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Rapid Prototyping Report

Tom FejĂŠr B3.2

2011-12 Semester A / Q1


Target Competency Area(s), Competencies and Level(s) Introduction into Rapid Prototyping processes and the application of RP as a design process


Lecture about the rapid prototyping basics Basic solid modelling features in Solidworks Visiting Kunststoffenbeurs (plastic fair) in Veldhoven Making a 3D CAD model Calculate the material price


3D CAD drawing (.stl) report

Kunststoffenbeurs in Veldhoven




3D scanning






Kunststoffenbeurs in Veldhoven 28th & 29th of September we were visited the biggest plastic exhibition in the Netherlands.


list of interesting companies and their services (based on the collected teasers and websites)

4KFLEX by Korrels BV (NL)

high quality thermoplastic elastomers, plastic and rubber innovations

Sonderhoff (GER, USA, SP, IT, CHINA)

sealing solutions, chemistry & engineering & services, custom made materials

envisionTEC (GER)

Mareco Kunststoffen BV (NL) Injection moulding, engineering, mould making, SLS, Micro Prototyping, CNC milling, Polyurethane (PU) Casting , 3D laser velding

Velox (NL, UK, FR, SP, ITA, GER, HUN)

Raw material specialities for the medical industry polycabonate, amorphous polyamide, barex, isoplast, topas, oxpekk

Helvoet (NL, BEL, US, IND) rubber, plastic, thermoplastic automotive and industrial

Computer Aided Modeling Devices (CAMOD), including hardware, software, and materials

CNC Speedform (GER, NL)

Stereolitography (SLA), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Fused deposition modeling, Vacuum Casting, Reaction Injection Moulding (RIM), Laminating Prototypes, Machining, Tooling, Injection moulding, Metal Casting

Medanco (NL)

production, rubber presses, TPE/TPU injection, extrusion, plastic injection, subsequent procesing

EKON (NL) custom extrusion high quality thermoplastic

- Car and vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers - Formula 1 Grand Prix racing - Aerospace engineering - Electrical industry - Medical technology - Domestic appliance manufacturers - Sport and leisure industry - Glass and ceramic industry

4C (NL) & Artec Group (US, RUS, LUX)

ZW3D CAD/CAM system Artec M 3D scanner plastic surgery, orthopedics prosthetics, heritage preservation, criminology, game & movie design



Stereolitography (SLA) Stereolithography produces prototypes from liquid resin which is allowed to harden a layer at a time. A laser projects the part contours previously generated from a 3D model layer by layer on the surface of a resin vat. The laser has exactly the wavelength which triggers the crosslinking reaction in the resin to solidify it into the corresponding contour. The part platform is then lowered so that the contour which has just been exposed is also lowered into the resin bath; the next layer can now be traced right on top of the first. Stereolithography is used to generate high-precision prototypes from 3D volume models, with perfectly formed details and excellent surfaces. We use stereolithography today primarily to produce original modules for vacuum casting or spin casting Machine type: EOS STEREOS MAX 600 Process steps: 0.1 - 0.4 mm Required space: 600 x 600 x 400 (x, y, z) Machine type: 3D Viper Process steps: 0.05 - 0.15 mm Required space: 250 x 250 x250

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Laser sintering produces highly stressable prototypes by melting plastic powder onto the contour, a layer at a time. Before the exposure/melting procedure starts, a coating system covers the lowerable part platform of the corresponding machine with a layer of thermoplastic powder (coat thickness approx. 0.1 – 0.2 mm). The freshly applied powder surface is then heated to just below the melting point of the material. A laser now traces the part contours to be consolidated in this coat, thus applying additional energy at these particular points to make the material melt here. After the exposure process, the part platform is lowered again and the process starts once again from the beginning with the geometry data for the next layer, until the complete part has been produced. Various different basic materials can be used depending on the planned application of the laser sintered prototype. For example, unfilled polyamide is suitable for parts with ramifications or also for articles with film hinges. There are also various filled materials (e.g. with glass or aluminium) which make the part more stable or simplify the surface finish later on. Laser sintered parts can be sealed against most media by subsequent infiltration with epoxy resin so that they are increasingly being used in engine compartments/unit construction Machine type: 2x EOS EOSINT P 360 Required space: 350 x 350 x 650 (x, y, z) Machine type: 1x EOS EOSINT P 700 Required space: 700 x 380 x 580 (x, y, z) Machine type: 2x Sinterstation Pro 230 Required space: 550 x 550 x 750 Materials: fine-grained polyamide, glass-filled polyamide, alumide, polystyrene, carbon-filled polyamide Process steps: 0.1 – 0.25 mm


Fused deposition modeling With this procedure wires of thermoplastic material are melted in a heatable nozzle and deposited layer by layer. The nozzle head moves in X-Y direction within the layer, leaving a thin line of molten material along the later part or support contour. After tracing all the geometries within a layer, the part platform is lowered by the thickness of a layer and the coating process starts again. Currently available materials extend from ABS via PC through to high-temperature resistant PPSU and are selected according to the later purpose of the part. Accuracy in model building is the main advantage of this technology (+/-0.15 mm), together in particular with the fact that the actual part always remains “cold� in the building process so that it is not affected by notable shrinkage or any other deformation caused by uneven cooling down. The procedure is therefore ideal, for example, for design check models or for other deformationrisk parts. Machine type: Stratasys Maxum Required space: 600 x 500 x 600 (x, y, z) Material: ABS, ABSI, PCABS; PPSU; PC Process steps: 0.127 – 0.254 mm

Vacuum Casting In vacuum casting, thermosetting casts are made from silicone tools. Mostly stereolithography or milling parts made of ureol or aluminium are used as original models for making the soft casts. The actual casting process takes place in a vacuum so that on the one hand, the cast material can be processed free of blow holes, and on the other, to prevent possibly existing flow resistances in the tool from air inclusions. The tool is filled by gravity only. The result is a high-precision part free of blow holes with precisely definable properties. An increasing range of 2-component PU materials means that it is possible to select exactly the one material whose characteristics come as close as possible to those of the subsequent series material; for example, highly transparent or rubbery casts can also be produced.

Reaction Injection Moulding (RIM) In low-pressure injection moulding, thermosetting PU material is filled into a hard tool of ureol or aluminium at an injection pressure of 4 to 6 bar and cures in the mould through the crosslinking reaction. On removing the part, any possible undercuts are demoulded by loose parts. The tool halves are usually milled, so that no special original model is required for forming the capacities. This procedure is therefore frequently used for duplication of large, thick-walled parts. The high strength properties of the tool surfaces in particular make this technology interesting when producing larger quantities. Meanwhile RIM technology uses materials with many different properties, so that we can select a suitable plastic which corresponds to subsequent series production properties, for every single specific application. Tarler MDM6 Flow rate 3.5 kg/min

Laminating Prototypes High-strength, thin-walled parts are produced by applying glass fibre or carbon fibre fabric impregnated in epoxy resin a layer at a time into a negative mould. This produces a smooth, top quality surface on the contact side. The strength of the part depends both on the thickness and on the positioning of the layers. Undercuts in the part can be produced by loose parts in the mould structure. Undercut elements of other materials - such as retainers - can be laminated in without any problems. The negative form is usually created by milling from a block material with a practically unlimited output rate. (source: via) 7

3D scanning - usage / purpose plastic surgery, orthopedics prosthetics, heritage preservation, criminology, game & movie design

On the Plastic Fair a company (Artec) scanned my face and sent me the stl files a few weeks later.


The product The object I designed is a foldable glasses made as one piece and no further assembling necessary after production. I made the joints as simple as possible.

calculations product volume: 4452mm3 surface: 6722 mm2 mass: 5,227g material properties (Velo White): density: 1,174 g/cm3 = 1,174 * 10-3 g/mm3 material cost: 1200EUR/3,6kg ; 0,3EUR/g product material cost: 1,742EUR (not including the support materials and other resources)


reflection In my previous studies (at Industrial design & engineering) I learnt several 3D CAD and modelling systems therefore I could use my software skill in this assignment. During my internship I also made a 3D model there for rapid prototyping but in that case the purpose was to test the ‘look and feel’ of my new design proposal and a functional test of the compatibility to different products. Working in 3D CAD systems makes the designer’s and engineer’s work faster, easier, and saves a lots of money. Nowadays the prototyping and testing the concept during the design process and development happening in 3D and 3D based rapid prototypes. Simulations, calculations and visualisations can already made before the first 3D prints and any design or engineering modification can be tested immediately. In this assignment the design challenge was really interesting - using the 3D printing as a technique and not only a tool. We should have design the product in a way you can only realise it with 3D printing. In my point of view this will be a interesting design revolution when this technology going to be affordable and a 3D printer going to be every designers tool. And probably in the future we can easily upgrade, replace, personalize plastic parts of our physical environment. (as we saw also on the design week, this year was all about affordable 3D printing)



Rapid Prototyping Report