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FLORA


Birch (Betula pendula) Is a specie of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia. The silver birch is a medium-sized deciduous tree, typically reaching 15 to 25 m (49 to 82 ft) tall. The leaves have short slender stalks and are 3 to 7 cm (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, triangular with broad, untoothed, wedge-shaped bases, slender pointed tips and coarsely double-toothed, serrated margins. The seeds are very numerous and are separated by scales, and when ripe, the whole catkin disintegrates and the seeds are spread widely by the wind.


Holly (Ilex aquifolium) Is a species of holly native to western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, and southwest Asia. It is usually found as a shrub or a small tree. Holly is an evergreen tree growing to 10–25 m tall. The flowers are white, four-lobed, and pollinated by bees. The fruit is a red drupe, about 6–10 mm in diameter, a bright red or bright yellow, which matures around October or November


Poplar (Populus nigra.) Is a species of cottonwood poplar, the type species of section Aigeiros of the genus Populus, native to Europe, southwest and central Asia, and northwest Africa. It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree, reaching 20–30 m. he leaves are diamond-shaped to triangular, 5–8 cm long and 6–8 cm broad, green on both surfaces. The species is dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants), with flowers in catkins and pollination by wind. The black poplar grows in low-lying areas of moist ground.


Pinus nigra: European black pine Pinus nigra, the Austrian pine or black pine, is a moderately variable species of pine, occurring across southern Mediterranean Europe from Spain. Pinus nigra is a large coniferous evergreen tree, growing to 20–55 metres (66–180 ft) high at maturity and spreading to 20 to 40 feet wide. The leaves ("needles") are thinner and more flexible in western populations. The ovulate and pollen cones appear from May to June. The mature seed cones are 5–10 cm long, with rounded scales.


Fig tree (Ficus carica L.) Is an Asian species of flowering plants in the mulberry family, known as the common fig. Ficus carica is a gynodioecious (functionally dioecious), deciduous tree or large shrub, growing to a height of 7–10 metres (23–33 ft), with smooth white bark. Its fragrant leaves are 12–25 centimetres long and 10–18 across, and deeply lobed with three or five lobes. The edible fruit consists of the mature syconium containing numerous oneseeded fruits (druplets).


Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) Cupressus sempervirens (also known as Italian cypress) is a species of cypress native to the eastern Mediterranean region, in northeast Libya, southern Albania, etc‌ Height: between 25 and 30 meters. Exceptionally they can reach up to 35 meters. Leaves: They are presented in scales-shaped branches between 2 and 5 millimeters in length. They form a dense foliage of dark green color. Fruit: Strobiles or cones


Cherry

tree ( Cerasus)

Prunus cerasus (sour cherry, tart cherry, or dwarf cherry ) is a species of Prunus in the subgenus Cerasus (cherries), native to much of Europe and south The tree is smaller than the sweet cherry (growing to a height of 4–10 m), has twiggy branches, and its crimson-to-near-black cherries are borne upon shorter stalks.west Asia. The Montmorency cherry is the most popular type of sour cherry.


Oak (Quercus) Quercus lobata, commonly called the valley oak or roble, grows into the largest of North American oaks. It is endemic to California, growing in interior valleys and foothills from Siskiyou County to San Diego County. The sturdy trunk of the valley oak may exceed three meters (10 feet) in diameter and its stature may surpass 30 meters (100 feet) in height. The branches have an irregular, spreading and arching appearance that produce a profound leafless silhouette in the clear winter sky. During Autumn leaves turn a yellow to light orange color but become brown during mid to late fall


Red oak (Quercus rubra L.) Quercus rubra, commonly called northern red oak, or champion oak, (Quercus borealis), is an oak in the red oak group. It is a native of North America, in the eastern and central United States and southeast and southcentral Canada. Bark: Dark reddish grey brown, with broad, thin, rounded ridges, scaly. Leaves: Alternate, seven to nine-lobed, oblong-ovate to oblong, five to ten inches long, four to six inches broad Red oak acorns display epigeal dormancy and will not germinate without a minimum of three months' exposure to 4 °C temperatures. They also take two years of growing on the tree before development is completed.


Silver wattle(Acacia dealbata Link) Acacia dealbata (known as silver wattle, blue wattle or mimosa) is a species of Acacia, native to southeastern Australia in New South Wales… It is a fast-growing evergreen tree or shrub growing up to 30 m tall, typically a pioneer species after fire. The leaves are bipinnate, glaucous blue-green to silvery grey, 1–12 cm. The flowers are produced in large racemose inflorescences made up of numerous smaller globose bright yellow flowerheads. The fruit is a flattened pod 2–11.5 cm long and 6–14 mm broad, containing several seeds.


Alder tree (Alnus glutinosa) Alnus glutinosa, the common alder, black alder, European alder or just alder, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to most of Europe, southwest Asia and northern Africa. Alnus glutinosa is a tree that thrives in moist soils, and grows under favourable circumstances to a height of 20 to 30 metres (66 to 98 ft) and exceptionally up to 37 metres (121 ft). The leaves of the common alder are short-stalked, rounded, up to 10 cm (4 in) long with a slightly wedge-shaped base and a wavy, serrated margin.


Ash (Fraxinus) Fraxinus English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae. Most Fraxinus species are dioecious, having male and female flowers on separate plants; if grown as an ornamental and both sexes are present, ashes can cause a considerable litter problem with their seeds. Ash is used as a food plant by the larva of some Lepidoptera species The insect in the photograph is a depredator of the tree, this is parasitism.


Eucaliptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill) Eucalyptus globulus, the Tasmanian bluegum,southern blue-gum or blue gum, is an evergreen tree, one of the most widely cultivated trees native to Australia. They typically grow from 30–55 m (98–180 ft) tall. The bark sheds often, peeling in large strips. The broad juvenile leaves are borne in opposite pairs on square stems. The fruits are woody and range from 1.5–2.5 cm (0.59–0.98 in) in diameter.


Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) Castanea sativa, or sweet chestnut, is a species of flowering plant in the family Fagaceae, native to Europe and Asia Minor, and widely cultivated throughout the temperate world. C. sativa attains a height of 20–35 The bark often has a net-shaped (retiform) pattern with deep furrows or fissures running spirally in both directions up the trunk. The oblong-lanceolate, boldly toothed leaves are 16–28 cm (6–11 in) long and 5–9 cm (2–4 in) broad.


Laurel (Laurus nobílis L.) Laurus nobilis is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glossy leaves, native to the Mediterranean region. It is one of the plants used for bay leaf seasoning in cooking. The laurel can vary greatly in size and height, sometimes reaching 7–18 metres (23–59 ft) tall. The laurel is dioecious (unisexual), with male and female flowers on separate plants. Each flower is pale yellow-green, about 1 cm diameter, and they are borne in pairs beside a leaf.


London plane (Platanus Hispanica Miller ex Munchh) Platanus × acerifolia, London plane,London planetree, or hybrid plane, is a tree in the genus Platanus. It is usually thought to be a hybrid of Platanus orientalis (oriental plane) and Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore). The London plane is a large deciduous tree growing 20–30 m (66–98 ft) The leaves are thick and stiff-textured. The flowers are borne in one to three dense spherical inflorescences on a pendulous stem. The fruit matures in about 6 months, to 2–3 cm diameter.


Smooth leaved elm (Ulmus minor Miller) Ulmus minor Mill, the field elm, is by far the most polymorphic of the European species, although its taxonomy remains a matter of contention. The tree's typical habitat is low-lying forest along the main rivers, growing in association with oak and ash, where it tolerates summer floods as well as droughts. The tree typically grows to < 30 m (98 ft) and bears a rounded crown. The leaves are smaller than those of the other European species, however they can vary greatly according to the maturity of the tree. The species readily produces suckers from roots and stumps


PLANTS


YEW ( TAXUS BACCATA L. ) •

It is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree, growing 10–20 metres tall, with a trunk up to 2 metres diameter. The bark is thin, scaly brown, coming off in small flakes aligned with the stem. The leaves are flat, dark green, arranged spirally on the stem, but with the leaf bases twisted to align the leaves in two flat rows either side of the stem, except on erect leading shoots where the spiral arrangement is more obvious. The leaves are poisonous.

The seed cones are modified, each cone containing a single seed


BLACKBERRY (RUBUS ULMIFOLIUS SCHOTT ) â&#x20AC;˘

Blackberry, is a perennial shrub in the family Rosaceae that is grown for its aggregate black fruit of the same name. Blackberries have three stem types: erect, arching, and trailing. They often have thorns, but some varieties are thornless. The leaves alternate along the stem with each group of leaves consisting of 3â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 5 leaflets. The leaves are prickly and bright green, and are toothed along the edges.


FERN •

Ferns are green flowerless plants with divided leaves that tend to grow in damp, shady areas. The developing leaves of most ferns uncoil from a koru.

Ferns have 3 major parts – the rhizome, the fronds and the reproductive structures called sporangia. The characteristics of each of these 3 parts of the fern plant are used for classification and identification.

Ferns are an ancient group of plants. From the fossil record, scientists consider that land plants emerged from the water around 475 million years ago.


CROCUS VERNUS â&#x20AC;˘

Crocus vernus is an early spring blooming bulb that is primarily native to high alpine areas in Europe . Many popular hybrids of this crocus have been developed over the years. Species plants and hybrids are commonly called Dutch crocus, large flowering crocus, giant crocus or spring crocus. Flowers bloom in early spring for about three weeks. Flowers close at night and open up in the morning, but usually remain closed on rainy/cloudy days. Basal, grass-like leaves. Foliage yellows as plants go dormant several weeks after bloom.

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Brings early spring bloom to the landscape. Mass in lawns, under trees or in sunny woodland areas.


IVY •

On level ground they remain creeping, not exceeding 5–20 cm height, but on suitable surfaces for climbing, including trees, natural rock outcrops or man-made structures such as quarry rock faces or built masonry and wooden structures, they can climb to at least 30 m above the ground.

The flowers are greenish-yellow with five small petals; they are produced in umbels in autumn to early winter and are very rich in nectar. The fruit is a greenish-black, dark purple or (rarely) yellow berry .


GORSE ( ULEX ) •

Ulex is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae. The genus comprises about 20 species of thorny evergreen shrubs in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae.

Gorse is closely related to the brooms, and like them, has green stems and very small leaves and is adapted to dry growing conditions. The shoots being modified into branched thorns 1–4 centimetres long, which almost wholly replace the leaves as the plant's functioning photosynthetic organs. The leaves of young plants are trifoliate, but in mature plants they are reduced to scales or small spines. All the species have yellow flowers, generally showy, some with a very long flowering season.


Birds


Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius) The Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius) is a species of bird occurring over a vast region from Western Europe and northwest Africa. The Eurasian jay was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae. The jay is a potential prey item for owls at night and other birds of prey such as goshawks and peregrines during the day.


Vulture (Griffon vulture) Vulture is the name given to two groups of scavenging birds of prey: the New World vultures, including the Californian and Andean condors. A particular characteristic of many vultures is a bald head, devoid of normal feathers. Vultures rarely attack healthy animals, but may kill the wounded or sick. Vultures have been observed to hunch their bodies and tuck in their heads in the cold, and open their wings and stretch their necks in the heat.


Red kite (Milvus milvus) The red kite is a mediumlarge bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. The species is currently endemic to the Western Palearctic region in Europe and northwest Africa. Red kites are 60 to 70 cm long with a 175–179 cm wingspan; males weigh 800–1,200 g and females 1,000–1,300 g. The red kite's diet consists mainly of small mammals such as mice, voles, shrews, young hares and rabbits.


Common buzzard (Buteo buteo) Is a medium-to-large bird of prey whose range covers most of Europe and extends into Asia. The common buzzard measures between 40 and 58 cm in length with a 109â&#x20AC;&#x201C;136 cm wingspan and a body mass of 427â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1,364 g making it a medium-sized raptor. It eats mainly small mammals, and will come to carrion. They are fiercely territorial, and, though rare, fights do break out if one strays onto another pair's territory, but dominant displays of aggression will normally see off the interloper.


Eurasian sparrowhawk (A ccipiter nisus) Also known as the northern sparrowhawk is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. Adult male Eurasian sparrowhawks have bluish grey upperparts and orange-barred underparts; females and juveniles are brown above with brown barring below Is a small bird of prey with short, broad wings and a long tail, both adaptations to manoeuvring through trees. It is a major predator of smaller woodland birds.


Northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) Is a medium-large raptor in the family Accipitridae. The northern goshawk appears on the flag of the Azores. Is the largest member of the genus Accipiter. It is a raptor with short, broad wings and a long tail, both adaptations to manoeuvring within its forest habitat. The northern goshawk, like all accipiters, exhibits sexual dimorphism, where females are significantly larger than males. Males, being the smaller sex by around 10 – 25%, are 46–57 cm long and have a 89– 105 cm wingspan.The female is much larger, 58–69 cm long with a 108–127 cm wingspan. This species is a powerful hunter, often utilizing a combination of speed and obstructing cover to ambush birds and mammals.


Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) Also known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey in the family Falconidae. His diet consists almost exclusively of medium-sized birds, the peregrine will occasionally hunt small mammals, small reptiles, or even insects. As is typical of bird-eating raptors, peregrine falcons are sexually dimorphic, females being considerably larger than males. The peregrine is renowned for its speed, reaching over 320 km/h (200 mph) during its characteristic hunting stoop (high speed dive), making it the fastest member of the animal kingdom.


Pigeon

(Columbidae) Pigeons and doves constitute the bird family Columbidae, which includes about 310 species. They are stout-bodied birds with short necks, and short slender bills (and in some species, these bills feature fleshy ceres). They primarily feed on seeds, fruits, and plants. This family occurs worldwide Overall, the Columbidae tend to have short bills and legs, and small heads on large, compact bodies. Their characteristic head bobbing was shown to be due to their natural desire to keep their vision constant


Owl (Disambiguation ) Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight. Owls hunt mostly small mammals, insects, and other birds, although a few species specialize in hunting fish. They are found in all regions of the Earth except Antarctica and some remote islands. Most owls are nocturnal, actively hunting their prey in darkness. Several types of owls, however, are crepuscularâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;active during the twilight hours of dawn and dusk and a few owls are active during the day.


European robin (Erithacus rubecula) Is a small insectivorous passerine bird, specifically a chat, that was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family (Turdidae), but is now considered to be an Old World flycatcher. Around 12.5â&#x20AC;&#x201C;14.0 cm in length, the male and female are similar in coloration, with an orange breast and face lined with grey, brown upperparts and a whitish belly. It is found across Europe, east to Western Siberia and south to North Africa; it is sedentary in most of its range except the far north. The robin belongs to a group of mainly insectivorous birds


Common blackbird (Turdus merula) Is a specie of true thrush. It breeds in Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The male of the nominate subspecies, which is found throughout most of Europe, is all black except for a yellow eye-ring and bill and has a rich, melodious song; the adult female and juvenile have mainly dark brown plumage. This species breeds in woods and gardens, building a neat, mud-lined, cup-shaped nest. It is omnivorous, eating a wide range of insects, earthworms, berries, and fruits.


Eurasian magpie (Pica pica) Is a resident breeding bird throughout Europe, much of Asia and northwest Africa. It is one of several birds in the crow family designated magpies, and belongs to the Holarctic radiation of "monochrome" magpies. The Eurasian magpie is one of the most intelligent birds, and it is believed to be one of the most intelligent of all animals. The magpie is omnivorous, eating young birds and eggs, small mammals, insects, scraps and carrion, acorns, grain, and other vegetable substances.


Common raven (Corvus corax) Also known as the northern raven, is a large all-black passerine bird. Found across the Northern Hemisphere, it is the most widely distributed of all corvids. There are at least eight subspecies with little variation in appearance. It is one of the two largest corvids, alongside the thick-billed raven, and is possibly the heaviest passerine bird. Common ravens can live up to 21 years in the wild. Young birds may travel in flocks but later mate for life, with each mated pair defending a territory. They feed on carrion, insects, cereal grains, berries, fruit, small animals, and food waste.


Common starling (Sturnus vulgaris) Is a medium-sized passerine bird in the starling family, Sturnidae. It is about 20 cm (8 in) long and has glossy black plumage with a metallic sheen, which is speckled with white at some times of year. Young birds have browner plumage than the adults. It is a noisy bird, especially in communal roosts and other gregarious situations, with an unmusical but varied song. There are normally one or two breeding attempts each year. This species is omnivorous, taking a wide range of invertebrates, as well as seeds and fruit. It is hunted by various mammals and birds of prey, and is host to a range of external and internal parasites.


Sparrow (Passeridae) Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds. They are distinct from both the American sparrows, in the family Emberizidae, and from a few other birds sharing their name, such as the Java sparrow of the family Estrildidae. Generally, sparrows are small, plump, brown-grey birds with short tails and stubby, powerful beaks. They are primarily seed-eaters, though they also consume small insects. Some species scavenge for food around cities and, like gulls or rock doves, will happily eat virtually anything in small quantities.


Mushrooms Macrolepiota procera â&#x20AC;˘ The parasol mushroom may not be eaten raw, because it is slightly toxic. â&#x20AC;˘ These mushrooms are popular food item when sauteed in melted butter. In central and eastern European countries this mushroom is usually prepared similarly to a cutlet. It is usually run through egg and breadcrumbs and then fried in a pan with some oil or butter. Served with white bread, it makes a delicious meal during summer and early fall.


ENVIROMENTAL CONDITIONS


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Set in one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more temperate zones, the Basque Country has a wonderfully mild climate with few extremes of temperature or weather conditions when the seasons change. The climate, the influence of the sea, and an attractive mixture of villages, mountains, hills and abundant greenery, all make the Basque Country a place of natural surprises. Plentiful rain waters a naturally fertile terrain spread out on either side of the western prolongation of the Pyrenees, which divides the Basque Country into two different microclimates and social areas.


ECOTONES •An ecotone is a transition area between

two biomes. It is where two communities meet and integrate. It may be narrow or wide, and it may be local (the zone between a field and forest) or regional (the transition between forest and grassland ecosystems). An ecotone may appear on the ground as a gradual blending of the two communities across a broad area, or it may manifest itself as a sharp boundary line.

Where you can find them •In Artxanda there are ecotones between the forest and a stream that is in the middle of the forest. Also, between the forest and the gatden of a detached house and between the picnic área and the forest.


PREDATION • In an ecosystem, predation

is a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).

Examples in Artxanda • 1) Meat ants feeding on a cicada; some species can prey on individuals of far greater size, particularly when working cooperatively • 2) Birds feeding on insects. • 3) Foxes feeding on rabbits or birds.


LICHEN â&#x20AC;˘ A lichen is a composite

organism that arises from algae and/or cyanobacteria living among filaments of a fungus in a symbiotic relationship. The combined life form has properties that are very different from the properties of its component organisms. Lichens come in many colours, sizes, and forms. Examples -foliose lichen: they are usually found on the branch of trees. -crustose lichen: they are usually found on walls and sometimes on trees.


Fallen Trees In the tour we found some fallen trees, that's the consequence of high precipitations, like a strong wind and also the rain because the rain causes eruption and breaks the tree.


In this tree we can see three different species: lichens, moss and ivy. This tree is the habitat of all of them.


Thinglink In the thinglink we marked the tour and a quick view of all of the living things we explained here. (They aren´t in order because they can be found all around the tour) https://www.thinglink.com/scene/855086775524130819 It´s organised by the color of the dot. • Blue= Birds • Green= Trees • Yellow= Plants


Natural Trip Around Artxanda