Page 1


beyond the Existence of Stars Prepared by: Vanessa Goebel

CHAPTER 1 HOW WAS EVERYTHING CREATED AND FORMED? Introducing the Big Bang In the beginning of time about 13.7 billion years ago, before all living things, was a time where everything can into existence. A time which started everything we know, The start of the Universe. This topic is still a Great Mystery but an educated theory has been made that it began from the Big Bang where matter, energy, time, and space all combined. Hubble, a space telescope has evidence that shows the Big Bang has created the Universe. Some of the evidence is the amount of hydrogen and helium is consistent with the model. Also, the Universe is still expanding which we can see through red shift. Lastly, Cosmic Background Radiation is everywhere we look in the Universe, all energy was released after Big Bang so it is scattered everywhere. MEANING All objects in universe are moving away from each

WORD Red shift

other and the wavelengths are getting longer. Very faint visible light, roughly the same age as the universe. The first two elements created from the Big Bang.


cosmic background radiation hydrogen and helium


Students hear about the periodic table of elements a lot in school. It is commonly used in chemistry and is referenced to a lot in science.

Everything about elements

Each element on the table is used to help create the world we live in and everything that surrounds it. Elements are substances made up of only one type of atom. Some examples are oxygen, gold, iron, helium and most importantly when describing stars and the Universe, hydrogen and helium. Hydrogen and helium were the first elements created in the whole outer space! The making of hydrogen and helium were by the atoms leftover, which with gravity were attracted together and condensed huge clouds

MEANING lowered to a more compact or dense form multiple atomic nuclei joining to form a nucleus which is much heavier.

WORD condensed fusion

formed. Then the temperature of the clouds rose really high to millions of degrees and made hydrogen whoch fused to helium.


THE ORIGINS OF Stars have a special way of developing into the hot plasma gases they STARS. are. Stars started to form only 200 million years ago. The way stars formed started by fusing the element hydrogen to make the element helium the two lightest elements. After the fusion of elements occurred, since stars begin very small, particles from clouds of dust and gas came together, which form the first stage of a star the protostar. As it gradually gets bigger, more gas is drawn into the star and grows even hotter over time.

MEANING One of the 4 stages of matter solid, liquid,

WORD Plasma

gas. Has no fixed shape or volume. Plasma is less dense than the other states of matter Tiny portion of matter.




small dense region that has protons and neutrons at the

atomic nuclei

center of the atom most dense part of atom, center of atom.




An object with more matter The highest amount of energy on electromagnetic spectrum

Is nuclear fusion useful to stars?

gamma rays emit

to release

HOW DOES IT WHAT IS NUCLEAR FUSION? Nuclear fusion is a reaction when atomic nuclei that have low masses combine to form a heavier fusion. It then releases energy. Example; Gamma rays are released when a reaction occurs.

Is nuclear fusion useful to stars? It is very useful to stars because that's how energy is being released then travels down to Earth in UV,IR, and visible light which are all part of our electromagnetic spectrum

FUEL STARS? Nuclear fusion happens mostly in the core of stars. The core is the powerhouse of a star. Most of the

WHAT IS NUCLEAR FUSION MADE UP OF, HOW CAN IT WORK, WHAT IS MADE? Nuclear fusion is made up of atoms

sun's energy also comes form the

including helium, and hydrogen. It also

core where plasma is being

includes neutrons, and large amounts of

created. Two hydrogen atoms in

energy. Since fusion is the opposite of fission and works in a more safe matter

the core are merged together to

than fission, the process by which the sun

make deuterium a heavier

and other various make strong heat and

hydrogen. If hydrogen is in the

light It works in that way.Nuclear fusion makes energy. Energy is released in

core stars can emit energy. But

Gamma rays , which are made up from

nuclear fusion can only occur

fusion and travels through space to Earth

under intense temperatures and

which then transforms to more safe



CHAPTER 3 ELEMENTS AND LIFE CYCLES OF STARS The cycle of both high mass and sun like stars is that WHAT DETERMINES THE they all start from mass condensing. Then both forms LIFE CYCLE OF A STAR? of stars will be a stellar nebula. After, they will be the The thing that determines and first main stage of a star a protostar. After this stage influences the life occurs, a star can go in one out of 2 ways for their life cycle of a star is MASS cycle. A big star, or a sun like star.

Life cycle of a big star For the big ferocious stars ,after it forms into a protostar, it will be a star with a higher mass. After that happens it will turn this big ball of fire called the Red Supergiant. This giant star is the biggest stage for a star like this. Then, it will be a supernova which will have great brightness. The last stage of this huge star will either be a black hole or a supernova. Keep in mind that all these stages happen between millions and billions of years between them.

Life cycle of a sunlike star For this more sun-like star, after it is a protostar it will be a normal star like the sun. Following billions of years the normal star will turn into a Red Giant which has more mass than the sun-like star. To add on, it will then be a Planetary Nebula which releases lots and lots of energy. Lastly, it will turn into a tiny white dwarf.



where gravity is so strong


nothing can escape. Gravity is to dense light can't even escape

Are we able to get an element larger than iron? If we have very large stars that are much larger than our sun, supernovas end up creating elements way larger than iron. They do this by fusing the element iron. After this happens, supernova explosions usually occur. massive fusion reactions take place, when the element is long past iron.



The light from stars allows us to know the composition of stars. Stars are generally made up of the two most common elements in the universe hydrogen and helium. Each star has different amounts of elements. When astronomers look at an object's spectrum they can see that each element absorbs a different amount of light. Each light has their own separate wavelength, which then goes onto energy. The tool that is used to determine the composition of spectroscopy. IMEANING


a band of colors, as seen in


the rainbow.

WORKS CITED BBC. "Big Bang: How the Universe Was Created." BBC Future, edited by BBC, 8 Sept. 2019, Accessed 8 Nov. 2019.

--, editor. "How Do Scientists Determine Compositions of Stars?" Astronomy, edited by Kalmach Media, Alison Keilsman, June 2019, Accessed 8 Nov. 2019.

---. "Big Bang: How the Universe Was Created." BBC Future, edited by BBC, 8 Sept. 2019, Accessed 8 Nov. 2019.

NASA. "How Do Stars Form and Evolve?" NEWSELA, edited by NEWSELA staff, NASA, 28 Apr. 17, Accessed 8 Nov. 2019.

Montes, Cristina, editor. "How Do Scientists Determine Compositions of Stars?" Astronomy, edited by Kalmach Media, Alison Keilsman, June 2019, Accessed 8 Nov. 2019.

---. "Supernova." Newsela, edited by NASA, NEWSELA staff, 17 Mar. 18, Accessed 8 Nov. 2019.

Profile for Vanessa Goebel

Beyond the Existence of Stars  

Beyond the Existence of Stars  

Profile for grsu14426