnels, as usual, assume a spherical form on the proto and show, in each case, three spheres containing ovoids. These spheres, still on the proto level, break free from their

level,

containing funnel, as in the case of gold

(p. 49),

twelve bodies

being thus liberated, while the central globe breaks up into eight segments, each of which becomes globular, and contains within it

a " cigar"

and

a

somewhat heart-shaped body.

Four spheres,

each containing seven ten-atomed ovoids, are identical with those in beryllium,

and can be followed

in its

diagram.

Eight spheres.

(D\^l 4^8

Be

each containing

five

nine-atomed ovoids of a different type,

set

on the meta level, eighty duadsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; forty positive and forty negative and forty quintets, which are identical with those in

free,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

chlorine.

On

the hyper level, the duads

become

single atoms,

within a sphere, and the central atom from the quintet free,

one hundred and twenty

in all.

The remaining

is

also set

four atoms

of the quintet divide into two duads.

The

central

globe, dividing into eight,

atomed spheres on the meta, the "

cigar "

becomes

eight six-

behaving as usual,


6i four " cigars " being positive dissociated into triplets

;

and four

negative,

and becoming

the four atoms within the heart-shaped

body appear as a tetrahedron, remain together on the meta and break up into duads on the hyper.

Strontium (Plate VIII,

The

third

member

of this

level,

3).

group repeats the a groups

of

beryllium and the h groups of calcium, and they dissociate into the bodies already described under these respectively.

The two

upper globes in each funnel repeat each other, but each globe contains four smaller spheres showing three varieties of forms.

which are repeated in the central globe as h, are seven-atomed, and appear as spheres or ovoids according to c and /are pressure. They are figured on p. 48, under iodine seen them in have already we and image, and related as object

The two marked

^,

;

copper (pp. 38 and 48) into a ten-atomed figure

in

;

form a ring, which repeats

each case, as

in copper, they unite

on the meta level the pair of fours and the remaining two atoms form a duad /, ;

;

/,

makes a ring with the

the five-atomed 6 of calcium, as

fifth in

the centre, as in

shown above.

There

is,

thus,

nothing new in strontium, but only repetitions of forms already studied.

Oxygen (Plate

VIII, 4).

oxygen as given in 1895 may be repeated here, and the better presentation given on p. 54 renders it easier On the proto level the two "snakes" to follow the process.

The

divide

;

disintegration of

the brilliant disks are seven-atomed, but are differently

arranged, the positive snake having the atoms arranged as in the iodine ovoids, whereas the negative snake has

them arranged

as

H. The snakes show the same extraordinary activity on the proto level as on the gaseous, twisting and writhing, darting and coiling. The body of the snake is of two-atomed beads, positive and negative. On the meta level the snakes break into ten fragments, each consisting of a disk, with six beads on

in a capital

one side and snake.

They

five

on the

other, remaining as lively as the original

shiver into their constituent disks,

and beads on

the hyper level, there yielding the ten disks, five positive and five

negative,

negative.

and the

no

beads, fifty-five positive and fifty-five


62

Chromium (Plate

When we

go on

to

to our famiHar funnels

level

us no

give

spheres and ovoids.

—quickly

;

j in

ovoid.

chromium

The a is

set free, as before,

new combinations

the

In the central globe,

on the

in their contained

of beryllium, the b of calcium

strontium, and d of calcium, the there

5).

chromium and molybdenum, we return and central globes, and the secondary

spheres within the funnels

proto

VIII,

same

k, is

e

and /

and

of strontium, are all

as the central sphere in the b

a pair of triangles as in hydrogen,

consisting of only six atoms, which on the meta level revolve

round each other, and break up into two duads and two units on the hyper.

©@©@ (S) @@@©i

^00^0 (^ 00 0'

Molybdenum (Plate Molybdenum

presents

us with

VIII, 6).

only two

new

forms, and

these are merely four-atomed tetrahedra, occurring in pairs as

object and

image.

All

the

other bodies have already been

analysed. II a.

—We

come now

to the

second great tetrahedral group,

which though very much complicated, repetition of familiar forms.

is

yet, for the

most

part, a


63

Magnesium (Plate IX,

We

are

among

still

i).

so have

tetrahedra,

to

funnels, but each funnel contains three rings,

three ovoids

;

on the proto

do with four and each ring

level a triple dissociation takes place,

for the funnels let free the rings as large spheres, in each of

which

rotate three twelve-atomed ovoids,

and then the ovoids

break loose from the spheres, and themselves become spherical, so that

we have

tetrahedron.

On

finally thirty-six

proto

compounds from

the meta level the contained bodies, a

the

triplet,

and a duad, Mg c, are set free from each globe, thus yielding one hundred and eight meta compounds. On the hyper level the triplet becomes a duad and a unit the duad becomes two units and the septet a triplet and a quartet.

Mg a,

a septet,

Mg

b,

;

;

Zinc (Plate IX,

We it

2).

can leave aside the funnel, for the only difference between

and the magnesium funnel is the substitution of a second and the septet is already shown in the

septet for the triplet,

magnesium diagram.

We

have, therefore, only to consider the

and and the

spikes, pointing to the angles of the enclosing tetrahedron,

the central globe.

These are

set free

on the proto

level

spikes immediately release their contents, yielding thus thirty-two

separate bodies.


64

The

triangular arrangement at the top of the spike

as occurs in copper (6

of the

similar

three

diagram under Zn

:

p. 48),

pillars

a.

is

it

in

a rather peculiar

the quartets turn round each other in the middle

revolve round

triplets

them

in a slanting ellipse

;

and

as in gold (a

b,

globes at the base of the spikes, cross

is

a

Zn

Zn

e,

b,

the

do

some-

wathin

behave as a cross

a groups. follows the same cruciform

favourite device in the

globe,

central

first,

The spheres

40).

p.

;

the duads

the same on an ellipse slanting at an angle with the

what

same

the

and can be there followed. One shown in the accompanying The compressed long oval becomes a

on

globe, with six bodies revolving within

way

is

the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the

Finally, the

II

line

of dis-

integration.

Cadmium

Cadmium

(Plate IX, 3).

follows very closely on the lines of zinc

of the zinc spike are reproduced

funnel

;

the globes are also the globes of

of these needs attention.

We

;

in the rings of the

cadmium

the pillars

cadmium so neither

;

have only to consider the three

ten-atomed ovoids, which are substituted for the one ten-atomed triangle of zinc,

spheres (Cd a,

b),

and the

central

cross.

The ovoids become

the contained bodies revolving within them,

a whirling on a diameter of the sphere, cutting it as it were, and b whirling round it at right angles

in ;

halves,

the cross


becomes

also

tained within

a sphere it

(Cd

by the

c),

but the cruciform type

relative

positions

the

of

The subsequent

spheres in their revolution.

main-

is

contained

stages are

shown

in the diagram.

Sulphur

(Plate XI,

i).

Sulphur has nothing new, but shows only the funnels already figured in magnesium, with the substitution of a second septet

for the

triplet, as in zinc.

Selenium

The funnel

of selenium

is

(Plate X, 2).

a re-arrangement of the twelve-

atomed ovoids of magnesium and the ten-atomed ovoids of cadmium. The funnels, on disintegrating, set free twelve

cinrnto? STAa i

e »f IMT» 0»

JT&B

Of TK!18S M<.«t OW* »?gg?K

On the meta level the and the tw^elve-atomed divide into duads and decads, thus yielding seventy-two decads and thirtythe duads, however, at once recombine into hexads, six duads groups, each containing nine spheres.

ten-atomed bodies are

set free,

;

thus giving only twelve meta elements, or eighty-four in

from the funnels. proto at off

level,

first

into

5

but

The yields

all

central globe holds together on the five

meta elements.

The

star

also

and then shoots seven bodies, the centre keeping together, and the

remains a unit on the proto

level,


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

six

becoming

points

.

spheres,

within which the

two cones,

base to base, whirl in the centre, and the globes circle round

On

them. the star

meta level all the thirty bodies contained in separate from each other, and go on their independent the

ways.

Selenium

example of the combination of

offers a beautiful

simple elements into a most exquisite whole.

Tellurium

(Plate X,

3).

Tellurium very closely resembles cadmium, and they

are,

on the same diagram. The pillars are the same as in chlorine and its congeners, with a duad added at the base. The ten-atomed ovoid is the same as in cadmium and follows the same course in breaking up. It would be interesting to know why this duad remains as a duad in selenium and breaks up into a septad and triad in the other members of the group. It may be due to the greater pressure to which it is subjected in therefore placed

selenium, or there tellurium centre

is

may be some

identical with

other reason.

that in

The

cross in

cadmium, except

that

the

seven-atomed instead of four-atomed.

is

VI. Ill

We

AND

The Cube Groups.

Ilia.

have here four groups to consider,

which are

triads,

and have

six

the

all

funnels, opening

members of

on the

six faces

of a cube. III. all

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Boron, scandium and yttrium were

triatomic, paramagnetic,

and

examined

the remaining

and

members

negative.

We

of these groups.

nitrogen dominates, and in order to

make

;

they are

have not examined

In these

two groups

the comparison easy

the nitrogen elements are figured on both Plate

XI and Plate XII

be seen that scandium and yttrium, of the positive group,

It will

differ

they are

The corresponding

positive.

group consists of nitrogen, vanadium and niobium triatomic, paramagnetic,

;

only in details from vanadium and niobium, of the negative

on which they are built is the same. We noted a similar close resemblance between the positive strontium and the negative molybdenum. group

;

the ground-plan


67

Boron

(Plate

and

III, 4,

simplest form of the cube

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; four

;

Plate XI,

We

i).

have here the

the funnels contain only five bodies

six-atomed ovoids and one six-atomed " cigar."

central globe has but four five-atomed spheres. in relation to

its

Boron

:

congeners as

beryllium to

is

6 funnels of 30 atoms Central globe ...

Total

Atomic

(Plate XI,

A

types,

of

different

to

be positive and

B

2).

as simple

It is

group-members.

...

...

...

...

180 20

200

...

10-86

weight...

Number weight Scandium

its

The

ii'ii

^^^

For the

first

and B, three

time

funnels

A

appear

kind

of each

negative, but this

we meet ;

must be stated with

reserve.

A

In risen

the boron funnel

above

its

is

reproduced, the "cigar" having

companion ovoids

;

matter to note in respect to this funnel

but the most important is

our introduction to the

body marked a no. This body was observed by us first in nitrogen, in 1895, and we gave it the name of the "nitrogen balloon," for in nitrogen it takes the balloon form, which it also Here it appears as a often assumes in other gaseous elements. level and it will assumed on the proto sphere the form always be seen, on reference to the detailed diagram 4 a, to be a com-

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

plicated body, consisting of six fourteen-atomed globes arranged

round a long ovoid containing spheres with three, four, six, six, atoms respectively. It will be observed that this balloon appears in every member of these two groups, except four, three,

boron.

The B

funnel runs largely to triads,

c

and

b,

b (see

not only a triadic arrangement of spheres within globes, but each sphere has also a triplet of atoms.

there

a

is

duads.

B

funnel.

It

triadic is

4

its

b)

having

contained

In c (see 4

c)

arrangement of spheres, but each contains

completed by a five-atomed sphere

should be noted that

a, b

and

c all

at the top of the

are constituents of

nitrogen.

The

central globe repeats that of boron, with an additional

four-atomed sphere

in the middle.


68

Scandium

:

3 funnels (A) of 140

3

(B) of 116

atoms „

Centre globe

24 Total

4378

Number

44'oo

weight \%2

Plate XI.

YcZn^ii^ynx

(%?l^

792

Atomic weight

Soroii

3

420 348


69

Yttrium ment

Here we have a quite new arrangethe funnel being of one type "cigars" whirl on their own axes in the centre near (Plate XI, 3).

of bodies within the funnel

Two

only.

the top, while four eight-atomed globes (see 4

e)

chase each

other in a circle round them, spinning madly on their

spinning seems constant in

this axial

Lower down

the time.

own

axes

all

arrangement

is

contained bodies

all

in the funnel, a similar

a nitrogen element replacing the " cigars," and six-atomed ovoids replacing the globes. seen, with a globe (see 4 d)

" nitrogen balloon " occupies the third place in the funnel,

The

now showing (see

4

of

b)

usual shape in combination, while the b globe

its

scandium

takes

on

a lengthened

form below

it.

The central globe presents us with two one of the combinations in gold (see Plate VII d, p. 40), and differing from that only by the substitution of two quartets for tetrahedra, recalling

the two triplets in gold.

atoms as a, b, facts,

day,

number

funnel of yttrium contains exactly the same

One

is

and d

contained in a gaseous atom are

all

nitrogen elements.

We

put on record these

Some

without trying to draw any conclusions from them.

we

— or

others

— may find

of

Further,

of nitrogen.

out their significance,

and

trace

through them obscure relations.

Yttrium

:

6 funnels of 261 atoms

...

1566

Central globe

...

40

...

1606

...

88*34 89*22

...

Total

Atomic weight

...

Number weight The corresponding and niobium, it is

is

What

is

negative group, of nitrogen,

pervades so

like

many

the

air,

which renders oxygen and make

so extraordinarily active in

enters into the

some

of

most powerful explosives

future, perhaps, will find

constituent parts,

of

of the bodies

there in nitrogen

veniently dilute the fiery is

?-||^

vanadium

rendered particularly interesting by the fact that

headed by nitrogen, which

so large a part

...

it

forms

are studying.

it

so inert as to con-

it

breathable, while

its ?

which

we

the secret in the arrangement of

which we

it

compounds that it Some chemist of the

are able only to describe.

its


70

Nitrogen of

but

is

(see

4

shape

in

our 1895 investigations,

body

assume the cubical form

(Plate XII, i) does not

its relatives,

I

an egg.

like

quote from them.

Referring again to

The balloon-shaped

middle of the egg, containing

a) floats in the

six

small spheres in two horizontal rows, and a long ovoid in the

midst

this

;

balloon-shaped body

towards the negative body b

of

with

6)

and

is

drawn down

seven-contained

its

which has nine atoms within it three triads. two larger bodies two

seen, in addition to the

these (see 4

each containing

d),

and two

positive,

4

spheres, each of

Four spheres are

positive,

is

(see

;

five

smaller globes, are

(see 4 c) containing four smaller globes, are

negative.

Nitrogen: Balloon

...

...

Oval ... ... 2 bodies of 20 atoms

...

2

...

24

... •••

...

Total

Atomic weight

Number Vanadium

weight

63 40 48

...

261

...

...

i4'oi

...

...

14*50

two of scandium by

(Plate XII, 2) closely follows scandium, having

types of funnels.

Funnel

A

only differs from that

having a globe (see 4 d) inserted

B

'^^^-^

no

in the ring of four

ovoids

funnel

;

has a six-atomed, instead of a five-atomed globe at the top, and

slips a third

two

globe containing twenty atoms (see 4 d) between the

identical with

those of scandium (see 4

globe has seven atoms In this

in

its

c).

The

central

middle body instead of four.

way does vanadium succeed

in

overtopping scandium

by 126 atoms.

Vanadium

:

3 funnels (A) of 160

Atomic weight

Number

...

480

•••

...

...

411 27

Total

...

918

...

50'84

...

5i"oo

n Central globe 3

atoms

(B) „ 137

»

...

weight ^^^


71

Niobium (Plate XII, vanadium to scandium.

3) is as closely related to

The

little

yttrium as

is

globes that scamper round

the "cigars " contain twelve atoms instead of eight (see 4 e). The rest of the funnel is the same. In the central globe both

the tetrahedra have "cigars," and a central nine-atomed globe spins round in the centre (see 4/), seventeen atoms being thus

added.

Plate XII.

.A.

Vayn,acoiiyi-i.-f7^

J\rit>l.Ajuyrn,

'f\


5

Niobium

6 funnels of 277 atoms Central globe ...

;

Total

Atomic weight

...

Number weight l^^^ III a.

this

—Aluminium, gallium and They

group.

...

1662

...

57

...

1719

...

93' 2

...

95*50

;

indium were examined from

are triatomic, diamagnetic,

and

positive.

The

corresponding group contains phosphorus, arsenic and antimony

bismuth also belongs to

it,

but was not examined

;

They have no

diamagnetic and negative.

triatomic,

:

they are central

globes.

Aluminium

(Plate XIII,

There are

simple.

ovoids, below

which

Aluminium

:

is

Gallium

is,

as usual,

each containing eight

a globe.

6 funnels of 81 atoms

...

486

Atomic weight

...

...

26*91

weight ^-^

...

27*00

Number in the

the head of the group,

i),

six similar funnels,

(Plate XIII,

segment to the

left

2)

has two segments in every funnel

a " cigar " balances a globe, equally

six-atomed, in that of the right, and the globes to right and

left

In the next row, the

are four-atomed as against three-atomed.

smaller contained globes have six atoms as against four, and the cones have respectively seven and

By

five.

these

little

additions the left-hand funnel boasts one hundred and twelve

atoms

as against ninety-eight.

Gallium

:

Left segment 112 atoms

Right segment 98 „ 6 funnels of 210 atoms

Atomic weight

Number Indium

(Plate

XIII,

...

i^^^ weight ° 18 3)

1

|

" ^^° 1260

...

... ...

69*50 yo'oo '

repeats the segments of

exactly, save in the substitution of a sixteen-atomed

gallium

body

for

and a fourteenatomed body for the five-atomed corresponding one in gallium. But each funnel now has three segments instead of two three funnels out of the six contain two segments of type A and one of type B the remaining three contain two of type B, and one the seven-atomed cone of the left-hand segment,

;

;

of type A.


73

Indium: Segment Segment

A B

121 atoms

107

3

A and B and

3 funnels of 2

„ 2

i

B

([242

I

A

([214

+ +

107] 3) 121] 3)

1047 1005

Total

2052

Atomic weight

1

t^A? Number weight ° 18

114*00

Plate XIII. Ahuumi/niAM'n,

^aJUJMyrn.

TruSiXAjyTrL'

1405


74

The corresponding

negative group, phosphorus, arsenic, and

antimony, run on very similar lines to those we have just examined.

Phosphorus (Plate XIV, i) offers us a very curious arrangement of atoms, which will give some new forms in breaking up. Two segments are in each funnel, in fact the only two of group Ilia which do not show this arrangement, or a modification thereof, are aluminium and arsenic. Plate XIV.

O AySr^nxLc


75

Phosphorus

Arsenic

(Plate

:

Left segment 50 atoms Right segment 43 „ 6 funnels of 93 atoms Atomic weight ... Number weight ^^-^

XIV,

2)

\

~ ^^

j

...

558

...

30*77 31-00

...

resembles aluminium in having eight

internal sub-divisions in a funnel,

the top ring are identical, save for

and the ovoids which form a minute difference that in

aluminium the ovoids stand the reverse way from those in It will be noted that in the former the top and bottom triangles of atoms have the apices upwards, and the middle one has its apex downwards. In arsenic, the top and bottom ones point downwards, and the middle one upwards. Arsenic inserts sixteen spheres between the ovoids and globe shown in aluminium, and thus adds no less than one hundred and forty- four atoms to each funnel. arsenic.

Arsenic

6 funnels of 225 atoms

...

1350

Atomic weight

...

74"45

:

Number Antimony

weight lAAQ

75'oo

XIV, 3) is a close copy of indium, and the types A and B in the funnels is identical. In the both A and B a triplet is substituted for a unit at

(Plate

arrangement of

middle rings of

the centre of the larger globe. ^'

...

cigar " has vanished,

and

In the lowest is

body

of type

A

tlie

represented by a seven-atomed

crystalline form.

Segment A 128 atoms Segment B 113 atoms funnels of 2 A and i B ([256 +

Antimony 3 3

:

2

Band

I

A

ii3]3)

([226+ 128] Total

3)...

1107 1056

...

2163 119*34 i20"i6

...

Atomic weight

...

...

...

Number weight

...

...

...


;

76 VII.

Boron

(Plate III, 4,

and Plate XI,

The

i).

disintegration of boron is very simple the funnels are and assume the spherical form, showing a central " cigar and four globes each containing two triplets. The central globe is also set free with its four quintets, and breaks at once in two. On the meta level the " cigar " breaks up as usual, and the triplets :

''

set free

On

separate.

the hyper level, the " cigar " follows

its

usual

and the triplets become duads and units. The globe forms two quintets on the meta level, and these are resolved into triplets and duads. course,

Scandium **

A

and the ovoids behave as in boron, from the funnel as it a sphere, and holds together on the proto level

In funnel

but the

balloon," a

changes to

on the meta, and these are is

also set free

hyper

it

no

as duads

on the meta

and two

In funnel

(XI, 4), escapes

yields six globes each containing seven duads,

all set free

level liberates its

quartets

(Plate XI, 2).

the "cigar "

B

level

on the hyper

level

;

the ovoid

becoming a sphere, and on the triplets, two

contained bodies, as two

sextets.

there

is

a quintet, that behaves like those in the

globe of boron, on escaping from the funnel, in which the bodies

remain on the proto

level,

with the exception of b 63, which


77 escapes.

On

the meta level,

form with six atoms sextets on the hyper

at

c

(Plate XI, 4), c

assumes a tetrahedral

each point, and these hold together as

At the meta stage, b (Plate XI, 4 6) bodies, which become free triplets nine-atomed sets free seven on the hyper. The central globe shows a cross at its centre, level.

the proto level. it, on and follow the boron type, On the meta, the while the cross becomes a quartet on the meta level, and two duads on the hyper.

with the four quintets whirling round quintets are set free,

Yttrium

(Plate XI,

3).

In yttrium, on the proto level, a 110 and b 63 both escape from the funnel, and behave as in scandium. The ovoids and " cigars," set free on the meta level, behave as in boron. The central globe breaks up as in gold (pp. 49 and 50), four quartets being set free instead of two quartets and two triplets. We have

and d 20 (Plate XI, 4). ÂŁ 8 is a tetrahedral arrangement of duads on the meta level, set free as duads on the hyper. D 20 is an arrangement of pairs of duads at the angles of a square-based pyramid on the meta, and again free duads only to consider

on

e

8

the hyper.

Nitrogen Nitrogen has nothing

having appeared

in

(Plate XII,

new

to

scandium and

show

i).

us, all

yttrium.

its

constituents


;

78

Vanadium

(Plate XII,

2).

vanadium repeats the A funnel of scandium^ In the B funnel with the addition of d 20, already studied. scandium B is repeated, with an addition of d 20 and a sextet

The A funnel

for a quintet

The

;

of

the

sextet

the

is

of the " nitrogen balloon."

c

central globe follows boron, save that

centre

;

this

was figured

Niobium

Niobium only triplets,

(Plate XII, 3).

differs

duads

The only

unit.

its

from yttrium by the introduction of on the meta level we have therefore and on the hyper each triplet yields a duad and a for

triplets

has a septet for

it

in iodine (p. 48).

in

e

;

other difference

the central globe.

in

is

The

tetrahedra separate as usual, but liberate eight "cigars" instead of four with four quartets

;

the central

body is simple, becoming on the meta level, and

three triads at the angles of a triangle three duads

and three

units

on the hyper.

Aluminium

The

funnels

let

(Plate XIII,

go the globes, but the eight ovoids remain

within them, so that seven bodies are

When

i).

let

loose on the proto level.

the ovoids are set free at the meta stage they

become

and a nine-atomed body is produced, which breaks up The globe becomes a cross at into triangles on the hyper level. the meta stage, with one atom from the duads at each arm in addition to its own, and these form four duads on the hyper, and spherical

from the

a unit

centre.

Gallium

(Plate

XI II,

2).

In gallium the funnel disappears on the proto free

its

two contained segments, each

of

thus yielding twelve bodies on the proto

level, setting

which forms level.

On

a cylinder,

the meta, the

three upper globes in each left-hand segment are set free, and

soon vanish, each liberating a cigar and two septets, the quartet and triad uniting. On the hyper the quartet yields two duads but the triangle persists. The second set of bodies divide on tlie meta level, forming a sextet and a cross with a duad at each arm these

on the hyper

a unit.

level divide into

two

triangles, four

The seven-atomed cone becomes two

duads and

triangles united

by


79

and on the meta level these form a ring round on the hyper they form three duads and a unit.

a single atom,

the unit

;

In the right-hand segment, the

same policy

is

followed, the

four triads becoming two sextets, while the central body adds a third to the number.

The second

ring has a quartet instead of

the sextet, but otherwise breaks up as does that of the

left

;

the

quintet at the base follows that of boron.

Indium

The complication

(Plate XIII,

3).

of three segments of ditferent types in each

funnel does not affect the process of breaking up, and indium

needs

little

attention.

A

is

exactly the

same

as the left-hand

funnel of gallium, save for the substitution of a globe containing the familiar " cigar

same body

"

and two square-based pyramids.

as the right-hand funnel of gallium, except that

consists of two square-based pyramids

B its

is

the

lowest

and a tetrahedron.

All these are familiar.

Phosphorus The atoms

(Plate

XIV,

i).

in the six similar spheres in the

segments of the

phosphorus funnel are arranged on the eight angles of a cube, and the central one is attached to all of them. On the meta level five of the nine atoms hold together and place themselves on the the remaining four set themangles of a square-based pyramid ;


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 8o

on the angle of a tetrahedron. They yield, on the hyper The remaining bodies are level, two triads, a duad, and a unit. simple and familiar.

selves

Arsenic

(Plate

XIV,

2).

Arsenic shows the same ovoids and globe as have already been broken up in aluminium (see ante) the remaining sixteen spheres form nine-atomed bodies on the meta level, all similar to those of aluminium, thus yielding twelve positive and twelve ;

negative

;

the globe also yields a nine-atomed body, twenty-five

bodies of nine.

Antimony Antimony follows

XIV,

(Plate

the upper ring of spheres being identical. triplet is substituted for the unit,

cross out of gear,

breaks up into a

3).

and indium,

closely in the track of gallium

and

this

In the second ring, a

apparently throws the

and we have a new eleven-atomed figure, which and two quartets on the hyper level. The

triplet

lowest seven-atomed sphere of the three at the base as

we met with

is

the

same

in copper.

VIII. IV.

The Octahedral Groups.

These groups are

at the turns of the spiral in Sir

Crookes' lemniscates (see

with below

it

p.

28).

On

titanium and zirconium

;

the one side

on the other

is

William carbon,

silicon,

with


8i

germanium and rounded

The

tin.

characteristic

consequence of the rounding

in

recognize

it

form

an octahedron,

is

angles and a Httle depressed between the faces

at the

as an octahedron,

;

in

fact,

we

and we called

the nearest likeness that struck us.

it

did not, at

first,

the "corded bale,"

The members

of the

group

and have eight funnels, opening on the eight faces The first group is paramagnetic and positive; the corresponding one is diamagnetic and negative. The two are

all

tetrads,

of the octahedron.

groups are not closely allied

and

tin

have

in

common

in

composition, though both titanium

the five intersecting tetrahedra at their

respective centres.

Carbon

and XV, i) gives us the fundamental which becomes so masked in titanium and

(Plate III, 5,

octahedral form,

zirconium.

As

arms in and rose,

befT)re said (p. 30), the protrusion of the

these suggests the old Rosicrucian symbol of the cross

but they show at their ends the eight carbon funnels with their characteristic contents,

and thus

justify their relationship.

The

funnels are in pairs, one of each pair showing three " cigars," " fellow a funnel in which the middle " cigar " truncated, thus loosing one atom. Each " cigar has a leaf-

and having as is

like

body

its

at its base,

and

in the centre

of the octahedron

globe containing four atoms, each within

its

own

wall

;

a

is

these

lie

and each holds a pair of the funnels together. It seems as though this atom had been economically taken from the " cigar " to form a link. This will

on the dividing

lines of the faces,

be more clearly seen when we come to separate the parts from each other.

It

will

be noticed that the atoms

in the "

leaves" at

the base vary in arrangement, being alternately in a line

and

in

a

triangle. (left

Carbon

:

One

pair of funnels

27

right 22 [centre i

]

=^

4 pairs of funnels of 54 atoms ... Atomic weight Number weight ^^^ ...

54

...

216

...

ii'qi

...

i2'oo

Titanium (Plate III, 6, and XV, 2) has a complete carbon atom distributed over the ends of its four arms, a pair of funnels with their linking atom being seen in each. Then, in each arm, comes the elaborate body shown as jc, with its eighty-eight atoms. 6


82

A

ring of twelve ovoids (^d) each holding within

atoms, distributed

and a sextet is a comes the central body " cigar

" at

itself

fourteen

among three contained globes two quartets new device for crowding in material. Lastly (4^) of five intersecting tetrahedra,

with a

each of their twenty points— of which only

fifteen

can be shown

diagram and a ring of seven atoms round an eighth, that forms the minute centre of the whole. Into this elaborate

in the

body one hundred and twenty-eight atoms

are built.

Plate XV. TitciyrTjA.Ajm, aurui

Ccurh^

"Txtii/nJUjuTn,

,iyr'^crnAM/?n/

\


83

Titanium: One carbon atom 4c of 88 atoms i2d of 14 â&#x20AC;&#x17E; Central globe

...

...

216

...

...

...

...

...

...

352 168 128

...

864

...

...

4774

...

...

48^00

Total

Atomic weight

Number weight

^^^

XV, 3) has exactly the same outline as titanium, the carbon atom is similarly distributed, and the central body is identical. Only in 5 c and d do we find a difference on comparing them with 4 c and d. The c ovoid in zirconium shows Zirconium

no

less

(Plate

than fifteen secondary globes within the

five

contained in

the ovoid, and these, in turn, contain altogether sixty-nine smaller

and twelve atoms within them,

spheres,

with two hundred

arranged

in pairs, triplets, quartets, quintets, a sextet

Finally, the ovoids of the ring are also

showing

and

made more

septets.

elaborate,

atoms instead of fourteen. In this way the up in zirconium no less than 1624 atoms.

thirty-six

clever builders have piled

Zirconium

:

One Carbon atom 4c of 212 atoms i2c^of 36 â&#x20AC;&#x17E; Central globe

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

432 128

...

1624

Total

Atomic weight

...

...

Number weight

...

...

Silicon (Plate XVI,

i)

89*85 90*22

head of the group which

at the

is

216 848

...

corresponds to carbon on the opposite turn of the lemniscate. It

has the usual eight funnels, containing four ovoids in a

and a truncated

" cigar " but

no

central

body

of

circle,

any kind.

All

the funnels are alike.

Silicon

:

8 funnels of 65 atoms

...

520

Atomic weight

...

...

28*18

5_2_o ...

...

28*88

Number Germanium

weight

shows the eight funnels, containing each four segments (XVI, 4), within which are three ovoids and a " cigar." In this case the funnels radiate from a central (Plate

XVI,

2)


84 globe, formed of

two intersecting

tetrahedra, with "cigars" at

each point enclosing a four-atomed globe.

Germanium:

atoms

8 funnels of 156

Central globe

...

...

1248

...

52

Total

1300

Atomic weight

Number weight *Âť

7i'93 3-5oo

18

Plate XVI.

6" i^-'nLCi.-nL'JCj^rv

72*22


— 85

Tin

(Plate

XVI,

funnel of germanium, and the

3) repeats the

we met

central globe

with in titanium, of

hedra, carrying twenty "cigars"

the

;

five intersecting tetra-

latter,

however, omits the

eight-atomed centre of the globe that was found

in titanium,

and

hence has one hundred and twenty atoms therein instead of one

hundred and twenty-eight.

Tin, to

make room

for the necessary

increase of atoms, adopts the system of spikes,

with in

zinc (see p.

funnels, radiate

IX,

Plate

56,

2)

;

which we met

these spikes,

like

the

from the central globe, but are only six in number. at the head of the spike we have shall again find it in iridium and

The twenty-one-atomed cone already seen in silver, and we platinum; the pillars are new

in detail

though not

the contained globes yielding a series of a

in principle,

triplet, quintet, sextet,

septet, sextet, quintet, triplet.

Tin

:

8 funnels of 156

atoms

...

...

1248

126 Central globe

...

...

...

...

...

756 120

...

...

2124

6 spikes of

Total

Atomic weight

Number

...

...

...

ii8*io

^^^* weight o 18

...

...

118*00

V.

Here, for the

The Bars Groups.

time,

first

we

find ourselves a

the accepted system of chemistry. of

a group

members nickel

;

— called

Fluorine stands

the inter-periodic

issue with

little at

—whereof

the

at the

head

remaining

are (see Crookes' table, p. 28), manganese, iron, cobalt,

rhodium,

ruthenium,

platinum.

If

we

and manganese

take

all

palladium

;

osmium,

iridium,

we find that fluorine company wath which

these as group V,

are violently forced into

they have hardly any points of relationship, and that they intrude into an otherwise very

harmonious group

of closely similar

com-

Moreover, manganese reproduces the characteristic lithium "spike " and not the bars of those into whose company position.

it is it

is

thrust,

and

it is

thus allied with lithium, with which indeed

almost identical.

But lithium

is

placed by Crookes at the

head of a group, the other members of which are potassium, rubidium and coesium (the last not examined). Following these


86

remove manganese and place them companions incongruous

identities of composition,

and

fluorine

from

with hthium and

their its

I

think

alHes as

V

it is

a,

better to

the Spike Groups, marking, by

the identity of number, similarities of arrangement

which

exist,

Plate XVII.

jyf-a/n^

is worth and by the separation the differences of composition. It of the while noting what Sir William Crookes, in his "Genesis group Elements," remarks on the relations of the interperiodic


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 87

He

"These bodies are interperiodic because their atomic weights exclude them from the small periods into which the other elements fall, and because their chemical relations with some members of the neighbouring groups show

with

its

neighbours.

says

:

that they are probably interperiodic

the sense of being in

in

transition stages."

Group V in every case shows fourteen bars radiating from a centre as shown in iron, Plate IV, i (opposite p. 30). While the form remains unchanged throughout, the increase of weight is gained by adding to the number of atoms contained in a bar. The group is made up, not of single chemical elements, as in all

other cases, but of sub-groups, each containing three elements,

and the

moreover two atoms per bar, making a weight twenty-eight in the whole. Thus we have per bar

relations within each sub-group are very close

;

the weights only differ by difference of

Iron

:

...

72

...

Palladium

...

136

Osmium

...

Iridium

...

245 247 249 257

Nickel Cobalt

...

74 76

Ruthenium

...

132

Platmum A

Rhodium

...

134

Platinum

...

B

two sections, and that the three lower sections in iron, cobalt and in the upper sections, iron has a cone of nickel are identical It will

be noticed (Plate XVII,

3, 4, 5,)

that each bar has

;

twenty-eight atoms, while cobalt and

nickel

have each three

ovoids, and of these the middle ones alone differ, and that only in their

upper globes,

this

globe being four-atomed in cobalt and

six-atomed in nickel. The long ovoids within each bar revolve round the central axis of the bar, its

own

axis

;

remaining

parallel with

it,

while each spins on

the iron cone spins round as though impaled on

the axis.

Iron

(Plate IV,

Cobalt

i,

and XVII,

3)

:

14 bars of 72 atoms

...

...

1008

Atomic weight

...

...

Number

...

...

55'47 56-00

14 bars of 74 atoms

...

...

1036

Atomic weight

...

...

57'7o

...

...

57'55

(Plate

weight ^^^^

XVII,

Number

4)

:

weight

^^


n

:

88

Nickel

(Plate

XVII,

4)

14 bars of 76 atoms Atomic weight

...

...

1064

...

...

58'30

Number weight ^^^

...

...

59*

(The weight of cobalt, as given

and Sexton,

58*55, but Messrs. Parker

Erdmann's

in

Lehrbtich,

Nature, August

in

is

1907,

i,

give the weight, as the result of their experiments, as 577.)

The next sub-group, ruthenium, rhodium, and nothing to detain

us.

It

eight segments, instead

will

be observed that each bar contains

the six

of

palladium, has

cobalt

of

and

nickel

;

that

ruthenium and palladium have the same number of atoms their

upper ovoids, although

ruthenium a and that

in

represent the septet of palladium

rhodium the lower ovoids order

fourteen,

sixteen,

:

are

One

fourteen, sixteen, fourteen, sixteen. self

What

:

is

the

in

though one has the

fourteen

sixteen,

significance

;

and the other

:

constantly asks one-

these

of

and quartet ruthenium and

triplet

;

identical,

in

minute changes

?

Further investigators will probably discover the answer.

Ruthenium

(Plate XVIII, i)

:

14 bars of 132 atoms Atomic weight -Number weight ^-||^

Rhodium

(Plate XVII, 2)

1848

...

100*91

...

...

102*66

...

...

1876

...

...

102*23

...

...

104*22

14 bars of 136 atoms

...

...

1904

Atomic weight

...

...

...

...

10574 10577

Atomic weight

Number weight Palladium (XVIII,

^-|p

3):

Number weight The

...

...

:

14 bars of 134 atoms

course,

...

?:^^^

third sub-group, osmium, iridium and platinum, is, of more complicated in its composition, but its builders

succeed

in

bar

preserving the

form, gaining the necessary

increase by a multiplication of contained spheres within the ovoids.

Osmium

has one peculiarity

4) takes the place of

three ovoids,

marked

:

the ovoid

marked a

(Plate XVIII,

axis in the upper half of the bar, b,

revolve round

it.

and the

In the lower half, the


89 four ovoids,

c,

revolve round the central axis.

have marked two forms as platinum

A and

having two four-atomed spheres (Plate the two triplets

marked a.

It

may well

In platinum,

platinum B, the

XVI II,

6

b) in

be that what

dfrroii-t'Tfty

TiMlheynAAX/nv

(^

the place of

we have

Plate XVIII.

we

latter

called


90 platinum

B

is

not a variety of platinum, but a

new

element, the

addition of two atoms in a bar being exactly that which separates the other elements within each of the sub-groups. It will be

noticed that the four lower sections of the bars are identical in all

the

atoms. also

members of this sub-group, each ovoid containing thirty The upper ring of ovoids in iridium and platinum A are

identical,

but for the substitution, in

platinum A, of a their cones

quartet for a triplet in the second and third ovoids

;

are identical, containing twenty-one atoms, like those of silver

and

tin.

Osmium

(Plate XVIII, 4)

:


91 positive, while fluorine

and manganese are negative.

We

seem

thus to have a pair, corresponding with each other, as in other cases,

and the interperiodic group

congruous within

is

left

interperiodic

itself.

Plate XIX. 2

I

^

and


92

Lithium

(Plate IV, 2

beautiful form, with

its

and Plate XIX,

i)

upright cone, or spike,

and

is

a striking

its

eight radiating

and the plate-like support in on which the spike rests. The

petals (x) at the base of the cone,

the centre of which

a globe,

is

spike revolves swiftly on

its axis,

carrying the petals with

plate revolves equally swiftly in the opposite direction.

the spike are two globes

and

a long ovoid

the globe revolve as a cross

;

;

it

;

the

Within

the spheres within

within the ovoid are four spheres

containing atoms arranged on tetrahedra, and a central sphere

with an axis of three atoms surrounded by a spinning wheel of

LITHIUM: Spike

atoms

of 63

8 petals of 6 atoms

...

...

63

...

...

48

...

16

...

127

Central globe of 16 atoms

Total

Potassium

Atomic weight

...

...

6*98

Number weight \V

•••

•••

7*05

(Plate

XIX,

2)

consists of nine radiating lithium

spikes, but has not petals; its central globe contains

and

six.

thirty-four atoms, consisting

of

the

one hundred

" nitrogen

balloon,"

encircled by six four-atomed spheres.

Potassium: 9 bars

of 63 atoms... ... Central globe

Total

Atomic weight

Number

...

weight

VV

...

567 134

...

701

...

...

38*94

•••

38*85

(The weight, as determined by Richards [Nature, July 1907]

is

39'ii4-)

Rubidium spheres two

it

18,

:

XIX, 3) adds an ovoid, containing three and a sextet to the lithium spike, of which and its central globe is composed of three

(Plate

triplets

has sixteen,

" balloons."

Rubidium

:

16 spikes of 75 atoms ... Central globe

Total

Atomic weight

Number weight

...

^^

...

1200

...

330

...

1530

...

84*85

...

85*00


93

The corresponding and manganese, so

Fluorine

negative group consists only of fluorine

far as

(Plate IV,

looking object

our investigations have gone. 3, and Plate XVII, i) is a most peculiar

and gives one the impression

a projectile,

like

of being ready to shoot off

The

on the smallest provocation.

coming

eight spikes, reversed funnels,

to a point, are

probably

The remainder

responsible for this warlike appearance. is occupied by two " balloons."

of the

body

Fluorink

:

8 spikes of 15 2

atoms

balloons

Total

Atomic weight

(Plate

XVII,

120 220

...

340

...

...

iS'go

...

i8-88

«3^o...

Number weight Manganese

...

...

...

has fourteen spikes radiating

2)

from a central "balloon."

Manganese:

14 spikes of 63 atoms Central balloon ...

...

882

...

no

...

Q92

Total

Atomic weight

...

...

54*57

Number weight W-

•••

55 'u

IX.

We

have

groups, and

now

to consider the breaking

more and more,

as

we

up of the octahedral

proceed, do

we

find that the

most complicated arrangements are reducible to simple elements

which

are already familiar.

Carbon Carbon

is

of this will

(Plate III,

5,

and XV,

i).

the typical octahedron, and a clear understanding

enable us to follow easily the constitution

and

members of these groups. Its appearance as a chemical atom is shown on Plate III (opposite p. 29), and see Plate XV, i (p. 82). On the proto level the chemical atom breaks up into four segments, each consisting of a pair of disintegration

of the

various

funnels connected by a single atom; this

which appears

at the

end

of each

arm

is

the proto element

of the cross in titanium


94

and zirconium. On .the meta level the five six-atomed " cigars " show two neutral combinations, and the truncated "cigar" of five atoms is also neutral the " leaves " yield two forms of ;

five

triplet,

different types

being

thus yielded by each pair

of funnels, exclusive of the linking atom. triplets,

duads and

The hyper

level has

units.

^^)

(0)

ÂŽ @

Titanium

On

(Plate III, 6,

and XV,

2,

3).

the proto level, the cross breaks up completely, setting

atom {a and b), as in carbon, the four bodies marked c, the twelve marked d, and the central globe marked e. The latter breaks up again, setting free its five intersecting cigar-bearing tetrahedra, which follow their usual course (see Occultum, p. 44). The eight-atomed body in the centre makes a ring of seven atoms round a central one, like that in occultum (see p. 44, diagram B), from which it only differs in having the central atom, and breaks up similarly, setting the central atom free. The ovoid c sets free its four contained globes, and the ovoid d sets free the three within it. Thus sixty-one proto elements are yielded by titanium. On the meta level, c (titanium 3) breaks up into star-like and cruciform bodies the component parts of these are easily followed on the free the pairs of funnels with the linking

;

hyper

level, of

;

the four forms of triplets one behaves as in carbon,


95

and the others are shown, a, b and /; the cruciform quintet yields a triplet and a duad, c and d the tetrahedra yield two triplets g and h, and two units the septet, a triplet k and a quartet y. On the meta level, the bodies from d behave like their equivalents in sodium, each d shows two quartets and a sextet, breaking up, on the hyper level, into four duads and two triads. ;

;

Zirconium Zirconium reproduces

(Plate

XV,

in its c the four

already followed in the corresponding these are set free

on the proto

on the meta and hyper

2,

level,

levels,

forms that we have-

and

titanium,

of

as

and follow the same course

we need

central globe of zirconium c sets free

c

5).

its

not repeat them.

The

nine contained bodies

;

and are figured in the diagram it will be observed that the central body is the truncated "cigar" of carbon their behaviour on the meta and hyper levels is easily eight of these are similar

;

;

followed there. its

and an

octet.

we have

The

central sphere

usual course, and

follows

The d ovoid

its

is

also figured

companions unite

;

the cigar

into a sextet

liberates five bodies, four of

which

already seen in titanium, as the crosses and sextet of

sodium, and which are figured under titanium

;

the four quartets

within the larger globe also follow a sodium model, and are

given again.


96 Silicon (Plate XVI,

i).

from the funnels on the and the truncated " cigar," playing the part of a leaf, liberated. This, and the four '' cigars," which escape

In silicon, the ovoids are set free

proto is

level,

also

from

pass along their usual course.

their ovoids,

and quartet remain

together,

The

quintet

and form a nine-atomed body on

the meta level, yielding a sextet and a triplet on the hyper.

Germanium The

central globe, with

need not delay us

;

(Plate

XVI,

2,

4).

two " cigar "-bearing tetrahedra,

its

the tetrahedra are set free

occultum

disintegration,

cross that

we had

and follow the is the sodium

and the central four atoms

in titanium.

The ovoids (XVI,

4) are liberated

and the "cigar," as usual, bursts its way through and goes along its accustomed path. The others remain linked on the meta level, and break up into two triangles and a quintet on the hyper. on the proto

level,

Tin

(Plate

XVI,

3,

4).

Here we have only the spike to consider, as the funnels are the same as in germanium, and the central globe is that of titanium, omitting the eight atomed centre. The cone of the spike we have had in silver (see p. 729, May), and it is set free on


97 the proto

The

level.

spike, as in zinc,

becomes

a large sphere,

with the single septet in the centre, the remaining circling

round

(Tin

Sn.)

is

it

on

Iron

We

(Plate IV,

we

and XVII,

which we here

which

exist

six

bodies

as

shown.

3).

of

affinities

this peculiar

even more clearly,

shall see, in the disintegration,

the close relationships

The

i,

have already dealt with the

group, and

They break up

differing planes.

according to the classification

follow.

fourteen bars of iron break asunder on the proto level,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

and each sets free its contents a cone and three ovoids, which as usual, become spheres. The twenty-eight-atomed cone becomes a four-sided figure, and the ovoids show crystalline contents. They break up, on the meta level as shown in the diagram, and are all reduced to triplets and duads on the hyper level.

Cobalt The ovoids

XVII,

(Plate

in cobalt are identical

4).

with those of iron

higher ovoids, which replace the cone of iron,

show

;

the

persistently

the crystalline forms so noticeable throughout this group.

Nickel

The two

XVII,

(Plate

5).

additional atoms in a bar, which alone

separate

nickel from cobalt, are seen in the upper sphere of the central

ovoid.

Ruthenium in

The upper ones only

Iron.

Rhodium Rhodium has

i).

ruthenium are identical in composition, cobalt and nickel and may be studied under

The lower ovoids with those of iron,

XVIII,

(Plate

a septet,

differ

by the addition of a XVIII,

(Plate

which

(see k in the titanium diagram)

is

to

and

2).

be seen differs

triplet.

in the c of

titanium

only in this from

its

group.

Palladium

(Plate

XVIII,

3).

In palladium this septet appears as the upper sphere in every

ovoid of the upper ring. 7


98

Osmium

We

XVIII,

(Plate

have here no new constituents

on the proto

;

4).

the ovoids are set free

and the contained globes on the meta, all forms. The cigars, as usual, break free on the

level

being of familiar proto

'

and leave their ovoid with only four contained which unite into two nine-atomed bodies as in silicon

level,

spheres,

(see above).

Iridium (Plate XVIII,

The twenty-one-atomed cone its

proceedings

p. 729,

May).

may be

set free

of silver here reappears,

silver

cone

on the proto

and

followed under that metal (see diagram,

The remaining bodies

Platinum Again the

5.)

is

level,

call for

no remark.

(Plate XVIII, 6).

with us.

and

The remaining bodies

their contained spheres

are

on the

meta.

Lithium

(Plate IV,

2,

and XIX,

i).

Here we have some new combinations, which recur perThe bodies a, in Plate XIX, i, are at the top and bottom of the ellipse they come to right and left of it in the proto state, and each makes a twelve-atomed body on the

sistently in its allies.

;

meta

level.


99

The sextets,

five

bodies within the

monads and two

elHpse, three

show two which we have had

before

:

d,

which behaves

Hke the quintet and quartet in silicon, after their junction, and b, which we have had in iron. The two bodies c are a variant of the square-based pyramid, one atom at the apex, and

two

at

The

each of the other- angles.

globe,

e,

is

a

new

form,

the four tetrahedra of the proto level making atomed one on the meta. The body a splits up into triplets on d yields b and d follow their iron and silicon models the hyper e breaks into four quartets. four duads and a unit a single twelve-

;

;

;

Potassium

(Plate

XIX,

Potassium repeats the lithium spike the " nitrogen balloon," which

surrounded on the proto free

level

on the meta and behave

we

;

2).

the central globe

shows

already know, and which

is

with six tetrahedra, which are set as

in

cobalt.

Hence we have

nothing new.

Rubidium

(Plate

Again the lithium spike, modified

XIX,

3).

slightly

by the introduction

of an ovoid, in place of the top sphere; the forms here are some-

what unusual, and the triangles of the sextet revolve round each other on the meta level all the triads break up on the hyper level into duads and units. ;


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

lOO

Fluorine The

are

set

The

dependently.

meta

from each

"balloons" also

the

free,

become

floating

off in-

and on the contained bodies, three quartets and a

funnels, as usual,

level set free their

triplet

i).

reversed funnels of fluorine split asunder on the proto

and

level,

and Plate XVII,

(Plate IV, 3,

spheres,

The balloons

of the eight.

disintegrate in the

usual way.

Manganese Manganese

nothing

us

offers

(Plate

XVII,

2).

composed

of

of the groups as arranged

on

new,

being

"lithium spikes" and "nitrogen balloons."

X.

The Star Groups.

VI.

We Sir

have

now

column

;

last

headed by helium, which

is

it

remainder are

in the

centre formed of

and

reached the

" neutral

William Crookes' lemniscates, that forming the

six radiating

form of a

Ten

Plate IV, 4), with a

and "cigar "-bearing tetrahedra,

five intersecting

arms.

The

sui generis.

is

flat star (see

of these have been observed, five

which the second member differs but slightly from the Neon, Meta-neon Argon, Metargon Krypton, first they are Xenon, Meta-xenon Kalon, Meta-kalon the Meta-krypton the forms are not yet discovered by chemists. meta last pair and pairs in

:

;

;

These

all

show

It

;

the presence of a periodic law

the star in each of the five pairs,

be as follows

;

;

;

we

find the

arm

of

atoms

to

taking an of

:

40

99

224

363

47

106

231

370

will

;

number

be observed that the meta form

seven more atoms than

its

in

489 496 each case shows

fellow.

and Plate XX, i) shows two "cigar"bearing tetrahedra, and two hydrogen triangles, the tetrahedra revolving round an egg-shaped central body, and the triangles spinning on their own axes while performing a similar revolution. The whole has an attractively airy appearance, as of a fairy

Helium

element.

(Plate III,

5,


lOI

Helium

:

Two Two

tetrahedra of 24 atoms triangles of 9

Central egg

atoms

18

6

...

Total

Atomic weight

Number weight

48

ff

Plate XX.

72 3*94 4*oo


.

I02

Neon

XX, 2 and 6) has six arms from the central globe.

(Plate

in 2, radiating

Neon

Six

:

arms

of 40

atoms

of the pattern

...

...

Central tetrahedra

Total

Atomic weight

Number

M eta-Neon

weight

XX,

(Plate

the insertion of an additional in the

second body within

atomed group

one

for

Meta-Neon

:

19-90 20-00

^

and atom its

6) differs

in

from

of the triplets in neon.

Six arms of 47 atoms

...

Central tetrahedra

..

...

282 120

...

...

402

...

...

Number weight ^^ (Plate

comrade by

arm, and substituting a seven-

Atomic weight

Argon

its

each of the groups included

Total

which we met

240 120 360

...

3

XX,

shown

4,

...

22*33

its arms the b 63 vanadium and nobium, but find with it in krypton and its

6 and 7) shows within

in nitrogen, yttrium,

not the "balloon," which we shall congeners.

Argon

:

Six

arms

of 99

atoms

Central tetrahedra

Atomic weight

Number

Metargon

(Plate

weight

XX,

5,

^^ 6 and

...

...

...

...

594 120

Total

714

...

...

39*60

...

...

39*66

7)

again shows only an

additional seven atoms in each arm.

Mat argon

:

Six arms of 106 atoms

...

636

Central tetrahedra

...

120

...

756

...

Total

Atomic weight

Number

weight

... 'j^''

...

...

42


.

I03

Krypton

(Plate

XXI,

i

and

and Plate XX, 6 and

4,

contains the nitrogen " balloon," elongated by

The

to b 63.

Six

:

arms

atoms

of 224

Central tetrahedra

Atomic weight

...

Number weight

M eta-Krypton in

differs

each arm

1344 120

...

1464

?-||^

...

81*20

...

81-33

only from krypton by the substitution

of the star.

Meta-Krypton

:

arms of 231 atoms Central tetrahedra

Six

Total

Atomic weight

Number

Zenon

...

...

...

Total

y

7)

juxtaposition

central tetrahedra appear as usual.

Krypton

of z for

its

1386 120

...

1506

...

.

weight

...

...

i|-|^

...

83*66

XXI,

2 and 4, and Plate XX, 6 and 7) has a by kalon, that x and y are asymmetrical, the centre of one having three atoms and the centre of the other two. Is this done in order to preserve the difference of seven from its comrade ?

(Plate

peculiarity shared only

Zenon

:

Six arms of 363 atoms Central tetrahedra

...

...

2178

...

...

120

...

2298

...

...

i27"io

...

...

127-66

Total

Atomic weight

Number weight Meta-Zenon two

s's

for

X and

Meta-Zenon

differs

^11^

from zenon only by the substitution of

y. :

Six arms of 370 atoms

...

Central tetrahedra

...

...

Total

Atomic weight

Number

Kalon

(Plate

XXI,

3

weight

and

4,

...

^^^

.

.

2220 120 2340

... ...

169-66

and Plate XX, 6 and 7) has a have not tail which we

curious cone, possessing a kind of


I04

observed elsewhere zenon.

Kalon

;

;

x and

y

show

the

same asymmetry

Six arms of 489 atoms Central tetrahedra

Total

2934 120 3054

Atomic weight

Number weight

~^^|*

Plate XXI.

169*66

as in


I05

Meta-Kalon

again substitutes two

Meta-Kalon

Six

:

arms

z's

for

x and

atoms

of 496

Central tetrahedra

Total

Atomic weight

Number Only a few atoms

of kalon

weight

y.

...

2976 120

...

3096

...

...

...

^yI~"

•••

^7-

and meta-kalon have been found

room.

in the air of a fair-sized

does not seem worth while to break up these elements, for component parts are so familiar. The complicated groups a no, b 63 and c 120 have all been fully dealt with in It

their

preceding pages.

There remains now only radium, of the elements which we far, examined, and that will be now described and will bring to an end this series of observations. A piece of close have, so

and

detailed

will

have

shall

work

of this kind, although necessarily imperfect,

value in the future,

its

when

science along

its

own

lines

have confirmed these researches. have been observed that our weights, obtained by

will

It

counting, are almost invariably slightly in excess of the orthodox

ones

:

it is

interesting that in the latest report of the International

Commission (November the

Chemical Society of London, Vol.

January

25, 1908, the

instead

of

weights

;

at

i.

XXIV, No.

weight of hydrogen

to

is

120*2,

33,

now

This would slightly raise

thus aluminium rises from

from 119*34

Proceedings of

13, 1907), printed in the

and issued on taken at 1*008 the orthodox

all

26*91 to 27*1,

antimony

and so on.

XI.

Radium.

Radium has hedral groups

congeners

;

the form of a tetrahedron, and (see

article

calcium,

IV) that

strontium,

we

shall

it

is

find

in the tetraits

nearest

chromium, molybdenum

re-

semble it most closely in general internal arrangements, with Radium has a complex additions from zinc and cadmium.


io6

XXII), extraordinarily vivid and living;

central sphere (Plate

the whirling motion

vation

is

so rapid that continued accurate obser-

is

very difficult; the sphere

is

the centre-piece in other elements,

more closely compacted than and is much larger in pro-

portion to the funnels and spikes than

elements above named

;

is

the case with

the

show

that

reference to Plate VIII will

Plate XXII. ILcuUxjum/^CjeAiinrt, SifjalcTns

in these the funnels are

radium the diameter

much

larger than the centres,

of the sphere

or spike are about equal.

Its

and the length

whereas

in

of the funnel

heart consists of a globe containing

seven atoms, which assume on the proto level the prismatic form shown in cadmium, magnesium and selenium. This globe is the centre of two crosses, the arms of which

show

respectively


three-atomed and two-atomed groups. Round this sphere are arranged, as on radii, twenty-four segments, each containing five bodiesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; four quintets and a septetâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; and six loose atoms, which float horizontally across the

mouth

of the

sphere has thus a kind of surface of atoms.

segment

On

;

the whole

the proto level

Plate XXIII. ILaidxWin -^u.'n'r.ci

6/ 8 adarms

these six atoms in each segment gather together

and form a In the rush of the streams presently to be described one of these atoms is occasionally torn away, but is generally, " cigar."

not always, replaced by the capture of another which into the vacated space. if

is

flung


io8

Each

of the four funnels opens, as usual,

tetrahedron,

and they resemble the funnels

on one face

of the

strontium and

of

molybdenum but contain three pillars instead of four (PlateXXIII). They stand within the funnel as though at the angles of a triangle, The contained bodies, though numerous, not side by side. contain forms which are

The

all

familiar.

spikes alternate with the funnels,

and point

to the angles

of the tetrahedron as in zinc and cadmium ; each spike contains three '* lithium spikes " (see Plate XIX) with a ten-atomed cone

or cap at the top, floating above the three (Plate XXIV). The " petals " or " cigars " of lithium exist in the central globe in

the floating atoms, and the four-atomed groups which form the

may be

lithium " plate "

seen in the funnels, so that the whole of

lithium appears in radium.

So much for its composition. But a very peculiar result, so unobserved elsewhere, arises from the extraordinarily rapid whirling of the central sphere. A kind of vortex is formed, and

far

there

By

is

a constant

and powerful indraught through the funnels. drawn in from without, and these are swept

this, particles are

round with the sphere, their temperature becoming much raised, and they are then violently shot out through the spikes. It is these jets which occasionally sweep away an atom from the surface of the sphere. These " particles " may be atoms, or they may be bodies from any of the etheric levels in some cases In fact these bodies break up and form new combinations. lithium seems like a kind of vortex of creative activity, drawing a most extrain, breaking up, recombining, shooting forth ;

iicu^'l

ordinary element.

Lithium

:

4 funnels of 6i8 atoms 4 spikes of 199 atoms...

...

Central sphere

...

2472 796 819

...

4087

...

Total

...

Atomic weight

Number weight *yF

•••

•••

227-05


I09

Plate XXIV.

JElcudiyH/ra -s-piAe- KJCjoIorris


APPENDIX.

THE ^THER OF Much

SPACE.

discussion has taken place, especially between physicists

and chemists, over the nature

of the substances with

space must, according to scientific hypothesis, be side contends that

it

absolutely frictionless

is

atoms

and

and without weight

heat

and

electricity are

the other asserts that

;

motes

supposed

found that

under one head two entirely of

phenomena.

different

They have been

in a

sunbeam,

to be its vibrations.

Theosophical investigators, using methods not of physical science, have

at the disposal

hypothesis includes

this

and widely separated

of

electricity

sets

able to deal with states of

matter higher than the gaseous and have observed that

means

One

filled.

In this substance the ultimate

of matter are thought to float, like

light,

all

than the thinnest gas,

infinitely thinner

denser than the densest solid.

it is

which

is

it

vibrations of this finer matter that light, heat

by

and

Seeing that matter in

manifest themselves to us.

these higher states thus performs the functions attributed to the ether of science, they have (perhaps unadvisedly) called these states etheric,

name

for

and have thus left themselves without a convenient substance which fulfils the other part of the

that

scientific requirements.

Let us for the fills

what we are

moment name in the habit

mulaprakrti, or " mother-matter," of

universes, koilon

is

to

this

of

substance koilon, since

calling is

empty

space.

it

What

to the inconceivable totality

our particular universe

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; not

to our

which includes all visible Between koilon and mulaprakrti there must be various suns. stages, but we have at present no direct means of estimating their number or of knowing anything whatever about them. solar system merely but to the vast unit

In an ancient occult treatise, however, less spiritual fluid " "

which foundation on which our

exists

we read

of a "color-

everywhere and forms the

solar system

is

built.

first

Outside the


11

latter,

found

it is

of the universe. that it,

known on

in its pristine purity

... As

is

and ignorance,

that

it is

empty space.

not one finger's breadth of void space in the whole

"The mother-substance"

boundless universe."*

produce

treatise, to

density,

from

of a different kind

is

earth, the inhabitants of the latter, seeing through

believe, in their illusion

There

only between the stars [suns]

substance

its

and

space as

this aether of

said, in this

is

seventh grade of

its

objective suns are said to have this for their

all

" substance."

To any power

which we can bring

of sight

nothing of

the

kind,

out of

It is

any other substance known be pardoned the expression

much

so

become

To

another.

and

laid out

circle

which

lie

side

were, untwisted

on a

flat

surface,

it

from will

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a tightly twisted endless

much

;

larger circle.

performed, and a repeated

still

it

have a huge

matter

us examine the

by

side,

^^ is

ulti-

composed

but never touch one

circle

of

many

its

peculiar spiral shape and

be seen that

coil.

This

a complete

is

it

coil is itself a spiral it

will

This process of unwinding

then make

may be

again

bigger circle obtained, and this can be spirillce are all

the tiniest imaginable

threaded on an invisible string.

ultimate

let

can be unwound, and

the seven sets of

till

small that

first sight,

Matter

one of these wires be taken away from the atom,

it

containing 1680 turns a

expect matter to be

of the physical plane (see pp. 21-23).

If

be, as

to

become emptiness.

has

help us to understand this clearly

of ten rings or wires,

we may seems

have changed places, and emptiness has

to

solidity, solidity

mate atom

if

it

nothing of the kind.

not koilon, but the absence of koilon, and at

and space appear

the

to

But now comes the

we might

:

it is

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

denser that

belong to another type, or order, of density. startling part of the investigation

it,

proportion denser than

all

to us, infinitely denser ;

a densification of this koilon

upon

probably

is

it

homogeneity can belong

since

mother-substance alone.

is

to bear

appears to be homogeneous, though

this koilon

millions

physical atom,

of

unwound, and we dots,

like

pearls

These dots are so inconceivably them are needed to make one

and while the exact number

is

not

readily ascertainable, several different lines of calculation agree

*

Quoted

in

" The

Secret Doctrine."

H. P. Blavatsky,

i,

309.


Ill

in indicating

it

as closely approximate to the almost inconceivable

total of fourteen

direct

counting

figures are so huge,

obviously impossible, but fortunately

different parts of the

make an

Where

thousand millions. is

atom

are sufficiently alike to enable us to

estimate in which the margin of error

The atom

the

is

not likely to be

which divide themthe three which are thicker and selves naturally into two groups more prominent, and the seven thinner ones which correspond These latter appear to be identical in to the colors and planets. constitution though the forces flowing through them must very great.

consists of ten wires,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

differ,

since each responds most readily to

its

own

special set

By actual counting it has been discovered that numbers of coils or spirillae of the first order in each wire and the proportion of the different orders of spirillae to is 1680 one another is equal in all cases that have been examined, and

of vibrations.

the

;

correspond with the number of dots the

The ordinary

lowest order.

accurately with

in the ultimate spirillae of

sevenfold rule works quite

the thinner coils, but there

is

a very curious

As may be seen from the drawings, these are obviously thicker and more prominent, and this increase of size is produced by an augmentation (so slight as to be barely perceptible) in the proportion to one another of the different orders of spirillae and in the number of dots in the lowest. This augmentation, amounting at present to not more than '00571428 of the whole of each case, suggests the unexpected possibility that this portion of the atom may variation with regard to the set of three.

be

somehow

actually undergoing a

process of growth, as there

is

change

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; may

in fact

be in

reason to suppose that these three

thicker spirals originally resembled the others.

Since observation shows us that each

by forty-nine

represented

that the

observe the

astral

atom is atom by

on the buddhic plane, we have here evidently several

and the natural presumption continues where we are no longer able to

terms of a regular progressive is

physical

atoms, each

and each mental atom by forty-nine

forty-nine mental atoms, of those

astral

series

series,

F'urther probability

it.

remarkable

fact

that

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

if

is

lent to this

we assume one

corresponds to an atom on the seventh or planes (as

is

suggested

in

The Ancient Wisdom,

assumption by dot to be what highest p.

of

our

42) and then


IV

suppose the law of multiplication to begin its operation, so that 49 dots shall form the atom of the next or sixth plane,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

and so on we find that the number indicated for the physical atom (49^) corresponds almost exactly with the calculation based upon the actual counting of the coils. Indeed, it seems probable that but for the slight growth of the 2401

that of the

fifth,

three thicker wires of the

atom the correspondence would have

been perfect. It

must be noted

broken up into

astral

that a physical

atoms.

atom cannot be

directly

the unit of force which whirls

If

those millions of dots into the complicated shape of a physical

atom be pressed back by an effort of will over the threshold of atom disappears instantly, for the dots are But the same unit of force, working now upon a released. the astral plane, the

higher level, expresses

itself

through a group of 49,

If

not through one astral atom, but the process

of pressing

back the

upon the mental plane, we find the group there enlarged to the number of 2401 of those higher atoms. Upon the buddhic plane the number of atoms formed by the same amount of force is very much greater unit of force

is

repeated, so that

it

energises

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; probably the cube of

49 instead of the square, though they have not been actually counted. Therefore one physical atom is still

not composed 0/ forty-nine astral or 2401 mental atoms, but corresponds to them, in the sense that the force which

manifests

would show itself on those higher planes by energising respectively those numbers of atoms. The dots, or beads, seem to be the constituents of all matter of which we, at present, know anything; astral, mental and buddhic atoms are built of them, so we may fairly regard through

them

as

it

fundamental

These units are construction.

units, the basis of matter.

all

Though

are not themselves

alike, spherical

they are

matter;

the

and absolutely simple basis of

all

in

matter, they

they are not blocks but bubbles.

They do not resemble bubbles

which consist them from the has both an outer and an inner floating in the air,

of a thin film of water separating the air within air outside, so that the

surface.

Their analogy

film is

rather with the bubbles that

rising in water, before they reach the surface, bubbles

8

we

see

which may


be said to have only one surface

pushed

back by the contained

— that

the water which

of

air.

not water, but are precisely the spots from which water

absent,

is

so these units are not koilon, but the absence of koilon

only spots where

is

it

not

— specks of

void to the highest power of vision that is

the startling, well-nigh

—the

nothingness floating in

we can

it,

is

an absolute

turn

upon them.

so to speak, for the interior of these space-bubbles

That

is

Just as such bubbles are

Matter

incredible, fact.

is

nothingness, the space obtained by pressing back an infinitely

dense substance; Fohat "digs holes in space" of a verity, and holes

the

the airy nothingnesses,

are

"solid" universes

What

a

what

are they, then, these bubbles, or rather,

which can blow bubbles

content, the force infinite density

The

?

in

their

is

a substance of

ancients called that force " the Breath,"

symbol, which seems to imply that they

graphic

which

the bubbles, of

are built.

who used

kosmic process, had seen the Logos when had it He breathed into the " waters of space," and made the bubbles seen

the

Scientists may call this "Force" by which build universes. what names they will names are nothing to us, Theosophists, of the LOGOS, we know not whether of the is the Breath it

Logos latter

;

of this solar system or

would seem the more

occult treatise

visible

all

a

of

mightier Being; the

since in the above-quoted

likely,

suns

yet

said to have this as their

are

substance.

The Breath spaces

;

of the

Logos, then,

is

the force

His the force which holds them

which

open

fills

these

against

the

tremendous pressure of the koilon; they are full of His Life, of Himself, and everything we call matter, on however high or low a plane, is instinct with divinity; these units of force, of life, the bricks with which He builds His universe, are His very

life

scattered

established

in again,

universe

this

when He draws

through space

in

with

a

;

truly

portion

is

of

written

it

myself."

His breath, the waters of space

and the universe

will

have disappeared.

:

"

I

And

will close It

is

only

a breath.

The outbreathing which makes from, and long antecedent

Waves, so familiar

to,

these bubbles

is

quite distinct

the three outpourings, or Life-

to the theosophical

student.

The

first

Life-


VI

Wave

catches up these bubbles, and whirls them into the various

arrangements which we

and aggregates them

the atoms of

call

the several

The worlds

plane into the chemical elements.

planes,

and on the physical

into the molecules,

are built out of

which seem to us " nothing" but matter made from the privation of matter.

these voids, these emptinesses, are divine force.

How

It is

true were H.P.B.'s statements in "

"Matter

is

Buddha

nothing but an aggregation of atomic forces"

unchangeable.

all

(iii,

Secret Doctrine "

taught that the primitive substance

boundless of

The

Its

vehicle

infinite space,

is

is

398);

eternal

and

pure luminous

the

:

(iii,

aether,

the

not a void, resulting from the absence

forms, but on the contrary, the foundation of

all

forms "

402).

How

how

vividly,

unmistakably

to us the great doctrine of

knowledge brings home M^ya, the transitoriness and unreality this

of earthly things, the utterly deceptive nature of appearances

When

the

candidate for initiation

sees

!

(not merely believes,

remember, but actually sees) that what has always before seemed to him empty space is in reality a solid mass of inconceivable density, and that the matter which has appeared to be the one tangible and certain basis of things is not only by comparison tenuous as gossamer (the "web" spun by "Father-Mother"), but

is

actually

composed

of emptiness

and nothingness

the very negation of matterâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; then for the

first

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

is itself

time he thoroughly

appreciates the valuelessness of the physical senses as guides to the truth.

Yet even more clearly

certainty of the

immanence

stands out the glorious

still

of the Divine

thing ensouled by the Logos, but even is

literally part

of

Him,

not only

is

every-

visible manifestation

His very substance, so that

built of

is

its

;

Matter as well as Spirit becomes sacred to the student

who

really

understands.

The

koilon in which

represents a part,

all

these bubbles are

and perhaps the principal

formed undoubtedly part, of what science

Whether

describes as the luminiferous aether.

it is

actually the

bearer of the vibrations of light and heat through interplanetary

space

is

as yet undetermined.

It is

impinge upon and are perceptible

certain that these vibrations to

our bodily senses only

through the etheric matter of the physical plane.

means proves

that they are

But

conveyed through space

this

in the

by no

same


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Vll

manner, for we know very

of

little

which the

the extent to

physical etheric matter exists in interplanetary and interstellar

and kosmic

space, though the examination of meteoric matter

some

dust shows that at least

The enables

scientific

is

of

it is

scattered there.

that the aether has

some

quality

which

to transmit at a certain definite velocity transverse

it

waves of

theory

all

commonly

lengths and intensities

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that velocity being what

is

called the speed of light, 190,000 miles per second.

Quite probably this

may

be true of koilon, and

if

so

it

must

also

be capable of communicating those waves to bubbles or aggrega-

and before the

tions of bubbles,

light

can reach our eyes there

must be a downward transference from plane to plane similar to when a thought awakens emotion or causes

that taking place action.

In a recent pamphlet on

Lodge remarks

"The Density

of .^ther," Sir Oliver

:

"Just as the ratio of mass to volume solar system or a nebula or a

cobweb,

is

small in the case of a

I

have been driven to

think that the observed mechanical density of matter

an excessively small fraction of the

total density of the

or aether contained in the space which

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the that

its

it

probably substance

thus partially occupies

may

hypothetically be held to be

for instance, consider a

mass of platinum, and assume

substance of which

composed. " Thus,

is

it

atoms are composed of

not wholly dissimilar as

compared with

is

comparable

to

:

electrons, or of

some

structures

the space which these bodies actually

fill,

the whole space

which in a sense they "occupy," one ten-millionth of the whole, even inside each

and the fraction is still smaller if it refers to the visible mass. So that a kind of minimum estimate of aetherial density, on this basis, would be something like ten thousand million

atom

;

times that of platinum."

And

further

on he adds that

this density

may

well turn out to

thousand million times that of platinum. "The densest matter known," he says, " is trivial and gossamer-like compared

be

fifty

with the unmodified aether

in the

same

space."

Incredible as this seems to our ordinary ideas,

undoubtedly an understatement rather than an exaggeration of the true proportion as observed in the case of koilon. We shall understand it is


VIll

how

we remember that koilon seems absolutely homogeneous and solid even when examined by a power of this

can be so

if

magnification which makes physical atoms appear in size and

arrangement

like

over a lonely moor, and

cottages scattered

when we

further add to this the recollection that the bubbles of which these atoms in turn are composed are themselves what

may

be not inaptly called fragments of nothingness.

In the

same pamphlet

Lodge makes

Sir Oliver

a very striking

He

estimate of the intrinsic energy of the aether.

says

:

The

"

output of a million-kilowatt power station for thirty million

total

years exists permanently, and at present inaccessibly in

Here again he

cubic millimetre of space."

is

every

probably under-

estimating the stupendous truth.

may naturally be asked how, we can move' about freely in

It

that

obvious answer

where

all

this

be

so,

says, than

can pass through cloth

astral

;

air

they

water or

;

can pass through water

form passes unconsciously through a physical

through an ordinary

The

platinum.

densities differ sufficiently,

can move through each other with perfect freedom air

possible

it is

a solid ten thousand million

Lodge

times denser, as Sir Oliver is that,

if

human body

;

many

;

an

wall, or

of us have seen an

form walk through a physical, neither being conscious of it does not matter whether we say that a ghost has the passage

astral

;

passed through a wall, or a wall has passed through a ghost.

A gnome

passes freely through a rock,

the earth, as comfortably as

answer

is

that since

and walks about within

we walk about

we

are of the nature

of the

LOGOS we can

those things which are also of His nature.

His essence, His

Him, can

life,

and, therefore, we,

see the matter

which

is

deeper

manifestation,

because

enable us to cognise

sense only

These bubbles are

who

also are part of

built of his substance, for all

forms are but manifestations of Him.

loftier

A

in the air.

that consciousness can recognize only consciousness,

The

koilon

is

to us

non-

we have not unfolded powers which and it may be the manifestation of a

it,

order of LoGOi, utterly beyond our ken.

As none

of our investigators can raise his consciousness to

may be of interest to explain how it is possible for them to see what may very probably be the atom of that plane. That this may be

the highest plane of our universe, the adi-tattva plane,

it


IX

understood

it is

essential to

means

cation by

remember

that the

power

of magnifi-

which these experiments are conducted is upon one or other of

of

quite apart from the faculty of functioning

The

the planes.

ment

of the Self, while the former

one

of

is

slow and gradual unfold-

merely a special development

many powers latent in man. All the planes are here, just as much as any other point in space, and if

of the

round us a

latter is the result of a

man

sharpens his sight until he can see their

from the

level necessary to enable

upon the higher planes

him

to

who

be

as yet

far

understand and function

come

as a whole, or to

the glorious Intelligences

atoms he

tiniest

can make a study of them, even though he may

into touch with

gather those atoms into vehicles

for Themselves.

A

partial

may be found

analogy

astronomer with regard to the the Milky a

good

He

Way.

can observe

in

stellar its

position

the

universe, or

it

impossible for him to see

form any what the

really

it

ancients

that

Being

of

its

true

is

or

us,

here

in

is,

body the

happen

as

patient

use

as

it

is

know it, to mean raising we may make

the midst of

doing, for that would

examination of such particles of His

to be within our reach, for that of

know many of

Being,

vast

ourselves to a height comparable with His; but extensive and detailed

absolutely

shape, and to

some inconceivably is

is

outside, or to

Suppose that the universe

is.

thought,

impossible for

utterly

what

conception

certain

us say

constituent parts and learn

them along various lines, but it as a whole from

deal about

the

of

let

powers

and machinery

means only

already

our

at

command. Let of the

it

not be supposed that, in thus unfolding a

wonders

of Divine

alter or

modify

all

more

Truth by pushing our investigations

to the very farthest point at present possible to us,

way

little

that has been written in

we

in

any

theosophical

books of the shape and constitution of the physical atom, and of the wonderful and orderly arrangements by which it is grouped into the various chemical molecules

;

all

this

remains

entirely unaffected.

Nor

any change introduced as regards the three outpourings from the Logos, and the marvellous facility with which the matter of the various planes is by them moulded into is


forms for the service of the evolving Hfe. Bat if we wish to have a right view of the reaHties underlying manifestation in this universe, we must to a considerable extent reverse the ordinary conception as to what this matter essentially thinking of

ultimate constituents as solid specks floating in

its

avoid, we must is

Instead of

is.

realise that

it

is

the apparent void itself

and that the specks are but bubbles on it. once grasped, all the rest remains as before.

solid,

fact

force closer

what we have hitherto

position of

relative is

still

same

us the

for

examination, both

variants

of

force,

of

one

the

ever

as

The

and only that, on

called matter is

it

;

which That

conceptions prove to

these

ensouling combinations

of

be the

and the real " matter," koilon, is seen to be something which has hitherto been altogether outside our scheme other,

of thought.

In

view

of

this

marvellous

distribution

of

Himself

"space," the familiar concept of the "sacrifice of the takes

on

a

new depth and splendour;

matter,"

His "perpetual

glory of

the

LOGOS

that

He

this

and

sacrifice,"

can

it

is

His "dying in

may

sacrifice

in

Logos"

be the very

Himself to the

uttermost by thus permeating and making Himself one with that portion of koilon

which

He

chooses as the

field of

His

universe.

What

koilon

is,

what

its

origin,

whether

it

is

itself

changed

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

by the Divine Breath which is poured into it does " Dark Space" thus become "Bright Space" at the beginning of a manifestation ? these are questions to which we cannot at

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

present even indicate answers.

Perchance an

of the great Scriptures of the world

may

intelligent study

yield replies.


London John Bale, Sons and Danielsson, Ltd.. Oxford House, Great Titchfiei.d Street, Oxford Street, W. :

83-91,

i.


BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY

3 9999 05677 159 3


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