Mirror for Humanity by Kottack
Chapter 9: Religion 1. According to Tylor, what is the sequence through which religion evolved? A. Olympianism, polytheism, monotheism B. Animism, polytheism, monotheism C. Mana, polytheism, monotheism D. Animism, cargo cults, monotheism E. Polytheism, animism, monotheism
2. Who was the founder of the anthropology of religion? A. Emile Durkheim B. Anthony Wallace C. Victor Turner D. Edward B. Tylor E. Bronislaw Malinowski
3. Polytheism refers to A. belief in a single, all-powerful god. B. the second stage of a revitalization movement. C. the third phase of a rite of passage. D. belief in a force that animates all living things. E. belief in multiple gods.
4. Which of the following kinds of religion involves full-time religious specialists? A. Communal religion B. Shamanic religion C. Olympian religion D. Mana E. Taboo
5. Belief in mana was especially prominent in A. the North Pacific coast of North America. B. Madagascar. C. ancient Greece. D. Melanesia. E. sub-Saharan Africa.
6. What kind of magic is based on the belief that whatever is done to an object will affect a person who once had contact with it? A. Contagious magic B. Imitative magic C. Serial magic D. Sequential magic E. Simultaneous magic 7. According to Tylor, what kind of religion is based on the idea that a personâ€™s body is inhabited by two entitiesâ€”one that is active during the day and another (a double or soul) that is active during sleep and trances? A. Olympianism B. Totemism C. Animism D. Mana E. Polytheism
8. Which of the following statements concerning mana is true? A. Mana is a kind of bread prepared during communal rituals in Melanesia and Polynesia. B. The concept of mana is absent in societies with differential access to strategic resources. C. Most anthropologists agree that mana is the most archaic religious doctrine. D. Mana is concerned with supernatural beings rather than with powers or forces. E. In Melanesia, anyone could acquire mana, but in Polynesia mana was attached to political offices.
9. What term refers to the manipulation of the supernatural to accomplish specific goals? A. Animism B. Magic C. Religion D. A rite of passage E. Pantheism
10. Rites of passage usually consist of what phases? A. Uncertainty, anxiety, and solace B. Ritual, purification, and absolution C. Separation, liminality, and incorporation D. Aggregation, celebration, and liturgical orders E. Confusion, ecstasy, and nirvana
11. What frequently occurs during the liminal phase of a rite of passage? A. Reversals of ordinary behavior B. Intensification of social hierarchy C. Formation of an implicit ranking system D. Use of secular language E. No change in social norms
12. Induction into the U.S. Marine Corps and the Native American vision quest are examples of A. revitalization movements. B. generalized reciprocity. C. totemism. D. rites of passage. E. imitative magic.
13. What is the term for the marginal or in-between phase of a rite of passage? A. Voodoo B. Mana C. Taboo D. Liminality E. Animism
14. Witchcraft accusations are often aimed at A. powerful politicians. B. individuals who are widely respected in a community. C. socially marginal people. D. upstanding citizens. E. prominent religious leaders.
15. What is communitas? A. Social inequality that is accepted even by those who are less privileged B. A feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness C. Anxiety about the meaning of life D. The Latin word for mana E. The supernatural
16. Why were the bodies and possessions of Polynesian chiefs considered taboo? A. Chiefs were the primary totems for Polynesian descent groups. B. Chiefs occupied a liminal place in society. C. Chiefs were considered to be ritually unpure. D. Chiefs were practitioners of contagious magic. E. Chiefs were imbued with a great amount of mana.
17. The use of voodoo dolls is an example of A. imitative magic. B. contagious magic. C. taboo. D. animism. E. superstition.
18. Malinowski found that the Trobriand Islanders used magic A. as a means of increasing social solidarity. B. to increase the bountifulness of the yam harvest. C. in psychologically stressful situations, such as sailing. D. as a means of leveling Europeans who refused to redistribute their wealth. E. to kill their adversaries during intertribal warfare.
19. What did Handsome Lake initiate among the Iroquois at the beginning of the 19th century? A. A shamanistic cult B. A revitalization movement C. A rite of passage D. A structuralist movement E. A cargo cult
20. What term refers to a custom or social action that operates to reduce status differences and bring standouts in line with community norms? A. Rite of passage B. Revitalization movement C. Syncretism D. Taboo E. Leveling mechanism
21. Sequences of words and actions that are used during rituals are known as A. ritual scripts. B. rites of passage. C. taboos. D. liturgical orders. E. communitas.
22. Which of the following statements about religions is not true? A. Specific religious beliefs and practices vary cross-culturally. B. Religion can be an instrument of societal change, even revolution. C. Religion serves only to maintain social solidarity; it does not create or maintain social divisions. D. Religion is a cultural universal. E. State religions are presided over by full-time specialists.
23. What kind of religious specialist is most frequently found among foraging bands? A. Full-time practitioner B. Shaman C. Witch D. Priest E. Totem
24. All of the following are examples of shamans except A. priests. B. curers. C. palm readers. D. astrologers. E. mediums.
25. The largest religion in the world, in terms of number of practitioners, is A. Buddhism. B. Islam. C. Judaism. D. Hinduism. E. Christianity.
26. Witch hunts are an example of religionâ€™s function as A. a revitalization movement. B. shamanism. C. a form of social control. D. a mechanism to reduce fear and uncertainty. E. a rite of passage.
27. Cargo cults are A. an example of religion as a form of social control. B. a type of revitalization movement in response to new contact with industrial societies. C. based on the popular style of pants with many pockets. D. religious organizations within the United States that meet in large warehouses. E. rites of passage found among the Betsileo of Madagascar.