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The Antiquity of Magical Rituals formation, as also that the earliest elements approximate not to the Grand Clavicle, but to the Little Key, otherwise, the Lemegeton. As to its operations, they are those of White and Black Magic, undiscriminated, without, however, any trace of the conventional ''dealing with the devil.'' The MS. under notice need not, of course, be regarded as the original; as to this there is no means of knowing. The British Museum possesses also a later transcript, belonging to the sixteenth century, and a most valuable English translation, written on vellum in beautiful Gothic characters. It is referred to the fifteenth century. The second group comprises two MSS., both in the Sloane collection, and both containing, among other treatises, the important and curious work attributed to Solomon under the title of Sepher Raziel. That numbered 3826 belongs to the sixteenth century. It is an English translation of a Latin original which in this form is unknown to the present writer; the first line of this original is usually given at the beginning of each secti<nl. It is divided into seven books, and purports to have been sent to Solomon by a prince of Babylon who was greater and more worshipful than all men of his time, his name being Sameton, while the two wise men who brought it were called Kamazan and Zazant. The Latin title of the treatise is said to be Angelus Magnus Secreti Creatoris; it was the first book after Aiam, written in the language of Chaldea and afterwards translated into Hebrew. It is a noticeable fact that in this work the first section is entitled Clavis, and if we may regard the Sepher Raziel as antedating the Claviculm, it explains why a Key was attributed to Solomon. The Clavis in question is, however, concerned with the magical influences of the stars, "without which we can effect nothing." The second book is called Ala; it treats of the virtues of stones, herbs,



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