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The Big Bang Theory for Dummies Earth and Space Science 5/6 11/7/19 Ella Webber


CHAPTER 1 Questions How did the Universe Begin?...........................1Â What is an element?........................................3 What were the first elements created?...........4 How did the first elements form?....................4 What 3 pieces of evidence do we have for how the universe formed?...............................5

CHAPTER 2 Questions When are how do stars begin to form?..8 What is nuclear fusion and how does it fuel stars?...............................................9 How does nuclear fusion work? What is needed and what is made?..................10

CHAPTER 3 Questions How do we get larger elements than iron?...11Â How do stars change over the course of their life?.......................................................12 What decides or influences the life of a star?..............................................................13

CHAPTER 4 Questions How do we determine the composition of a star?.....................................................14


CHAPTER 1


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One day many, many, many years ago something big happened. Matter, time, energy, and space all combined at a single point and what was once nothing became something.


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Then, one billionth of a second later, the universe became bigger and temperatures cooled. Matter and energy separated.


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Elements also played an important role in the Big Bang theory. Elements are a combination of protons, neutrons, and electrons.


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The first two elements that were created was helium and hydrogen. They were created simply through the big bang. These are the 2 most abundant elements.


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But to prove any theory you need one thing, evidence. There are 3 key pieces of evidence to help rove the big bang.

The first piece of evidence is the amount of helium and hydrogen in the universe is consistent with the model.


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Secondly, another piece of evidence is that the universe is still expanding. This is called red shift, Hubble's Law.


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Lastly, there is wave the can still be detected to this day shows where energy was released during the big bang.


CHAPTER 2


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Another key part of the big bang is stars. Stars began to form after plasma cold enough to create a few elements. These elements formed gas clouds and when these gas clouds had small differences in densities and caused the gas to collapse and form stars.


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Nuclear fusion is when smaller atoms combined to make one bigger atom. Stars are balls of plasma that are pulled together with gravity and gives off energy because of nuclear fusion.


-Radiation

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Nuclear fusion creates releasing energy in the form of radiation. This happens when the two atoms have formed one, but then it gets hotter and more pressurized and the energy is released. For this process you need two small atoms and it creates one large atom and radiation.


CHAPTER 3


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Iron (any larger numbers were caused by supernova)

Nuclear fusion is also how all other elements up to Iron are formed. But, there are many larger elements above that, which are formed in supernovas. Supernovas happen when a star dies and basically explodes and then pushes surrounding gases together.


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Stars, just like everything else in the world as a life cycle. Supernovas are the end of the life cycle, but what comes before? Stars star with nuclear fusion and create a helium atom. Once they hydrogen runs out in the star, they will start to fuse helium and create larger atoms. In the end the stars die and causes a supernova.


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One of the biggest key factions in a stars life is the size of the star.


CHAPTER 4


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By study the light coming from a star as a result of nuclear fusion scientist can determine the composition of a star. This happens when elements burn in stars and they give off certain color light, and each element has their own color. This color can be converted to better understand on the visible wave length spectrum.


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