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From the Editor Welcome Back: Edition UNO Yes, we arrived back safe and sound to deliver what is actually “our first real edition”, this being Numero Uno.
The Road Ahead d
In case you missed it, check out www.grozine.com/issues for Edition Zero and be sure to subscribe for FREE to receive future editions like this one every two weeks or so via email.
Edition Zero was our starting to point; the first step in what we hope will be a long and happy journey, together with you, the global hydroponics community. We addressed the realities of Smart Meters, PGRs and Chemicals in our water-and what YOU can do to protect your crop, yourself and the world and people around you from these potential pitfalls in your happy and growing lifestyle.
So here we go again, and quite happily so. This edition we lay down what you need to fill your head with the necessary information to step into the the Dawn of the Super Controllers-the circuits that connect us to superior cropping from anywhere in the world we want to be.
On the production end of our FREE Paperless Hydroponics Publication we proudly rolled out what many of you have commented on as well thought out articles and beautiful and complimentary original imagery-and we aim to keep this up. Ed Note: Mad Props to Rene D; he knows how to lay it out real pleasant like!
Global Warming is A Sham-that's what we have a very convincing story suggesting, decide for yourself. Ed Note: Thought provoking stuff, yo! Brandon Pillion has provided growers a comprehensive Field Guide to Bio-Control for Insects-read how to deall with your worst enemies right here, and check out t http://www.grozine.com/fieldguides/insect-bio-control to o view the entire Grozine Field Guide (also available for r Download soon).
We are still working on developing our platforms, including our facebook page, youtube channel, and of course our main site www.grozine.com. We are receiving some excellent contributions that we are going to be delighted to share with our readers in the Editions coming down the pipe-drop us a note if you have an idea or an article you would like us to consider for Grozine. Remember kids, we are “paperless” as we are looking for growing and related photos, video, blog posts-you name it-we are multi platform, yo!
Introducing Our Artist:
o We also have a sniff around the grow room and bring to light the importance and significance of aerial nutrients s like Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen to ensure that you are e harvesting maximum yields.
Rene Driscoll is our resident creative dude.. He’’s a plant based artist willing to work for trade for those on a shoestring budget. Ping him if you want to talk about a creative project.
e So, hop on as we continue our journey forward in a brave new chapter for our Paperless Hydroponics Publication n that is Grozine:)
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Lets Interact . . .
Congratulations to our FB Page Contest Winners: Andrew Robert Devoe-WINNER-cover choice email@example.com
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Besides the ecology factor, one of the things we really dig about the medium of electronic publishing is that we can make it more interactive, entertaining and engaging for the growing community and the industry that it supports. Grozine is young, and this is a pioneering field. We are just getting our bearings in this regard-to deliver a highly interactive and meaningful experience for growers that can be held in the palm of their hand and shared with a friend at the touch of a screen:) CLICK ON THE VIDEO TO SEE WHAT WE MEAN>>>>>>>hint: try clicking on ADS too>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
Michael Englebaugh-WINNER-PDF vs OnlineReader Contact Us on our FB Page to claim YOUR PRIZES!!! -simply click the FB Icon ^^^ to visit our page!
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The Sky is s Warm ming! By Greg Richter
If you want to prove that global temperatures track carbon emissions you have to use data from 1970 onward to make your case. If you look at remote weather stations, like Mauna Loa in Hawaii, the data does not support AGW. If you add in the reports from stations in areas that have urbanized in the past four decades, that helps, but comes under the heading of Faking the Results. Even the UN's own IPCC model has a negative correlation – since 2000 it has gotten cooler, not warmer. Oops. The only way to make a case for AGW is to “cook” the data, as has been widely reported. To generate the famous hockey stick graph predicting dramatic global warming you also have to ignore inconvenient data like the Medieval Warm Period (600-1100 CE) and the Little Ice Age (14501780 CE) which ruins the fake science and makes a doomsday graph look like the cyclical chart the data suggests. Take a look at the real measurements:
Looking at the natural cycles of the sun and ocean temperatures the data seems to follow a natural rhythm. Buying a Prius probably isn't going to change these cycles.
If you don't park your Harley the earth will overheat, the glaciers will melt and untold polar bears won't get their ice-cold Cokes like they're used to. The sky isn't falling, but it is heating up. Except for one small and inconvenient truth: It's just not true! Global warming as a concept, religious belief and scientific theory is a fairly recent fabrication. Not long ago, April 28th 1975, Newsweek ran an article on The Cooling World, explaining in layman's terms all about global cooling and the coming Ice Age! Climate scientists were calling for drastic measures, just as they are today, albeit in the other direction.
If CO2 is the problem, though, Outgoing Longwave Infrared Radiation (OLR) will fall as the sun's IR is trapped by greenhouse CO2. Basically, the sun's energy can be measured and what bounces back out of the atmosphere can be measured. Energy that's trapped by the greenhouse effect can be measured precisely if we have a satellite available to prove that this is or isn't happening. If we had satellite OLR measures from say, 1970, 1997 and 2006 that'd settle the debate once and for all, wouldn't it? Good news is we do have those studies, all done on on a series of cloudless days over the Pacific ocean. Do they show the expected greenhouse effect? Not at all. From 1970 through 2006, OLR is virtually identical, which means the greenhouse effect as measured is not increasing or decreasing over the past 36 years. You can read a report on it, and links to the actual study data here:
Let's take a look at the actual, verifiable facts:
Temperatures rose from the 1900's to the 1940's, falling steadily until the 1980's and are now rising again. Today we're about where we were, temperature wise, in 1945. If you go back and look at the data, that's what we've got. Nothing alarming here.
The alarmists would have you believe that the predicted 1 degree C temperature rise would be the end of life as we know it, but during the Cambrian period, when life on earth had it's greatest diversity, CO2 concentrations were likely many times what they are now and temperatures were several degrees warmer. CO2 levels are around 400 PPM now. Keep in mind if they drop below 180 PPM plants start to wither. At a little over twice the minimum required for healthy plant life, ee're not THAT far into the woods just yet!
CO2 emissions are considered to be the culprit, and the obvious answer is to take the cars and electricity away from people who use too much of them - the developed world. But CO2, as any grower will tell you, is not a pollutant but a requirement! We inject CO2 into our grow rooms to foster plant growth. The plants take up the CO2, generate oxygen and the cycle stabilizes itself.
Open questions that scientist still puzzle over: Why is there a jump in temperature in 1977 and 2002? Mysterious! Where is the predicted warming that has not happened since 2002? Why do night time ocean air temperatures, tropospheric measurements, and proxies like tree rings from 1980-2000 not match up with reported surface temperatures?
As far as Greenhouse Gasses go, atmospheric water vapor accounts for 95% of light absorption. Naturally occurring CO2 accounts for another 3.5%, and man-made CO2 almost 0.12%. Sulfur dioxide is more of a problem, but try like we might, there's not enough fossil fuel available to even try and catch up with natural processes. Currently, no one is clamoring to outlaw water vapor. A 2007 report by the National Science Foundation even stated that “... a severe fire season lasting only one or two months can release as much carbon as the annual emissions from the entire transportation or energy sector of an individual state.” That's a lot of CO2. But carbon dioxide isn't a bad thing, and the fact is we don't produce all that much of it, by comparison to natural processes. So why the popular notion that Carbon = Bad?
Next time someone hands you a load of questionable science, take a moment and ask them about their credentials. Watching television isn't a valid scientific credential, and neither is seeing a movie based on fake data.
Bad science gives bad results. If an engineer makes a mistake, products fail, people get hurt things get expensive. If a scientist puts forth a theory to be tested, either it advances knowledge or it is proven wrong, and no one stands to get hurt by errant theories. Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) is a theory that does not have unbiased data to back it up, is not universally accepted by the scientific community, but does have the capacity to drive political agendas and cost you money.
Both sides of the debate http://climatedebatedaily.com/
EB Note-Greg doesn’t look too worried about Global Warming, does he?
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To read more and see what's really happening, take a look here: Great presentation from fellow aviator Burt Rutan burtrutan.com/burtrutan/downloads/EngrCritiqueCAGW-v4o3.pdf
If you really want to get alarmed about the environment, look at the pollution of coastal fisheries, overfishing and depletion of stocks and the widespread contamination of groundwater with halogenated hydrocarbons and other nasties. There's real work to be done in protecting our air and water, but the earth isn't getting hotter because of our activity. It is getting toxic, though, very toxic, and that is worth doing something about. Fake causes based on faked science take resources and attention away from real problems based on real observation. Now that's worth getting hot about!
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Maximum Cool : Blow Four in a Row - by Casey Jones Fraser
10 inch Vent Pipe
6 inch Flex Duct
10 inch Vent Pipe
6 inch Flex Duct
COOL AIR + HIGH PRESSURE
WARM AIR IS FORCED OUT
When setting up a ventilation system for air cooled lights, some growers make a common mistake. They send one stream of air straight through a series of reflectors. The problem with this setup is that only the first light receives cool air. As the air passes through each reflector, it drastically increases in temperature. The final reflector is receiving hot air, which is inefficient for cooling the lamp. The cure for this problem is central cooling. Modern buildings use central cooling. These systems have two vents in each room: one vent that blows (the send), and another vent that sucks (the return). If your house has properly installed central air, you will find two vents in every room. Central heating and air conditioning systems use one large blower (inline fan) to push air into each room. Air is then forced into each return vent via pressure created from the same blower. This is much more efficient than blowing air into one room, then the next, then the next, etc. Instead, each room gets air straight from the heater or air conditioner. When applying this professional ventilation method to your air cooled reflectors, your indoor garden can become cool enough to run more lights. Donâ€™t forget to seal all seams and connections with aluminum HVAC tape or silicone duct sealant. This extra step will keep the hot air inside the ducts and prevent smelly air from blowing outside. For this system to work smoothly, use reflectors with 6 inch cooling connected to 8 inch, 10 inch, or 12 inch ventilation. For my setup I used premium 10 inch insulated flex duct, and 10 inch tees with 6 inch reducers facing downward. The reflectors are connected to the reducers with 6 inch flex duct. The 6 inch flex duct hangs down from the reducers, and the reflectors can be raised or lowered with little effect on the ventilation. Another benefit of insulated ducting is no condensation. Cool winter air will chill your flex duct. If that cold flex duct is in a warm, humid grow room, it will begin to drip with condensation. The steady drips can ruin equipment and create an environment for mold and mildew if water lands leaves and flowers. Insulation may cost a bit more, but damaged crops or ruined equipment is much more costly. With four 1,000 watt HID lights over a 4ft x 17ft garden, this system works great. In fact, I have to use a thermostat on the fan to slow it down. The room was getting too cool. Now thatâ€™s an efficient blow job!
Casey Jones Fraser is an obsessed gardener. He grows veggies, herbs, and flowers with both traditional and hydroponic methods. His years of botanical experiences have taken him everywhere from Jamaica to Northern California on a quest for more knowledge. You can read his articles in various hydroponics magazines, or visit his retail shop: Garden Grove Organics in the Northern Kentucky region of Greater Cincinnati. www.gardengroveorganics.com
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Automates and Controls: * Grow room and mother room lighting * Programmable foliar feeding * Heating and cooling control * Scheduled drain, refill and cleaning cycles * Relative humidity * Water level * Nutrient/additive dosing and injection * Webcam connectivity to watch your grow * pH control
Check is online at www.PurGro.com
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There are many beneficial organisms that can be used in a greenhouse or grow room to reduce pest populations without the use of chemical pesticides. For biological control methods to be effective they must be used with other methods, such as exclusion and sanitation. A low level pest population must be present for a successful biological control program. Living organisms that can be used to reduce populations include predators, parasites, and pathogens. A predator is typically an insect or insect related animal that attacks or feeds on a pest. This attack is typically part of the predatorâ€™s natural feeding cycle. Some predators also feed on pollen, nectar, and honeydew. Many feed on prey that is abundant including a variety of insects and mites as well as other pests. Typical examples of predators include ladybugs and predatory mites to name a few. A parasite is an organism that attacks and kills a pest host by injecting and laying eggs inside of the pest. Typically the parasite completes all or part of its life cycle in or on the pest; many parasites feed on the host in their immature stage and live â€œfreeâ€? as an adult to begin the cycle over again.
Spider S id Mite Mit
A parasite by the name of Encarsia formosa is an example of a parasite that injects its eggs into an immature stage of a whitefly; the parasite nymph then consumes the whitefly from the inside. Another example is a parasitic nematode named Steinernema feltiae; this nematode enters an insect larva and develops within the larva, eventually killing the pest.
Spider mites are not insects but arachnids. The most common spider mite in vegetable, ornamental and small fruit crops is the twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). Spider mites suck plant sap for food; feeding damage shows as small yellow spots on the leaf upper surface. This reduces photosynthetic area, weakens the plant and decreases yield. Also, webs made by mites reduce the aesthetic value of ornamentals. Other mites commonly found on crops are the carmine spider mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) and cyclamen mite (Tarsonemus pallidus).
A pathogen is typically a microorganism that brings about disease on a pest insect host. Bacillus thuringiensis is a good example of a bacterial organism that infects worm larvae. Beauveria bassiana is an example of fungal organism that infects the exoskeleton of many insect pests.
Biological Control Methods for Spider Mites
Phytoseiulus persimilis is a very efficient predatory mite of the two-spotted spider mite. It has a voracious appetite, and can completely wipe out a spider mite colony. When plants touch each other, Phytoseiulus can spread relatively easily throughout a crop though nymphs tend to stay in the same place. Phytoseiulus activity is slowed down by high temperature or low humidity. Feltiella acarisuga Feltiella acarisuga is a predatory gall midge o the two-spotted spider mite and carmine spider mite. Female Feltiella deposit their eggs in spider mite colonies. Immediately after hatching larvae start devouring spider mites. After introduction, Feltiella will be concentrated in large mite colonies, but will distribute to smaller colonies as its population increases. Adult Feltiella are excellent flyers and easily spread across the whole crop.
Amblyseius californicus is another predatory mite of spider mites; it is a valuable aid to Phytoseiulus. Amblyseius also eats pollen; because of this it can be released preventively even before spider mites appear in the crop. Amblyseius californicus is more tolerant of high temperatures and low humidity, and it can also eat broad mites and cyclamen mites.
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The most common thrips species are the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci). Thrips damage plants by piercing plant cells and emptying their contents. Damage is visible as silver-grey spots with dark dots (thrips excrement). Thrips can also attack flowers, which may result in flower or fruit deformities. Thrips are also spread viruses such as the tomato spotted wilt virus. Biological Control Methods for Thrips -Amblyseius cucumeris-
is a small predatory mite of thrips. It is effective on vegetables such as sweet pepper, cucumber, eggplant and some ornamentals. Amblyseius cucumeris also feeds on pollen, so it can be used preventively in pollen bearing crops. Amblyseius cucumeris should be aided by other thrips enemies like Orius insidiosus and Amblyseius degenerans.
Amblyseius swirskii is a small predatory mite that feeds on thrips. It looks Amblyseius cucumeris and has many of its characteristics; it feeds on pollen, which allows it to be used preventively in pollen bearing crops. The main advantage of A. swirskii over A. cucumeris is that it is also a good predator of whitefly eggs and larvae and that they perform better at high temperatures. They also eat some pest mites but these pests are secondary targets.
Amblyseius degenerans is another predatory mite of thrips; it is more mobile, has a faster population growth, is less sensitive to low humidity and controls thrips better in flowers than A. cucumeris. Amblyseius degenerans can feed on pollen; so it can be introduced preventively in pollen bearing crops. It should be introduced early in the season to allow the population to build up. Orius insidiosus Orius insidiosus is a highly mobile thrips predator. Since Orius is a longlived bug, and takes time to reproduce and become established, it is important to introduce Orius as early as possible. Orius also feeds on pollen, so it can be introduced preventively in pollen bearing crops. It also feeds on other pests, such as whiteflies, aphids, red mites and moth eggs.
Sciarid (fungus gnat) adults are small black flies with long, slender antennae and long legs. Damage to plants is caused by the long and translucent white larva, which has a distinctive black head. Larvae feed on dead material in the growing media and also on living material such as roots and stalk tissue. Damage plant tissues are then susceptible to plant diseases such as Pythium, Phytophthora, Botrytis, Fusarium, and Verticillium. General symptoms of sciarid damage are reduced growth and wilting of plants; in the worst case, plants may die. Biological Control Methods for Sciaridae
Hypoaspis miles is a small predatory mite that inhabits the top layer of soil and feeds on sciarid larvae. Hypoaspis is most effective when used preventively, and can be also used either alone or in combination with the nematode Steinernema feltiae. Hypoaspis can also feed on thrips pupae, millipedes, and root aphids. It can survive up to seven weeks without food.
Steinernema feltiae is a parasitic nematode of sciarid larvae. This nematode actively seeks out sciarid larvae to infect; once inside, it releases symbiotic bacteria, which eventually kills the sciarid larva. The nematode reproduces inside the larva. When the sciarid larva decomposes, a new generation of nematodes is released and moves off in search of new prey.
This article is only part of a more expansive work by Brandon Pillon, and the entire Grozine Field Guide to Bio-Control is available free at http://www.grozine.com/fieldguides
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Growing up in Essex County, Ontario I was always fascinated with how plants grow, and would spend hours in our garden patch looking at the plants and insects and gained an understanding of nature and how it works. I decided to further my knowledge of growing and enrolled in the horticulture program at a local college and have been enjoying furthering my â€œgreen educationâ€? both in and out of the school setting. free to contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org
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Nutrients From The Air By, Erik Biksa
If you have tried using a co2 gas-filled cylinder and timed or measured release you know that a tank doesn't last long, is cumbersome to lug around (looks like you are carrying a missile) and costs a lot to replenish, especially since it's frequently. On top of that, if your local hydro store doesn't have a co2 bottle exchange program, you need to open an account with an industrial gas supplier to buy food grade co2 gas.
There's no question about it: any grower with any experience spends some time thinking about nutrients, in fact, there are plenty of growers who obsess about over the subject!
For the money, you best bet is a gas-fired system that is controlled by an Infra-Red CO2 monitor. Propane is cheap, or you might already have access to natural gas, so from there you just need a “co2 burner” whcih is specifically constructed and safetied for growing applications. There are lots to choose from-make sure you size it up right for the job, and beware-they run HOT!
We think about which Macro and Micro nutrients the crop needs, in what levels and what ratios and at what times. We even consider which forms to provide them in, for example Ammonical Nitrogen versus Nitrate Nitrogen, or what is the best chelate for our micro-nutrient absorption levels? We even debate, tooth and nail, on which are superior: organic nutrients versus synthetic nutrients.
To control that fire-breathing beast you want, rather NEED a good quality monitor. You can get cheap one with one pre-set co2 level. Typically these have no safety features and may not be very accurate, although better than nothing (or timed). Even the so called “”better” models are lacking in the accuracy department, especially over time.
How many of us actually stop to consider the nutrients we DON'T supply as a powder or liquid with our crop waterings or as a spray? If you are saying “”huh” right now, you've forgotten about a couple of the most critical nutrients your crop requires, and that's Carbon (supplied as CO2 from the air) and Oxygen (supplied as O2 at the roots). As a matter of fact, EACH of these elements adds to about 45% of the dry weight of plant material-that's like 90% of your dry weight, right there!
The way a co2 “sniffer” works is by sending out an invisible beam of light that measures against the density of the air; relaying how much co2 is present and then activating or shutting off a device that generates or releases carbon dioxide. Most of these beams dim over time, giving false readings. By opting for dual-beam technologies you get more accuracy and therefore better growing results.
Just for contrast, Nitrogen typically makes up about 1.5% of a plant's dry weight...so now your mind might be thinking a little more about Carbon and Oxygen as vital elements to your cropping success, we'll wager...
With a dual beam monitor, a second beam of light measures the intensity of the beam that is measuring against air density. This beam then compensates the equation for the loss of reading beam intensity that occurs over time. The result is a unit that you don't have to send anywhere for calibration frequently to ensure that it is working properly in your grow.
While this point gets debated on occasion, most experienced growers will tell you that they can yield 15 to 25% more dry weight and do it in about one or two weeks less per cropping cycle when they enrich their growing environment with a steady and consistent supply of carbon dioxide. Like any task, there can be more than one good way to increase co2 (carbon dioxide) levels in the garden. Fermentation and co2 released from other biological sources like composts can provide a noticeable boost of growth and yield to the plants located nearest the source in smaller volume enclosed gardens, for example some T-5 or LED (grow lights) in a closet or tent. However, plants really benefit the most when you can sustain levels of 1200-1500 PPM (parts per million) of co2 around the leaves while the lights are on.
Cont.'d in Grozine Edition Deux with more on Co2 and Oxygen
Besides the increases in growth rates and dry weights, plants tend to have fewer cropping problems like insects when co2 levels are maintained at these levels; which are about 2 to 3 times that over regular ambient levels. Ed Note-co2 levels deplete rapidly in an enclosed space, can go to zero in less than an hour without air exchange or supplementation.
click to play video:
How-to-double your production wtih a Lung Room!
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Thanks & Praise Firstly, thanks from all of us here at Grozine for ALL of the support, praise and the “Likes” you have shown for us for Edition Zero; our humble entry as your -ORIGINAL- Paperless Hydroponics Publication. Don't forget, if you like you can receive New Editions First by subscribing absolutely FREE by email. www.grozine.com/sign-up/ back editions are also available by email directly from the WebSite @ www.grozine.com/issues/ We also want to express our gratitude for the outreach from Industry Members in seeing our fledgling publication get some TLC for growth; we have been receiving a variety of help from some great people whose hearts and time are helping to cultivate a unique and worthwhile source of growing information and happenings for all of YOU, our growing brothers and sisters. Some great article/video contributions have been rolling in too-we can't get them all in every edition, so be sure to re-visit our website from time to time where we have infinite space to provide you with awesome content. While it is Under Construction, we are updating with informative growing videos and articles that can help you achieve maximum hydroponics yields. Stay tuned! Want to Contribute? Drop our Editor, Erik Biksa a line at email@example.com (mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org)
Coming Up . . . We have lots of updating to do with our Affiliates Listings on the Site (as well as articles and videos)-if you aren't listed yet and have sent a request, it's going up. Want to be listed? It's FREE-just send an email to email@example.com mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org) with your details. Don't forget to include all your contacts, pages and links!
Vids, vids, vids! By popular request we are going to continue launching more hydroponics growing tips videos to our site and YouTube channel (http://www.youtube.com/grozine). Let us know what you want to see more of! Of course we have lots more informative and visually pleasing articles coming from leading Hydroponics Experts..... Coming Up Next in Edition Deux we are going to reveal “The Unseen World in Your Garden”-you may be surprised at what's going on there, all hidden in plain site.
As always, thanks for joining us and being a part of our growing community-feel free to drop us a line to let us know how we are doing and what's on your mind:) A Sad Note: The Boston Marathon Bombing...when someone has already said it best, sometimes it's just better to quote: http://www.cnn.com/2013/04/16/tech/social-media/patton-oswalt-facebook-boston/index.html
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