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Gold Agrian Agro-Culture Liquid Fertilizers Agrotain International AMVAC Chemical Corp. Arysta LifeScience Biagro Western Sales Chemtura AgroSolutions Crop Production Services

Silver: AgraQuest, Inc. FBSciences, Inc. MGK Monterey Ag Resources Oro Agri, Inc. Petro-Canada Lubricants Pollen Bank Target Specialty Products Tri Cal Valent USA Corp

Dow AgroSciences GfK Kynetec Helena JH Biotech Plant Protectants Simplot Grower Solutions SQM North America Suterra

Bronze: Acadian Agritech Actagro, Inc. Ag 1 Source AG RX Agro-K Agroplasma Inc Baicor L.C. BASF Big W Sales Bio-Gro Inc. Capital Association Plans Certified Crop Advisers Certis USA Cheminova Converted Organics of CA FMC Company

Syngenta Crop Protection Tessenderlo Kerley The Tremont/Lyman Group Trécé, Inc. Western Farm Press Wilbur-Ellis Company Yara North America

Fruit Growers Laboratory Inc Global Organics/ BioFlora Gowan Company Interstate Ag Plastics Isagro USA J.G. Boswell Co Kleen Globe Inc. MANA Marrone Bio Innovations Inc. McClenahan Pest Control, Inc. Mid-Valley Ag Services Monsanto Mosaic Motomco Nichino America, Inc NuFarm Americas, Inc OHP, INC. Omni Agri Trade Group, LLC

Polymer Ag, LLC Produce Careers, Inc. S Beckley & Associates San Joaquin Grower Services Scentry Biologicals, Inc. Sci-Protek, Inc SePro Corporation Spectrum Technologies, Inc. The Morning Star Packing Co. United Phosphorus Inc. Van Beurden Insurance Services Vance Communication Corp Wellmark International DBA Central Life Sciences Westbridge Agricultural Prod. Willowood USA

Cover Photo by John Redman,


Farm Advisors

Regular Features



5. 16. 52. 55. 58.

The Work Experience Option Shannon Douglass, Pathway to PCA Program Coordinator

CAPCA Conference


Iris Yellow Spot Virus in Onions Donna Henderson, Eric Natwick, Brenna Aegerter, and Joe Nunez, University of California Cooperative Extension


2010 CAPCA Conference Recap

Sustainable Landscapes to Prevent/Reduce Pest Outbreaks


Janet Hartin, Environmental Horticulturist, UC Cooperative Extension, San Bernardino & Los Angeles Counties

Gary Silveria, CAPCA Ex-Officio 2009-2010


2010 CAPCA Award Winners Announced



Influence of Blackeye Variety, Spacing and Irrigation on Lygus Populations and Damage P. B. Goodell, IPM Advisor, UCCE Statewide IPM Prog., Kearney Ag Center, Parlier, CA; and B.L. Sanden, Farm Advisor, UCCE Kern County

From the Editor Legislation Career Opportunities Chapter News Continuing Education



Organic Herbicides

A Rose By Any Other Name

John A. Roncoroni, Weed Science Farm Advisor, UCCE Napa; and W. T. Lanini, Weed Ecologist, UCCE Davis



Joyce A. Basan, CAPCA Communications Dir.

Control of Root Rot in the Landscape with Mulches Jim Downer, University of California, Ventura


Old Dog & New Tricks

CCA Update


Fall – Time for Almond Nutrition Review and Planning

Invasive Pest Case Studies Franz Niederholzer, UC Farm Advisor, Sutin Urban Landscape and ter/Yuba Counties Ornamental Plant Production: GWSS, Diaprepes, and Myoporum Farm Nutrient ManageThrips ment Plans – an OpportuJames A. Bethke, UC Cooperative Extension San Diego County; John N. Kabashima, nity to Reevaluate UCCE Orange Co.; David A. Shaw, UCCE Current Practices San Diego Co.


Bayer CropScience CDMS DuPont Crop Protection

Tim Hartz, Department of Plant Sciences, UC Davis

CAPCA Adviser 



CAPCA members will conduct themselves in a professional manner according to their code of ethics by observing all laws and all regulations, broadening their abilities through continuing education, and respecting the needs of their clients, the environment and public safety at all times.

CODE OF ETHICS Adopted 1992

INTRODUCTION The California Association of Pest Control Advisers (CAPCA) recognizes the unique ethical and professional responsibility of the licensed pest control adviser (PCA). PCAs have the responsibility to support and promote the highest standards of conduct in the performance of their duties to the public, the environment and their clients. CAPCA members will observe and obey all laws and regulations pertaining to our industry, and will voluntarily assume the obligations of self-discipline, honor, and environmental respect set forth in the CAPCA ‘Code of Ethics’. ARTICLE I: Obligation of the PCA to the Public and Environment • Prescribe environmentally sound pest management methods which do not jeopardize the public health and welfare. • Ensure that alternative measures for pest management situations have been reviewed, as provided by law. • Maintain an awareness of public concerns and be willing to address those concerns in a sound, scientifically-based manner. • Serve as a leading advocate of safe and effective pest management technologies. • Participate in the advancement of pest management and professional knowledge. ARTICLE II: Obligation of the PCA to the Client • PCAs have an affirmative ethical obligation not to conceal their source of compensation when asked. • Help the client keep abreast of relevant regulatory and technological changes which could impact the client’s business. • Provide the client with pest management advice which meets the following criteria: - environmentally, economically, and ethically sound - legal uses that are objective and are research-based ARTICLE III: Obligation of PCA to the Profession • Refrain from making false or misleading statements about the work of other PCAs. • Recognize the duty to report illegal practices to the proper authorities. • Maintain state-of-the-art knowledge of pest management through conscientious pursuit of continuing education. • Participate in industry affiliated organizations and activities which encourage the betterment of the profession. • Foster and support research and education for the advancement of pest management

CAPCA EDITORIAL STAFF Terry W. Stark - Editor Joyce Basan - Assistant Editor Dee Monsen - Marketing/Advertising Lien Banh - Executive Assistant Graphic Design - Rosemary N. Southward



or the most part 2010 has been a reasonably successful year and in California we were entertained by an array of political ads whereby every candidate was more experienced, more a conservative, more no taxes and willing to fight for you type person than their opponent. Out with the old and in with the new-exception being with association management. Hopefully we will see some results if we hold the election winners accountable and as CAPCA PCAs be prepared to adapt to the nuisances that will come our way in regulatory and legislative annoyance.

MISSION & PURPOSE California Association of Pest Control Advisers (CAPCA) is a non-profit voluntary mutual benefit association that represents 75% of the 4,000 California EPA licensed pest control advisers. CAPCA’s purpose is to serve as the leader in the evolution of the pest management industry through the communication of reliable information. CAPCA is dedicated to the professional development and enhancement of our members’ education and stewardship which includes legislative, regulatory, continuing education and public outreach activities. PUBLISHING INFORMATION CAPCA Adviser is published bi-monthly by the California Association of Pest Control Advisers (CAPCA), 1143 No. Market Blvd., Suite 7, Sacramento, California 95834. Web:, (916) 928‑1625. POSTMASTER: send address change to CAPCA). A portion of CAPCA membership dues is used to provide subscription privileges to the Adviser magazine. Nonmember subscriptions are $30/year. Third class bulk postage paid at Tucson, AZ and at additional mailing offices. CAPCA has endeavored to include appropriate and accurate statements, but disclaims any and all warranties and/or responsibility for the statements or articles submitted to CAPCA Adviser that may have additionally been edited for style, content and space prior to publication. Views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent CAPCA policies, or positions or endorsements. Editorial content of this publication is educational and informational in nature. No part of this publication, including images, may be reproduced without prior written permission from the publisher. Contact Terry Stark at (916) 928‑1625 for reprint authorization. PRINTING: Sundance Press Tucson, Arizona

Only a fortune teller can predict what we will have to embrace on the Federal level. There’s a lot to be said by the inability of government to function, and it is not necessarily a bad thing. As we greet 2011 I wanted to share with you again an excerpt from a Marine’s combat journal entry on “Principles My Father Taught Me,” by Major Doug Zembiec. Please take a moment to read them and ponder if you have anything in common. “Be a man of principle. Fight for what you believe in. Keep your word. Live with integrity. Be brave. Believe in something bigger than yourself. Serve your country. Teach. Mentor. Give something back to society. Lead from the front. Conquer your fears. Be a good friend. Be humble and be self-confident. Appreciate your friends and family. Be a leader and not a follower. Be valorous on the field of battle. Take responsibility for your actions.” May 2011 bring you much success, happiness and joy. Thank you for being a CAPCA member. Sincerely,

Terry W. Stark,

CAPCA Adviser 



Fungicide Quality Control

Added Benefits Add Up to Added Value Botrytis cinerea (gray mold). Monilinia spp (fruit rot). Words producers never want to hear. Words that strike fear, threaten their bottom line, their investment and potentially their livelihood. With ELEVATE® 50WDG Fungicide, producers may never hear or utter those words again (unless it’s to mock them).

A package of benefits not found in any other fungicide

Along with 7-14 days of residual activity, ELEVATE features a unique active ingredient with a novel mode of action that’s different from other fungicides. This makes ELEVATE ideally suited for resistance management programs.

Pre-harvest disease protection

“In some crops, post-harvest fungicide applications may not be an option, therefore control of post-harvest diseases is most often dependent on the effectiveness and time of pre-harvest fungicide applications,” says Dr. Martin D. Wiglesworth, Product Manager Fungicides/Insecticides of Arysta LifeScience North America, LLC. ELEVATE has a 0-day pre-harvest interval so producers can get effective post-harvest disease protection from a pre-harvest application of ELEVATE. Some important points to remember about post-harvest disease control: • Pre-harvest infection often lies dormant until after fruit is harvested; • Injury to fruit can occur during harvest, transportation and storage, providing an entry way for disease development; • Storage conditions provide the optimum environment for the spread of Botrytis fruit rot; post-harvest disease and decay can be very costly to growers, shippers and resellers.

Botrytis wastes your time, effort and money. ELEVATE® provides unsurpassed Botrytis control, even when disease conditions are at their worst so this won’t happen to your fruit.

Performance-tested in the toughest university trials

The vigorous trials ELEVATE goes through has proven time and again, in side-by-side comparisons with other leading fungicides that it delivers outstanding disease control under a wide range of growing conditions.

You can’t have quality without control

ELEVATE delivers unsurpassed control of Botrytis bunch rot in grapes and Botrytis gray mold in strawberries, bushberries and cranberries. The added value—ELEVATE provides powdery mildew suppression in grapes. ELEVATE offers a “Reduced Risk” classification. No adverse effect on fruit size, flavor, fermentation or aroma. A unique mode of action with no cross-resistance. Crop rotation flexibility. And a formulation that’s rainfast in just two hours. Bottom line: ELEVATE helps harvest and ship higher yields of more marketable fruit. Always read and follow label directions. ELEVATE is a registered trademark of Arysta LifeScience North America, LLC.

They all have one thing in common. A date with a dumpster.

Botrytis wastes your time, effort and money. ELEVATEÂŽ Fungicide does exactly the opposite. It provides unsurpassed Botrytis control, even when disease conditions are at their worst. Plus, ELEVATE has a unique mode of action with no known cross-resistance, which makes it perfect for your resistance management program. To learn how ELEVATE can help you, visit or call 1.866.761.9397 toll free.

Always read and follow label directions. ELEVATE is a registered trademark of Arysta LifeScience North America, LLC. The ELEVATE logo is a trademark of Arysta LifeScience North America, LLC. Arysta LifeScience and the Arysta LifeScience logo are registered trademarks of Arysta LifeScience Corporation. Š2010 Arysta LifeScience North America, LLC. ELE-064

PATHWAY TO PCA The Work Experience Option Shannon Douglass, Pathway to PCA Program Coordinator


ost people are familiar with the educational path to become a PCA. It takes a specified number of college credits or a Bachelor of Science, usually in agriculture and some specific coursework. What many people do not know is that there are three educational options that qualify a person to take the PCA exam. The most common is the BS degree, some people with a Ph.D. can also qualify and the third option is work experience in which a BS is not required to become a PCA. People following the work experience option still need 42 semester units of specific coursework determined by DPR. Students can take these classes at a junior college or a 4-year school. Students can even get some of these classes completed with distance education or online classes. In addition to the coursework they must have at least 24 months of work experience. Ideally this experience would be working closely with a PCA, but several types of work experience are acceptable. The work experience option is not for everyone. There are some instances in which having a 4-year degree can be a valuable asset to a career and students should be sure to select a path that meets their long term goals. But for people who decide a 4-year degree is not for them and have already been working in the industry, utilizing the work experience option can be a great path to take. So where would the person take classes? Much of this depends on the geographical location of the person and what schools are nearby. For a person living in Fresno for example, it would be easiest to take courses directly at Fresno State. The courses can be completed using the Open University program which allows a member of the community to take classes without formal admission to the college. People who do not live near a 4-year school can get much, and sometimes even all, of the coursework completed at a local junior college. Most classes require the student to physically attend classes, especially laboratory classes. But there are even some great distance education options at several of the community colleges. New in 2011 will be some great class offerings from

8  December 2010

Butte College, located near Chico. One of Butte’s instructors, Dr. Carrie Monlux, (who also teaches courses at Chico State) decided to obtain her PCA license in 2009. Since passing the exam she has become a tremendous advocate for the Pathway to PCA program. Working with her supportive administration in the Butte College agriculture program and a partnership with the Community College Ag Collaborative, she has written several new courses for PCA candidates. To make her classes of special interest to those using the work experience option, several of the new classes will be offered fully online and others offered using hybrid online/in person classes. If the work experience option is something that you would like to learn more about, please contact me. I’m happy to help you figure out where you could start taking classes and help you figure out how long it would take to complete the coursework. You can reach me at (530) 680-4545 or

L-R: Shannon Douglass (Pathway to PCA Program Coordinator), Brett Davie and Matt Kassis (Cal Poly), Terry Stark (CAPCA President/CEO), and Martin Reid (Dupont).

2010 CAPCA Conference Recap! Conference photos by David Pattison and Instantimage

I had a great time Making Connections at the CAPCA conference!!!

LEGO and the LEGO logo are trademarks of the LEGO Group of Companies, which does not sponsor, endorse, or authorize this event. Š 2010 The LEGO Group.

Congratulations to CA Ag in the Classroom, the winner of this year’s exhibitor decorating contest!

Congratulations to our Raffle Winners! Pam Pavela: $500

David Fernandez: $750

Aaron Heinrich: $1000

Paul Hollar: Peppermill pkg.

Acadian Agritech Actagro, Inc Ag 1 Source Ag Alert Ag in the Classroom Ag Safe AgraQuest, Inc Agrian Agribusiness Publications Agrimar Corp Agro-Culture Liquid Fert Agro-K Corporation Agroplasma Inc Agrotain International AGQ USA Albion Plant Nutrition Amvac Chemical Corp Art Wilson Company Arysta LifeScience No Am Baicor L.C. BASF - Ag BASF - T & O Bayer CropScience Biagro Western Sales, Inc BioFlora Bio-Gro Inc BioSafe Systems BioWorks, Inc BPIA Blue Mountain Minerals

CALAMCO California Farm Bureau GWSS Board CDMS, Inc CA Certified Crop Advisers Certis USA Cheetah Industries Cheminova Chemtura AgroSolutions Citrus Research Board Converted Organics of CA Crop Production Services CSI Chemical Corp Diversified Waterscapes Dow AgroSciences Duarte Nursery Inc DuPont Crop Protection FBSciences, Inc Fine Americas, Inc FMC Corporation Fruit Growers Laboratory GFK Kynetec Gowan USA Helena Chemical Co Hortau Interstate Ag Plastics IrriChem Sales, LLC Isagro USA JH Biotech, Inc Lawson & Associates

MANA Sutter -Buttes CAPCA Marrone Bio Innovations Syngenta Crop Protection MGK Tessenderlo Kerley, Inc Micro Matic USA The Scotts Company Miller Chemical The Tremont/Lyman Groups Monsanto Thoits Insurance Monterey AgResources Tiger-Sul Products Mosaic Trece, Inc Motomco LTD True Organic Products Natural Industries, Inc United Phosphorus Inc Nichino America, Inc Univar USA Nufarm Americas, Inc Valent USA Corp Nutrient Technologies Verdegaal Brothers, Inc OHP, Inc Westbridge Ag Products Omni Agri Trade Group Western Farm Press Organic Farms Wilbur Ellis Company Oro Agri, Inc Willowood USA LLC Peppermill Resort Woodland CAPCA Pollen Bank Yara North America, Inc Polymer Ag, LLC ou y k Purfresh n Tha hibitors Quali Tech Inc Ex & rs Rotam North America nso Year! o p S ext N San Diego CAPCA u o ee Y S Scentry Biologicals Schaben Industries Simplot Agribusiness Sipcam Advan Spectrum Technologies Suterra LLC * Sponsors are listed in Bold Colors


Annual awards 2010 CAPCA Award Winners Announced Gary Silveria, CAPCA Ex-Officio 2009-2010

CAPCA Member of the Year: Renee Rianda, Woodland Chapter


he CAPCA Member of the Year award is given to a member who is a licensed PCA and who excels in their contribution to the profession through CAPCA activities and their leadership above and beyond the norm. The 2010 recipient of the CAPCA Member of the Year Award is Renee Rianda. We asked Renee what motivated her to get into the PCA profession and she said, “I decided as a little girl I wanted to farm with my dad and uncles. As I got older I discovered being a PCA was probably a better fit for me. Our ranch always had a variety of PCAs working on it depending on where the crops were destined so I would seek them out over the years and ask them about being a PCA. It sounded like a worthwhile career; it is a career that is continually reinventing itself with new technologies and innovative approaches to pest control and would give me a lot of freedom from a typical 9-5 job.” Renee received her Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Business Management from Fresno State in 1989 and got her MBA from University of Phoenix in 2004. Renee received her PCA license in 1990 and started working for Contadina Foods in Woodland that spring. At Contadina her duties included a variety of tasks, most notably the Pesticide Use Program and Traceability. When Contadina was bought out by Del Monte, Renee continued in the Pesticide Food Safety capacity and picked up a few new tasks, notably the Grower Payments. When Del Monte closed its operation in Woodland she moved to The Morning Star Packing Company where she continued the Food Safety and Product Traceability programs, the Pesticide Program, which includes moving growers forward to more of an electronic version that meets all the processor needs in a timely manner and Grower Payments during harvest season. At Morning Star she inherited the Sustainable Agriculture Project, where she continues to work with customers and growers to meet the increasing requests for Sustainable Ag conformance. This task is the most challenging as many NGOs are seeing this as a marketing opportunity and want processor and grower input. Trying to meet everyone’s demands is a challenge.

14  December 2010

Renee Rianda Renee has been active in her local Woodland CAPCA chapter since 1990, and is current chapter president. On the CAPCA state level she has been a board member, served as State Treasurer, Vice Chair and Conference Chair. Renee is the current Board Chair of CAPCA for the 2009-2010 Term. In addition to her State Chair activities she has continued to be active on the Conference Committee. Renee has been extremely active on the Government Relations committee, especially on the AB2122 legislation created by CAPCA and recently signed by the Governor. She has also participated with DPR on continued education issues. Renee’s involvement in CAPCA leadership spans two decades. Her extensive devotion of time and leadership has benefited PCAs statewide. Renee “walks the walk” in representing the need for involvement in CAPCA and will continue to direct CAPCA’s future.

Outstanding Contribution to Agriculture Award Neale P. McNutt


APCAs highest award is given to those individuals, companies or organization that has gone far beyond others in support of Agriculture. This year’s honoree for the Outstanding Contribution to Agriculture is Neale P. McNutt. Neale grew up on a small orange orchard in Riverside where his father was involved in citrus pest management. It was at this time that Neale’s interest in agriculture first began. Neale graduated from Santa Paula High School in 1954. He received his Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Services and Inspection at Cal Poly Pomona in 1958. Neale has been in the industry for 52 years and received his PCA license in 1975. In 1972, Senate Bill 1020 was passed for the licensing of Agricultural Pest Control Advisers in California. Local agricultural organizations and field men realized there was a need for a statewide organization. A non-profit corporation - Council of California Pest Control Advisers was formed in 1975. Mr. Stan Strew was the Executive Director and the first CAPCA Conference was held in Fresno in December 1975. The conference theme was “Why Doesn’t Somebody Do Something?” and Neale realized, “I was somebody!” Neale was employed by Coastal Chemical Company in Oxnard from 1958 – 1976; Santa Clara Chemical and Seed in Oxnard from 1976 – 1999; and Tri-Tech Ag Products in Camarillo from 1999 – present. He is involved in product purchases, inventory control, and backup support for Tri-Tech PCAs. He consults in celery, cole crops, peppers and leafy vegetables.

Neale P. McNutt

In addition to Neale’s career as a PCA he was also one of the pioneers in the formation of CAPCA and was a CAPCA charter member in January 1975. Neale served on Western Agricultural Chemical Association Board from 1976-1979 and was in Ag Consultant Magazine - Crop Professionals Hall of Fame in 1994. Neale was also a Board member of the Stanley Strew Educational Fund and a founding Board Member of the Plant Doctor Program. Now, Neale has three daughters, five grandchildren and his wife of 54 years, Sue. Neale says the biggest highlight of his career as a PCA is his involvement in not only CAPCA but all the other organizations that have contributed to the success and professionalism of what PCAs represent in the agricultural industry today. 

Neale McNutt (left), Gary Silveria, CAPCA Ex-Officio, and Renee Rianda (right). CAPCA Adviser 


LEGISLATION 2010 Legislation Update CAPCA Lobbyists Jackson R. Gualco and Kendra Daijogo


APCA had a very successful year legislatively with the passage and ultimate signature by Governor Schwarzenegger on AB 2122 (Mendoza, et al) regarding continuing education for PCAs. Details of that bill are shown below. Legislation which was actively tracked and/or lobbied on CAPCA’s behalf in this second year of the 20092010 Legislative Session are briefly described here. Life will change in Sacramento after the November election with a new governor and the seating of a new Legislature. The governor must assemble a new team and we in turn on your behalf must analyze and understand the new working dynamics in both the Executive and Legislative branches of State government. We can expect a very busy and challenging time starting on November 3rd. AB 1721 (Swanson) - Pesticides: Safe School Zones Creates the “Healthy and Safe School Zone Act”; prohibits the use of restricted materials applied by specified methods (aerial application, application by powered equipment, chemigation (application through irrigation lines), fumigation, or other methods of application likely to cause offsite movement of pesticides) for commercial agricultural or state agricultural pest eradication or control programs within one-half mile or one-quarter mile of a school zone, as defined; prohibits the use of non-restricted materials applied by specified methods (as described above) for commercial agricultural or state agricultural pest eradication or control programs within one-quarter mile of a school safety zone; exempts approved organic pesticides from these prohibitions, except for elemental or lime sulfur, used for commercial agriculture; defines “school safety zone” to mean a schoolsite, as defined in Section 17609 of the Education Code; and, creates a new definition for “commercial agriculture” to mean any person engaged in the raising of crops, nursery stock, or animals, or producing animal products, for commerce. The bill would exempt the Department of Public Health and local vector control agencies providing service in accordance with Health and Safety Code Section 116180 and districts organized under the Mosquito Abatement and Vector Control District Law. Status: Assembly Agriculture Committee - Testimony Taken; Held in Committee

16  December 2010

Assembly Member Tony Mendoza, author of AB 2122, receives an award of recognition at the CAPCA 36th Annual Conference in Anaheim, CA. (L-R): CAPCA Government Relations Chair Jill Levake-Scott, Assembly Member Tony Mendoza, and CAPCA lobbyist Jack Gualco.

AB 2038 (Eng) – Franchise Tax Board: Professional or Occupational Licenses Would from January 1, 2012 through January 1, 2016, permit a state governmental licensing entity, that issues professional or occupational licenses, certificates, registrations, or permits, to suspend, revoke, or refuse to issue a license where the applicant or licensee has failed to pay income taxes, subject to specified procedures. This bill would also require those licensing entities to provide to the Franchise Tax Board the name and social security number or federal taxpayer identification number of each individual licensee of that entity. Status: Assembly Appropriations Committee; Held in Committee AB 2122 (Mendoza) - Pesticides: Regulations: Continuing Education Provides that a regulation adopted or amended pertaining to continuing education requirements shall establish minimum course requirements related to pesticides and pest management and would require the director to approve courses that include certain subjects in the context of pesticides and pest management. The bill would require the director to act within 15 business days of receipt to approve or reject continuing education courses submitted to meet


Rally® Fungicide Canker Diseases Dow AgroSciences has received registration from U.S. EPA and CA DPR for Rally® fungicide to aid in the control of grapevine canker diseases. Under this Special Local Need (SLN) label, Rally is tractor-applied to pruning wounds immediately after pruning, helping to manage fungal pathogens which infect woody tissue, including various Botrysphaeria species and others. The SLN is for use in California only. “Research conducted by Doug Gubler and Ryan Herche at UC Davis has shown that Rally applied immediately after pruning can help prevent infection by fungi that cause these canker diseases,” says Jim Mueller, Dow AgroSciences field scientist.

Tractor Application “What makes this new label very practical for growers is that Rally can be applied by tractor,” says Mueller. “Growers can apply another fungicide after pruning, but must paint it on by hand or use hand-held spray bottles, which is a time consuming and expensive process. With Rally, standard vineyard sprayers can be used by capping certain nozzles so that the fungicide is directed toward pruning wounds. “The other management option growers have is simply to prune out infected wood,” he says. “But it’s best to also protect the pruning wounds.”

Apply Rally After Pruning Rally should be applied within 24 hours after pruning, as pruning wounds are the primary route of infection. “Depending on conditions, pruning wounds can take several weeks to heal and are susceptible until healed,” says

Mueller. “Rally fungicide will provide at least two weeks of protection. If wounds have not healed by then, growers can apply another Rally treatment. That’s especially important if rain is expected. Just a quarter inch of rain would release additional spores into the air and provide the conditions needed for spore germination and infection.” When possible, final pruning should occur in late winter. At that time, pruning wounds tend to heal faster and disease pressure tends to be lower, as spore sacks become depleted from winter rains. A late winter application of Rally also can reduce overwintering powdery mildew infections. UC Davis researchers found that this application can reduce powdery mildew similar to a lime sulfur Trademark of Dow AgroSciences LLC and oil treatment applied Always read and follow label directions. at that time. ®

the requirements of law pertaining to pesticides. Status: CAPCA-Sponsored Measure: Chapter 375, Statutes of 2010 AB 2595 (Huffman) - Irrigated Agriculture: Pesticide Use: Operator Identification Number: Water Quality Requires the operator of a property or their representative to obtain an operator identification number (OIN) for pesticide use from the County Agricultural Commissioner (CAC) of each county where pest control work will be performed. Specifies that as of January 1, 2012, a CAC shall not issue a OIN if the SWRCB or RWQCB issues a notice to the CAC that the property operator is in violation of the following water quality requirements: failure to obtain an individual or general waste discharge requirements; failure to furnish technical or monitoring program reports; failure to enroll in the Irrigated Lands Conditional Waiver Program or obtain an individual or general waiver of waste discharge requirements. Status: Senate Floor; Inactive File AB 2659 (Tran) - Business Licensing: Business Master License Center The bill would create a Business Master License Center (‘BMLC’) within the State and Consumer Services Agency. It establishes BMLC’s duties as, but not limited to: developing and administering a computerized one-stop master license system (“MLS”) capable of storing, retrieving, and exchanging license information, as well as issuing and renewing master licenses in an efficient manner; developing and administering a uniform business identification number for each participating business recognized by each participating agency; providing a license information service detailing requirements to establish or engage in business in this state; providing for staggered master license renewal; identifying types of licenses appropriate for inclusion in the MLS; recommending in reports to the Governor and the Legislature the elimination, consolidation, or other modification of duplicative, ineffective, or inefficient licensing or inspection requirements; incorporating licenses into the MLS; and, working with other regulatory agencies to develop a system that permits participating agencies to share information generated from the MLS. The Department of Pesticide Regulation would be one of the agencies required to fully participate in the BMLC. Status: Assembly Appropriations Committee; Held in Committee

18  December 2010

AB 2695 (Hernandez) - California Nursery Producers Commission Creates, subject to approval by an industry referendum, the 16-member California Nursery Producers Commission within the Department of Food and Agriculture to serve the marketing and research interests of the nursery industry in the state. Status: Chapter 605, Statutes of 2010 SB 980 (Huff) - Business licensing: Business Master License Center Is nearly identical to AB 2659 (Tran), as it creates a Business Master License Center (“BMLC”) with prescribed duties, including, but not limited to, developing and administering a computerized one-stop master license system capable of storing, retrieving, and exchanging license information, as well as issuing and renewing master licenses, as specified. The bill would permit the Governor to appoint a third party facilitator from the business community, to provide oversight over the creation of the BMLC and the development of its master license system (“MLS”). The Department of Pesticide Regulation would be one of the agencies required to fully participate in the BMLC. Status: Senate Appropriations Committee; Held in Committee SB 1157 (DeSaulnier) - Education: the Healthy Schools Act of 2010 Makes legislative findings about the health impacts of pesticides and cites the bill as the Healthy Schools Act of 2010. Requires, commencing on January 1, 2014, all schoolsites to adopt an integrated pest management (IPM) program. Requires, beginning January 1, 2012, the actual rate of the mill assessment on pesticide sales to be augmented, by regulation at a rate adequate to reimburse Department of Pesticide Regulation for the cost of administering and enforcing the IPM program requirements and for reimbursing local agencies and school districts for the costs of implementing IPM programs at school sites. Status: Vetoed by Governor For more information regarding access to The Gualco Group, Inc’s legislative tracking system, contact Tomas Garza at The Gualco Group, Inc. at 916/441-1392 or via email at 

Always read and follow label directions. Pristine is a registered trademark of BASF. Š2010 BASF Corporation. All Rights Reserved. APN 09-01-195-0003

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Influence of Blackeye Variety, Spacing and Irrigation on Lygus Popula P. B. Goodell, IPM Advisor, UCCE Statewide IPM Prog., Kearney Ag Center, Parlier, CA; and B.L. Sanden, Farm Advisor, UCCE Kern County

Summary: Lygus bugs are key pests in legume crops including cowpea or blackeye beans. A study was initiated with in Kern County to evaluate the interaction of variety and irrigation practices on Lygus. The trial consisted of three irrigation treatments, two varieties and three plant densities. The 108 plots were sampled weekly for Lygus from June 29 to August 10, 2010. Insects were collected from 20 sweeps outside of harvest rows, bagged, frozen and counted in the lab. Bugs were enumerated as adults, large nymphs (instars 3-5) or small nymphs (instars 1-2). Irrigation and spacing had the greatest influence on Lygus numbers but spacing and variety influenced bean damage, but not significantly. Frequently irrigated and closely spaced plants were most attractive to Lygus. Introduction: Lygus hesperus is a key pest in blackeye beans causing damage to buds, pods and seeds. While legumes are extremely attractive to Lygus, it has been observed that crop condition can mitigate some population increase. With recent shortfalls in irrigation deliveries, the interest in modifying cultural practices such as, frequency and quantity of irrigation, planting densities and varietal responses has increased. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the influence of cultural practices in blackeye beans on creating attractive conditions for Lygus. Procedures: This study was conducted with an existing trial at Shafter Research and Extension Center (SREC) Kern County in 2009. The trial was an evaluation of irrigation, plant density and variety being conducted by Blake Sanden (Sanden et al, 2010). The experimental design was a split-split plot with six replications. Replicate blocks were not assigned completely randomized but were laid out to accommodate the irrigation treatments.

The treatments included: Treatments* Every Row – every 7 days Irrigation

Alternate Row – every 7 days Reduced – every row, every 14 days 2 inches between plants


4 inches between plants 6 inches between plants


CB46 CB50

See BL Sanden et al, 2010 for details


The individual plots were 50 ft long and 8 rows wide. The plots were sampled weekly using a standard sweep net in a pendulum movement across the two beds of beans. The second and third rows were sampled alternatively with the sixth and seventh. The fourth and fifth rows were untouched for harvest. Insects were placed in paper bags, transported to Kearney Ag Center, frozen and counted within a week. Lygus were counted as adults, large nymphs (3rd -5th instars) or small nymphs (1st and 2nd instars). Treatment of was applied over the entire field on 13 July 2009 when the majority of plots had exceeded the UC IPM action threshold of 0.5 Lygus/sweep during early pod formation (Godfrey & Long, 2008). The field trial was conducted as a single flush system, meaning only one flowering cycle was allowed to occur. Beans were harvested, cleaned and weighed. Subsamples consisting of 100 gm had the total number of beans, and assessed for Lygus stings, according to USDA protocol (Anon, 2008). Results: Lygus populations quickly increased between 6/29/09 and 7/13/09 (Figure 1) with the well watered and most dense plots building the fastest. The field was treated with dimethoate 4EC at peak bloom on 7/13/09. The population was reduced and remained below threshold levels (1 bug/sweep) for the remainder of the season. Pod filling and cutout occurred shortly after mid July which probably also

20  December 2010

ations and Damage

Figure 1. Total Lygus bug population at SREC blackeye trial. Sloid line at 0.5 Lygus/sweep represent treatment threshold.

Figure 2. Average Lygus population composition from SREC blackeye bean trial.

played a role in making the plots less desirable for adult migration and residence. Averaged nymphal populations were greatest between 7/6 and 7/13/2009 but adults composed over 50% of the population during this trial (Figure 2). Irrigation and spacing had the greatest influence on Lygus population. There were significant differences (P<5%) in Lygus populations between irrigation treatments from 7/6/09 until 8/3/09. There were significant differences (P<5%) between spacing treatments in total Lygus/sweep from 7/6/09 until 7/20/09 (Table 1). The plots which had Every Irrigation treatment had greater Lygus population densities than other irrigation treatments with 70% of plots exceeding threshold on 7/13/09 (Figure 3). Yield was influenced by treatments with the most densely planted and irrigated producing the most beans (Sanden et al, 2010). Yield was greatest in treatments that were most closely planted (2â&#x20AC;? between plants) and most frequent irrigation (every 7 days, every furrow) with yield reduced as irrigation was restricted and spacing increased (Table 2). Between conventional irrigation and deficit irrigating (Reduced 14 day interval treatment), 8.2 inches of water was conserved (Sanden et al, 2010). Based on subsample assessments of beans, the quality of beans in this trial would be graded as U.S. No. 2. No significant differences in the amount of Lygus feeding on beans were noted in any treatments (Irrigation, Spacing or Variety) at the 5% significance level but differences in treatments were observed (Figure 4). For example Reduced Irrigation treatment had fewest stings per 100 gm subsam-

Total Lygus 29-Jun































Significance Level X






NS Not Significant

Table 1. Weekly ANOVA results for total Lygus/sweep from blackeye trial, SREC 2009.

CAPCA Adviserâ&#x20AC;&#x192;


ple (2.7%) than Alternate and Every Irrigation treatments. When damaged beans are averaged across variety, CB50 had the greatest number of stings at 3.8% of the beans in 100 gm subsample. Discussion: Cultural practices that can lead to vigorous plant growth such as irrigation quantity/frequency and plant density can have a significant influence on attractiveness to Lygus. For example, in cotton alternate row irrigation and reduced planting densities have been reported to reduce attractiveness to Lygus and is considered a useful management approach in organic cotton production (Swezey et al, 1999). The opposite condition has also been reported; when cotton is rank and vigorously vegetative, it has been demonstrated to be more attractive to Lygus (Willers et al, 1999). As plants enter into the reproductive stage, they can become less attractive to Lygus. Plants in plots with more stress (less irrigation) may have had shortened bloom period with the plant entering pod fill earlier. The reduction in time during which the crop was exposed to Lygus migration and population buildup may be explain some of these results. While this trial did not provide a significant Lygus pest management benefit, it demonstrated that plant status can influence Lygus population development. Overall, in this trial, the yield reduction was greater than the value of water conservation savings (Sanden et al 2010) and in a similar trial comparable reduction in yield was noted with deficit irrigation practices (Mueller et al 2010). In this trial the entire field was treated with an insecticide to protect the research objectives and so the savings of maintaining Lygus SUMMARY TABLE: YIELD @ 10.7% average cleanout, adjusted to 8% H2O Every Row (7 days)

Alternate Row (7 days)

Reduced (14 days)


3656 a

2464 a



2951 b

2113 ab



2767 b

1839 b



3630 a

2447 a

2396 a


2815 b

1896 b

2020 b


2734 b

1895 b

1658 b

Table 2.Yield of blackeye beans (lbs) from SREC irrigation, spacing, and variety trial. Yield followed by a different letter indicates difference at P <5% signifcance. (Source: Sanden et al 2010).

22  December 2010

References: Anon. 2008. United States Standards for Bean. USDA, Federal Grain Inspection Service. December 2008. http://archive.gipsa. Godfrey, L.D. and R. Long. 2008. Insects and Mites, in UC Pest Management Guidelines for Dry Bean http://www.ipm.ucdavis. edu/PMG/r52301211.html

Figure 3. Percent of plots which exceeded at least 0.5 Lygus/ sweep, as grouped by Irrigation Treatments

Mueller, S.C., L. Schwankl, C.A. Frate, J. Elhers, B. Sanden, & S. Temple. 2010. Evaluation of deficit irrigation strategies in blackeyes under variable plant densities. UC Bean Research 2009 Progress Report. Pp. 36-45. Sanden B., P. Goodell, S. Mueller, L. Schwankl, C. Frate, J. Ehlers, and L. Godfrey. 2010. Deficit irrigation of blackeyes with alternate furrow and reduced irrigation frequency, variable plant populations and impact on Lygus counts, yield and quality. UC Bean Research 2009 Progress Report. Pp. 46-52. Willers, J. L., Seal, M. R. and Luttrell, R. G. 1999. Remote sensing, line-intercept sampling for tarnished plant bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Mid-south cotton. Journal Cotton Science 3, 160–170.

Figure 4. Percent beans stung, grouped by treatments

population below treatment threshold was not realized. This trial does demonstrate that Lygus movement can be manipulated. This leads to a possible management tactic; a grower might consider managing a limited area on the border of the field for high plant density and irrigation that is not limiting plant growth. In this situation, during the critical period of bud, flower and pod fill, Lygus should be attracted to the edge where they might concentrate, limiting their damage to the field in general, creating a “killing” zone and resulting in minimal acreage requiring treatment. Acknowledgements: The authors wish to acknowledge the contribution of Nathan Cannell, Doug Cary, Lea Pereira, Idalia Orellana and Shannon Mueller. We wish to express our appreciation to Shafter REC for maintaining these plots. This work is partially funded by California Dry Bean Advisory Board and a grant from USDA-NIFA-RAMP program. 

Save the Date!

Organic Production in the Desert OFAC & CaCCA Wednesday, January 12, 2011 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

Quechan Casino & Resort Winterhaven, CA

For additional information: Steve Beckley (916) 539-4107 or

CAPCA Adviser 


FARM ADVISORS Iris Yellow Spot Virus in Onions Donna Henderson, Eric Natwick, Brenna Aegerter, and Joe Nunez, University of California Cooperative Extension

California onion acreage is approximately 36,000, with a production value of $144m, making it the top onion-producing state in the U.S. Iris yellow spot is a viral disease of onions caused by Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) which was particularly damaging to California’s onion crop this past season. Iris yellow spot was first observed in the U.S. in 1989 in southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon. It was subsequently reported from Colorado (2002), California (2003), Oregon (2005), and Washington (2006) and from many other US states and in other countries. In California it has been a developing disease problem, although the occurrence of the disease seems to be rather erratic. This past season (2010) the incidence of the disease in California production areas was higher than in previous years but this might be due to this year’s higher pressure of the vector (onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindman) and is not necessarily part of an upward trend in incidence. Symptoms and Damage Symptoms of IYSV are yellow or straw-colored lesions on the leaves and scapes of the onion plant. Lesions on leaves (Figure 1) are variously shaped (elongate, diamondshaped, or small flecks) and may be small or large. Lesions on scapes may be circular or diamond-shaped (Figure 2), research by H. Pappu at WSU indicates that the shape of scape lesions may vary with the strains of the virus. Lesions may coalesce into large chlorotic areas which may girdle leaves and cause premature senescence or girdle scapes and result in lodging. Late-season IYSV infections may not result in plant death, yet vigor is reduced, as is bulb size and seed production. Losses can be severe. In Imperial Valley, the problem is severe in processing onions and can be problematic for seed production but hasn’t been much of a problem in fresh market onions. Symptoms may vary quite a bit depending on virus strain, onion cultivar, or type of onion production (fresh market bulb, seed, or for dehydration) and leaf lesions can potentially be confused with other problems (e.g. fungal diseases or herbicide damage). Therefore, until one is familiar with the disease symptoms, it is best to have the problem identified by testing. Contact your Cooperative Extension Farm Advisor for assistance with a diagnosis.

24  December 2010


Figure 1. Leaf lesions caused by IYSV are straw-colored and may vary in shape and size from elongate to diamond-shaped or small flecks. Photo: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State Univ.,

Causal Organism and Vector IYSV is a virus in the genus Tospovirus that also includes Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) which infect other vegetable crops including tomatoes, peppers, lettuce and others. IYSV can be detected by an ELISA-based test or by PCR. The only known vector or carrier of the virus is onion thrips (Thrips tabaci). Onion thrips acquire the virus during the larval stage while feeding on infected plants. Once a larva has acquired the virus, it is capable of spreading the virus to new plants for the remainder of its life. Adult thrips can bring the virus in from outside a field; within a field, larvae can acquire it from infected plants and spread it around. Relatively little is known about what the most important sources of the virus are. In production areas where onion seed or bulb crops overlap with each other this is likely an important source of the virus. Infected volunteer

Figure 2. Lesions on scapes may be circular or diamond-shaped depending on the strain on the virus. Photo: Donna Henderson, UCCE Imperial County

onions likely also provide a “bridge” for the virus to survive in between onion crops. Another possibility is the survival of the virus in diapausing thrips in the soil. The virus does not appear to be seed-borne in onion. It has also not been detected in onion roots and only rarely detected in bulbs. Unlike TSWV, this virus does not seem to become systemic in the plant, so each lesion is the result of an independent infection. Although many weeds are capable of hosting the virus, very little is known about how important weeds are in contributing to disease outbreaks. Among the weedy hosts reported to be naturally infected are wild onion, sowthistle, red root pigweed, lambsquarter, kochia, prickly lettuce, purslane and puncturevine. Thrips Management One challenge with this disease is the potential of the onion thrips vector to develop very large populations on onion in short periods. Thrips pressure is one of the more important factors affecting disease outbreaks, and reducing thrips populations in a timely manner is generally correlated with a reduction in disease incidence or severity. In a 2010 trial in the Imperial Valley conducted by UC Farm Advisors, lower IYSV severity was correlated with lower thrips populations in plots sprayed with a thrips in-

secticide programs as compared with non-treated plots. All insecticide regimes were equally effective in reducing thrips and lowering IYSV severity (Figure 3). Note that some of the tested chemicals are not currently registered for onions in California (for example, spirotetramat is effective but not registered for onions). In general, the most effective registered materials for thrips control in onions include the pyrethroids zeta-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin (IRAC group 3), the carbamate methomyl (group 1A) and the spinosyns spinosad and spinetoram (group 5). Using softer insecticides such as the spinosyns early in the season might allow better survival of thrips predators, hopefully allowing fewer applications to be made. Among natural enemies of thrips are minute pirate bugs, predaceous mites, and lacewings, although these do not build up sufficient numbers to prevent crop injury from thrips. Thrips are categorized as high-risk for developing resistance to insecticides. Resistance to organophosphate insecticides has been reported in other states and is suspected in California. Because of this, it is especially important to rotate insecticides from different chemical families. Thorough spray coverage is essential for control, since most thrips feed in protected areas of the plant, and use of surfactants may help the chemicals reach these less exposed thrips. During hot weather, application during the early morning or the evening when the thrips are more active is recommended. For information on scouting for thrips and thrips identification, see the onion thrips management section on the UC IPM website at r584300111.html. However, be aware that the treatment thresholds mentioned here are for direct economic damage from thrips feeding in the absence of IYSV; research is needed to determine economic thresholds for thrips when IYSV is present in the area. Cultural Controls Variety selection: Some cultivars appear to more tolerant of the virus, while others are less attractive to the thrips vector. Evaluations of cultivars side by side reveal that cultivars with low numbers of thrips and low levels of thrips feeding damage tend to have a yellow-green leaf color, while susceptible cultivars tend to have a blue-green leaf color. Additionally, cultivars with glossy foliage tend to be more resistant than CAPCA Adviser 


less glossy cultivars. Of course for onion seed growers, choosing cultivars is not an option. Sanitation: When transplants are used, they should be thripsand disease-free. Note that it is possible for symptomless plants to be infected with the virus and test positive by PCR. Onion seed crops, bulb crops and green onion crops should be geographically isolated to the extent possible. Otherwise, each of these may serve as a “bridge” to allow the virus to survive year round and spread between onion crops. If volunteer onions could be providing that bridge, they should be controlled. Crop management to reduce plant stress: Avoid moisture and salt stress. In addition to carefully irrigation and management of soil salts, root diseases such as pink root and Fusarium basal plate rot should also be managed to avoid plant stress. Research in Colorado has

26  December 2010

shown that mulching onion beds with straw reduces thrips populations and IYSV incidence. The mechanism by which this works in not known, but may be through reduction of plant stress or conservation of natural predators of thrips. Other cultural factors: Higher plant populations are associated with lower incidence of IYSV. Research in New York has shown that higher nitrogen fertilization resulted in higher populations of thrips larvae, indicating that either more eggs were laid on these plants, more larvae survived on these plants, or both. Overhead irrigation provides some suppression of thrips populations, but does not eliminate the need for other management tactics. Research is underway to further understand the factors that contribute to disease outbreaks which will hopefully lead to improved management recommendations in the future. 


Technology out of Los Alamos National Laboratory Boosts Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Crops

Take-Off in Nutri-Phite® triggers natural metabolic process to enhance utilization of applied nutrients. TM

The efficient use of nitrogen has important economic and environmental implications for California growers. Take-Off , a new active ingredient in NutriPhite® fertilizers from Biagro Western, triggers physiological responses in plants that improve fertilizer-use efficiency to increase yields with equal or lower rates of applied nitrogen. Pat Unkefer, biochemist with Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, led the research team that developed the Take-Off compound in the 1990s. The team was looking at how nitrogen fertilizer was metabolized to stimulate plant growth and yield impact. “We found that plants can moderate their nitrogen status to reflect how much nitrogen is available,” she says. Unkefer’s team was able to isolate a naturally occurring plant compound that is also used as a humectant in cosmetics. Biagro Western is marketing this compound under the trade name Take-Off. Take-Off triggers plants to fix more carbon through photosynthetic activity and turn on nitrogen uptake mechanisms. The end result is improved nitrogen use efficiency, she said, leading to enhanced physiological properties in the plant and improved production per unit of applied nitrogen. Multiple-year laboratory and greenhouse trials at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a public research facility, showed consistent results across a number of different applications. “We conducted multiple replicated, well controlled scientific trials which showed large, statistically significant differences in performance and physiological characteristics that are related to crop performance,” Unkefer says. “What we discovered in greenhouse trials is high vigor, fast growth, good flowering, high protein content, increased rates of N uptake per gram of plant and increased rates of carbon fixation.” Biagro Western’s Nigel Grech, director of research, says commercial field trials of Take-Off, whether applied as a seed, foliar or soil treatment, have shown similar benefits on a larger commercial scale across all crops grown in the Western United States. “The active ingredient in Take-Off acts as a signaling molecule for key biosynthetic pathways in plants and most commercial crops are impacted by this technology,” Grech says. TM

A side-by-side comparison of potato fields seed treated with Nutri-Phite® Take-Off™ P Foliar MZ, at right, versus untreated. Treated fields yielded 18.8 tons per acre, compared to yields under the grower’s standard of 14.4 tons per acre.

Field trials in California and the Pacific Northwest on cereal, vegetable and tree and vine crops are showing significant improvement in yield and fruit quality with the same or even reduced N inputs. Grech says, “On average, replicated data over three years on three varieties of wheat showed we can reduce N inputs by 15 to 20 percent with no losses in yield.” The same large scale, replicated wheat trials produced yield increases of a half-ton per acre with the addition of Nutri-Phite Take-Off P Foliar MZ to the grower’s standard fertility program. Similar data is also coming out of large-scale trials on tomatoes, peppers, green vegetables and citrus. Nutri-Phite Take-Off Applications to Bell Peppers Dr. Gerald Durst, University of Maryland 75 110 Lb N+NP Nutri-Phite Take-Off


140 Lb N 110 Lb N


• Statistically different • from the control (P=0.05)

60 55 50 Yield Lbs/Plot

Replicated trials at the University of Maryland show significant yield differences in peppers treated under various rates of nitrogen alone and Nitrogen plus Nutri-Phite® Take-Off™ P Foliar MZ.

“We’re looking at 8- to 9-percent improvements in yield through one application of Nutri-Phite Take-Off P Foliar MZ compared to standard fertility treatments in wheat, canola, peppers, lettuce and many other crops,” Grech adds. Grech says Nutri-Phite Take-Off P Foliar MZ is cost-effective, with a return on investment of 7:1 to 15:1 or greater, depending on the cropping system, market and fertilizer prices. Scott Tullis, a Pacific Northwest sales rep for Biagro, says Nutri-Phite Take-Off P Foliar MZ is an especially good fit for crops in his region that are poor root feeders, such as potatoes, onions and sugar beets. “When you bring Nutri-Phite Take-Off P Foliar MZ into the plant it increases Photosynthesis and energy utilization. In our potato fields where we typically apply about 300 units of N

annually per acre, we can reduce our N inputs by at least 15 percent and still maintain equal or better yields,” Tullis explains. In potatoes, Tullis recommends a furrow treatment over the top of seed pieces at planting, followed by a one-quart per acre application when plants reach the size of a basketball, and a second foliar or water-run application about three weeks later. Growers on that program are seeing yield increases from three to six tons per acre, with plants that tend to be healthier and produce more consistent tuber-size structure. “The other nice thing about Nutri-Phite Take-Off P Foliar MZ is that it is very stable and can be tank-mixed with fertilizers, herbicides or other inputs so there is no added application cost,” Tullis noted. Tullis is also in his second year conducting large-scale side-by-side trials on dryland wheat. “Across all the crops we have seen similar benefits, increased yields with reduced nitrogen applications, stronger plants and better root development,” he said. Biagro sales rep Gary Morrow, PCA, notes that the best benefits from the Take-Off technology come with a good fertility program to optimize the efficient use of applied macroand micronutrients. “Take-Off is complementary with NutriPhite because the liquid phosphite formulation in Nutri-Phite stimulates root growth and nutrient uptake, while the metabolic processes stimulated by Take-Off lead to more photosynthetic conversion of applied nitrogen to proteins in the form of fruiting bodies and plant structure,” says Morrow, whose region covers Northern California. “One to two applications per season of Nutri-Phite Take-Off P Foliar MZ are showing consistent results across a number of crops,” he adds. “In melons we’ve seen yield increases of 10 to 15 percent, corn yields have increased as much as 15 percent and tomatoes have shown a 5- to 10-percent yield increase, while maintaining or even reducing rates of applied nitrogen. With these consistent results, we’re getting a tremendous amount of interest in this product.” Take-Off is a trademark of Biagro Western Sales, Inc. Nutri-Phite is a registered trademark of Biagro Western Sales, Inc.

FARM ADVISORS Sustainable Landscapes to Prevent/Reduce Pest Outbreaks Janet Hartin, Environmental Horticulturist, UC Cooperative Extension, San Bernardino & Los Angeles Counties


hile many California landscapers, arborists, and turfgrass managers have been implementing sustainable landscape techniques for many decades, a relatively recent term for these environmentally-conscientious measures has surfaced: sustainable landscaping. While definitions vary considerably for this approach, a widely revered definition of the concept is “meeting the needs of today’s population without diminishing the ability of future populations to meet their needs.” Another way to describe sustainable landscaping practices is adopting recommended plant selection, planting, and maintenance practices that help ensure a green footprint for the health and well-being of future generations. What specific practices are involved in sustainable landscaping? First and foremost is proper plant selection based on climatic and microclimatic conditions. While climatic zones are easily identified by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) zones, or - better yet due to greater specificity – Sunset climate zones, microclimatic influences are just as important. These include factors such as heat islands in parking lots and city centers, shaded areas, windy areas that increase plant desiccation, and areas with high planting densities (both vertically and horizontally). A plant species that would otherwise thrive in a particular climate can perform poorly or even die when subjected to a microclimate in which it is not adaptive to. Examples include trees that require well-drained soil such as most succulents, cacti, many California natives, and popular specimen trees such as Bauhinia blakeana (Hong Kong orchid tree) planted in heavy poorly drained soils, or Cynodon dactylon (common Bermudagrass) planted in the shade. Selecting landscape plants that are adapted to these specific microclimates is of utmost importance for the health and longevity of the planting. In addition to climatic and microclimatic considerations, matching the water requirement of the desired species/cultivar/selection with an appropriate irrigation schedule and hydrozoning by planting species with similar water requirements together and irrigating accordingly is of primary importance. Irrigating plants effectively is linked to reduced disease-causing pathogens in the root, crown, and shoot area as well as optimal plant growth and development. Irrigation system design and technology has advanced greatly over the past decade, enabling irrigation systems to be much more efficient and apply water more

28  December 2010

uniformly than ever before. While this can improve both plant performance and reduces water waste, there are major flaws if the irrigation scheduling is not reflective of both the plant water need and the soil water-holding capacity. Correctly managing these systems after thoroughly investigating specific site characteristics is as important as the irrigation system design. Non ‘crop-like’ ornamentals (eg: plants other than turfgrasses and groundcovers) should be drip-irrigated whenever possible to reduce evaporation between plants and direct water directly into the root zone. In addition to irrigating based on the water requirement of a particular species or cultivar, irrigation schedules should allow some dry-down between applications once plants are established. It is also important to realize that many plants perform adequately when irrigated below their actual evapotranspiration (ET) rates. Examples of this include Ficus nitida (Indian Laurel Fig) and Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue). Mature Indian laurel figs have shown adequate growth at less than 40 percent of their measured ET rate over several years of development and tall fescue performs adequately at about 80% of its measured ET in low-traffic settings. Ornamental horticulturists have an advantage over growers producing crops because ornamentals do not have specific periods during their production cycles in which water demands increase. Before any pesticides are applied, proper identification of the disorder is essential. Abiotic disorders caused by high or low temperatures, drought, overwatering, or other issues will not abate when pesticides are applied, which often occurs due to an incorrect diagnosis. If a pest is identified and a determination is made that an herbicide, insecticide, fungicide, nematicide, etc. is warranted, products should be chosen based on their low toxicity and ability to control the pest adequately. Treating ornamentals indiscriminately with highly toxic, broad-spectrum pesticides can actually worsen the original problem by reducing the population of beneficial organisms. Other practices that promote sustainability are reducing fertilizer and pesticide runoff and accumulation in groundwater that can lead to surface and groundwater pollution. In many cases, more nitrogen is applied than is required by landscape plants, leading to runoff and leaching. Because nitrogen is highly mobile, irrigating judiciously to ensure that the water and nitrogen are available for plant

uptake is important and is directly related to soil physical properties. Soils high in clay are more prone to runoff than soils high in sand, while the latter are more prone to deep percolation of water and chemicals below the root zone. Augmenting poor quality soils with soil amendments such as high-quality compost at least 30 percent by volume is often recommended; compost will improve the water holding capabilities of sandy soils and the drainage capacity of clayey soils. The exception to amending soil with compost pertains to tree planting sites. Trees often develop restricted, limited root growth that circles the planting hole without adequate horizontal and vertical growth when transplanted from containers into small planting holes filled with compost. Unless a large volume of amendment is added to support the architectural needs of the mature tree decades later, it is best to not amend these soils at all, and, likely, to not plant a tree in that location under any conditions. Applying a three inch layer of mulch around ornamental plantings has many advantages including: reducing weed seed germination; reducing soil evaporation; buffering soil temperature; and, reducing mechanical damage from lawnmowers and weed whips. A layer of mulch may be applied around trees as long as there is at least a sixinch clearance between the trunk and mulch interface. This helps prevent wet crowns that may promote disease-causing pathogens. While other practices are also recommended to promote healthy sustainable landscapes, proper plant selection, irrigation and soil management, use of recommended cultural practices to reduce pest problems and use of low-toxicity pesticides only when absolutely necessary are of primary importance. For more information on these or other landscaping concepts or problems, please contact the UCCE Environmental Horticulture Advisor covering your geographical area. 

The California Weed Science Society

63rd Annual Conference

“Weed Control: Balancing Biology, Reality, and Sustainability” January 19, 20 & 21, 2011 Portola Hotel and Spa Two Portola Plaza Monterey, CA 93940 (888) 222-5851

Featured Sessions:

• Student Paper and Poster contest • Weed School: Herbicide Mode of Action • Advances in herbicide development, herbicide resistance, organic weed control & transgenic crops • New research on weed biology and management in CA crops, forests, rangelands, turf & ornamentals, wildlands, trees, vines, & aquatic sites NEW THIS YEAR: Pre-conference Tour Invasive Weeds of the Central Coast, Golf Course, and Artichoke Weed Management Projects DPR hours have been requested Conference registration: Visit our website or call CWSS at (831) 442-0883 to obtain a program agenda and registration form. Hotel reservations: Call (831) 649-4511 or visit Ask for the CWSS rate. Cutoff date is 12/22/10 or earlier if filled.

CAPCA Adviser 


FARM ADVISORS Organic Herbicides John A. Roncoroni, Weed Science Farm Advisor, UCCE Napa; and W. T. Lanini, Weed Ecologist, UCCE Davis


any organic growers use no-till or minimum tillage in their fields and are looking for alternative methods of weed control. They have relied heavily on cultivation, but due to increased energy cost, concern over soil erosion and movement into waterways, and CO2 emissions from repeated tractor operation there is increased interest in organic herbicides. There are some very important questions we need to ask about organic herbicides: 1. Are these organic herbicides considered pesticides? 2. What are or can be considered organic herbicides? 3. Can I use them to control weeds in crop production? and 4. How do they work and what factors determine how well they will work? The California Food and Agricultural Code (FAC) section 12753 defines a “pesticide” as (1) any spray adjuvant, and (2) any substance, or mixture of substances that is intended to be used for defoliating plants, regulating plant growth, or for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest, as defined in FAC section 12754.5, that may infest or be detrimental to vegetation, man, animals, or households, or be present in any agricultural or nonagricultural environment. The short answer is anything intended to be used for...mitigating any pest is a pesticide. Intent is the key term; if it is your intent to kill weeds with it, it is an herbicide. Does it have to registered with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) as a pesticide? Not in all cases. In fact, most organic herbicides are not registered as pesticides with EPA or CDPR. Most of these compounds are exempted under section 25 (b) of The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) as active ingredients which may be in minimum risk pesticide products (Table 1). The California Code of Regulations Title 3, Division 6, Chapter 2, Subchapter 1, Article 1, Section 6147 establishes an exemption from the requirements of Food and Agricultural Code (FAC) Division 7 for pesticide products containing certain substances or classes of substances. CDPR has determined that the exemption of the pesticides covered by this regulation will not pose unreasonable risks to public health or the environment. Pesticide products that do not meet the criteria of 3CCR section 6147 will continue to be regulated by DPR. The exempted compounds are exempt from regulation in terms of registration but not safety, such as PPE (Personal Protective Equipment). Check with local Ag Commissioner if you have any questions.

30  December 2010

Organic herbicide research trial near Woodland, CA., showing good levels of control at 3 days after treatment. Photo by Tom Lanini.

Just as with all pesticides, the use must be allowed on your crop. Acetic acid is not an exempted product (not on the 25(b) list), but is instead registered as a pesticide. At this time the registration is for non-food (non-crop) use only. The compound d-limonene is not on the exempted list but is registered as a pesticide for use in some food crops and has organic certification. There is another very long list of inert ingredients that may be used in pesticide products that are listed as exempted compounds that don’t need registration (Inert Ingredients Eligible for FIFRA 25(b) Pesticide Products that are eligible to be used as inert ingredients Pesticide Registration (PR) Notice 2000-6 List 4A is updated on a continuing basis and current version are available at http://www.epa. gov/opprd001/inerts/section25b_inerts.pdf). The compound that is most relevant to our conversation is acetic acid, aka vinegar. Acetic acid does not appear in Table 1, but is listed on the inert ingredients list, but very specifically as vinegar (maximum 8% acetic acid in solution), and is in fact listed as an inert ingredient in some of the organic herbicides available for use. In the EPA’s PR Notice 2000-6 the question is asked: “If a List 4A minimal risk inert has active, pesticidal properties, am I allowed to use it as the active ingredient in an exempt product?” The answer is: No, the two lists are not interchangeable. It goes on to say, “Only if the ingredient is

included on both lists can it be used without regard to its active or inert function. Even then, the ingredient must be designated on the label as either active or inert.” Now that we have determined what can be an organic herbicide, what compounds are being used as organic herbicides? In recent years, several organic herbicide products have appeared on the market. These include acetic acid (formulated at 20%), citric acid, d-limonene, clove oil, cinnamon oil and lemongrass oil and combinations. Overall the efficacy of all these materials is much less than synthetic herbicides. These products are all contact-type herbicides and will damage any green vegetation they contact, though they are safe as directed sprays against woody stems and trunks. Organic herbicides only kill contacted tissue; thus, good coverage is essential. In tests comparing spray volumes and product concentrations, we found that high concentrations at low spray volumes (20% concentration in 35 gallons per acre) were less effective than lower concentrations at high spray volumes (10% concentration in 70 gallons per acre). These herbicides only kill weeds that have emerged and have no residual activity on those emerging subsequently. Additionally, these herbicides may burn back the tops of perennial weeds, but they recover quickly. In a recent study, we found that weeds in the cotyledon or first true leaf stage were much easier to control than older weeds. Broadleaf weeds were also found to be easier to control than grasses, possibly due to the location of the growing point (at or below the soil surface for grasses), or the orientation of the leaves (horizontal for most broadleaf weeds) Adding an organically acceptable adjuvant has resulted in improved control. Although the recommended rates of these adjuvants is 0.25 % v/v, we have found that increasing the adjuvant concentration up to 1% v/v often leads to improved weed control, possibly due to better coverage. Work continues in this area, as manufacturers continue to develop more organic adjuvants. Temperature and sunlight have both been suggested as factors affecting organic herbicide efficacy. In several field studies, we have observed that organic herbicides work better when temperatures are above 75F. Acetic acid is the exception, working well at temperatures as low as 55F. Sunlight has also been suggested as an important factor for effective weed control. Anecdotal reports indicate that control is better in full sunlight. Under current technology, organic herbicides are expensive and may not be affordable in all commercial operations. New innovations to increase effectiveness, or reduced amount of materials used, or cost, is essential to

make organic herbicide use more widespread. If these materials are applied through a green or ‘Smart’ sprayer where only the living green plants are treated, the amount of material and the cost could be reduced. Finally, if you have, or are seeking, organic certification it is very important that you check with your certifying agency in advance of using any of these organic herbicides.

 Table 1. Active Ingredients Which May Be in Minimum Risk Pesticide Products under section 25 (b) of FIFRA Castor oil (U.S.P. or equivalent) Cedar oil Cinnamon and cinnamon oil Citric acid Citronella and citronella oil Cloves and clove oil Corn gluten meal Corn oil Cottonseed oil Dried blood Eugenol Garlic and garlic oil Geraniol Geranium oil Lauryl sulfate Lemongrass oil Linseed oil Malic acid Mint and mint oil Peppermint and peppermint oil 2-Phenethyl propionate (2-phenylethyl propionate) Potassium sorbate Putrescent whole egg solids Rosemary and rosemary oil Sesame (includes ground sesame plant) and sesame oil Sodium chloride (common salt) Sodium lauryl sulfate Soybean oil Thyme and thyme oil White pepper Zinc metal strips (consisting solely of zinc metal and impurities)

CAPCA Adviser 


FARM ADVISORS Control of Root Rot in the Landscape with Mulches Jim Downer, University of California, Ventura


he University of California has a long history with biological control of pests. In 1963 the first international meeting on soil-borne plant pathogens was held in Berkeley, California. This landmark effort presented papers dealing with the micro-ecological balance in relation to soilborne plant disease and presented a view of biological control that related “largely to natural phenomena of enormous potential waiting to be used if only the right approaches or organisms could be found.” In 2010 with fumigants that have made agriculture enormously profitable now on the slate for removal, the promise of biological control is again sought by agriculture, but we are by no means closer to finding the right organisms for all disease systems. There are two ways to rapidly stimulate biological control in cropping systems– these are: crop rotation and addition of organic amendments to soil to stimulate microbial antagonism. Indeed much of the need for soil fumigation is to replace crop rotations as a disease control method (Cook, 1990). With tree crops either as an agricultural commodity or as a landscape feature, neither crop rotation, except in a long view, nor fumigation is a viable method of disease control. This leaves only palliative methods and biological methods that increase the organic matter and its constitutive control. Dr. Cook’s thoughts from 1990 remain current, organic matter added to soil increases biological control of many plant pathogens. Questions still remain. Why are pathogens controlled and how is organic matter best added where trees are concerned? Understandably, the great allure of biological control is to find an organism that will attack a pathogen rendering it dead or at least reducing its ability to make its spores or interrupt its ability to attack the host. The most direct way to do this is for an organism to parasitize its host. There are many instances of fungi in soil that attack other fungi. These are called hyperparasites. They literally grow into and eat the contents of other fungi. Many hyperparasites lead a dual lifestyle acting as saprophytic fungi– living off soil organic matter when they are not killing pathogenic fungi. Thus increasing the organic content of soils favors their development. Fungi, bacteria and some yeasts also are capable of producing antibiotics that can inhibit the growth of other fungi. This classical antibiosis is the basis for many of the fungicides that we now use commercially. These are most often visually estimated or screened by looking at inhibition

32  December 2010

Figure 1. Phytophthora cinnamomi attacked by a huyperparasite (coiling hypha). Photo by Jim Downer.

Figure 2. Phytophthora cinnamomi is inhibited by a mulch fungus. Photo by Jim Downer.

zones in Petri dishes. The pathogen is often inhibited, or its growth stopped in culture by antibiotics that diffuse from the microbe through the agar affecting the pathogen. Many fungi that grow in mulch piles or in soils when organic matter is added will produce such substances. Other mechanisms of control include using (sequestering) iron or other nutrients in soils by the control organ-

isms so that pathogens are deprived of the nutrients they need to cause infectionâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; this is a form of competition. Many researchers have noted that some fungi that are also symbionts with their host (mycorrhizae) can also protect plants from disease. Marx and Davey (1969) produced an important study that showed that pines protected by Ectomycorrhizal fungi were also protected from attack by root rot organisms. The importance of VA (vesicular arbuscular) mycorrhizae in preventing root disease was later elaborated by Linderman (1988) and other researchers. Linderman showed in a variety of ways that bacteria that associate with hyphae from VA fungi (in an area he termed the mycorrhizosphere) produce antibiotics which in turn protect their host from pathogenic fungi. Although VA fungi are not so dependent on soil organic matter, some of the Ecotomycorrhizal fungi are, and are increased by mulch and or organic amendments. Mycorrhizae are also recognized for their ability to produce a protein (glomalin) which is responsible for aggregating soil particles (Bedini and others, 2009) thus increasing aeration, drainage and porosity. This effect on soil reduces the conditions that favor root rot. The interaction of organic matter from mulch with glomalin producing AM fungi is less certain, but many authors have show that mulch systems lead to much more aggregated soils. Control of root rots in a commercial avocado orchard was first demonstrated by Broadbent and Baker in Australia with the Ashburner system. In this system control of root rot caused by P. cinnamomi was established with addition of copious quantities of mulch around trees replanted to an orchard previously killed by root rot. Observations that Phytophthora could not be detected in jungles downslope from an infected grove suggested that organic matter must play a role in limiting the disease. Subsequent experiments involving autoclaving the Ashburner soil showed that the antagonistic potential of the soil was killed by heat, further suggesting that an organism(s) was responsible for the effect. A single organism was never found that, when inoculated into infected groves, would consistently suppress Phytophthora. Much later in 2002, we reported on the effects of mulches in controlling Phytophthora root rots. We showed in this work that enzymes produced by mulch inhabiting fungi produce cellulytic enzymes that interfere with the life cycle of Phytophthora. Since Phytophthora has cellulose in its cell walls it is killed at various life stages by the enzymes produced in mulches. Root rot fungi infect their host by producing a swimming spore called a zoospore. Zoospores have no cell wall, they are naked protoplasts. They must seek and find

Figure 3. Soil aggregate held together with hyphae and glomalin from VA fungi. Photo with permission from Robert Linderman.

Figure 4. Woody mulch piece infected with Ceraciomyces tessulatus a cellulase producing wood decay fungus. Photo by Jim Downer.

Figure 5. Root with Phytophthora cysts; a root (right) in cellulase and no infection. Photos by Jim Downer.

CAPCA Adviserâ&#x20AC;&#x192;


their host root, attach, retract their flagellae and excrete a cell wall forming a cyst. The cyst then germinates on the outside of the root, penetrates and begins to cause root rot. We demonstrated that very low levels of cellulytic enzymes will completely prevent the encystment of spores on avocado roots. There are many mechanisms for control of root disease by mulch. Mulch effects such as increased porosity (aeration) increased infiltration rate, reduced runoff, increased biology and antagonistic potential from saprophytic microbes as well as the increase in mycorrhizae and soil enzymes all play a role in limiting the development of Phytophthora root rots. When you look at the biology of mulch systems it is very hard to tie the successful system a single mechanism of action. Mulch has a very complicated ecology that for a time can control pathogens and help create a suppressive soil. It should be noted though that mulch decays, it wears out, it needs to be replenished-- either by the trees growing in and under it or by continued mulch application. Also, mulch systems are not a panacea for root rot control. If not carefully managed, especially as they relate to soil moisture content, they can exacerbate rather than control disease. Finally, mulch systems are ideally used as part of an integrated system in concert with fungicides, host resistance and cultural practices for a complete root rot control package. 

Literature Cited Broadbent, P. and K.F. Baker. 1974. Behavior of Phytophthora cinnamomi in soils suppressive and conducive to root rot. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 25:121-137. Bedini, S., E. Pellegrino, L. Avio., S. Pellegrini, P. Brazzoffi, E. Argese and M. Giovannetti. 2009. Changes in soil aggregation and glomalin-related soil protein content as affected by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices. Cook, R.J. 1990. Twenty Five years of progress towards biological control. In Biological Control of Soil-Borne Plant Pathogens. D. Hornby Ed. CAB International Wallingford UK. Downer, A.J., J.A. Menge, and, E. Pond, 2001. Effects of cellulytic enzymes on Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. Phytopathology: 91: 839-846 Downer, A.J., J.A. Menge, and E Pond. 2001. Association of cellulytic enzyme activities in eucalyptus mulches with biological control of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. Phytopathology: 91 847-855 Linderman. R.G. 1988. Mycorrhizal interaction with the rhizopshere microflora: The mycorrhizosphere Effect. Phytopathology 78:366-371. Marx, D.H., Davey, C.B. 1969. The influence of ectotrophic mycorrhizal fungi on the resistance of pine roots to pathogenic infections. IV. Resistance of naturally occuriring mycorrhizae to infections by Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytopathology 59: 559-565.

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FARM ADVISORS Invasive Pest Case Studies in Urban Landscape and Ornamental Plant Production: GWSS, Diaprepes, and Myoporum Thrips James A. Bethke, UC Cooperative Extension San Diego County; John N. Kabashima, UCCE Orange Co.; David A. Shaw, UCCE San Diego Co.


ere we are again on the precipice of another serious pest invasion that could change the face of southern California, the invasion of the red palm weevil. It is fitting then to revisit issues related to invasive pests in the landscape and in ornamental plant production. Three case studies provide insight on the regulatory and economic impacts that invasives can have on the ornamental plant industry. In addition, results of management trials for one of these major invasive pests, the Myoporum thrips, indicate the level of management now necessary to maintain this plant material. Commonly in southern California, an invasive species becomes established because it was not considered a serious agricultural pest and was therefore ignored by regulators. Pest exclusion regulators are overwhelmed with the rapidly increasing number of species introductions, and they are tasked with responding to the ‘most serious’ pests. Unfortunately, at this time they do not have the resources to deal with the myriad of pests that can affect ornamental horticulture. A short list of pests that have proliferated in urban settings and in ornamental production include the Myoporum thrips, the Eucalyptus leaf beetle, the Bagrada bug, and a host of eucalyptus psyllids and other psyllids, borers and leaf feeding beetles. The consequences of limited resources and shifting program priorities can mean establishment for a pest and increased regulation for the industry. For example, when the Asian Citrus Psyllid began to threaten the citrus industry, the Diaprepes root weevil became irrelevant and resources were diverted to the greater threat. The result, however, is that we have unleashed a serious ornamental plant production and landscape pest that causes severe damage or loss to everything from ground covers to specimen trees. In addition, the Diaprepes root weevil could become as widespread and serious a plant pest as the Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS). The sharpshooter currently is B-rated and under regulation, which means that the onus remains with ornamental plant production industry along with inspections, treatment protocols, and possible shipment delays. The following three case studies outline the challenges we face at times, when we wish to eliminate a pest from the urban landscape or ornamental production.

36  December 2010

Figure 1. Severely damaged single terminal of Myoporum plants in the water treated control plants. Note the adult thrips on one of the leaf blades. Photo: David Shaw

Diaprepes root weevil feeds on over 200 plant species and can affect numerous tree and vine-producing commodities. When the CDFA budget was dramatically reduced due to the state budget crisis, resources were no longer available to continue the eradication program and the pest rating for Diaprepes was lowered from an “A” rating to a “B” rating. As a “B” - rated pest, Diaprepes is being dealt with on a county-by-county basis, with the nursery industry facing the potential of a very costly quarantine compliance program. The GWSS feeds and oviposits on a great number of nursery plants and is an efficient vector of Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce’s Disease, a disease that can

kill grapes, almonds, peaches, plums, and other tree and vine crops. Currently, GWSS is only found in the southern portions of the state of California, while much of the tree and vine production is in the central valley or the northern parts of the state. Therefore, moving the pest north via the nursery industry could threaten many agricultural commodities by its presence as a vector of Xylella. This invasive pest was not taken seriously as a pest for many years and population numbers were able to build and spread over most of southern California causing significant damage to California agriculture and landscape plantings. The Myoporum thrips is a host specific pest that severely distorts the foliage of M. laetum and M.’Pacificum’. Currently rated a “C” pest, the thrips has become widespread in southern California and has moved into the northern parts of the state. Insecticide treatments are necessary to maintain acceptable aesthetic appearance of these plant materials. Diaprepes Root Weevil – Diaprepes abbreviatus The Diaprepes root weevil (DRW) was first discovered established in the landscape in Orange County California in late 2005, and on April 26, 2006 it was discovered in the landscape in San Diego County. On May 2nd, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) issued two hold notices and discussed the possible quarantine boundaries. San Diego County is a large county with over 700 ornamental production facilities. The initial infestations were not adjacent to any nurseries, and the ornamental industry requested that the quarantine boundaries not be extended throughout the entire county because of the severe economic impact it would have on all the production facilities in the county due to its long life cycle, limited flying ability, host preference, and tendency to build on a few plants before dispersing. The CDFA agreed to limit the boundaries to infested areas. Time Line of Key Developments The CDFA began treatments in the landscape in a 200-meter radius around all confirmed DRW find sites in Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties during the week of September 11, 2006, a year after the first finds in California. • On Dec 8, 2006 the first case of an infested nursery was confirmed by the CDFA, and unfortunately, only a draft of the nursery treatment protocol was available. The draft protocol recommended that the entire nursery inventory

be placed on hold. Initially, smaller one-gallon pots were treated over a two-week period and were held for another two weeks following treatment before the nursery was able to sell their product. Sales were halted immediately in the garden center attached to the nursery. Boxed trees were treated and held for 6 months. • On Feb 3, 2007 an Eradication Project Work Plan was developed by the CDFA with the help of the DRW project members, which included representatives from the University of California, University of Florida, CDFA, and the affected industries. The Work Plan included educating the public and landscapers, informing the ornamental plant industry of actions needed to comply with the quarantine order, and treatment protocols for backyard and commercial citrus, and landscapes. • On March 7th 2007, three protocols were developed for nursery production, all depending on whether DRW was present or not. Nursery stock infested with any life stage of DRW needed to be placed on hold. The hold could be lifted only after a nursery had completed 6 months of the treatments and no life stages of DRW detected in the nursery. All plants produced at the nursery must be treated. In addition, all containerized plants with a growing cycle of more than six months needed to be treated with an approved growing-media pesticide and held for as long as 6 months). • On Aug 2, 2007 a “Voluntary Treatment Protocol” was developed so that nurseries could pre-treat their crops, which would allow movement of long-term potted crops without a 6-month delay. A foliar treatment would still be required, but soil treatments and an extended hold would not be necessary due to a soil treatment to prevent the establishment of DRW larvae. • On May 3, 2008, because of the State budget crisis, the CDFA proposed a budget for 2008-2009 that included a $3.66 million reduction for DRW activities, which would leave only $590,000 for regulatory activities to control the pest. • On April 29, 2009 the state interior quarantine was rescinded largely due to the state’s financial struggles and lack of funding to continue quarantine. However, if a DRW were ever found in a nursery, the nursery would have to follow the nursery treatment protocol, which would require a hold on all plants and mandatory treatments. Economic Impacts: Quarantine regulations vary depending on whether a nursery is infested with DRW. It is estimated that the average cost to meet quarantine regulaCAPCA Adviser 


tions for nurseries in the quarantine area that are free of DRW to be $300 per acre. The additional cost for a nursery infested with DRW was an estimated $225 per acre and the total cost to meet quarantine regulations was $525 per acre. At present, nurseries free of DRW but within the quarantine area are required to incorporate the granular insecticide bifenthrin into the soil before plants are potted. The granular treatment is good for 2 years, the growers are then required to use a soil drench every 6 months thereafter. For nurseries with infestations, an additional foliar spray treatment with carbaryl would be required. The per acre cost for the foliar spray treatment was provided by the industry and was estimated to be $599 to $625 an acre. Because only a portion of the total acreage would need to be treated the estimates of the total per acre costs to the nursery industry were calculated assuming that 10% of all acreage had infestations. Applying the percentage decrease in revenues per acre to the total gross revenues for nursery crops required to meet quarantine regulations, the annual losses are estimated to be $1.05 million for the floriculture industry and $4.37 million for other nursery industries. Total annual losses are estimated to be $5.42 million. Conclusion: There was a considerable delay between the time of the initial infestation and when eradication efforts (pesticide treatments) began. The slow response to the invasion most likely allowed considerable Diaprepes dispersal during the time it took the CDFA to develop a treatment protocol. There was also considerable time between the draft nursery treatment protocol and an official protocol. These results demonstrate the need for proactive protocol development so that delays in action do not occur. A noteworthy success in the Diaprepes Project was the cooperation among the nursery industry representatives and CDFA. The nursery industry organized a tour for CDFA policy makers to demonstrate the great diversity of production and plant types in the ornamental production industry. The tours also demonstrated that there could not be a one-size-fits-all approach to protocol development for this industry, while the collaborative involvement of nursery, university, and regulatory personnel helped identify areas of research and funding needed to support the approved treatment protocols. Glassy-winged Sharpshooter – Homalodisca vitripennis (formerly H. coagulata) The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) probably first entered California as eggs deposited into plant tissues of agricultural plants. GWSS was first collected near Irvine in 1989 but not recognized as a newly introduced species

38  December 2010

until later. The leafhopper was identified by the California Department of Food and Agriculture as a species common in the southeastern states from Florida through eastern Texas and as far north as Missouri. GWSS is considered the prime vector of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa to peach and grape in Georgia, Florida, and other southern states. GWSS has been seen in high numbers in citrus along the coast of southern California since the early 1990s. During the past few years it has become locally abundant further inland in Riverside and San Diego counties. In 1998 and 1999 high populations on citrus and adjacent vineyards were seen in southern Kern County. In August 1999 after GWSS-spread Pierces Disease had devastated several grape vineyards in Temecula, California, the CDFA preliminary field survey showed GWSS present in eight southern California counties and the CDFA GWSS/PD Task Force was formed. Due to the threat of disease spread, the GWSS was changed from a “C” rated pest (an organism subject to no state-enforced action except to provide for pest cleanliness in nurseries) to a “B” rated pest (an organism of known economic importance subject to: eradication, containment, control or other holding action at the discretion of the individual county agricultural commissioner). GWSS is an insect pest that attacks urban, nursery, agricultural, and native trees and shrubs. Several mutations of Xylella fastidiosa have developed which will mean costly losses to a wider variety of crops and urban landscapes. Native riparian, urban, and agricultural plantings are now potential reservoirs of GWSS and Xylella spp. that can potentially affect their neighbors. Time Line of Key Developments • In 2001, Assembly Bill 1394 was signed; bolstering research and other program activities by providing funding and the Pierce’s disease and Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Board was established to administer the funds. • In 2002 new emergency program regulations were filed and an area-wide GWSS management program was implemented in Ventura County; the area wide control program in Kern County was expanded. • In 2003, permanent program regulations governing the movement of nursery stock, bulk grapes and bulk citrus were adopted and the Coachella Valley Area-wide GWSS Program was begun. Experiments to test the efficacy of pre-shipment treatment of nursery stock at killing GWSS eggs masses were conducted as part of the program to help California nurseries with their efforts at keeping nursery stock shipments free of GWSS.

• In 2004, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) released their independent scientific review of the Pierces Disease program. • In 2005, GWSS egg parasitoids, Gonatocerus morrilli and Anagrus epos, were released and the Nursery Treatment Pilot Program began; once again the wine grape growers demonstrated their continued support for the program by overwhelmingly voting to continue the wine grape assessment for PD research. • In 2007 there were 60,600 shipments of nursery stock from infested areas to un-infested areas that were inspected, and statewide no new infestations of GWSS were found and 35 counties were verified as being free of GWSS infestation. • In 2008 the Nursery Approved Treatment Program was implemented for nurseries in GWSS-infested areas and full-time staffed border inspection stations increased from two to 16. GWSS infestations in the Beach Line area (Imperial County) were declared eradicated. • In 2009, Blossom Hill area (Santa Clara County) and the Foothill Farms area (Sacramento County GWSS infestation were declared eradicated. SB2 passed and extended and expanded the current Pierce’s Disease Program if growers approved a referendum on the research-oriented program in 2010. • In 2010 the referendum was approved, extending the PD Program to do research and outreach on other invasive pests that affect wine grapes. Economic Impacts: The cost of the GWSS to the nursery industry alone easily adds up to millions of dollars lost because of the high labor costs to inspect 100% of plants being shipped from southern California to northern California, costs of pest management programs to control GWSS in their operations and eradicate it from all plants being shipped, paper work required to document and comply with the regulations governing the movement of nursery stock, and the innumerable hours spent by dedicated nursery owners who served on committees to help shape regulations and identify research needed to keep plants moving from southern California to northern California. Conclusion: Reviewing the CDFA pest rating system, nursery growers should note that a “C”rated organism is subject to no state enforced action except to provide for pest cleanliness in nurseries. Considering the state budget crisis and the lack of an organized nursery industry, industry funding, and political influence, it is obvious why pests like GWSS can become such an enormous threat and cost to the industry.

Myoporum Thrips (Klabothrips myopori) The Myoporum thrips was first observed in southern California in Orange County in 2005. The CDFA quickly assigned a Q rating for this thrips. At first, there was an attempt to eradicate the pest in landscape plantings in San Diego County in 2006 using imidacloprid. However, time and funding lacked and resources were diverted to infestations of more serious invasive pests like Diaprepes. Therefore, landscape plantings of Myoporum along coastal California became more heavily infested with thrips over time, reducing the aesthetic quality of the plantings and tree death is now a common occurrence. The range of this species in California continued to expand along coastal CA to San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA on 22 August 2007. No further efforts to eradicate this pest were attempted. We have conducted a number of trials against the pest in the last couple of years in the hopes of identifying products that may be used in management of this pest. In addition, we have determined the life cycle of the insect at 30ºC. A figure with some of our recent trial results and some of our key findings are provided below. Key findings • Damage (Figure 1) to terminal growth can occur from a single thrips feeding on the terminal. The more thrips that are present the more quickly the damage is evident. • As with other thrips, including the closely related Cuban Laurel Thrips, there are two nymphal stages and two pupal stages prior to the adult stage. All early stages are white to green in color and the adult is black. • Eggs and all stages of thrips can be found in the twisted deformed terminal growth. • Twisted gall-like new growth protects the immatures from the environment. • The minute pirate bug, a natural enemy of the thrips, is commonly found in our samples. • This thrips is well protected from pesticide contact, so making the toxicant available at the feeding site is effective. • Systemic products are most effective at the highest recommended rates. Preventative Treatments: New growth can be protected with continuous applications of common pesticides such as the pyrethroids, carbamates and organophosphates. They should be applied by label directions and reapplied according to the pest management guidelines on the label. In addition to the broad-spectrum pesticides, terminal growth can be protected for longer periods of time by applying the neonicotinoids as a drench application. Effects CAPCA Adviser 


can be seen rapidly with dinotefuran and thiamethoxam, but will take more time when applying imidacloprid. Single applications in the spring and in the fall will most likely protect plants through most of the year. Curative Treatments: See the figure below for effective systemic treatments that will work curatively. Applied as a drench, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, and the combination product with imidacloprid plus bifenthrin worked very well in controlling infestations. In addition, we have noted significant recovery of the plants two months following applications. Results from a Recent Trial: We were able to conduct a trial on a lengthy stretch of Myoporum laetum at the Del Mar Fairgrounds in San Diego County. We divided the stretch of myoporum into 20foot sections (about 5 mature plants each) and randomly assigned treatments to the plots. There were five replicates per treatment. We took 5 terminals from each plot and counted immature and adult thrips. Two months after application, all treatments except abamectin were significantly different than the control (Figure 2). Note that it took an extra month for imidacloprid treatments to take effect, but as a drench and a spray, they were effective at suppressing populations. In addition, the combo product of imidacloprid plus bifenthrin was very effective. The combo product of imidacloprid plus bifenthrin and the trunk application of dinotefuran eliminated the thrips two months after application. Treated plants began to show recovery from the damage beginning three months after treatment application. Plants in the control treatments were severely damaged (Figure 3). Plants treated with a drench application of thiamethoxam were recovering nicely with little deformed leaves or terminals (Figure 4). î&#x201A;§

40â&#x20AC;&#x192; December 2010

Figure 3. Severely damaged terminal growth of Myoporum plants in the water treated control plants. Photo: David Shaw

Figure 4. Recovering terminal growth of thiamethoxam treated plants two months after application. Photo: David Shaw

CAPCA Executive Officers Transition for 2011-2012

2009-2010 State Board Executive Officers: (L to R) Gary Silveria (Ex-Officio), Joel Waters (Secretary), Dennis Duda (Treasurer), Renee Rianda (Chair), and John McClenahan (Vice Chair).

2011-2012 State Board Executive Officers: (L to R) Allen Haynes (Secretary), Dennis Duda (State Chair), Renee Rianda (Ex-Officio), Tim Carpenter (Treasurer), and Jeremy Briscoe (Vice-Chair) CAPCA Adviserâ&#x20AC;&#x192;


COMMUNICATIONS A Rose By Any Other Name or...Did you really apply what you said you applied? “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet.” - Juliet


ith apologies to Shakespeare, a rose by any other name may smell as sweet, but to DPR, when it comes to pesticide use reporting the right name for the right product that matches the right registration number is a big deal. Pesticide use reporting by PCAs provides a valuable data base for DPR and others to understand pesticide use trends. Thus it is very important that PCAs accurately report what they use. Recently, DPR has been calculating VOC emissions from pesticides based in part on Pesticide Use Reporting data. One of the challenges is that some of the pesticides being reported are no longer registered for use in California! Consequently, the VOC pesticide inventory is being calculated based on older emissions data. How can that happen? As an industry we pride ourselves in our compliance with all state and federal regulations. What appears to be happening, is some use reports have not kept current with changes in product names, company names, or company registration numbers. Because

there is always the chance of old product still in channels of trade, CDMS and Agrian keep those registration numbers and product names active, even if they are no longer actively registered by the manufacturer or distributor. A simple name change from BugAway to BugAway Agricultural Insecticide is considered a different product. Likewise a company may change names or ownership. To the end user, the product remains the same. But to DPR, it is a new product with a new name and/or a new registration number. So as the company makes formulation changes and improvements over the years, they are not reflected in the VOC inventory if the older product name and number are still being reported. Examples are use reports of old Dow Chemical, Elanco, Merck, Micro-Flo, Rohm & Hass, Zeneca products, some of which haven’t been registered in California in over 20 years. As PCAs prepare for another busy year, it would be advisable before clicking that send button, to double check and make sure the name and federal registration number of the product being reported, is consistent with the name and federal registration number that was used. What is in a name? What is in a number? A product by any other name or number, no matter how slight the difference, is a completely different product. 

Save the Date!

Southwest Ag Summit March 9th & 10th, 2011 • Yuma, AZ Keynote Speaker, Tom Vilsack, Secretary of Agriculture, Invited Educational Forums • Vendor Tradeshow • Field Demonstrations CA & AZ PCA and CCA CEUs available SOUTHWEST AG SUMMIT For more information: YFVA – Southwest Ag Summit PO Box 1647,Yuma, AZ 85366 (928) 783-9355

42  December 2010

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COMMUNICATIONS Old Dogs & New Tricks: CAPCA Connecting with Members Joyce A Basan, Programs/Communications Director


s the Programs/Communications Director for CAPCA I am involved in CAPCA’s efforts to expand into new, as well as maintaining current, communication avenues every year. When faced with the on-going challenge of keeping communication with the membership current and viable, yet maintaining the standard approaches that members have come to expect, CAPCA has found that there is no one-size-fitsall solution. Some members are quite comfortable with the time-honored, standard ways of outreach while others are speeding along on the technological highway at a faster pace. CAPCA sees value in maintaining a balance between the two yet, with the advances in technology and social media networking, it is obvious to us that to stay in the race we must employ new tools to stay connected with our members and the industry. E-Communications In this day and age of advancing electronic communication we have all experienced the inundation of the useless, annoying e-mails covering everything from offers for the latest in plastic fasteners, printing services, or this week’s sure fire weight loss solution, to training opportunity notices for career building seminars. These superfluous advertisements seem to have that “But wait! That’s not all!” catch phrase built right in. Yet the efficiency and value of the electronic communication cannot be ignored. E-communication is a very cost-effective tool in the business. This is nothing new. All forms of businesses have embraced the ‘immediate environment of connection’ that E-communication offers, and thereby increased their capability of tracking the effectiveness of their outreach. CAPCA is consistently moving away from repetitive paper mailings to reach members and attempted to streamline communications with members through e-mail blasts. These notices have been focused on announcements of continuing education (CE) opportunities, CAPCA confer-

44  December 2010

ence, membership renewal, and general industry information important to the PCA license holders. In the upcoming years you can expect that CAPCA, in order to get vital information and current update notices to CAPCA members in a timely manner, will be expanding its E-communications. Therefore, it is important to keep your e-mail address information current with CAPCA. Remember to complete the e-mail field on your membership dues form or contact CAPCA to make sure that we have your most current e-mail on file. Don’t miss out on getting the latest news and updates from CAPCA. Continuing Ed Opportunities Now although the efficiency and convenience of the technological highway does offer the ability to connect quickly there is still a great deal of value in the face-to-face approach of communication, especially in the continuing education (CE) arena. Besides merely providing an education opportunity the in-person training seminar allows a participant to ask questions directly to the speaker on a regulatory requirement, an application method, or clarify what options are available in a specific management practice being discussed. In this format the exchange of questions and answers enhances the exchange of knowledge. Furthermore, the in-person seminar event has been, and always will be, a vital asset to industry networking. Many a long-term business relationship has been started with an introduction or encounter that took place during a seminar or workshop. These relationships are many times the foundation of long-term customer relations, which few of those in agriculture could survive without. Dedicated, repeat clients are the cornerstone to any business. CAPCA’s expansion into additional CE opportunities will increase the ability of license holders to earn CE credit while continuing to solidify the valuable connections within the industry. Plans to implement these CE seminars are underway with a focus on the most current and new advancements in

CAPCA Members Only Web Page pest control methods and tools available to the PCA. Additionally, the CE opportunities being developed will include updates on laws and regulations affecting pest management practices. Discount registration rates will be offered to all current CAPCA members.

Resources and Features

Renewing for 2011 CAPCA Membership If you have not already renewed your membership with CAPCA for 2011 I encourage you to complete the Membership Dues form on the inside of the cover wrap of this magazine and send it in today. Renew with CAPCA so that you can receive the CAPCA E-communications, get the member rate for CAPCA seminars, plus continue to increase your networking within the pest management industry. Stay connected with CAPCA. 

a Access our Legislation Link

a Access your continuing education (CE) hours a Access a CE Meeting List a Request an Official CE Printout a Access Job Postings

Also available: a PCA Recommendation Form a PCA Talking Points a Product Labels a Insurance Information a Member Alert

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CAPCA Adviser 


CCA UPDATE Fall – Time for Almond Nutrition Review and Planning Franz Niederholzer, UC Farm Advisor, Sutter/Yuba Counties


ate fall is a good time for reviewing the past growing season and planning for the new one. This point is particularly true for almond growing operations. In November or December, an experienced PCA/CCA can help his/her customers learn from the past year and project – as accurately as possible – input amounts, scheduling, and costs for the coming season. This expert business planning is another valuable service a PCA/CCA can provide their customers. While all aspects of orchard management are on the table in this planning process, this article will focus on nutrient management planning in almonds. Here’s the information a PCA/CCA will need, and why, to give the best advice and projections to a client. There may be other pieces of information that could help, but the following are a good starting place. I realize that this may be old hat for many, but it might be valuable to newer PCA/ CCAs and a good review in general. How does the orchard look? A PCA/CCA should be familiar with each orchard. This point shouldn’t be a problem with most PCA/CCAs who walk fields on a regular basis. They may be more informed about the health of each orchard than the grower themselves. How vigorous is the block? Are there new shoots evenly distributed within the trees? If not, are there pest issues – scale? nematodes? – that could explain the lack of vigor other than poor nutrition? Are there major differences in tree vigor and yield in different sections of the same block? Was there any late season defoliation due to mites, disease, and/or water stress? What is a ballpark crop estimate for next year? Crop load is the biggest factor in determining nutrient demand in a mature orchard. What was the crop yield last year in each of the orchards on a farm? What is the best yield each orchard has ever produced? Almond nut nutrient content is fairly consistent on a dry weight basis, so the bigger the crop yield, the larger the amount of nutrients moved out of the orchard at harvest in hulls, shells, and kernels. A good ballpark figure for crop nitrogen (N) removal from an almond orchard is 55 pounds of actual nitrogen per 1000 pounds of nut meat crop (equivalent to 16.2 gallons of UN32). For potassium (K), crop removal is about 55 pounds K2O per 1000 pounds of nut meat crop (equal to about 100 pounds of sulfate of potash, 0-0-50). Each 1000 pounds of crop – reported as nut meat yield -- removes about 0.2 pounds of boron (equal to a pound of Solubor®) from the orchard in hulls, shell, and kernels. Each 1000 pound nut

46  December 2010

Fall potassium sulfate application in almonds, Sutter County. Photo: Franz Niederholzer

meat crop of almonds removes less than one ounce of zinc from the orchard. This information comes from current research by Dr. Patrick Brown at UC Davis with lab, field and material help from a host of others and grants from the Almond Board of California, USDA, and CDFA. What were the leaf analysis results from last summer and previous years? These numbers are a report card for the past nutrient management practices and a hint of what might be coming. However, a report card tells you what happened, but not what exactly to do in response. Low nutrient levels might mean nematodes or bad water management, not insufficient nitrogen applied. Decent leaf nutrient levels in a low vigor orchard still can be a problem. A July leaf analysis is part of the nutrient management picture, not the whole story. It is also – as usually sampled -- an average of leaf values across the orchard. Since University of California deficiency levels in tree crops were developed on a per tree basis, and field samples are averages across many trees in an orchard, many experienced PCA/CCAs aim for the middle to upper end of the “adequate” range when evaluating leaf analysis reports to make sure that all the trees in the orchard have at least adequate levels. For example, trees with 2.0-2.2% leaf N in July are considered “low” in nitrogen status, and trees with “good” nitrogen status show 2.2-2.5% leaf N. Experienced PCAs

better choices. and farm advisors often use a leaf % N target of 2.5% for an orchard sample. A good point to note: N and/or K deficient trees this year – based on July leaf analysis -- will set fewer nuts next year than trees with adequate N or K. What are the non-fertilizer nutrient sources and general soil conditions in an orchard? Soil sample analyses can provide valuable information. Some soils are naturally high in potassium. A soil test of potassium from the last 2-3 years is a good thing to have. Other locations might receive 2-4 acre feet of irrigation water high in nitrate and so get 50+ pounds of “free” nitrogen in a season. Soil analysis results for pH, salinity, and toxic elements – sodium, chloride, and boron – are important pieces of the puzzle. Are cover crops or compost used to improve soil health and provide additional nitrogen? How much added nitrogen could those sources provide? For answers to these and similar questions, see UC ANR’s Guide to Efficient Nitrogen Fertilizer Use in Walnut Orchards (Pub no. 21623) available through What was the fertilizer program last year? From last year’s yield data and fertilizer inputs, calculate the orchard use efficiency (NUE) – the ratio of fertilizer applied to nutrient content of the crop. A goal of close to 100% efficiency is a sustainable target, while 40-80% nitrogen NUE, based on flood/solid set or micro-irrigation, respectively, may be more realistic. Big crops and light inputs mean net losses in tree and/or soil nutrient reserves that could hurt production before too long. Big crops and bigger inputs may not be sustainable farming. [Why care about sustainable farming? Many customers – particularly in high value export markets – want it. Paying attention to efficient, sustainable production will save the grower some money and give the customer what they want.] Finally, some way of recording what is decided is needed and an appropriate beverage is always helpful. So, once you and your customer have the answers to these questions, how can the answers be used in a review and planning session? Make an appointment, bring the information and your notes and meet with the grower. Here are my thoughts on where to start. The ultimate report card for the year is crop yield and quality relative to regional production that year and historical production in an orchard. Good to great yields plus good, not excessive, tree vigor and adequate nutrient levels in the July leaf sampling should be a positive report card for the season. In addition to looking at yield numbers and orchard vigor, John Edstrom, UC Farm Advisor in Colusa County and Research Coordinator at the Nickels



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CAPCA Adviser 


Soils Lab (NSL) in Arbuckle, targets the following nutrient levels in July leaf samples in the commercial orchards at NSL: 2.4-2.8% N, 1.8 % K, and >20 ppm Zn. Those are the four mineral nutrients most lacking in California almond production. He also shoots for >100 ppm boron in hulls at harvest. An eight-year average for crop production at NSL across all varieties is 2500 pounds nut meats/acre. Clean reject sheets and healthy looking trees at the end of harvest are two other good results to the season. All these things are not easy to hit, but they are the target. How can you project individual orchard nutrient needs – create a nutrient budget – for the coming year? Every orchard is different, but the process should be about the same. Let’s create a nutrient budget for a fictitious 12th leaf almond orchard on, let’s say, class 2 soil with microjet irrigation, good leaf nutrient levels and average yield last year. Say a solid average is 2200 lbs of nut meats over the last 4 years. That should be about 121 pounds, each, of N and K2O plus 0.45 lbs of B/acre removed per acre per year. If there is no nitrogen in the irrigation water and the soil is low in K and B, then those orchard nutrient exports are a good ballpark estimate of crop nutrient needs for the coming year in an orchard with careful water management. If you assume 80% nitrogen use efficiency based on careful irrigation through microjet sprinklers, apply at least

three small applications of equal amounts of liquid nitrogen through the micro irrigation system (in this case, around 50 pounds N/acre per injection) in April through July, with at least 30 days between applications, to deliver about 150 pounds of N/acre. Slightly smaller sized shots of potash (40 lbs K2O/acre) should go out in that same time window. If the soil has a high clay content and “fixes” potassium, you may need to up this rate. Looks like a big crop once April arrives? Put on an additional application or bump up the rates in the originally planned injections. Light crop? Cut out one application or reduce the amount applied in each. A fall or pink bud spray of Solubor® will deliver the projected boron needs. Zinc is hard to efficiently deliver, but spring sprays are effective and usually are more efficient that a fall spray using high, leaf dropping rates. Next year at the same time, check yield, orchard vigor and July leaf numbers and adjust fertilizer program as needed. After a fall planning meeting with you, their PCA/ CCA, the grower should have a decent estimate of fertilizer timings, amounts and perhaps cost. Your grower can now make plans with his/her banker. Plans are just a point of departure, but it is good to have somewhere to start. The work by Patrick Brown’s research group continues, and new tools in the form of a nutrient budget approach to fertilizer planning may be available for growers in the future. 

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Course Title

11/23/10 21st Annual Fall Desert Crops Workshop 11/30/10 PAPA - Chico 11/30/10 2010 CA Alfalfa & Forage Symposium Day 1 11/30/10 Current Issues in Vineyard Health 11/30/10 Sutter Buttes CAPCA Annual Rice Meeting 12/01/10 WPHA Plant Nutrition & Physiology Seminar 12/01/10 2010 CA Alfalfa & Forage Symposium Day 2: Corn, Grain & Forage Crops 12/01/10 2010 CA Alfalfa & Forage Symposium Day 2: Production & Pest Mgmt 12/02/10 2010 CA Alfalfa & Forage Symposium Day 3 12/02/10 PAPA - Sacramento 12/03/10 Sustainable Ag Pest Mgt Conference Day 1 12/04/10 Sustainable Ag Pest Mgt Conference Day 2 12/06/10 2010 CPS Fall Agronomy Session IV 12/07/10 2010 CPS Fall Agronomy Session II 12/07/10 Winter3 Pesticide Applicator Workshop 12/08/10 Almond Industry Conference Day 1 12/08/10 A Role for PCA/CCA in Water Quality Protection 12/09/10 Strawberry Production & Pest Management Meeting 12/09/10 Almond Industry Conference Day 2 12/15/10 Organic Production Seminar










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Eric Natwick

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UCCE & Western (760) 352‑9474 Imperial Farm Press Charlotte Carson PAPA (916) 395‑7579 Chico Rachael Long UCCE - Yolo (530) 666‑8734 Visalia





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Julie Brinley


(530) 757‑8608 Davis





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Jan Kendel

(530) 822‑7503 Colusa





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Pam Emery

Sutter Buttes CAPCA WPHA





2.5 0.0


Rachael Long

UCCE - Yolo

(916) 574‑9744 San Luis Obispo (530) 666‑8734 Visalia





2.5 0.0


Rachael Long

UCCE - Yolo

(530) 666‑8734 Visalia





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Rachael Long

UCCE - Yolo

(530) 666‑8734 Visalia

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Charlotte Carson PAPA Hunter Francis Cafes Center for Sustainability Hunter Francis Cafes Center for Sustainability Phil Mullins CPS

(916) 395‑7579 Sacramento (805) 756‑5056 San Luis Obispo (805) 756‑5056 San Luis Obispo (209) 547‑2637 Fresno





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Phil Mullins

(209) 547‑2637 Modesto





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Lex McCorvey





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Sonoma County (707) 544‑5575 Sonoma Farm Bureau Bunnie Ibrahim Almond Board Of (209) 343‑3228 Modesto California Allan Romander CCA (209) 541‑7562 San Joaquin





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Surendra Dara






2.5 0.0


Bunnie Ibrahim





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Steve Beckley

Almond Board Of (209) 343‑3228 Modesto California OFAC/ (916) 539‑4107 Nevada City Woodland&Sutter Buttes CAPCA


(805) 720‑1700 Santa Maria

Next CCA Exam: Feb. 4, 2011 Registration period October 1 - December 10, 2010

Registrations postmarked or faxed after 12/10/10 will not be processed. To request CCA exam registration materials for the February 4, 2011 exam go to:

CAPCA Adviser 



Farm Nutrient Management Plans – an Opportunity to Reevaluate C Tim Hartz, Department of Plant Sciences, UC Davis


s regulation of farming practices to protect environmental water quality becomes more widespread, an increasing number of consultants will be engaged to aid growers in preparing or updating farm nutrient management plans. This can be viewed strictly as a paperwork exercise, or it can be viewed as an opportunity to strategically review fertilization and irrigation practices. Here are several important points to consider when evaluating current practices: Tailor Preplant P Fertilization to Individual Field Need: Thousands of soil tests are done in California each year, but a significant portion of them are ignored when preplant fertilization plans are made. In my experience many growers have a standard template for preplant P fertilization of specific crops, regardless of soil P status; this is particularly true of the higher value vegetable crops like leafy greens. This one-size-fits-all approach can lead to dramatically P-enriched soils. Many vegetable and strawberry fields in California’s coastal valleys have enough available soil P to carry crops for several years without additional fertilization; a surprising number of fields in the Central Valley and the Imperial Valley are in this condition as well. Continued fertilization of high-P soil not only wastes money, but also threatens surface water quality; the phosphate concentration of runoff water is strongly correlated with soil test P level. Rethink Nitrogen Fertilization Rates: Typical nitrogen fertilization rates vary significantly from crop to crop, as would be expected. However, the rationale for the N rates currently used is not always clear, because for many crops there is a disconnect between typical fertilization rates and the amount of nitrogen the crop needs to take up to reach maximum yield potential. A seasonal N rate of about 200 lb/acre is common for processing tomatoes, which is in line with the actual crop N uptake (typically about 200-240 lb/acre). By contrast, many growers apply 200 pounds of fertilizer N/acre or more on lettuce, while the crop seldom takes up more than 140 lb/ acre. While some of this difference may be attributable to legitimate agronomic considerations (a shallower root system for lettuce, for example), seasonal N rates far in excess of crop uptake usually reflect a mentality of ‘insurance’

50  December 2010

application to protect against loss of yield or quality rather than actual agronomic need. I have conducted large-scale commercial field surveys of several crops, and in all cases I found a tremendous range of N fertilization rates. For the most part that range reflected grower habits more than any obvious agronomic factors; it is not uncommon to encounter Grower A applying 30-50% more seasonal N than Grower B, who is farming similar ground, and with equivalent success. With Regional Water Quality Boards increasingly considering the difference between N fertilization and crop N uptake as an indicator of potential N loading to the environment, the use of ‘insurance’ fertilization will have to be reduced. In evaluating a client’s N fertilization practices, the first questions to ask are a) is he on the high side of current industry practices, and b) how does the seasonal N fertilization rate compare to the typical crop N uptake? Consider Non-Fertilizer Sources of Nitrogen: As one strives for maximum efficiency in nitrogen management it becomes more important to consider the contribution of non-fertilizer N. There are three main factors to consider: residual soil nitrate-N (NO3-N), soil N mineralization potential, and the contribution of NO3-N in the irrigation water. Significant levels of residual soil NO3-N are common, particularly in fields in vegetable rotations. Soil sampling of the root zone just prior to the application of an N sidedressing or fertigation can identify fields in which that application can be reduced or delayed. Over the past decade I have done presidedress soil NO3-N sampling in several hundred vegetable fields throughout California; results ranged from less than 5 PPM to more than 50 PPM, with the majority above 15 PPM. To put that range in perspective, multiplying the PPM NO3-N by 4 gives an estimate of the pounds of available N per acre in the top foot of soil. Clearly, one should not fertilize a field with < 20 lb of available N/acre the same way as a field with > 200 lb available N/acre. It is important to remember that soil NO3-N does change over time through leaching and microbial transformations, so a current soil NO3-N test is needed; results from a fall soil sample do not reliably estimate soil available N the following spring. Even the low organic matter soils of California contain a significant amount of nitrogen in organic form; a soil with 1% organic matter will typically contain > 2,500 lb/acre

Current Practices of organic N in the top foot of soil. If even a small fraction of that N were mineralized (broken down and released in plant-available form) over the course of a growing season it would be agronomically significant. A number of commercial testing laboratories provide an estimate of soil N supplying power based on the organic matter content or on actual measurement of soil organic N. Although many factors affect the soil N mineralization rate, it is safe to say that soils with higher organic matter content will provide more mineralized N. Similarly, the prior crop can have a substantial influence on soil N mineralization, because recently incorporated crop residue is more readily broken down than older humic material in soil. The nitrogen content of crop residue is the primary determinate of its breakdown rate; residue with more than 3% N on a dry weight basis (broccoli or leafy greens, for example) will provide much more mineralized N for the following crop than will residue with less than 2% N (wheat stubble, for example). Lastly, the NO3-N content of irrigation water can be a significant contributor to crop nutrition. The best way to estimate the fertilizer equivalent of irrigation water is to calculate the N content in the amount of water transpired by the crop over the season. That calculation is: NO3-N concentration (in PPM) x inches of transpiration x 0.23 = pounds of N/acre

Connect Irrigation and Fertilization Practices: While irrigation can supply some nitrogen if the well is high in NO3-N, the more common effect of irrigation is to leach NO3-N from the root zone. In fields with a typical root zone soil NO3-N concentration, an inch of leaching may carry 10-30 lb NO3-N/acre out of the root zone. Clearly, excessive or non-uniform irrigation can ruin an N management plan, and require increased fertilization to maintain productivity. Using ET-based irrigation scheduling, and designing and maintaining the irrigation system for high efficiency are important elements of a nutrient management plan. Where Can I Get More Information? Through a grant from the CDFA Fertilizer Research and Education Program (FREP), a website is being developed to provide comprehensive information on nutrient management of horticulture crops. The website contains data from around the country, indexed by crop and by topic. Additionally, a number of educational modules are available on the site; these modules consist of 30 minute narrated powerpoint presentations based either on specific topics (calcium nutrition, for example) or specific crops (i.e., fertigation management of processing tomato). The site is still under construction, but it can be visited at: 


2011 Plant & Soils Conference Piccadilly Inn University, Fresno February 1-2, 2011 Watch American Society of Agronomy California Chapter’s web site at for more information

CAPCA Adviser 


career opportunities Territory Account Manager Job Description: Territory Account Manager for United Phosphors Inc to sell aquatic herbicides and algaecides in the southwestern U.S. The Territory Account Manager drives sales revenue by building a relationship with key accounts; penetrating the account at key levels; becoming a trusted advisor on product solutions to meet the needs of their accounts; and maintaining an on-going account strategy for selling UPI’s aquatic product portfolio. Responsibilities: Develop relationships within the customer base by meeting with multiple levels of the accounts within their assigned accounts. Drive customer satisfaction and loyalty by demonstrating an understanding of customers’ key objectives, and delivering products and services that help customers meet those business objectives, as well as focusing on incremental growth opportunities. Maintain regular contact with account base, and increase revenue through the sales of new & existing products. Ability to work within a team, and independently. Efficiently manage time to focus on activities that grow revenue and ensure client satisfaction. Must have high ethics, integrity, and humility and have a desire to be part of a rapidly growing sale and support organization. Job Requirements: Travel within an assigned geographical area: AZ, CA, CO, KS, NM, NV, TX and UT; A highly motivated individual who can intuitively see a problem and offer reasonable resolution; Frequent face to face contact and working relationship with key accounts; Adequate computer skills with basic Microsoft office applications Qualifications: The Territory Account Manager should have experience with aquatic herbicides and how they are applied to various aquatic sites including irrigation canal systems. This position must possess a B.S. degree in some biological/agricultural science and also have a California Pest Control Advisor License (or capacity to obtain the CA PCA) with at least 3-5 years of experience. Salary: Commensurate with qualifications, experience Contact: Gerald Adrian, United Phosphorus Inc, Business Mgr Aquatics,; Cody Gray, Aquatic Specialist,; Dale Carpenter, Territory Manager, Southwest Regional Sales Representative Westbridge Agricultural Products, a manufacturer of organic plant nutrients and specialty products, is seeking an individual with a minimum of a B.S. in Agricultural Science or Agricultural Business with an emphasis on sciences. Must have excellent people skills to represent and sell

52  December 2010

the company’s product-line to distributors and dealers in Southern California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. Job Qualifications: Minimum of 3 to 5 years agricultural inputs (fertilizer and/or pesticides) sales experience in citrus, avocados, vines, vegetables and nursery. Knowledge of soil fertility and agricultural practices. Enthusiasm for organic and sustainable farming and IPM practices. Dependable and reliable team player with a “can do” attitude. Strong organizational and planning skills. Excellent oral/ written communication and presentation skills. Computer skills including MS Office, PowerPoint, and Excel. Strong negotiation skills with the ability to problem solve and meet deadlines. California PCA license. Business related travel is required. Valid Driver’s License required. Salary, bonus, benefits. Email resumes to, Southwest Regional Sales Representative ORO AGRI, a manufacturer of pesticides, adjuvants, nutrients and other specialty products, is seeking an individual with a minimum of a B.S. in Agricultural Science or Agricultural Business with an emphasis on sciences. Must have excellent people skills to represent, sell and support the company’s product line to distributors and dealers in Southern California. A candidate based out of Visalia to Fresno with strong distributors and large grower relationships are a definite plus. Job Qualifications: Minimum of 5 years agricultural inputs (fertilizer and/or pesticides) sales experience in citrus, avocados, trees, vines, vegetables and nursery. Knowledge of soil fertility and agricultural practices. Enthusiasm for organic and sustainable farming and IPM practices. Dependable and reliable team player with a “can do” attitude. Strong organizational and planning skills. Excellent oral/ written communication and presentation skills. Computer skills including MS Office, PowerPoint, and Excel. Strong negotiation skills with the ability to problem solve and meet deadlines. California PCA license. Business related travel is required. Valid Driver’s License required. Salary, commission, bonus and benefits depends on experience. Email resumes to Account Manager Experienced individual to help service existing accounts and create new customers. Mostly citrus from Sanger to Ivanhoe. Good benefits plus retirement. Send resume to: P.O. Box 69, Orange Cove, CA 93646

Desert Agronomist Helena Chemical Company is seeking an experienced agronomist for their desert locations. This position would be responsible for agronomic duties in Hemet, Thermal, Brawley and Blythe, CA as well as Yuma, Buckeye and Casa Grande, AZ. This individual would be required to live in this region. Essential Duties And Responsibilities: Assist locations in analyzing soils, water and tissue samples in order to prepare customer fertility programs. Conduct and organize agronomy and grower meetings in this region. Experience with vegetables, alfalfa, citrus, seed crops, cotton, melons is essential.

Qualification Requirements: To perform this job successfully, an individual must be able to perform each essential duty satisfactorily. The requirements listed below are representative of the knowledge, skill, and/or ability required. Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions. Education and/or Experience: Bachelor of Science in an Agricultural Science discipline and 5 years experience in sales or agronomic consulting. Certification as a Certified Crop Consultant (or working toward certification) and a CA/AZ Pest Control Adviser license. Please contact Nick Anderson at 559.261.8464 


November 30 – December 2, 2010

2010 California Alfalfa & Forage Symposium Visalia Convention Center,Visalia, CA and Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA November 30

Alfalfa IPM Intensive Pre-Symposium Workshop Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier December 1-2

2010 California Alfalfa & Forage Symposium Corn/Cereal Silage Mini-Symposium Visalia Convention Center,Visalia Information on the programs and registration can be found at: Contact Janelle Kohl, (530) 752‑3996 or Sherry Cooper, (530) 752‑1581

CAPCA Adviser 



MISSION & PURPOSE CAPCA’s mission is to facilitate the success of the PCA and to represent our 3000 members who provide pest management consultation for the production of food, fiber and ornamental industries of California. CAPCA’s purpose is to serve as the leader in the evolution of the pest management industry through the communication of reliable information. CAPCA is dedicated to the professional development and enhancement of our members’ education and stewardship which includes legislative, regulatory, continuing education and public outreach. Photos: Fred Rehrman, Elysian Fields Agricultural Public Relations

CHAPTER NEWS Ventura Chapter Announces 2010 Scholarship Winners Ventura Chapter selected three students as their 2010 scholarship winners. Each student will receive a $1,000.00 scholarship award. Samantha Fullerton: Samantha graduated with an AA from Ventura College and is transferring to Cal Poly SLO’s Crop Science/Soil Science department. While at Ventura College, she worked at Fruit Grower’s Lab for three years. Kimi Yamamoto: Kimi is attending Cal Poly SLO. She recently graduated from Santa Paula High School and is very involved with FFA and the Ag Academy. Kimi is majoring in Veterinary Medicine with an emphasis in animal/livestock. She has plans to raise show cattle or market lambs as a side business. Nicholas Peter Hillman: Nick is attending Cal Poly SLO. He is majoring in Wine and Viticulture with Pest Management as a minor and wants to become a PCA. Nick worked on the Wind Dance Farm in SLO (organic growers of olives, fruit, avocados, and vegetables) for the farmer’s market. Congratulations to all the winners!

SoCal Chapter Update Cathy Ellis receives recognition of service award from CAPCA, presented by incoming SoCal Chapter President Fred Eckert. Cathy served as the SoCal Chapter President for 5 years.

CAPCA Adviser 


Millions of weeds never get the chance to see the light of day. Thanks to Chateau速 Herbicide.



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Wednesday, December 15, 2011 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Nevada City Elks Lodge 510 Highway 49 Nevada City, CA

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Pre-registration deadline Dec. 3, 2010

or Valent sales representative

For more information contact Steve Beckley at (916) 539-4107 or

for details about Chateau.

Ask your crop consultant

For a copy of the agenda and reg. form: Approved by DPR for 5.5 CE hours (0.5 Laws & 5.0 Other) Approved by CCA for 7.0 CE hours (1.0 Nutrient Mgmt, 1.0 Soil/Water, 1.5 IPM, 2.0 Crop Mgmt, and 1.0 Professional Development)

Take Control. Keep Control. is a trademark and Chateau and Products That Work, From People Who Care are registered trademarks of Valent U.S.A. Corporation. ©2010 Valent U.S.A. Corporation. All rights reserved. AM23721.05

CAPCA Adviser 


CONTINUING EDUCATION 2010 ACCREDITED COURSE REPORT DATE 11/22/10 11/23/10 11/23/10 11/23/10 11/29/10 11/30/10 11/30/10 11/30/10 11/30/10 11/30/10 12/01/10 12/01/10 12/01/10 12/02/10 12/02/10 12/02/10 12/02/10 12/02/10 12/02/10 12/03/10 12/03/10 12/04/10 12/06/10 12/07/10 12/07/10 12/09/10 12/09/10 12/09/10 12/09/10 12/12/10 12/13/10 12/14/10 12/16/10


PHONE (530) 756‑3606 (559) 684‑3300 (760) 352‑9474 (530) 756‑3606 (831) 637‑5344

HRS 10 2.5 4 10 2

(530) 757‑8608 (805) 934‑1056 (831) 442‑3536 (530) 822‑7503 (530) 666‑8734 (530) 666‑8734 (323) 837‑7819 (916) 574‑9744

5.5 8 7 3 6 1.5 1 1

(559) 784‑8733 (415) 355‑3759

5 2

(831) 442‑3536 (530) 666‑8734 (805) 934‑1056 (209) 525‑4730

8 1 7 2

(805) 756‑5086


(559) 761‑1064 (805) 756‑5086

3 2

(916) 439‑4513 (530) 822‑7503 (530) 667‑5310 (530) 822‑7503 (805) 720‑1700 (209) 525‑4730 (209) 525‑4730 (707) 784‑1475 (408) 465‑2910 (509) 465‑5055 (408) 465‑2910

7.5 3 1.5 3 3 2 1 2 2 4 2

For updated & additional meeting information go to or log onto California Department of Pesticide Regulation’s site at



Meeting Title Location





Sutter Buttes

Annual Rice Mtg

Colusa Co. Ag Dept., Colusa, CA

9AM – 12:PM

Jan Kendel

(530) 822‑7503


Tri County

2010 Review CE Meeting

Pappy Ganders, Merrill, OR

12PM – 1:30PM

Jim Smith

(530) 667‑5310


San Diego

Laws & Regs Seminar

Farm Bureau, Escondido, CA

8AM – 12:PM

David Pattison

(760) 522‑8349

For updated & additional meeting information go to or

58  December 2010

a CAPCA 2011 Sustaining Membership Benefits a In an effort to maximize the benefit opportunities CAPCA can offer you as a sustaining company member, we are offering a tiered membership program to better accommodate your specific needs.We encourage you to choose a package that will maximize your company’s business goals and allow you to support CAPCA. We appreciate your support at all levels and have retained our contribution levels at 2009 rates. If you have any questions about the benefits, please give Dee a call at (916) 928-1625, ext 203; or Silver Level - $1,500.00

Gold Level - $2,500.00

a 2 Subscription to CAPCA Adviser Magazine $60 Value

a 3 Subscription to CAPCA Adviser Magazine $90 Value

a 2 Job Opportunity Placements in Magazine and on CAPCA Web page (each placement will have a 3 edition run) $600 Value a Additional Job Opportunity Placements at $150 per job/edition – 50% Savings

a Unlimited Job Opportunity Placements in Magazine and on CAPCA Web page (each placement will run until filled during the calendar year) - $900.00+ Value

a 1 Press Release/advertorial article in Adviser Any edition $600 Value

a 2 press release/advertorial articles in Adviser Any edition - $1,200 Value

a Listing on Sustaining Member Page of Adviser (Two Lines) $300 value

a Listing on Sustaining Member Page of Adviser (Two Lines with Logo) $400 value

a 50% off non-member Mailing Label prices (electronic labels now available with use of a bonded mail house) – 50% Savings

a 2 Complimentary Mailing Label Requests $900 Value a Additional label requests at 50% off non-member Mailing Label prices (electronic labels now available with use of a bonded mail house) – 50% Savings

a Discounted Agri-Expo Premium Exhibitor Booth ($200 discount) - $200 Value

a Discounted Agri-Expo Premium Exhibitor Booth ($300 discount) - $300 Value

a Premium Exhibit Booth Placement Opportunities during CAPCA Conference & Agri-Expo

a Premium Exhibit Booth Placement Opportunities during CAPCA Conference & Agri-Expo

a 1 Conference Registration - $225 Value

a 2 Conference Registrations - $450 Value a Special recognition at Conference & Exhibit Hall

a Link on CAPCA Website (Two Lines)

a Link on CAPCA Website (Two Lines with Logo)

a Framed Recognition Certificate

a Commemorative Plaque

• Bronze Level $600 •


$10,000.00 Benefits: All Gold Member Privileges ++ PLUS ++ Maximum Signage/Recognition/VIP Privileges/Association Resources Contact Terry Stark

DeaDline anD Durham: The Dynamic Duo in Slug anD Snail conTrol

It’s almost criminal how much damage hungry mollusks can cause. That’s why yield-conscious growers seek the proven protection of AMVAC’s Deadline® MPs and Durham® Metaldehyde Granules. Long the gold standard for effective control, these powerful products offer fast acting, long-lasting performance that won’t dissolve or dissipate in wet conditions. Durham’s concentrated, sand-core granules provide ten times more coverage than other baits, while Deadline’s DB27 attractant and deadly, bright-blue mini-pellets lure pests away and dispatch them with ease. For effective slug and snail control, there’s no more potent pair. Contact your PCA or agricultural chemical supplier or AMVAC at 1-888-GO-AMVAC (1-888-462-6822) or visit Always read and follow all label directions and use precautions. Durham® Metaldehyde Granules and Deadline®MPs are registered trademarks of AMVAC Chemical Corporation. ©2010 AMVAC Chemical Corporation.

December CAPCA Adviser  

December CAPCA Adviser