Pleurotus Industrial Production
CUSTOMER: LLC «Melitopol’s Cherry»
EXECUTOR: V.V. Yakushenko
Contents 1. Introduction...…………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 2. Aim of Development.…………………………………………………………………………… 3 3. Pleurotus Industrial Production Flowchart …………………………………………..……….. 3 4. Rough Estimate of Material Flow…………………….……………………………………... 4 5. The Analysis of the Sources of Raw Materials. Choosing Basic Raw Materials …….…….. 4 6. Requirements for the Quality of Raw Materials ………………………………………………... 5 7. Mycelium is Basic Raw Material……………..………………………………………………… 5 8. Recommendations for the Raw Materials Warehouse …………………………………… 6 9. Structure of Substratum Production…….. ……………………………………………………. 7 10. Structure of the Mushrooms Production…………………………………….………………… 8 11. Conception of Standard Rooms for Incubation-Growing of Pleurotus …………………… 12. Conception of Substratum Production …………………..…………………………………….. 13. Concordance of Substratum Production and Mushrooms Growing Production …………. 14. Tactics for Production Planning …………..…………………………………………………….. 15. Implementation of Mushrooms Production in the Facility.……………………………………………….. 16. Implementation of Substratum Production in the Facility ……….…….
1. INTRODUCTION А) In comparison with a great branch of the mushroom industry - agaric growing, pleurotus growing is a young branch of food industry. Two contrasting approaches to pleurotus production can be found in different areas of the world: In China and South-Eastern Asia (regions with cheap man power) sterile technologies for small substratum blocks production (weight up to 3 kg) are used, painstaking manual labor is applied to a huge extent. Mushrooms production is concentrated in the areas with mild climate. Growing rooms are primitive. The production of mushrooms has a seasonal character. European approach is characterized by the following points: Large mechanized facilities highly selective substratum. The weight of substratum blocks is up to 25 kg. Special growing rooms are equipped with climate control technology, which allows maintaining climate parameters inside the rooms, irrespective of the season. On the territory of NIS (Newly Independent States) countries the following things became available: - productive equipment for substratum blocks formation (Italy); - equipment and technologies for production of pleurotus selective substratum based on the technology of agaric compost production (Italy, Holland); - relatively cheap sensors for determining carbon dioxide concentration (USA); - specific characteristics of air consumption at different levels of pleurotus production are defined; - methods for calculation of air renewal systems in growing rooms are worked out; algorithms for climatic parameters control on technological stages of substratum incubation and pleurotus growing have been developed, creation of the modern industrial production of pleurotus mushrooms has become possible. Serious and successful approaches to such plants have already been worked out: - large scaled industrial production of selective substratum neat Moscow - production of selective substratum and their inoculation in clear zone, local automation of climatic parameters in Millerovo (Rostovskaya oblast’). - working out of algorithms of the climate parameters management in LLC «Tavriya Agro Capital» in Kherson, which allowed to double production of pleurotus mushrooms by increasing growing area by only 25 %. - creation of systems for air renewal in the pleurotus growing rooms in LLC «Saturn» and LLC «VEK» in Millerovo (Rostovskaya oblast’), in LLC «Tavriya Agro Capital» in Kherson. Thus, theoretically and technologically everything is ready for organizing a modern industrial facility for all-the-yearround production of pleurotus mushrooms . Б) Technical task for working out of the present document and the document itself were worked out IN COOPERATION with the customer. В) During developing technical, technological, planning decisions, only those variants are suggested which have already been PROVEN in practice and personal experience. Using proven practices avoids risks during construction and start up of the present project..
2. AIM OF THE WORK 2.1. The development of the concept of industrial plant for pleurotus production. 2.2. The technical and technological specifications proposed will secure stable operation of the plant irrespective of: - Seasons. I.e. minimization of the influence of external conditions. - Plant operation and maintenance. I.e. the decisions proposed must minimize: А) Harmful effect of various workshops of the plant. Б) Inevitable accumulation of microbiological background. В) Harmful impact of accumulative microbiological background.
2.3. The proposed technical and technological specifications will result in the economical production of pleurotus mushrooms , competitive with already proven production facilities. 2.4. Additional conditions: 2.4.1. When the facility is in full operation, mushroom production is about 200 tones a month. 2.4.2. The volume of mushroom production will be stable, but adjustable to the market conditions. 2.4.3. In case of beginning substratum production as construction progresses, technical decisions must ensure stage-by-stage introduction of production starting from 25 – 50 %. The final phase will increase production to the established capacity without the stoppage of production. 2.4.4. It is notable that the proposed technical specifications for substratum production include the possibility for increasing production by 20 – 30 % during the life of the facility, by modification of the processes without the stoppage of production. 2.4.5. The potential output of the substrate complex will provide for the possibility of using about half of the substratum produced and selling the rest of it, during the start-up phase. 2.4.6. The task of constructing enough growing rooms to use amount of the substratum that can be produced (hundreds of tones a month) should be undertaken as soon as possible, as the market for outside sales of substrate unpredictable. 2.5. Finding raw materials in the region. 2.6. Finding specific locations in the region.
3. PLEUROTUS INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION FLOWCHART. Рис.. № 1.
Raw Material Storage
Pleurotus Mushroom Production
Utilization Area for Used Substratum.
The minimal interval between EACH of the blocks (substratum production, mushrooms production, utilization area for used substratum) is at least 3 km. (Fulfillment the requirements in point А) of Section 1.2. of the present document.) Increase of the distance between the mushroom production blocks shown above to more than 5 km leads to inexpedient increase of time and cost of transportations. NOTE: Utilization area for used substratum is not taken up in this document.
4. ROUGH ESTIMATE OF MATERIAL CHANNELS. While assessing the sizes of many parameters one has to rely solely on his own experience (See Attachment 1.), because the modern technological information on pleurotus production is not published in open sources. Making rough estimation of material channels I give rough indicators increasing them deliberately in order to raise the “safety factor” of the plant which is being developed. THUS: 4.1. INPUT DATA: - For observing the rules of item 1.2. of the present document the maximum permissible defective substratum which is sent for pleurotus production must not exceed 5 %. (From the experience of previous work, I can note that it is real to have an average annual defective substratum up to 2 %.) - Let us assume that average annual mushroom productivity is 18 % (2 waves of mushrooms). (I must note, that in the first year of work I would recommend to set planned yield = 15 % (2 waves) in order to avoid self-deception.) - Though the use of technology for pleurotus growing with two areas provides for a large output of the mushroom per unit of area of the growing facility, I choose one-area scheme for this plant. In case of single consignments of 20-25 tons of substratum, serious difficulties with provision of the qualitative transportation of the large amount of substratum blocks from the incubation cameras to growing rooms arises .
- Let us assume that average duration of the run of incubation camera = 72 days (2 waves work). (Providing there is high quality of substratum, right technical provision of the required climatic parameters, mechanization of the process of maintaining climatic parameters – it is real to gradually shorten the duration of a cycle of incubation- distillation cameras work up to 66 and even 62 days.) - When using highly reliable technologies for sub stratum production by means of fermentation in the tunnels, carrying out Stage 1 in indoor bunkers – I recommend to assume the output of inoculated substratum at the rate of 2,20 tones per one tone of the dry raw materials. - Taking into account seasonal character of the production of farming raw materials, the warehouse for raw materials must have capacity for 14 months supply. for substratum production important, raw materials are: straw, hay of cereals and forage crops. If sunflower husk is used as raw materials the warehouse for raw materials must provide for about 2 months reserve of raw materials. The area of the warehouse, its technical equipment and organization of the work must negate any possibility of the husk being stored for more than two months. 4.2. RESULTS OF EVALUATION: Thus: - For the average monthly production of 200 tones of the mushroom there should be annual production of 2 400 tones of mushrooms. - For ensuring the monthly production of 200 tones of the mushroom - monthly production of 1 120/0,95 = 1 180 tones of inoculated substratum is to be provided for (or annual production of inoculated substratum = 14 200 tones). - For ensuring annual production of 2 400 tones of mushroom – monthly use of 1 180/2,2 = 540 tones of raw materials is to be provided for. - In case of using husk – the warehouse of raw materials must ensure the storage and processing of 1 080 tones of husk at a time. - In case of using straw , hay of cereals and forage crops - the warehouse of raw materials must ensure the storage of 7 600 tones. - Taking into account an equal amount of inoculated substratum for sale, the storage capacity of the warehouse must be doubled: i.e. about 14 000 – 15 000 tones.
5. THE ANALYSIS OF THE SOURCES OF RAW MATERIALS. CHOOSING BASIC RAW MATERIALS. The analysis of raw materials, which was carried out by the customer showed that at present time we may use the following raw materials: - Straw of the herbs - in corpore. - Hay and straw of forage crops for using them as enriching additive compounds – in corpore. I.e. in the amount up to 20 % from the total amount of raw materials – on demand for agricultural producers. - Husk of sunflower, which appears as waste in the result of the work of large oil pressing plants производств – in corpore. Additional studying of the issue by the customer showed that it is inexpediently to take husk of sunflower as main raw material for getting pleurotus substratum because: - modern oil pressing plants switch their boiler-room into incineration of their husk in order to save their energy resources. - recently modern oil pressing plants master successfully the technology of their own husk granulation and selling it at the prices which make it competitive in comparison with straw and hay. Thus, we should direct the warehouse for raw materials and substratum production at the use of both raw materials and enriching additive compounds of crop straw and hay.
It is possible to estimate exactly the part of enriching additive compounds – straw and hay of feed crops, pea straw etc. – only after providing by the customer the results chemical analysis of the specific raw material. 6.1. Requirements to the quality of the straw of grains, which are used as basic raw material: - In time of laying for storage - moisture must be no more than 12,5 %, at drying under 105 0С to constant weight. Bottom line of dampness is not limited.
- In order to send substratum to production moisture is to be not more than 15 %. Bottom line is not limited. Compulsory testing on inhibition of pleurotus mycelium growth and capability to fruitification is a must at moisture 15 18%. Substratum must not be used in production if the moisture is above 18 %! - Negative results of biological tests on inhibition of pleurotus mycelium growth and inhibition of fruitification. - At a visual and microscopical inspection - absence of affection with moulds. - Content of the general nitrogen (on Kieldal) - 0,4 to 0,6 %. Chemical monitoring of the raw materials in the process of storage. Increase of the content of general nitrogen (during the period of storage) at more than 0,1 % in comparison with initial one – is a sign of serious trouble. Immediately – repeated biological testing each week. 6.2. Requirements to the quality of agricultural raw materials, which are used as enriching second additive compound (hay, straw of forage crops, straw of pea, etc.): - In time of laying for storage - moisture must be no more than 12,5 % at drying under 105 0С to constant weight. Bottom line of moisture is not limited. - In order to send substratum to production moisture is to be not more than 15 %. Bottom line is not limited. Compulsory testing on inhibition of pleurotus mycelium growth and capability to fruitification is a must at moisture 15 18%. Substratum must not be used in production if the moisture is above 18 %! - Negative results of biological tests on inhibition of pleurotus mycelium growth and inhibition of fruitification. - At a visual and microscopical inspection - absence of affection with moulds. - Content of the general nitrogen (on Kieldal) may be specified only after defining of the specific kind of raw materials. Chemical monitoring of the raw materials in the process of storage. Increase of the content of general nitrogen (during the period of storage) at more than 0,1 % in comparison with initial one – is a sign of serious trouble. Immediately – repeated biological testing each week. NOTE: For the raw material chosen I strongly recommend using small packages (weight - 10 to 25 kg) for providing the possibility of the accurate balancing and getting highly homogeneous substratum.
7. MYCELIUM IS ALSO BASIC RAW MATERIAL. Spawn for pleurotus is also a basic kind of raw material. Pleurotus mycelium production in the amount needed today is a special big project. Requirements to the quality of mycelium is the topic beyond the focus of this document. 7.1. Potential direct regional suppliers (producers) of mycelium in the volumes needed are: - Russian mycelium: «SANTANA» Saratov and plant which is being constructed in Voronez. Customer has to study the question of supply of Russian mycelium through Custom House. In 2004 the supplies of mycelium from Saratov to Kharkov failed. - Ukrainian mycelium. Among Ukrainian mycelium producers I can recommend only «Biotechnology» from Donetsk. - Import mycelium. At present time there is “Italspawn” and “Sylvan – Fungi zem” mycelium in the amount needed in the territory of Ukraine. Taking into account volumes of mycelium used I think it is essential to carry out during the year full scaled industrial trials of mycelium from various producers and after getting positive results negotiate directly with mycelium producers and establish its direct supplies. Please see Attachment 2 (about the work with mycelium and organization of comparative trials). 7.2. Need in mycelium. During the last 6 - 8 years, I have been working with import mycelium from time to time. Therefore, I can say only about the needed amount of mycelium from Ukraine («Biotechnology») or Russia («SANTANA»). The required dosage of mycelium depends on the quality of the substratum, economics of the plant and it may be defined only in the result of full scaled industrial trials. See Attachment 2. Judging from my own experience of work with mycelium from «SANTANA» («VEK» Rostov-on-Don; «Novoselki» Moscow oblast’.) I think the norm of mycelium use rate is to be 5 to 7,5 weight %. In much the same way, from the experience of my work with mycelium from «Biotechnologies» Donetsk («Tavriya Agro Kapital» Kherson), I also take the norm of mycelium use 5 to 7,5 weight %. Thus, we get: - 59 to 83 tones of mycelium is needed each month if the planned monthly production is 200 tones of mushroom. 7.3.Conditions for mycelium storage.
Conditions for storage and transportation of mycelium: temperature of mycelial mass - 2 0С. Possible deviation of the temperature of mycelial mass in the process of transportation and storage - +/- 1 0С. If the conditions of storage and transportation mentioned above are met I think it’s possible to use mycelium for about 3 weeks from the moment of its production without the noticeable loss of quality. 7.4. Refrigerators for mycelium storage. It is compulsory to deliver mycelium not later than one week from the moment of its production and cold storage at a plant is maximum two weeks. Purification, washing, disinfection of the cold storage area each two weeks are a must. Thus, we come to the necessity of availability of at least 2 cold storage areas in the substratum plant. The capacity of each camera is at least 45 tones of mycelium. (For 2 cameras. For 4 cameras the capacity of each camera is at least 25 tones, etc. ) NOTE: Meeting the requirements to production of the double amount of substratum for sale we come to the necessity to either double the number of cold stores or double their capacity. Boxes with mycelium should be placed in such a way that there is space between them with loose vertical gap between the boxes (at least 50 mm). Temperature in the camera: + 2 0С. Gradient of the temperature in the camera: not more than +/- 1 0С. There should be active air interfusion in general camera. 7.5. The quality of mycelium and accompanying documents. Each lot mycelium (lot, not delivery) must have passport of the lot with exact indication of the term of production and date of chill of this lot of mycelium. The experience shows that it is practically impossible to get certification of the lot if working with middlemen.
8. RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE WAREHOUSE FOR RAW MATERIALS. 8.1. The following variants of organization of straw raw materials: - Storage in haystacks in the territory of the producer of raw materials. - Storage in bales stowed in the open air on the own territory. - Storage in bales under light awnings with open walls on the own territory. - Storage in bales under covered awnings with closed walls and organized water-ways. Let’s study each of the options: 8.2. Storage in haystacks in the territory of the producer. When we start transportation of the straw from haystack which are stored in the open air it turns out that: - Bottom (about 50 cm.) straw absorbed moisture from the soil and during the storage became worthless. - Top straw (about 75 cm.) became wet and dry for many times. The straw is grey, affected by moulds. If the haystacks are ideally piled up, the waste is at least 30 % of the straw, which was put for storage. During the last 10 – 12 years I didn’t happen to see ideally piled up haystacks. I observed real looses during the storage up to 50 %. Typical is situation of stealing of the straw from the remote haystacks, burning of the straw haystacks, impossibility of the removal of the straw during the season of bad roads … 8.3. Storage of the straw in bales stowed in the open air on the own territory. The losses during the storage are the same as in haystacks. In these cases the big stealing is excluded. The possibility of burning is decreased. Transportation of the straw to the plant is much more convenient. 8.4. Storage of the straw in bales under light awnings without side walls. According to the experience of work in Rostov oblast’, from the experience of my work with colleagues from Moscow, Nizegorodkaya oblast’, Krasnodar krai – wasting of raw materials during the storage in such conditions, does not exceed 25 % as a rule. 1 layer of bales from each side of the awning at the expense of their wetting as a result of side winds and precipitation. In case of the storage in the ground without a special water ways also bottom layer of bales are wasted. Small plants can look through every wet bale and sort out wasted straw. At big plants such sorting out is simply unreal. 8.5. Storage of the straw in bales under awnings with side walls and organized water ways.
Ideal variant. Output of the raw materials after one-year storage is practically 100 %. I often could use raw materials which were left from the previous season. A special attention is to be given to fire safety! As a rule, plants start from storage of the straw under open air, but after problems with looses of raw materials in the 2nd – 3rd year of work come to this storage option. NOTE: I would like to point again to the expediency of the use of small rectangular bales if working with straw raw materials and use straw or hay of forage crops as enriching additive compounds.
9. STRUCTURE OF SUBSTRATUM PRODUCTION. Structure of substratum production may be described in the following way: Industrial warehouse for raw materials. Reserve of raw materials for 7 – 15 working days. Section for raw materials grinding. Section for raw materials wetting. Working area for substratum workshop. Tunnels of Phase 1 of substratum preparation (INDOORS). Tunnels of Phase 2 of raw materials preparation (Tunnels of fermentation). Capacity of reused technological water . Clear section - inoculation. Area for bringing in of mycelium and formation of substratum blocks. May consist of two premises. There should be an entrance for front-end loader. 9. Conditionally clean section. Reservoirs for the ready substratum blocks. If the trade of substratum blocks is foreseen, one of the cameras is to function as cold store. 10. Section for the loading of substratum blocks’. There should be a room for cleaning and disinfection of pallets. 11. Amenity rooms for each working area: dirty section, clean section, inoculation section, conditionally section loading section. 12. Sanitary inspection rooms for the staff people who work in clear sections. 13. Air-ventilation room in clear sections. 14. Cold stores for mycelium storage. 15. Sluice for disinfection of mycelium before it is sent to clear sections. 16. Tambour – sluice for passing ready substratum blocks from inoculation section to the store. 17. Dispatching section for indoors and fermentation tunnels. 18. Laboratory. 19. Amenity rooms. 20. Warehouses. 21. Administrative premises. 22. Boiler-room with mazout storage. 23. Electric power substation with connection along the high side from two independent feeders. 24. Water supply and sewerage systems. 25. Repair workshops. 26. Electro workshop and workshop for KIP and A. 27. Garage. 28. Fire reservoirs. 29. Weighting area for acceptance of raw materials and substratum dispatch. 30. Section for preparation of the cleaning and disinfection solutions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
10. STRUCTURE OF THE MUSHROOMS PRODUCTION. (Variant with gas supply and gas heat-generators) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Weighting area for acceptance of inoculated substratum and dispatch of used substratum. Cameras for incubation-growing of the mushrooms. System of gas supply for climatic system. System of cold supply for climatic system. Electric power substation with connection along the high side from the two independent feeders. Water supply and sewerage systems. Section for presale preparation and initial processing of the mushrooms.
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.
System of rapid chilling of mushrooms. Cold stores for storage of mushrooms. Section for the loading of the ready production. Dispatching systems ACS CP. Local laboratory. Administrative premises. Sanitary premises. Section for preparation of the cleaning and disinfection solutions. Local engineering workshop. Local electro workshop and workshop for KIP and A. Administrative premises. Garage - ?
11. CONCEPTION OF STANDARD ROOMS FOR INCUBATION-GROWING OF PLEUROTUS. The production of inoculated substratum and pleurotus mushroom which is being planned is a large-scale production. Standard rooms for incubation and growth of pleurotus with a full set of climatic equipment and automated mechanisms are to be developed. They may be further replicated and spread in the South of Ukraine. Three options were considered: - Easily constructed semi-cylindrical heated wireframe premises with soft covering. Such facility is widely used for growth of mushrooms abroad in the countries with relatively mild climate. For the first time such growing rooms were created in Ireland. They even got a name “Irish Mushroom Tunnel”. - Easily constructed heated module premises from various rigid construction like «sandwich». - Reconstructible agricultural buildings. THUS: 11.1. «Irish Mushroom Tunnel». Developmental work was carried out together with firm Association «Professional», Kherson city. For our conditions this option turned to be not competitive. The price for the premises for growing room with substratum capacity = 50 (without the costs for the ground preparation) was about 200 000 – 250 000 grn. The warranty period for materials in use is 20 – 25 years. See Attachment 3. Applying the materials with serviceability about 5 – 7 years leads to 30% reduction of prices of construction. 11.2. Heated module constructions. This option was worked over by the customer. See Attachment 4. It also turned to be very expensive. 11.3. Standard agricultural buildings. Since 2004 I have been involved in the development of ideas for the development of a line of growing rooms for pleurotus growing with various capacity on the basis of agricultural buildings. In 2004 – 2005 at my request specialists of Kharkiv Institute «AgroPromProekt» worked out this question. According to their conclusion the most popular are standard poultry buildings, pig-breeding complexes and fattening complexes КРС (18 meters width, length divisible by 24 meters. For e.g., 72 and 96 meters. The safest ones in Ukrainian environment are buildings of poultry complexes. It is connected with the type of ownership of such complexes. They are not supposed to be exposed to unsoldering and were not taken to pieces. Thus, the option with development of standard room for pleurotus growing was chosen on the basis of the poultry buildings (18 meters width and length divisible by 24 meters). Comparative analysis of various rooms for growing in such premises led to choosing the room with capacity = 50 tones of pleurotus substratum. See Attachment 5. 11.4. Climatic parameters. Technical provision. According to the expert evaluation of the customer – in the course of a year more than 90 % of time outdoor climatic parameters are in the range of + 35 0С at relative humidity 60 – 65 % during the summer time and – 15 0С during winter. Depending on technological stage of pleurotus growing the temperature in rooms should be 12 to 26 0С at relative humidity of the air 85 to 95 %. The detailed requirements to climatic parameters were developed for each technological stage of pleurotus growing. There was a technical task for working out of the section for air conversion for such standard
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growing room was formed. See Attachment 6. There are requests in two firms (“Yutam - Kharkov” and Kiev field office of French firm “SEAT”) for working out the section for air conversion and variants of providing heat and cold. 20. 11.5. Climatic parameters. System ACS CP. Taking into account that mushroom yield depends to a great extent on the accuracy in maintaining the adjusted parameters of microclimate in the mushroom growing rooms, Technical task for automation of maintaining climate parameters was worked out. See Attachment 7. Requests for the development of ACS CP system were submitted to firm «MONADA» in Kherson city and «TERA» in Chernigov city. 11.6. Climatic parameters. Control algorithms. Basing on my personal experience of pleurotus industrial growth, there was selection of sensors carried out for the last years for measuring climatic parameters in growing room and algorithms for microclimate control were worked out. See Attachment 8.
12. CONCEPTION OF SUBSTRATUM PRODUCTION. 12.1. Technology of substratum production. All technologies of substratum pleurotus production may be brought to the following: - xerothermic (Hungary) - sterile technologies, use of small (up to 3 kg) substratum blocks - pasteurization of the damped substratum in pasteurization cameras, mechanical mixers - fermentation of substratum in fermentation tunnels after its preparation on the ground - fermentation of substratum in the tunnels after its preparation in indoors At present day the most reliable industrial large-capacity technology of pleurotus substratum preparation is fermentation in the tunnels after preliminary preparation of substratum (Stage 1) in indoors. 12.2. Lay-out solutions for substratum production. After decomposition, mixing and dampening of substratum components, the further work with it may be roughly shown at the following flow chart: Picture 2 Flowchart on organization of the movement of the material in substratum production.
2 Where: 1- indoors; 2 - reloading ground ; 3 – fermentation tunnel; 4 – clear sections for work with ready substratum.
12.2. INDOORS: Thermal and microbiological preliminary treatment of the damped components of raw material is carried out in indoors. Indoors are rectangular open or closed tunnels with sprayer floors, through which heated and moistened air is blown out under pressure of about 3 000 Pascal into the layer of substratum. Ventilation system works in recirculation mode of operation. Air consumption is about 50 m3/hour per one tone of substratum. Depending on the accepted modes of substratum treatment and work schedule for servicing of one fermentation tunnel, 2 to 4 indoors are required.
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12.3. RELOADING GROUND. Reloading of the moist substratum (Substratum of Stage 1) from indoor to indoor is realized by special technical equipment at reloading ground. The sense of reloading of substratum of Stage 1 from indoor to indoor is mixing and further moistening of Stage 1 substratum. As a result of loading into fermentation tunnel we get biologically & physically and chemically homogeneous Stage 1 substratum with the moisture adjusted. Requirements to climatic conditions at reloading ground: all-year-round temperature not less than 10 0С; protection from outside dust; mandatory ventilation for removal of the mist which was generated in the result of evaporated moisture during the cold period of a year and exhaust of diesel front-end loaders. Use of covered indoors use sparingly nitrogen in Stage 1 substratum and brings down steeply moisture evaporation into the premises of substratum workshop and considerably extenuate the requirements to ventilation system of the workshop. 12.4. Substratum fermentation tunnel. Aims of the treatment of Stage 1 substratum in fermentation tunnel are - to neutralize harmful micro flora of substratum, especially moulds; - to grow useful micro flora; - to convert nitrogen of the raw material and enriching additive compounds into the form needed; - in the end to get «protected» highly fruitful substratum. Substratum fermentation tunnel is a closed rectangular construction, in which through the layer of substratum air is blown out under pressure of about 2 500 – 3 000 Pascal with adjusted moisture, temperature, oxygen content. Air discharge intensity is 200 to 300 m3/hour per one tone of substratum. Substratum treatment in fermentation tunnel takes 4 to 5 days. At present time the modes are developed which allow (after their refinement) to reduce work cycle of the tunnels up to 3 days. 12.5. Clear section. In clear section ready substratum of Stage 2 is unloaded from the fermentation tunnel, it is mixed with spawn, substratum blocks with required characteristics are formed, they are accumulated and loaded into growing rooms or shipped to consumers. In order to reduce capital outlays at creating substratum production it is extremely advantageous to use existing buildings and constructions. 12.6. Possible lay-out recommendations. Cases of possible lay-out schemes are shown at Pictures 3 and 4. Picture 3 Variant of attached placement of indoors and tunnel.
3 2 1
Such variant of utterly attached indoors and tunnels were realized while working out draft design of substratum plant in Martovaya village in Kharkov oblast’. For creation of transfer ground the existing covered ground 2 was used. Clear
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section fit in the building of storehouse 3 in a good way. Block consisting of two added-on tunnels connected the ground of Stage 1 and clear section.
Picture. 4. Idealized variant of lay-out of substratum production.
4 2 3
Practically ideal variant is shown on picture 4 when there is a building (hangar) of a rather large square for placing under one roof the whole substratum production .
13. CONCORDANCE OF SUBSTRACTUM PRODUCTION AND MUSHROOMS PRODUCTION. Adjusting of substratum production with mushroom production a number of conditions are to be met: 13.1. Into one incubation –substratum of ONE batch is to be placed in one growing room Therefore, capacity of tunnel for substratum is to be divisible by capacity of one growing room. Thus, for growing room= 50, productivity of one tunnel for substratum is to be 50, 100, 150 etc. tones of substratum. 13.2. Equipment of clear section must allow process substratum from one tunnel during not more than 8 hours. Ideally – during 6 hours. In the territory of NIS countries equipment for formation of substratum blocks with productivity more than 10 tones of substratum per shift IS NOT PRODUCED. The only producers of equipment for formation of substratum blocks of pleurotus are firms “ALPY” and “VIEREBI” (Italy). See Attachment 9. From the materials mentioned it is seen that minimal productivity of equipment “Vierrebi” is about 60 – 80 tones of substratum per shift. Upper limit is not defined. Thus we got tunnel with one-time productivity = 100 tones of the ready substratum. 13.3. Search for the grounds with existing constructions and engineer communications. Building and constructions, their positional relationship on the grounds and positional relationship of the grounds themselves must not conflict with Sections 2.2. and 2.4.
14. TACTICS FOR PRODUCTION PLANNING. Initially the maximum power of the production being built is 200 tones of mushrooms per month. 14.1. Final production. Judging from the terms of Section 4.1. and defined capacity of one growing room (100 tones of substratum) we get 26 growing rooms (minimally needed for realization of production program) (For estimation we took 360 days a year).
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For provision of 26 growing rooms with substratum (at 5 work cycles of each of them per year), at least 13 000 tones of substratum must be produced a year. Or, taking into account defined defective substratum = 5 %, we get annual productivity of substratum at least 13 700 tones of substratum a year. Taking cycle of the work of one tunnel = 5 days (with reserve), we get annual productivity of one tunnel = 7 200 tones of substratum a year. Or, for provision of the adjusted productive capacity of the mushroom plant, we need to have 2 tunnels of substratum of Stage 2, productivity = 100 tones of substratum each per cycle. Taking into account the requirement to provide production of the same amount of inoculated substratum for sale, we get in the structure of substratum production 4 tunnels for production substratum of Stage 2, capacity = 100 tones of substratum each. In this case multimode power of substratum workshop may be about 25 000 – 26 000 tones of substratum a year. 14.2. Minimal starting option. It is clear that a minimal starting option for one substratum workshop is ONE tunnel. In terms of requirements of a stable, without marked peaks and declines in mushroom production, minimal number of incubation rooms is 8 – 9 items at a defined work cycle. Diagrammatic work of substratum workshop in minimal variant looks in the following way: Day of work 1 2 3 4 5
Technological operation 1st cycle of preparation of substratum Decomposition, mixing, moistening of raw materials. Loading of the first indoor. Passing of substratum into the second indoor. Passing of substratum into the third indoor. Loading of the tunnel Fermentation of substratum in the tunnel.
8 9 10 11 12
2nd cycle of preparation of substratum
Unloading of substratum from the tunnel, inoculation. Cleaning, disinfection of the tunnel. Cleaning, disinfection of the clean section.
Decomposition, mixing, moistening of raw materials. Loading of the first indoor. Passing of substratum into the second indoor. Passing of substratum into the third indoor.
Loading of the tunnel Fermentation of substratum in the tunnel. Unloading of substratum from the tunnel, inoculation. Cleaning, disinfection of the tunnel. Cleaning, disinfection of the clean section.
It is seen from the mission profile that for provision of the work of one tunnel we need to have THREE INDOORS. The schedule of works provided above guarantees preparation of 6 consignments of substratum a month. I.e. 600 tones of inoculated substratum. This is what the schedule must be like during the starting period. Further on, after working off of the technology there is a switch to the schedule of work at which time of substratum treatment in the tunnel reduces up to 3 days. Work cycle of the tunnel will be 4 days. The number of work cycles of the tunnel циклов in a month - 7,5. The amount of substratum produced for a month is 750 tones.
14.2.1. Annual need of 9 rooms for mushrooms growing is substratum is 4 500 tones. 14.2.2. Annual productivity of one tunnel on substratum is from 7 200 to 9 000 tones. Therefore, the minimal structure of the first starting complex: - ONE tunnel + THREE indoors - NINE rooms for incubation and growingof mushroom, capacity = 100 tones of substratum is well agreed (balanced) and allows to produce annually:
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- trade mushrooms = 810 tones (67 tones a month) - inoculated substratum for the own use = 4 500 tones (375 tones a month) - inoculated substratum for sale = 2 700 to 4 500 tones (225 to 375 tones a month)
14.3. Increasing the production capacity of substratum. 14.3.1. Work with two tunnels. It is easy to build mission profile for work of TWO tunnels (5 day-and-nights cycle). For provision of the work of two tunnels there must be 4 indoors available. (One of them is reserve one.) Inoculation is carried out on each third day. Capacity of substratum workshop (5 days work cycle of tunnels) will be 1 000 tones of substratum a month. 14.3.2. Work with three tunnels. Working with three tunnels the limited factor is time needed for the quality disinfection of clear section between inoculations. Using modern disinfection chemicals; organizing night work for cleaning of clear section after inoculation; minimal gap between inoculations is about one day-and-night. Thus, we come to a schedule of inoculations on each second day both for 5 and 4 day work cycle of tunnels. I.e. productivity of substratum workshop using 3 tunnels will be maximum 1 500 tones of inoculated substratum a month. Judging from the described scheme of work of indoors, tunnels and clear section there is no advantage of work of 4 tunnels per one clear section in comparison with 3 tunnels. 14.3.3. Work with four tunnels. After mastering the work with three tunnels and increasing needs in inoculated substratum the organization of work with FOUR tunnels comes (4 day-and-nights cycle). Double amount of the mixture of moistened raw materials will be prepared per one shift, two indoors will be loaded, two tunnels will be loaded. I.e. the work will be carried out as for two tunnels, but the tunnels and indoors will be paired. For provision of work in such regime one more set of equipment for inoculation of substratum and formation of substratum blocks will be needed in clear section. Maximum productivity of substratum workshop on inoculated substratum will be 3 000 tones a month. For provision of work of two tunnels in such working mode we will need 6 to 9 indoors. Their exact amount may be defined only after working out of the technology of two, then three tunnels (4 day-and-nights cycle). For provision of such productivity of the workshop for minimal starting variant there must be equipment for dirty section developed and ordered (production of substratum of Stage 1), the productivity at least 250 – 300 tones of substratum of Stage 1 at a shift.
15. CONNECTING MUSHROOM PRODUCTION TO A BUILDING 15.1. After working out of various options in the defined region we stopped at poultry keeping complex in the ХХХХХХ village. There are totally 26 standard buildings 18 x 72 m. Standard cameras for incubation-growing of pleurotus, which we worked out fit well into such building: - one room18 х 24 meters, capacity = 50 tones of substratum. - one room 18 х 48 meters, capacity = 100 tones of substratum of pleurotus. I.e. in two buildings 300 tones of substratum of pleurotus are placed – the amount of substratum produced for 3 work cycles of one substratum production tunnel. In total for fulfillment of the task on production of 200 tones of mushroom a month (2 400 tones a year), observing the initial data mentioned above, there must be about 27 growing rooms, the capacity = 100 tones of substratum or 18 buildings 18 х 72 meters. In the project of poultry keeping complex its gasification, water and sewage systems, creation of the own substation of 6 megawatt power are foreseen.
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I.e. full engineering provision of production. Judging from conception of minimal starting variant with 9 growing rooms, capacity = 100 tones of substratum, which provides for the permanent regular production of the mushroom without sharp peaks and valleys, there was a variant of minimal starting complex for pleurotus growing worked out in connection with this building.
15.2. DESCRIPTION OF THE OBJECT: Former poultry complex outside the city. There is no gas as source of heat in the territory of the complex. Source of water supply is not considered. Supposed first starting line: 12 buildings, 18х72 m. Positional relationship is shown at Picture 5.
Picture 5 Positional relationship of the first 12 buildings of the complex.
Construction of the building – column, wall panel of aerated concrete 200 mm thick. No ceiling. Roofing is with two sloping surfaces - П-shaped concrete plates of overlapping with a hydro isolation lawyer without heat insulation. Image of the construction of the building may be seen at Picture 6
Picture 6. Construction of corpus.
15.2. Outside climatic conditions. According to expert evaluations outside climatic conditions of the area are the following: Winter time – temperature – 15 0С. Summer time– temperature up to + 35 0С, Rh = 60 – 65 %.
15.3. LAY-OUT DECISIONS FOR GROWING ROOMS IN ONE BUILDING. Two rooms for incubation - distillation of pleurotus. The size of the first room is 18х24 m. Second room:18х48 m. Second room has a doubled capacity for pleurotus substratum in comparison with the first one.
Plan of division of the building into two rooms for incubation- distillation of pleurotus with indication of possible entry points for the air.
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15.4. REQUIREMENTS TO CLIMATIC PARA,ETERS INSIDE THE CAMERA FOR INCUBATION-DISTILLATION OF PLEUROTUS ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL STAGES. RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE OPERATING MODES OF THE EQUIPMENT. 15.4.1. TECHNOLOGICAL STAGES. 184.108.40.206. Warming up of the growing room for disinfection. 220.127.116.11. Disinfection. 18.104.22.168. Incubation of substratum blocks. 22.214.171.124. Initiation of fructification 126.96.36.199. Fruitage. 188.8.131.52. Pause. 15.4.1..7. Initiation of fructification – 2. 184.108.40.206. Fruitage – 2. 220.127.116.11. Warming up of the growing room for disinfection. Main ventilator works in the 100 % recirculation mode, fresh air supply - 0 %. 0 0 Heating supply for quick heating of room up to at least 20 С. Further maintenance between 20 – 22 С during winter time or at least 0 20 С in summer. Systems of ventilation do not work, jalousie/valves are closed, vents are closed hermetically at the most (with a type, gate, etc). 18.104.22.168. Disinfection. Main ventilator works in the 100 % recirculation mode, fresh air supply - 0 %. Heating supply between 20 – 22 0С during winter time or at least 20 0С in summer. Systems of ventilation do not work, jalousie/valves are closed, vents are closed hermetically at the most 22.214.171.124. Incubation of substratum blocks. Systems of ventilation are closed, jalousie are closed, vents are closed hermetically. Main ventilator works only in recirculation mode. At the initial stage it may be needed to raise quickly the temperature of substratum in blocks up to 26 0. Judging from experience – at the same time temperature of the air in the room must not be more than 26 0С. To maintain it further on the level of not more than 29 – 30 0. Dispersion of temperature in substratum blocks – not more than 2 0 throughout the whole volume of the growing room. It is desirable – not more than 1 0. On the final stage heat generation of the blocks falls, accordingly, the temperature of substratum also falls. The only thing needed here is to maintain the temperature of the air in the room on the level of 20 – 220. On all stages concentration of СО2 is at least 5 000 ppm. Rh of the air is at least 85 %. Fresh air supply is allowable only in case of emergency – when it is not possible to bring down the temperature in substratum blocks to less than 30 – 320in another way. 126.96.36.199. Initiation of fructification. The stage takes 2 to 4 day-and-nights. During 1 – 2 days concentration of co2 is to be brought down by the level of 750 – 850 ppm. During 3 – 5 days temperature of substratum is to be brought down from the initial one (about 20 – 240) to 16 – 180. Rh on the whole stage is in the range of 85 – 94 %. Control of air moisture is realized by means of turning in – turning out the system of moisture in room’s/airway (variant with sprayer) and if it is not enough – turning in sprayer system for moistening directly in the room. Ideally recirculation valve is 100 % opened for the whole period of this stage. In the beginning of the stage bringing down of concentration of co2 is realized by means of increasing of fresh air supply. Then by turning on the exhaust fan system. Control of the temperature of substratum by changing the temperature of the air in the growing room. Control of the temperature of air in growing room by changing the heating supply or refrigerating medium into на heater and changing of % of fresh air supply. Apparently, besides regulation valve on the line of fresh air supply there must be dagger кинжальный gate for the safe cutting off the air. The gate is before valve. ATTENTION: at the stage of primordiums creation it is very dangerous to fill primordiums up with condensate. Moisture and temperature modes with which we get dew-point temperature on the surface of substratum blocks are inadmissible. 188.8.131.52. Fruitage. Ventilation system is working all the time.
- 17 Rh in the range of 85 – 94 %. Control of air moisture is realized by means of turning ion– turning off the system of moisture in ventilation duct (variant with sprayer) and if it is not enough – turning on sprayer system for moistening directly in the room. Co2 is maintained at the level of 750 – 850 ppm, or another, adjusted by operator. Control of co2 concentration is realized by changing % of fresh air supply and intensity of discharge of exhausted air from the room. If at maximum discharge of exhausted air the level of co2 is growing – the fresh air supply is to be increased. In case when at maximum discharge of exhausted air and maximum supply of fresh air concentration of co2 goes on raising, the extent of air recirculation is to be brought down. 184.108.40.206. Pause. This stage is completely the same as stage 1.3. «Incubation». The only difference is: here it a more rapid heating of substratum up 0 to 26 is desirable. 220.127.116.11. Initiation of fructification – 2. Full analogy with stage 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124. Fruitage – 2. Full analogy with stage 126.96.36.199.
ATTENTION: Even the smaller growing room contains about 50 tones of live substratum. It is a rather accelerative system. Any changes of the rate of opening of valves, changing of the parameters of system work must be carried out STEP-BY-STEP, with a step = about 5 %, and waiting for response of the system = at least 10 minutes. Time of waiting for response, the size of the step are to be subject to regulation by production engineer.
15.5. MEASURANDS, ACCURACY, NUMBER OF SENSORS Measuring range Parameter
№ 1 2 3
4 5 6
10 - 450 0 - 350 от – 150 to + 350at humidity 60 – 65 %. 70 – 100 % 0 – 100 % 300 - >5 000 ppm.
Substratum temperature Temperature of the air in the room Temperature of the air in the street
Relative air humidity in growing room Relative air humidity in the street Concentration of co2
Accuracy of measuring 0,10 0,50
Number of sensors in small room. 3 3
+/- 2,5 % +/- 5 % Not more than: 20 ppm.
1 * 1 1
Note: if the temperature and air humidity in the street is changed one measuring point of is enough for the whole mushroom growing complex. 15.6. MISSION PROFILE OF THE WORK OF ROOM Day
Name of the stage
Recirculation % ***
Fresh air %
Light (small room)
90 – 95 85–90
stand-by 2,5 kilowatt–8 hours 2,5 kilowatt–8 hours stand-by 2,5 kilowatt–8 hours 2,5 kilowatt–8 hours
22 – 26 0 Reduction to14
24 – 36
0 Increase upto 100 Reductionfrom 100 to40 0 Increase upto 60 Reductionfrom 60 to20
>5000 Gradualreduction to 750 –950 750–950
36 – 44 44–50
50 – 64
100 100 100 100
12 – 14 0
85 – 95 %
26 0 Reduction to14
90 -95 85–90
12 – 14
85 – 95
>5000 Gradualreduction to 750 –950 750–950
- 18 64 – 70
Exportation ofblocks.Cleaningand 100 0 If necessary disinfectionoftheroom.Deliveryof blocks *** Note: I mentioned earlier thatideallyrecirculation valve is 100 %openedduring the wholecycle ofwork ofroom.
At least 85
Schedule of delivery of substratum into growing rooms– consignment=100 tones of substratum per each 8th day. 15.7. APPROXIMATE SCHEDULE OF HEAT GENERATION OF SUBSTRATUM DURING INCUBATION – WINTER. Incubationday 1 -2 3 -5 6– 7 8 -13 14 - 18
(small room–approximately50tones ofsubstratum) Descriptionofthe process ofheatgeneration 0 Up totemperature about24– 26 degrees. Initial temperature ofsubstratum18 . At thisstageheatgenerationmaybe disregarded. Self-heating ofsubstratum.Bytheendofthestage heating generationreaches maximumpoint– about450 – 500 kilojoulespertone / hour. Maximumheating generation– about 450 – 500 kilojoules per tone/ hour Gradual reduction ofheatgenerationuptothelevel ofabout150–100kilojoules per tone / hour Heatgenerationstabilizes onthe level ofabout100 – 150 kilojoules per tone / hour
15.8. ACCOMPLISHED AT THIS STAGE: Initial workup of construction of climatic equipment, sensors, measuring system, and dispatching of climatic parameters in incubation-distillation pleurotus growing rooms (small and big). The system is worked over with full mechanization of maintaining of adjusted climatic parameters. Initial estimate of the works for one building, for starting line. Evaluation of operational costs of the system for the first starting line (for seasons). It turned out that variant with using buildings without additional warming is not realistic because of the big expenditures for maintaining climatic parameters during the cold time. The most practical variant of heat isolation was chosen – coating on the inside of building constructions with a lawyer of polyfoam urethane 30 – 40 mm thick. Potential contractors were selected. The estimate of works on warming of the one building (of 6 buildings) and first starting block was drawn. The building is in that variant of heat isolation as it is. For the variant of heat isolated building the following options of heating were considered: with electricity only; electricity+ liquid fuel; gas. See Attachment 8. Evaluative capacity of power-substation for the first starting line. Variant – only electric power. Evaluative capacity of power-substation + evaluation of the use of liquid fuel for the variant: electric power + system of heating with liquid fuel individual for the building or general for the first starting line. The most advantageous is the variant with gas as energy carrier. Using individual gas heat-generator for each room for growingincubation. For the first time this variant was worked out and used in the mushroom plant of «VEK» company in Rostov, then in its final variant in Millerovo (Rostovskaya oblast’) whre it has been working successfully for already 4 years. 15.9. INPUT DATA FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BLOCK FOR AIR TREATMENT (CONDITIONER). - variant with air conditioning block for small room, the productivity of which is 12000 m3/hour at back pressure at the entry to the room = not less than 400 Pascal. - variant with air conditioning block for large room, the productivity of which is 24000 m3/hour or doubled block, the productivity of which is 12000 m3/hour. - aimed at reducing the price of solitary conditioner it is worth considering the variant of framed construction instead of skeleton – panel construction, which is assembled/installed in the territory of the customer. The former construction (framed construction) is assembled fully in the ground of contractor and is further transported in assembled form and is only installed in the territory of the customer. - to exclude from the structure of the conditioner the room for mixing fresh and recirculation air. The practice showed that for our aims it is enough to mix the fresh and recirculation air just in the air ways. - to exclude bypass of the air around heaters. In practice the accuracy of regulation of the air temperature in the system without bypass only at the expense of heaters’ heat emission regulation is quite satisfactory for our aims. - to examine variant of making NOT heat isolated conditioning block and its placing directly into room for pleurotus incubationgrowing ABOVE shelving. - in case of placing air conditioning block outside – to foresee the points for air entry into rooms according to those shown at Picture 7. The height of airways input – maximum through side wall of the building. 2 - sectional area of airway entrance into small room = about 1 m . - bringing in the air into large room is realized in the form of «trousers», sectional area of each airway is about 1 m2. - to provide for the place for installing removable container with filter (EU 3 – 4 class) in the structure of air conditioning block. The material and construction of the filtering element must provide for its quick regeneration.
- 19 - to examine the variant of organization of individual air intakes for each room with fractional distillation tube. I.e. the analogy with variant «Martovaya». To work out proposals on the height of air intake taking into account organization of the systems of the wasted air discharge from the room. Minimization of the risks of the second intake of the wasted air into the system of this room and rooms of the neighbor buildings.
15.10. INPUT DATA FOR PREPARATION OF THE SYSTEM OF AIR DISTRIBUTION IN GROWING ROOM. - Development of the system for the wasted air discharge from pleurotus incubation-growing rooms according to the criteria of temperature gradients’ minimization in the mode of incubation, minimization of the gradient of co2 concentration in the distillation mode at equal system of fresh air distribution ALONG the room’s axial. Analogy with the variant «Ol’govka». Points for the wasted air discharge. Their number and placing. Discharge through walls or through comb board? Etc. Active system of wasted air discharge, using axial-blow blowers or passive system of wasted air discharge in case of overpressure in the room (about 50 Pascal). - Evaluation of the quantity of water needed for additional evaporation INSIDE the room during the summer time for compensation of air drying at its heating at the expense of heat penetration through building constructions. Variants of not heated and heated building. - Working out recommendations in the method of air moistening in the room/airway: fogger АС2х80; sprayers; pneumo sprayers… - While working out the system – guided mainly by its simplicity, low prices preserving the adjusted servicing characteristics. In the result – to get a competitive and rather cheap MODEL UNIFIED product.
Spacing chart of sensors in the room (the smaller one) for pleurotus incubation- room t-3
Spacing chart of sensors in the room (the larger one) for pleurotus incubation- room. t-1
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Where: - bringing in the air into room t-1
- location of air temperature sensors and substratum temperature sensors. - location of air humidity sensor (is to be specified after mapping room according to Rh) - location of co2 concentration sensor (is to be specified after mapping room according to co2 concentration)
15.11. EVALUATION OF THE NUMBER OF WORKERS. For the time being it is not possible to provide the correct evaluation of the number of workers for the production of mushroom. A lot depends on, for example, the width of passageways between shelving, will it be possible to apply means of small mechanization while working out planning decisions for cold stores for freezing and storage of the mushroom etc. For approximate orientation I provide the figures which were got from the experience of work in LLC «Saturn» in Novocherkssk city, Rostovskaya oblast’. Evaluation of the number of collectors – 1 collector, if she doesn’t cleans up and incises substratum blocks, serves 30 to 35 tones of substratum. Evaluation of the number of «incisors» – 1 incisor can serve 35 to 50 tones of substratum blocks. Operations fulfilled: cleanup of substratum blocks after each collection, cleanup of substratum blocks before shifting into «pause» mode, incise of substratum blocks at initiation of fructification of the second wave, treatment of substratum blocks– if necessary. Evaluation of the number of packers. In «Saturn» the unit of work organization on the stage of packing was a GROUP. The group consisted of: 1 layer, 2 weighers, 2 packers. Rate of output is 240 – 250 units of packaging/hour. For 2 groups – 1 loader.
SUBSTRATUM PRODUCTION LOCATION
16.1. OBJECT In the result of purposeful search, the choice was fixed upon unfinished building of the ferroconcrete items plant in ХХХХХ village The complex has its own boiler-house, substation (power = 630 kilowatt). Automobile branch lines, artesian well, fire reservoir, the building for workshops, etc. Total area of the object allows organizing in its territory of the storage for raw materials, the capacity = 3 000 tones of substratum a month.
- 21 And the most important thing is that the production building allows to apply lay-out decisions for the substratum production workshops, shown at Picture 4. The size of the building is 36 Ń… 144 meters, that allows to place substratum production in it, tied to 4 fermentation tunnels (capacity = 100 tones of substratum each). I.e. full capacity = 3 000 tones of substratum/month.
16.2. PLANNING DECISIONS. Picture 8. Planning decision for substratum workshop (36 x 144 meters)
- 22 Where: 1 - ground for decomposition of straw 2 - ground for transfer works 3 – block of covered indoors 4 - block of fermentation tunnels 5 – clear section 1 – unloading of substratum from the tunnels 6 – cleat section 2 – substratum inoculation and formation of substratum blocks 7 – conditionally clear section for substratum blocks accumulation 8 – section for substratum blocks dispatch