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The African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF)

A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa Inaugural Report May 2002 – December 2004

better tools, better harvests, better lives


Standing (left to right): Walter S. Alhassan, Shawn Sullivan, Godber W. Tumushabe, Vincent Gwarazimba, Michael W. Trimble. Seated (left to right): Mpoko Bokanga, Jennifer Ann Thomson, Eugene Terry, Assétou Kanouté. Not shown: Maria José Sampaio , Cyrus Nderitu

AATF Trustees (as of December 2004) Jennifer Ann Thomson (Chair) Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology University of Cape Town South Africa

Maria José Sampaio* Head of Biotechnology, Biosafety and IPR Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA) Brazil

Walter S. Alhassan (Vice Chair) Coordinator, Agricultural Biotechnology Support Project II (ABSPII), West and Central Africa; Sub-regional Coordinator Programme for Biosafety Systems (PBS) Ghana

Shawn Sullivan* Intellectual Property Counsel International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) Mexico

Mpoko Bokanga (Ex-officio) Executive Director African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) Kenya

Eugene Terry Consultant Atecho & Associates USA

Vincent Gwarazimba Director Nhimbe Agro Systems Zimbabwe

Michael W. Trimble Director Trimble Genetics International USA

Assétou Kanouté Coordinator Africa Network for the Promotion of Participatory Agricultural Research (ROCAPA/WECANPAR) Mali

Godber W. Tumushabe* Executive Director and Policy Analyst Advocates Coalition on Environment and Development (ACODE) Uganda

Cyrus Nderitu* Consultant and first Board Chair Kenya

* No longer on the Board

Correct Citation: AATF (2005). A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa. Inaugural Report May 2002–December 2004. Nairobi, Kenya: African Agricultural Technology Foundation. ©2005 African Agricultural Technology Foundation 2005. All rights reserved. The publisher encourages fair use of this material provided proper citation is made. Writing, design, layout and proofreading: Green Ink, UK (www.greenink.co.uk) Printing: Pragati Offset Pvt Ltd, India (www.pragati.com) Photographs: Trygve Bolstad/Panos Pictures: Front cover, p. 16, p. 32; Fred Hoogervorst/Panos Pictures: p. 2; J. B. Russell/Panos Pictures: p. 4; Pep Bonet/Panos Pictures: p. 8; Crispin Hughes/Panos Pictures: p. 9; Giacomo Pirozzi/Panos Pictures: p. 12; Liba Taylor/Panos Pictures: p. 24; Stefan Boness/Panos Pictures: p. 26; Betty Press/Panos Pictures: p. 30; AATF: all other pictures.


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

Inaugural Report May 2002 – December 2004


Contents

AATF at a Glance ............................................................................................. 4 Designing a New Bridge to Sustainable Development ............................... 9 Message from the Board Chair .................................................................. 9 Birth of an Idea .......................................................................................... 11 Managing Intellectual Property to Benefit the Poor .............................. 14 Building the New Bridge .............................................................................. 17 Message from the Implementing Director ............................................. 17 Implementing the AATF Concept ........................................................... 19 New Ways to Facilitate the Transfer of Agricultural Technologies ....... 23 Crossing to the Other Side ........................................................................... 25 Message from the Executive Director ..................................................... 25 Getting on with the Job ........................................................................... 27 Building Public–Private Partnerships ....................................................... 33 Project Portfolio Summary ............................................................................ 34 Projects Underway .................................................................................... 34 Projects under Development ................................................................... 36 Discontinued Projects............................................................................... 38 Financial Report ............................................................................................. 40 Launching AATF............................................................................................. 42 The AATF Team ............................................................................................. 44


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

AATF at a Glance What is AATF?

What AATF Does

The African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) is a private not-for-profit organisation dedicated to increasing the productivity of resource-poor farmers in sub-Saharan Africa by providing them with greater access to proprietary agricultural technologies and know-how. The Foundation is registered as a charity under the laws of England and Wales. It was incorporated in the UK in January 2003 and registered in Kenya, its host country, in April 2003. AATF is headquartered on the Nairobi campus of the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).

In pursuing its mission and objectives, AATF collaborates with the many internal and external stakeholders involved in agricultural development within sub-Saharan Africa. The Foundation fosters the creation of new public–private partnerships and networks that address food security, poverty reduction, market development and economic growth. The Foundation works with its many partners to identify, acquire, adapt and deliver appropriate proprietary agricultural technologies to resource-poor farmers. In short, AATF is in the business of transferring proprietary agricultural technologies to those who cannot readily afford to pay for them. AATF serves as the “responsible party” in the technology transfer process and plays a stewardship role as technologies are

Mission and Objectives AATF’s mission is to increase the productivity of sub-Saharan Africa’s resource-poor farmers by facilitating the transfer, delivery and uptake of appropriate proprietary agricultural technologies, thus contributing to higher incomes and greater food security. The Foundation’s basic objectives are to: • Clearly define the real constraints of the region’s smallholder farmers and identify opportunities to address those constraints through the royalty-free transfer and use of new and existing proprietary technologies; • Facilitate the efforts of public and private institutions, including non-governmental and community-based organisations, working to develop and deliver useful proprietary tools, materials and know-how to farmers; and • Create sustainable markets and enduring private sector participation in the agricultural development process.

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AATF at a Glance

adapted to meet farmers’ needs and are moved through national regulatory systems and the whole product value chain. This ensures that those who provide the technology are protected from liabilities stemming from its application or possible misuse.

What Makes AATF Unique? The Foundation is the product of wide-ranging and unprecedented consultations among African, European and North American stakeholders who are actively seeking to improve food security and reduce poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. AATF is unique in several ways: • It provides a much needed “one-stop-shop” for enabling access to proprietary technologies, knowledge and know-how; • It serves as an “honest broker” in negotiating the royalty-free transfer of technologies held by public and private institutes in developed and developing countries; • It works along the full product value chain, from basic research, through adaptive research and development, distribution, production and marketing; and • The Foundation uses its unique convening power to bring together potential partners from the public and private sectors, and in so doing serves as a catalyst for innovations, reforms and the creation of agricultural markets.

Current Investors AATF enjoys the financial backing of three key donors who have been with the Foundation since its inception: • The Rockefeller Foundation, a knowledge-based, global foundation committed to enriching and

sustaining the lives and livelihoods of poor and excluded people around the world. • The UK Department for International Development (DFID), which is responsible for UK initiatives to promote economic development and reduce poverty globally. • The US Agency for International Development (USAID), which is responsible for providing and managing US economic and humanitarian assistance worldwide. As the scope of the Foundation’s work broadens and the demand for its interventions grows, additional financial backers are being sought. For example, the promise of the Improving Cowpea Productivity Project has attracted support from the UK-based Kirkhouse Trust. They are interested in improving the capacity of the region’s national agricultural research organisations to apply marker-assisted selection techniques for the introgression of the Bt gene into elite cowpea varieties.

Partners AATF has numerous partners drawn from among the following groups of people and institutions interested in technology transfer for agricultural development: • Agricultural producers and consumers; • Regional and national institutions and agencies [such as the African Union’s Commission for Agriculture and Rural Development, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), the United Nations’ Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA), and various sub-regional organisations and national agricultural research systems];

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A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

• International institutions and agencies [Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and other advanced research institutes]; • Local and international non-governmental organisations (NGOs); • Agricultural industry holders of intellectual property (Monsanto, DowAgro, Pioneer/DuPont, Syngenta, and BASF); • African trade and agribusiness organisations; • National governments in sub-Saharan Africa.

Priority Problems Being Addressed AATF is developing projects relating to eight major problem areas relevant to sub-Saharan African farmers: 1) Controlling the parasitic weed known as Striga; 2) Improving cowpea productivity; 3) Improving the productivity of bananas 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

and plantains; Enhancing the nutritional quality of cereals; Improving drought tolerance in cereals; Reducing mycotoxins in food grains; Increasing the productivity of cassava; Improving insect resistance in maize.

AATF Milestones AATF Design Advisory Committee Walter Alhassan, Consultant (Ghana) Gerard Barry, Monsanto Company (USA) Allan Chiyembekeza, ICRISAT (Malawi) Sam Dryden, Emergent Genetics, Inc. (USA) Vincent Gwarazimba, Zimbabwe Seed Trade Association (Zimbabwe) Romano Kiome, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (Kenya) Josette Lewis, USAID (USA) Violet Mandishona, Zimbabwe Farmers Union (Zimbabwe) Barry McCarter, SeedCo (Zimbabwe) Gavin McGillivray, DFID (UK) Ronald Meeusen, Dow Agro Sciences LLC (USA) Kinyua M’Mbijjewe, Lead-Africa, Monsanto Africa (South Africa) Joseph Mukiibi, National Agricultural Research Organization (Uganda)

Andrew Mushita, Community Technology Development Trust (Zimbabwe) Cyrus Ndiritu, Genetics Technologies Ltd. (Kenya) Christopher Ngichabe, Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (Kenya) William Niebur, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. (USA) Kanayo Nwanze, WARDA (Cote d’Ivoire) Eugene Terry, AATF (USA) Barry Thomas, Aventis CropScience, UK Ltd. (UK) Carl-Gustaf Thornstrom, University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden) Godber Tumushabe, Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment (Uganda) Florence Wambugu, A Harvest Biotech Foundation International (Kenya) Klaus Winkel, DANIDA (Denmark)

AATF was officially launched by Kenya’s Minister for Agriculture, Hon. Kipruto arap Kirwa, on 16th June 2004 at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Kabete Campus, Nairobi, Kenya. The President of The Rockefeller Foundation, Dr Gordon Conway, presented the keynote address in which he underscored the important role of the African governments in selecting technologies suitable to African agricultural problems. The occasion was graced by diplomats, top scientists, government officials, farmers, and NGOs and private sector representatives from Africa, Europe and the United States of America. See page 42 and http://www.aatf-africa.org/launch.php

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AATF at a Glance

June 2002

2000

Biotechnology Dialogues

Implementing Director appointed The Design Advisory Committee (DAC) was created to systematise consultations with a representative group of stakeholders during the development of the AATF business plan and to provide guidance on key operational issues. The DAC played a critical advisory role, guiding the formation of AATF. It provided guidance on the business plan, selection of board members, selection of the Foundation headquarters, and the development of criteria for the selection of pilot projects. See page 10 and http://www.aatf-africa.org/dac.php

2002

DESIGN

Initial Meeting of the AATF Design Advisory Committee

January 2003 Rockefeller funding secured AATF established as a UK-based company limited by guarantee

2003

January 2004 DFID funding secured

IMPLEMENTATION

Business Plan Approved

AATF registered in Kenya as a foreign private company limited by guarantee

Aware of the widening gap between the agricultural science controlled by the developed countries and the needs of the poor in the developing world, during 2000-2002 the Rockefeller Foundation supported a series of consultations with stakeholders within a program called the Biotechnology Dialogues. See pages 9–10.

September 2003

First Board of Trustees Meeting

April 2003

2000–2002

2004

USAID funding secured Board Advisory Committee constituted The Board Advisory Committee (BAC) was set up to work with the AATF Board on a wide range of strategic issues relating to the Foundation’s operations and it currently comprises 10 individuals. See http://www.aatf-africa.org/bac.php AATF joins Striga Project See page 34 and http://www.aatf-africa.org/projects.php Cowpea Productivity Project Initiated See page 35 and http://www.aatf-africa.org/projects.php Banana and Plantain Productivity Project Established See page 36 and http://www.aatf-africa.org/projects.php Pro-Vitamin A Project Established See page 38 and http://www.aatf-africa.org/projects.php AATF joins IRMA Project See page 39 and http://www.aatf-africa.org/projects.php

June 2004 Executive Director appointed August 2004

Signing of Memorandum of Understanding with the United States Development Agency (USDA)

Signing of Memorandum of Understanding with the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)

Sepember 2004 First progress review by donors

LAUNCH

Formal Launch of AATF

2005

Signing of Memorandum of Understanding with the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center (USA)

January 2005 AATF registered as a charity in England and Wales

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A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

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Designing a New Bridge to Sustainable Development Message from the Board Chair AATF is a new and vital addition to the family of institutions dedicated to improving the welfare of Africa’s resource-poor smallholder farmers. During the Foundation’s official launch in June 2004, I challenged AATF management and staff to come up with a clear, simple description of the organisation. Why? In a continent where many individuals and organisations have committed themselves to agricultural development, a new organisation whose objectives span the entire agricultural value chain – and which

Foundation – and set the stage for what follows in this inaugural report. AATF is not the brainchild of any one person, but rather the result of extensive consultations with a wide range of stakeholders who, in their collective experience and wisdom, truly understand what it will take for the African people to realise their hopes and dreams. The Rockefeller Foundation, the UK Department for International Development (DFID), and the US Agency for International Development (USAID) funded these consultations. These donors remain the Foundation’s core financial supporters. As suggested by Sir Gordon Conway, President of the Rockefeller Foundation during AATF’s

strives to achieve sustainable impact at the farm level through new and innovative partnerships – requires a clear statement of purpose. Most importantly, other players need to see that AATF aims to nurture synergism, not compete with them or duplicate their efforts. AATF is in the business of fostering, facilitating and linking the work of people and organisations, both public and private, who strive to guarantee Africa’s future – in short, we help to build bridges among the many stakeholders in Africa’s development. In doing so, the Foundation itself serves as a much needed bridge to development. Details about the Foundation, its mission and its work, can be found throughout this report. My purpose here is to highlight how AATF came about – the genesis of the

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A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

design and start-up phase, the Foundation is the embodiment of four key principles that unite and energise agricultural development specialists throughout Africa: • Science and technology can and must play a vital role in addressing the continent’s pressing food and nutritional needs; • Success will be achieved only through effective partnerships among the many players involved in development; • Strong direct farmer participation in the development process is essential; and • Africans can and must take the lead in providing the answers to Africa’s challenges. These principles are mirrored in the process by which AATF came into being. To ensure that the views of all key stakeholders were considered in the overall design of the Foundation, a 24-person Design Advisory Committee (DAC) was formed in early 2002. This broad-based Committee comprised representatives from African national agricultural research institutions, the CGIAR, African seed and agricultural technology companies, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) crop science corporations, and four donor organisations. The DAC served as the architect of AATF, providing guidance on the development of the Foundation’s business plan and key operational issues, including the identification of Board members, selection of the headquarters, and the development of criteria used to select pilot projects. Committee members and many others participated in a series of consultations among African, American and European leaders in development. These structured, systematic consultations were professionally facilitated by the Meridian Institute, a neutral third party with a 20-year track record

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of helping diverse stakeholders resolve some of society’s most contentious public policy issues. Throughout these consultations, participants were asked to help identify and prioritise the major constraints to agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. They were asked what they and their organisations could contribute to improving food security and reducing poverty on the continent, and what they would need to be more fully involved in the development process. They were asked about how to overcome restrictions to accessing proprietary technologies, and how such technologies could be used by others to help smallholder farmers without endangering inherent intellectual property rights. The ultimate outcome of these multistakeholder consultations was the birth of an idea whose time was long overdue, the delineation of the principles upon which AATF rests, its mission, and the operational model it embraces. The conceptualisation, set up and implementation of AATF was quite a challenge but one that was placed in very capable hands. I am therefore happy to report that we have witnessed exciting progress especially in the development of projects and realisation of the AATF goals. Most significantly for me, the birth of the AATF idea and the consultations that followed set the tone and organisational culture of the Foundation; the recognition that there is much more that unites us than divides us; and that we all have much more to gain from building bridges than erecting barriers to development.

Prof. Jennifer Ann Thomson AATF Board Chair


Designing a New Bridge to Sustainable Development

Birth of an Idea Beginning in 2000, the Rockefeller Foundation supported a series of consultations among stakeholders interested in finding ways to close the growing gap between the agricultural science controlled by developed countries and the needs of the poor in the developing world. These consultations were called the “Biotechnology Dialogues” and involved representatives of public research organisations from developed and developing countries, major life science companies, NGOs, and consumer groups who wanted to find ways to apply advanced science

of the technologies. They also sought assurance that the new technologies would actually reach resource-poor farmers and would be used only in crops and markets that did not threaten their commercial interests. Moreover, they required that high performance standards be established before end products were released. Buoyed by these findings, a number of African, European and North American stakeholders held additional discussions and planning meetings to design an institution that could serve as the responsible party and perform these stewardship functions. This process was formalised through the creation of a Design Advisory Committee (DAC) made up of 24 representa-

“Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest hunger and malnutrition rates in the developing world. Extreme poverty is rampant. About one-third of the population – nearly 200 million people – lack food security.” to help reduce food insecurity. These Dialogues were professionally facilitated by the Meridian Institute, a neutral third party with a 20-year track record of helping diverse stakeholders resolve some of society’s most contentious public policy issues. In the course of these discussions, several of the largest life science companies stated their willingness to make selected proprietary technologies available for humanitarian use, especially in Africa. This notion was not unconditional, however. They wanted to ensure that all regulatory requirements were met and that their companies were protected from liability for possible misuse

tives from African national agricultural research institutions, the CGIAR, African seed and agricultural technology companies, OECD crop science corporations, and four donor organisations. Based on these extensive discussions and the work of the DAC, the core rationale for AATF was brought to light, and the fundamental operating principles, mission, and business model of the organisation were established.

The Case for AATF Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest hunger and malnutrition rates in the developing world. Extreme poverty is rampant. About one-third

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A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

of the population – nearly 200 million people – lack food security (defined as having enough food to lead healthy and productive lives). Significant investments in infrastructure and new agricultural technologies contributed to a dramatic increase in agricultural productivity in Asia and Latin America, but investment and innovation were much more limited in Africa and agricultural productivity suffered as a result. Sub-Saharan Africa is in fact the only region in the developing world in which per capita food production has actually declined over the past two decades. Between 1980 and 1995, yields of staple crops fell by an average of 8% compared to an increase of 27% in Asia and 12% in Latin America. Nearly two-thirds of Africa’s poor people live in rural areas and depend on agriculture for their survival. Low and often declining farm-level

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productivity is a major cause of persistently low incomes and hunger. Agricultural science and improved technologies have, over the past 50 years, made a huge positive impact on poverty and hunger in the developing world, but mainly in Asia and Latin America – Africa has yet to realise anywhere near the full potential that agricultural science has to offer. While this potential is very real, neither public nor privately owned agricultural research and development organisations can, on their own, readily exploit it. The top five international life science companies hold the majority of new agricultural intellectual property, and have developed innovative technologies, processes and products that can be readily adapted to improve the productivity of African farmers. But they have little commercial incentive to do so. These companies are compelled to focus on larger markets, due to


Designing a New Bridge to Sustainable Development

the high costs of product identification, development, testing, regulatory approval, manufacture and market development. Moreover, large companies can add to shareholder value only if they are able to grow the more profitable parts of their businesses. They have little or no interest in crops grown and consumed only in African countries, where markets are small and growth potential is seen to be limited. On the other side of the coin, public sector agricultural research and development organisations in developing countries have considerable knowledge about local crop varieties, farming methods and the needs of resource-poor farmers. Research institutions working on minor crops, or on crops that are of crucial importance to the poor but for which there are limited markets, often rely on public funding. But these organisations are often constrained in what they can do by low and uncertain government funding, as well as limited access to proprietary and other technologies owned by private and public sector institutions in

and dynamic relationships with a variety of agribusinesses and, with some exceptions, most public sector organisations are unpractised in developing and maintaining such partnerships. National agricultural research and development institutions in sub-Saharan Africa generally have limited capacity to negotiate the transfer of proprietary technology held by others. And because most of these institutions are focussed on only one segment in the product value chain, there is no single agency responsible for ensuring that all elements are in place and operating efficiently such that new technologies are not only produced but also demonstrated and distributed to smallholder farmers. Figure 1 illustrates the links in the product value chain from upstream basic and adaptive research and development (R&D) through production and distribution of technology products to farmers. It is not enough to develop and adapt technologies for use under African conditions. To achieve real impact, it is also necessary to assure

developed and developing countries. Moreover, promoting sustainable technological change in sub-Saharan Africa requires close

regulatory approval, demonstrate performance potential, and produce and distribute affordable products to millions of small-scale farmers.

Production

Extension/

Agricultural

technology

regulatory

of inputs

distribution

production

transfer

approval

Supply/technology delivery

Post harvest

Market

(storage/

access/

processing)

distribution

DEMAND FOR

Adaptive R&D/trials/

FINAL PRODUCT

Basic research/

Demand/market linkages

Figure 1: AATF works with public and private institutions along the entire product value chain.

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A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

Managing Intellectual Property (IP) to Benefit the Poor

approach to technology transfer. It is imperative that the Foundation preserves the confidence of these stakeholders through effective leadership

AATF’s work contributes to the development and

and responsible IP management.

delivery of improved technologies to resource-poor

As a “responsible party,” AATF guarantees

smallholder farmers. Partners in projects coordi-

that proprietary technology is properly acquired

nated by the Foundation are committed to sharing

and used. We start by conducting IP audits to

and transferring technology and research products,

identify any restraints associated with the use or

both for research and for commercial use for the

distribution of products or processes incorporat-

benefit of resource-poor farmers.

ing specific proprietary technologies. We always

AATF’s approach to managing intellectual

endeavour to develop and deploy products that

property (IP) rests on the belief that developing

are “free and clear” of restrictions imposed by

countries in sub-Saharan Africa must make their

third-party IP rights. If not free and clear, we make

own decisions about which agricultural technolo-

every effort to reveal any restrictions that might

gies are appropriate. This includes whether or not to

apply and, where possible, obtain any required

promote genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

permissions.

Such decisions have to be based on national or

AATF strives to preserve the integrity of confi-

regional assessments of the costs, benefits and

dential information controlled by the IP rights of

social acceptability of each technology. In the case

others. We include a confidentiality clause in all

of GMOs, AATF’s position is that the countries into

employment contracts and stress compliance with

which they are licensed must have the capacity to

this clause as a condition of continued employ-

manage their safe development and use, through

ment. We also strongly advocate that project

effective national biosafety regulations and other

partners require all personnel associated with

mechanisms.

our projects to sign confidentiality agreements.

The Foundation’s IP policy ensures that knowl-

The Foundation routinely enters into non-disclo-

edge and products resulting from AATF activities

sure agreements with collaborators, not only to

will be used for the maximum public benefit of

facilitate the free exchange of information and

resource-poor smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan

materials, including IP, but also to preserve the

Africa. Our policy stresses the responsible use of IP

integrity of confidential information at the insti-

owned by others, in a manner that respects their

tutional level.

rights. In the acquisition and management of third-

Responsible IP management requires that all

party IP, we abide by all relevant international laws

ownership rights are defined at the start of any

and treaties, as well as national laws in the countries

project. The ownership rights of AATF and those

in which AATF operates. Finally, AATF is guided by its

who provide technologies are negotiated on

core values of accessibility, accountability, credibility,

a project-by-project basis. Our policy is that IP

dedication, transparency and trustworthiness.

rights should be shared equitably among project partners, taking into consideration: the original

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AATF’s Stewardship Role

intellectual contributions of each; the specific kind

A number of private, public and civil society

and character of the IP, materials, research efforts,

organisations have pledged to support the AATF

and preparatory work done by each collaborator in


Designing a New Bridge to Sustainable Development

the project; the facilities provided by each organi-

African resource-poor smallholder farmer, rather

sation; the financial contributions made by each

than by opportunities to obtain revenues. Should

project participant; and any other considerations

financial returns result from IP licensing, they will

deemed relevant by project partners. Beyond that,

be used to achieve our charitable objectives.

any rights embodied in research products, pub-

In some cases – when the public good is best

lications and other works commissioned by the

served by doing so – AATF and its partners may

Foundation are assigned to and vested in AATF,

allow third parties to take IP rights on research

and any rights reflected in research products, pub-

products, or on materials derived from research

lications and other outputs jointly commissioned

products. In these instances, we will make sure

by the Foundation and our partners are assigned

that such agreements do not in any way impinge

to and vested in AATF and project partners as joint

on the rights of the Foundation and its partners

right holders.

to challenge excessive protection.

Responsible IP management also requires that

It is consistent with AATF’s mission to encour-

we clearly state all contractual terms in writing, and

age wide-spread dissemination of information

that formal agreements be signed by the author-

resulting from its projects. In providing such infor-

ised representatives of all parties before any work

mation, the Foundation and its partners embrace

begins. This ensures that all arrangements with

the “fair use” limitations of copyrighted material,

third parties are properly documented.

or obtain the consent of the copyright owner and give proper attribution. Finally, on occasion AATF

Safeguarding IP

and its partners may choose to register any dis-

The Foundation and its partners use such prac-

tinctive marks as trademarks in order to protect

tices as DNA fingerprinting, the keeping of

the goodwill and reputation associated with the

appropriate laboratory notebooks, and controls

exclusive use of these marks by the Foundation

over the release of information in order to iden-

and project collaborators.

tify, record, safeguard and manage IP generated

There have been many attempts in the past

in the course of individual projects. Having said

to promote public–private partnerships in sub-

that, our mission dictates that, to the extent pos-

Saharan Africa. Most have had little tangible or

sible, research outputs and products from AATF

lasting impact. AATF is an innovative approach

projects are placed in the public domain.

designed to mobilise new science on behalf of

In certain cases, however, legal IP protection

the poor in Africa, and to achieve the inherent

may be needed to guarantee the continued avail-

potential synergies of public and private sector

ability of germplasm, inventions, publications and

research and development efforts. The effec-

databases resulting from our projects. Such statu-

tive transfer of proprietary technologies lies at

tory protection can provide the Foundation with

the heart of the Foundation’s work. Our African

the leverage it needs to negotiate access to other

focus, leadership and operational location prom-

proprietary rights and technologies required for

ise a more comprehensive and realistic apprecia-

product development. Thus, when it makes sense

tion of the constraints to technology transfer in

to do so, AATF may seek IP protection for products

Africa, as well as the design of more feasible

resulting from its projects. In seeking such rights,

solutions and closer follow-up and continuity in

we will be guided by our commitment to serve the

implementation.

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A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

16


Building the New Bridge

Message from the Implementing Director The plight of Africa’s resourcepoor farmers is all too real, and the evidence of continuing food insecurity and poverty is incontrovertible. Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region in the world where agricultural production per person has actually declined over the past 20 years. As a result, about 25% of all chronically malnourished people in the world are found in this region. Nearly

research aimed at developing new technologies has been and continues to be done by private companies – with an eye on earning large profits. Because new technologies are expensive to develop, private companies have to focus on the needs of large markets; the needs of small farmers in developing countries are simply not central to their technology development process. The potential for collaboration between private companies and public sector research and development institutions – those whose mission it is to provide smallholders with the technologies they need – have been restricted by the

“Smallholder agricultural productivity is affected by many things, but chief among them is the lack of appropriate and adoptable improved production technologies to resource-poor farmers.” two-thirds of all Africans rely on agriculture for their income, and agriculture accounts for fully one-third of the continent’s gross national product. Clearly, any meaningful effort to secure Africa’s future must address the continent’s persistent low agricultural productivity. Smallholder agricultural productivity is affected by many things, but chief among them is the lack of appropriate and adoptable improved production technologies to resourcepoor farmers. The vast majority of agricultural

complexities of the global intellectual property system that protects many building block technologies. This greatly limits the access of public researchers to new ideas and tools in their fields and severely constrains their ability to meet the needs of resource-poor farmers. And that is the central challenge that AATF has been designed to overcome. As Implementing Director for AATF, I was given the unique opportunity to help build an institutional bridge that spans the gap between

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A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

private and public agricultural research and development organisations. That bridge is now in place. To build it has required completing a number of key tasks, as well as the tireless efforts of many people to forge the partnerships needed for success. To reach this point, AATF and its partners have had to: • Draw on the expertise and experience of numerous people and organisations in order to fully appreciate the critical constraints to agricultural development; • Fully understand what is missing from the mix of development institutions already working in Africa – why, despite the great efforts of many dedicated people, agricultural development is still lagging; • Identify and articulate a clear mission for AATF, sound institutional values and effective operating principles; and • Develop a dynamic strategy, identify and bring on board the best people to implement it, build whole new partnerships among organisations not accustomed to working together, and identify and develop an initial set of pilot projects that would demonstrate the added value provided through AATF’s interventions, as well as innovative approaches designed to improve and increase smallholder agricultural productivity. AATF was legally established as a limited company in the United Kingdom in January

18

2003, and was registered in Kenya, the Foundation’s host country, in April 2003. We have put together a staff of highly competent individuals, all nationals of sub-Saharan Africa. We have created a number of key public–private partnerships and, together with our partners, initiated several important projects designed to bring the fruits of technological advances to the continent’s resource-poor farmers. And we have begun negotiations on a number of other projects with that same goal in mind. Much was accomplished during AATF’s start-up phase, which ended in June 2004 with the formal launch of the organisation. Many people and institutions were closely involved in the design and implementation process, and I want to express my deepest appreciation for all their efforts. But now the real work begins. The key to our success will be effective public–private partnerships aimed at developing and delivering new technologies to Africa’s resource-poor smallholders. We have built a new bridge to sustainable agricultural development in Africa. We must now cross it.

Dr Eugene Terry AATF Implementing Director


Building the New Bridge

Implementing the AATF Concept Modern agricultural science and technology hold considerable promise for improving food security and reducing poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. To realise this promise, public and private research and development organizations must work ever more closely together, joining in new partnerships designed to bring the benefits of agricultural innovation to the region’s resource-poor farmers. At the heart of these partnerships is the efficient transfer and adaptation of new technologies, including proprietary ones, to meet the needs of Africa’s smallholder farmers.

thus contributing to higher incomes and greater food security. The Foundation’s basic objectives are to: • Clearly define the real constraints of the region’s smallholder farmers and identify opportunities to address those constraints through the royalty-free transfer and use of new and existing proprietary technologies; • Facilitate the efforts of public and private institutions, as well as non-governmental and community-based organisations working to develop and deliver useful proprietary tools, materials and know-how to farmers; and • Create sustainable markets and enduring private-sector participation in the agricultural development process.

“AATF’s mission is to increase the productivity of subSaharan Africa’s resource-poor farmers by facilitating the transfer, delivery and uptake of appropriate proprietary agricultural technologies, thus contributing to higher incomes and greater food security.”

AATF constitutes a new bridge to sustainable agricultural development, one that spans the gulf between the public and private organisations in Africa and elsewhere that are involved in advancing agriculture through technological innovations.

Mission, Objectives and Strategy AATF’s mission is to increase the productivity of sub-Saharan Africa’s resource-poor farmers by facilitating the transfer, delivery and uptake of appropriate proprietary agricultural technologies,

Achieving the Foundation’s objectives requires an innovative strategy, one that allows AATF to enter into formal agreements to access technologies from various providers and then sublicense these technologies to public and private organisations whose job it is to adapt them to smallholder farming conditions. The Foundation is also involved in seeking regulatory approval for newly adapted agricultural technologies, and in sub-licensing the adapted products to public and private sector institutions that then produce and

19


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

distribute them to smallholder farmers. These latter steps are absolutely critical to achieving meaningful impact at the farm level, and AATF facilitates this work by entering into contracts with relevant organisations to make sure that the new products reach resource-poor farmers. AATF’s strategy rests on fundamental principles that were defined during the extensive stakeholder consultations leading up to the creation of the Foundation. These principles underpin all AATF activities and relationships: 1) First, the Foundation strives to achieve its goals and objectives through the creation and facilitation of enduring public–private partnerships; 2) It can whenever necessary serve as the “responsible party” in these novel partnerships, so as to ensure the interests both of technology providers and users are protected; 3) It operates along the entire product value chain – a unique attribute of the organisation – facilitating project implementation and the 4)

5)

6)

7)

20

delivery of products to farmers; AATF is willing to promote the transfer of all types of technologies, as long as the process is demand driven and the potential impacts on food security and poverty are clear; AATF facilitates the transfer of proprietary technologies according to African needs and priorities, working closely with public and private suppliers regardless of their location; The primary focus of the Foundation in its choice of projects is on food crops and on the needs of sub-Saharan Africa’s smallholder farmers; and AATF takes a practical, business-like approach to determining how technologies will be licensed and deployed.

Incorporation and Location In order to expedite the work of the organisation, it needed to be incorporated within a robust and predictable legal environment with well established contract and intellectual property laws. It was decided that the United Kingdom provided the best fit between the needs of the Foundation and those of its potential partners. In January 2003, AATF was incorporated as a company limited by guarantee, and subsequently registered in the United Kingdom in January 2005 as a charity under the laws of England and Wales. Several countries were considered for the location of the Foundation’s headquarters, including Ghana, Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. All had positive attributes, but in the end it was decided that Kenya was the most appropriate choice. In April 2003, at the invitation of the Government of Kenya, AATF was registered as a foreign private limited company under the laws of Kenya. The Foundation operates from the International Livestock Research Institute’s (ILRI) Nairobi campus.

Structure and Governance The Foundation’s structure and governance create a clear separation between responsibility for setting and monitoring strategy and the day-to-day management of operations (see Figure 2). AATF’s corporate design is intended to limit liability risks for the Foundation’s donors. It allows for wide stakeholder participation without constraining operational flexibility and, as an independent charitable private company, protects the organisation from undue external pressures. During the period covered by this Inaugural Report, 11 distinguished individuals served on the AATF Board of Trustees. Board members possess a range of relevant skills and are drawn


Building the New Bridge

from an array of backgrounds and institutions, including the international and local private sector, public sector organisations, donor agencies, major NGOs, the CGIAR and academia. Board Members are not considered, nor do they act, as official representatives of governments, organisations or other constituencies; they serve strictly in a personal capacity. The Foundation’s staff are all recruited from sub-Saharan Africa. This dedicated group of professionals has responsibility for the day-to-day management of AATF’s activities and for the development, implementation and management of the organisation’s various projects. Figure 2 illustrates the Foundation’s general and evolving organisational structure.

Operating Model AATF strives to achieve its objectives through three principal areas of activity. First it works with stakeholders to identify opportunities for achieving impact and develops broad product concepts. It then develops appropriate concepts into fully specified business plans. These plans, once approved by the AATF Board, are then implemented by facilitating, managing and carefully monitoring project activities. Projects are selected through a demanddriven process that is based both on the needs of resource-poor farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and on the projects’ potential for reducing poverty in the region. Throughout the design and implementation of projects, AATF supports

Board of Trustees

Legal & Corporate

Board Advisory Committee (BAC)

Internal Audit Unit*

Affairs Unit Office of the Executive Director Information

Communications

Management Unit*

& Partnership Unit

Admin & Finance

Technical Operations

Department

Department

Finance

Administration &

& Accounts

Human Resources

Unit

Unit

Business

Regulatory

Project

Development Unit*

Compliance Unit

Management Unit

* Units not yet established.

Figure 2: AATF’s evolving organisational structure.

21


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

and participates in the analysis of problems and opportunities, identification of appropriate partners, negotiation of contracts and licensing agreements, regulatory approval, delivery of new products and general project oversight. The precise nature of the Foundation’s activities varies from one project to the next, and reflects a careful case-by-case decision-making process that is grounded in the organisation’s basic operational strategy. Figure 3 illustrates the kinds of relationships and activities in which the Foundation engages.

Problem Areas and Initial Projects During its initial meeting in January 2003, the AATF Board of Trustees agreed upon eight

significant problem areas affecting the productivity of agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa: 1) Controlling the parasitic weed known as Striga in cereals; 2) Improving cowpea productivity; 3) Improving the productivity of bananas and plantains; 4) Enhancing the nutritional quality of cereals; 5) Improving drought tolerance in cereals; 6) Reducing mycotoxins in food grains; 7) Increasing the productivity of cassava; 8) Improving insect resistance in maize. Beginning in July 2003, AATF supported a series of small group meetings involving various stakeholders and focused on identifying

Technology Licensors Licence

Funding agencies

Technology/Support in kind

AATF

Funds

Funds

Contracts:

1

2

3

4

Partners:

Research Institute

Research Institute

Production & Distribution Company

NGO/Private Stockist Farmers

Activities:

Basic/Strategic/ Adaptive Research

Figure 3: How AATF operates.

22

Regulatory Consents

Production & Distribution

Demonstration & Market Development


Building the New Bridge

constraints and opportunities associated with several of these problem areas. These meetings led in two cases to the development and implementation of fully-fledged projects aimed at 1) controlling Striga, which adversely affects the production of maize, sorghum and millet; and 2) improving cowpea productivity by strengthening its resistance to insect pests.

Other projects in various stages of development include enhancing the productivity of bananas and plantains by increasing resistance to important diseases and insects; improving the nutritional quality of selected cereals, and improving the productivity of cassava through approaches to optimise labour requirements during field and processing operations.

New Ways to Facilitate the Transfer of Agricultural Technologies

• It sub-licenses partner institutions for further

In order to achieve significant improvements in agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa, new ways of doing business are needed. More specifically, new and innovative ways of building partnerships and transferring modern proprietary technologies must be pursued. The Foundation works with a variety of partners in a number of creative, yet practical ways, including the following: • AATF consults with a broad range of African stakeholders to identify priority crops and key constraints for resource-poor farmers; • It consults with potential technology providers, in both the private and public sectors, to identify technologies that can address those constraints; • It negotiates with potential partners to develop project business plans that specify the role of

research as required to adapt the technologies to smallholder farming conditions; • It issues sub-licenses to test the adapted technologies for regulatory compliance; • It issues commercial sub-licenses for production and distribution; • AATF staff monitor compliance with the requirements of sub-licenses to minimise the risk of technology failure; • They also facilitate the work of appropriate partner institutions to ensure that links in the value chain are connected, effective and result in products of the technology getting to farmers, and farmers’ surplus harvests getting to market; • And the Foundation creates partnerships within African countries and with external stakeholders that foster the development of necessary indigenous capacities over time.

each partner institution, and determine how and where the technology will be used;

As experience is gained with these activities,

• The Foundation enters into license agreements

new opportunities for facilitating the technology

to access and hold proprietary technologies

transfer process will come to light and, where

royalty-free and ensure freedom to operate for

it makes sense to do so, be adopted by the

all the components of the technologies;

Foundation and its many partners.

23


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

24


Crossing to the Other Side

Message from the Executive Director Since its formal launch in June 2004, AATF has made important strides toward fulfilling its mission of linking the needs of resource-poor smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa with potential technological solutions. The progress we have made is of course the result of the efforts of many people, but I wish to especially acknowledge and thank Dr Eugene Terry, AATF’s Implementing Director during the Foundation’s design and start up phases. His vision and leadership throughout the consultation

and private partnerships needed for long-term success. AATF is a unique organisation that is building on, and contributing to, the work of the many others involved in agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. We are recognised as an honest broker capable of fairly negotiating the royaltyfree transfer of technologies held by public and private institutions in developed and developing countries. We work along the entire product value chain, and provide a much-needed “one-stopshop” for providing access to proprietary technologies, knowledge and know-how. The creation of the Foundation was itself a catalyst for change – for innovation, reform and the creation of agricultural markets. AATF technical staff bring to the organisation a wide range of talents and

and design process were essential to building this new bridge to sustainable agricultural development that is AATF. Today we are governed by firm principles and operational procedures, which underpin our present and future work, that benefited from his input. The harsh realities imposed by poverty and food insecurity throughout sub-Saharan Africa give AATF management and staff a strong sense of urgency about getting on with the job of bringing appropriate improved agricultural technologies to those who can make good use of them. And yet, while we are motivated day-today by this sense of urgency, we also recognise that we are engaged in a development marathon, not a sprint. We must keep our eyes on the horizon and carefully build the enduring public

over 60 years of combined experience in African agricultural research and development; they are committed both to excelling in their respective professions and to achieving AATF’s mission. We are indeed well placed to engage in activities vital to helping the continent’s resource-poor farmers become more productive. By December 2004, AATF had begun implementing two projects, while several more were at various stages of design and development. Details on these projects can be found in the pages that follow. The Foundation’s role varies depending on the needs of individual projects, but in all cases we strive to foster partnerships, link project outputs to the needs of smallholders, and facilitate the delivery of appropriate agricultural technologies to Africa’s resource-poor farmers.

25


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

As we look to the future – and in particular as we think about how sub-Saharan Africa countries can achieve measurable progress towards achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals – we see a rapidly growing need for the services provided by AATF. Business as usual is a recipe for failure. The way forward for Africa is to transform its agriculture into a vibrant business sector that will help drive economic development on the continent. Our partners, both in the public and private sectors, fully understand Africa’s agricultural development imperative – the absolutely crucial requirement of dramatically improving farm-level productivity in order to meet the needs of current and future generations of Africans. Agricultural development leads to the creation of wealth and the reduction of poverty. It leads to greater food security for the poor. It provides the foundation upon which all other development must rest. And if done properly, using the right technologies, it will enable

capacity of our natural resource base for generations to come. Our partners know these things because they have devoted their lives to – and in fact derive their own livelihoods from – science-based agricultural development. They have come to the understanding that great progress can be achieved if they work together, and they are eagerly embracing their common ground in the interest of Africa’s poor. AATF is proud to work closely with all its partners, both public and private, and to play its part in securing Africa’s future. A critical bridge to sustainable agricultural development has now been put into place. Our job is to strengthen this bridge and help our many partners cross it with the determination of improving the lives of millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa.

development while preserving the productive

AATF Executive Director

26

Dr Mpoko Bokanga


Crossing to the Other Side

Getting on with the Job AATF is a robust and flexible organisation, intentionally designed to be responsive to the changing needs of its primary stakeholders. Its work is firmly guided by its overall mission of reducing poverty and increasing food security in sub-Saharan Africa, and by the promises the Foundation has made to its many partners and beneficiaries: • First and foremost, to work closely with resource-poor smallholder farmers to identify their needs and match them with technologies suitable for African ecologies and farming systems. Building on those insights, AATF

domains are combined to balance concerns for expense, simplicity, and effectiveness. • To contribute to the poverty reduction strategies and initiatives of governments and donors by increasing agricultural productivity through improved technological development and transfer systems that will ensure more secure livelihoods for the rural poor. AATF is guided in its partnership-building activities by the Trustees of the Foundation, who collectively decide on which areas of intervention hold the greatest promise for reducing poverty and increasing food security. In addition, the organisa-

“…the organisation understands how important it is to build and maintain an “enabling policy environment,” one that will support the efficient transfer and uptake of new technologies. To this end AATF works with institutions that are in a position to stimulate beneficial policy changes.” facilitates the transfer of apt technologies, including knowledge about their management and use. • To serve as a much-needed bridge that African scientists and development experts can use to access the tools they need, tools that will enable them get the final products of the research process into the hands of farmers and that will strengthen the region’s agricultural research and development institutions. • To address the needs of technology providers, ensuring that the technologies they supply are used appropriately and that the best research and management practices from public–private

tion understands how important it is to build and maintain an “enabling policy environment,” one that will support the efficient transfer and uptake of new technologies. To this end AATF works with institutions that are in a position to stimulate beneficial policy changes. The Foundation is not directly involved in policy formation, but it does play a role by assisting other organisations whose work affects the regulation of agricultural research and development in target countries. Thus, AATF engages with such vital organisations as the African Union (AU), the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), the Forum for Agricultural Research in

27


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

Africa (FARA), and the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). It is also working in concert with an array of regional and sub-regional organisations, including the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the Southern African Development Community’s Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources group (SADC/FANR), the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), and the West and Central African Council for Agricultural Development (CORAF/WECARD).

Selecting Projects As AATF evolves in response to changing needs and new opportunities, its project portfolio also evolves. The initial projects that have been undertaken by the Foundation reflect – and are meant to demonstrate – a range of technologies that can be effectively adapted to African conditions and that are valued by resource-poor farmers. Selection criteria include consideration of the overall balance of the portfolio, as well as project-specific factors. In general terms, the Foundation’s portfolio should include projects of differing sizes, expenditure profiles and risks, providing balance in terms of risk and expected outcomes. Other important balance considerations include geographic distribution, the potential for impact in the short run, and inherent technical or institutional synergies between projects. More specifically, selected projects must address high-priority constraints limiting access to and use of technologies that would otherwise be available (particularly those held or used by the private sector). Selected projects must also involve potential end-users in problem definition,

28

selection of technology interventions, and project planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Projects will be pursued only if it is clear that, in the target country(s) or region, constraints to sustainable and profitable use by smallholders are either being overcome or can be addressed in a reasonable timeframe and at reasonable cost. The selection of projects reflects the essence of the Foundation’s business model, as shown in Figure 4 opposite. This 14-step project development process comprises four distinct but interrelated phases. The process begins by assessing the constraints to reducing poverty and improving the food security of sub-Saharan Africa’s resource-poor farmers, and by identifying options for overcoming those constraints (Phase 0). All projects are guided by carefully prepared business plans (Phase 1), which lead to the development and deployment of products (Phases 2 and 3) by project partners. In each phase, strategic decisions are made that inform and condition subsequent steps and decision making. To date, AATF has focused its efforts on building alliances that expedite access to, and delivery of, appropriate new technologies. It is involved in two flagship projects that, to varying degrees, feature these twin objectives.

Controlling Striga This project aims at reducing the impact of the parasitic weed Striga on maize production. The Foundation’s involvement in this project began after consultations with the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). AATF’s role is to facilitate the deployment of the technology, both in Kenya and in other Striga-infested areas in sub-Saharan Africa, and to make sure that it reaches smallholder maize producers.


Crossing to the Other Side

Phase 3 Product Deployment Phase 2 Product Development

14. Wide Scale Deployment 13. Planning Expansion 12. Impact Assessment 11. Pilot Product Deployment

10. Baseline Study 9. Communications Strategy Development 8. Risk Management Strategy Development 7. Product Development

6. Board Recommendation

Phase 1 Business Plan Preparation Phase 0

go/no-go decision

5. Project Business Plan Development 4. Feasibility Assessment 3. Scientific/Technical/Legal Review

go/no-go decision

2. Product Concept Note Development

1. Product Concept Identification 0. Problem–Solution Intelligence Gathering

Figure 4: The AATF project development process.

AATF helped establish a coalition of NGOs and other grassroots development organisations interested in facilitating the testing of the new maize seed in farmers’ fields. In addition, the Foundation is negotiating agreements with private seed companies for multiplying the new seed, first

involved in the Maize Marketing Movement, to enable smallholder farmers to sell their produce to large dealers.

for demonstration and later for commercialisation. The NGO coalition will involve and work with smallholder maize producers to field test the technology prior to its commercial release in the market. However, most of these farmers are very poor and the purchase of improved seed may prove difficult, if not impossible. So to encourage farmer adoption of the new technology, AATF is considering working with micro-financing institutions to facilitate small loans for seed purchases. Effective access to commercial markets by smallholder maize producers, so that they can quickly and efficiently sell their surplus maize, is critical to the sustainability of the newly introduced technology. To achieve this market access, the Foundation will partner with SACRED-Africa and other NGOs

The primary focus of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project is to facilitate access to new technologies. AATF became involved in this initiative after consulting with the Network for the Genetic Improvement of Cowpea in Africa (NGICA), which is made up of individuals and institutions with long-standing interest in boosting cowpea productivity in the region. Consultations with Monsanto led to the commitment by this private company to donate the cry1Ab gene to the Cowpea Project. To facilitate access to the gene by other partners, AATF is negotiating a licensing arrangement with Monsanto. Additional discussions are going on with CSIRO Australia, which will carry out the cowpea transformation work, and public sector cowpea scientists in West Africa who will be

Improving the Productivity of Cowpea in Africa

29


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

involved in cry1Ab gene introgression and field testing. The Foundation’s multiple roles in the Project include: negotiating access to the cry1Ab gene, which confers resistance to the insect pest Maruca

Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development (CORAF/WECARD) has embraced the project and has a seat on the proposed 7-member steering committee that is overseeing the Project’s progress.

vitrata; providing liability protection to the technology provider; ensuring quality seed production and availability; licensing improved seed and technology distribution in Africa; and helping to develop relevant markets. In order to guarantee the necessary freedom to operate, a comprehensive “technology due diligence” assessment was conducted pro-bono on behalf of AATF by an experienced lawyer of the Belgium-based bio-pharmaceutical firm, Innogenetics, Inc. The Project’s promise has also attracted support from the UK’s Kirkhouse Trust, which is supporting efforts to improve the capacity of the region’s national agricultural research organisations to apply marker-assisted selection techniques during the Cry1Ab gene introgression phase of the Project. In addition, the West and

The Cowpea and Striga Projects exemplify the kinds of initiatives that AATF views as central to achieving its mission.

30

Financial Projections AATF’s expenditures over time will of course depend on the scale, nature and timing of its various activities. However, all the Foundation’s activities embody and reflect two fundamental operational maxims: • Make the most of AATF’s ability to leverage small investments into significant impacts; and • Always strive to be cost-effective. AATF’s primary role is that of facilitating the transfer of proprietary technologies by building public–private partnerships designed to get new


Crossing to the Other Side

and existing technologies into the hands of those who can use them to generate positive impacts on poverty and food security in sub-Saharan Africa. As a facilitator, the Foundation’s direct investments in establishing project partnerships can lead to huge benefits, both for those engaged in the partnerships and for the region’s resource-poor farmers. Benefits accruing to project partners themselves are generally not financial. They revolve around the realisation of humanitarian objectives, practical scientific advances, longterm market development, and the increasingly popular adage, “doing well by doing good.” For the ultimate beneficiaries of these efforts, however, the benefits are more tangible: notable increases in farm-level productivity, growing profitability, and greater food security over time. AATF’s project investments are designed to attract significant additional contributions

by project partners. These contributions take several different forms – financial, as well as a variety of in-kind investments of technology, know-how, and human capital. Operationally, the Foundation’s investments are weighted towards covering project development and start-up costs, including project planning, and the transfer, adaptation and obtaining regulatory consent for new technologies. Relatively more of the downstream costs (actual implementation) are to be covered through resource mobilisation efforts that will involve the public and private sector partners in each project. The Foundation’s operational model also anticipates covering all follow-up costs, such as monitoring compliance with licensing terms, fulfilling AATF’s stewardship obligations, and any other project assessment work. Expenditure patterns vary from project to project, but in general they adhere to the blueprint shown in Figure 5.

Funding from donors, governments and the private sector (including foundations) Total AATF funding

AATF

AATF Overheads Expenditure

AATF Project Expenditure 100%

75%

Overheads Staff, Operating, Direct, Set-up Costs

75%

25%

100%

Total Project Costs Project Development Costs

Upstream Project Costs

25%

25%

Downstream Project Costs

Follow-up Costs

75%

Matched funding (contributions in cash and in kind from public and private sector partners)

Figure 5: Indicative blueprint for the allocation of funds provided in support of AATF’s work.

31


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

While the Foundation forecasts a growing demand for its interventions over time, it does not anticipate a material increase in its staff or operating budget. Its focus on cost-effectiveness – on the wise and effective use of donor funds – and on integrating the valuable lessons that come with project experience into its ongoing efforts will enable it to meet growing demand without substantial increases in funding for its own operations. The vast majority of additional funds that come to AATF will be devoted to covering its

32

direct investments in project activities. In fact, the Foundation’s overheads, as a proportion of total project costs, are projected to fall from their current level of about 51% during AATF’s start-up to between 10–12% by 2012. Thus, as the Foundation mobilises new resources for project activities, very little of any new funding obtained will be allocated to maintaining the organisation itself; growth will instead occur in project activities that lead to payoffs for intended beneficiaries.


Crossing to the Other Side

Building Public–Private Partnerships The formation and management of dynamic and lasting public–private partnerships will make the difference between success and failure in achieving AATF’s goals and objectives. The Foundation is itself the result of a unique partnership between the public and private sectors in Africa, Europe and North America. The primary reason for creating the organisation – the need to negotiate access to and transfer of proprietary and other technologies held by both the public and private sectors – also points to the need for efficient networks to manage the deployment of these technologies at all stages along the product value chain. In general terms, AATF’s role is that of a muchneeded honest broker, one that can act as the “responsible party” in facilitating continuing collaboration and alliances. Enduring partnerships rest on the desire to work with others to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes, and the belief that more can be achieved jointly than separately. Building such relationships involves facilitating

smallholders who are, in the end, expected to reap the benefits of these collaborative efforts. The building of enduring alliances among diverse public- and private-sector organisations requires partners to recognise and embrace each other’s relative strengths – and to earn one another’s trust – as they join forces to achieve mutually beneficial goals. AATF’s experience shows that a neutral third party can ensure that the interests of different partners are served without jeopardising the overall goals of the alliance. It also clearly demonstrates that the best partnerships are those that are based on equality. If partner organisations are not on an equal footing, the alliance will not endure. The Foundation’s experience as a neutral third party shows that it is essential to clearly define in advance the roles and responsibilities of each partner. This builds respect for each other’s strengths and provides each collaborator with an important sense of belonging and of adding value to the relationship. Indeed, a clear understanding of roles and responsibilities is the best arbitrator of disagreements that inevitably arise in complex public–private partner-

negotiations among different organisations at

ships; such clarity helps everyone involved to focus

different stages of project development, enter-

on truly relevant issues, including where, how, and

ing into agreements and looking into issues of

by whom progress is being made.

regulatory compliance.

The trend towards public–private partnerships

To date, AATF has focused its efforts on

is essential to achieving sustainable agricultural

building alliances that expedite access to, and

development in sub-Saharan Africa. Partnerships

the delivery of, appropriate new technologies.

that are well thought out, carefully planned, effi-

The Improving Cowpea Productivity Project

ciently implemented and fairly managed benefit all

described on pages 29 and 30 is the Foundation’s

parties equally. Clearly, however, while the princi-

flagship initiative relative to enhancing access.

ples that underpin such partnerships are essentially

The Foundation’s work relative to technology

the same from one to the next, no two partnerships

delivery is best exemplified by a project aimed

are the same. The diversity of goals, objectives,

at reducing the impact of the parasitic weed

values and organisational cultures that characterise

Striga on maize production, described on pages

such relationships must be explicitly recognised

28 and 29. In both cases, AATF is participating as

by those who manage each alliance, and become

a neutral third party, taking into account the inter-

a genuine source of strength and inspiration for

ests of all partners, including the resource-poor

everyone involved.

33


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

Project Portfolio Summary

Projects Underway

Aptly referred to as “witchweed,” Striga is an aggressive parasitic weed that seriously affects the production of maize throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Other important cereals are also affected, including millet, sorghum, upland rice and Napier grass. Striga infests as much as 40 million hectares of smallholder farmland in the region and causes yield losses ranging from 20% in a normal year to as much as 80% under severe infestation. It affects the livelihoods of more than 100 million people, causing annual crop losses estimated to be worth US$1 billion. Crop damage starts before Striga emerges

The good news is that researchers from the CIMMYT and KARI, in collaboration with the Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel) and with funding from the Rockefeller Foundation and BASF (a multinational producer and supplier of chemicals), have developed improved maize varieties for the control of Striga in maize. The varieties are resistant to a group of herbicides known as imidazolinones. One of them, supplied by BASF under the name Imazapyr (brand name StrigAway®), when used as seed coating, kills Striga when it attaches to and starts feeding on germinating maize seed. Extensive testing has shown that the use of IR maize to control Striga leads to considerable yield increases – from 38 to 82% in field trials in Africa – compared to traditional varieties

from the soil, during which time it produces phytotoxins harmful to its host crop. The parasitic weed drains photosynthates, minerals and water from its host plants, resulting in stunting and withering that leads to yield losses. Thus Striga survives by literally sucking “life” out of its hosts. When it emerges, Striga produces characteristically “pretty” pink flowers that belie its devastating effects. At maturity the weed sets and eventually sheds its seed, which are so tiny (< 0.3 mm) that a single plant can produce anywhere from 50,000 – 200,000 of them. The seed can remain dormant yet viable in the soil for up to 20 years. With every planting season, some of the dormant seeds germinate, attach to host plants and produce millions of new seeds, making the problem even worse during subsequent cropping seasons.

grown under the same conditions. The overall goal of this project is to control Striga in maize in Africa. Achieving this goal will require that smallholder farmers have access to improved, Imazapyr-resistant (IR) maize seed. AATF’s role is to facilitate the deployment of the technology to ensure that it reaches smallholder maize producers. The Foundation helped establish a network of local NGOs to facilitate farmer education and testing of the new maize seed in farmers’ fields. It is negotiating agreements with private seed companies for multiplication of the new seed and its eventual commercialisation, and is also working with a maize marketing movement – initiated by the Sustainable Agriculture Centre for Research,

Striga Control in Maize

34


Project Portfolio Summary

Extension and Development in Africa (SACRED-Africa) – to provide smallholder maize producers with better access to commercial markets so they can quickly and efficiently sell their surplus maize.

Partner Institutions • African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) • International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI)

Improving Cowpea Productivity Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in the dry savannas of tropical Africa, where it covers more than 12.5 million hectares. It is rich in high-quality protein and contains almost as much energy by weight as cereal grains. Cowpea is consumed by nearly 200 million Africans. It provides cash income to smallholder farmers, serves as nutritional fodder for livestock, and provides an ideal way to complement proteindeficient diets. Unfortunately, cowpea productivity in traditional African farming systems is greatly reduced by biotic and abiotic stresses.

“Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in the dry savannas of tropical Africa. It is consumed by nearly 200 million Africans…provides cash income to smallholder farmers, serves as nutritional fodder for livestock, and provides an ideal way to complement protein-deficient diets.”

• BASF (a multinational producer and supplier of chemicals) • Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel • The Western Regional Alliance for Technology Evaluation (We-RATE) consortium of NGOs, community based organisations and farmers’ organisations • Seed companies – Lagrotech, Kenya Seed and Western Seed

Research is underway at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and in various African and other research institutions to develop improved varieties of cowpea that perform better in the face of these stresses, have higher yield potential, and have even greater nutritional value. AATF’s involvement in the project was at the request of the Network for the Genetic Improvement of Cowpea in Africa (NGICA) – a consortium of individuals and institutions working to increase cowpea productivity in Africa.

35


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

The overall goal of the AATF cowpea project is to facilitate the development, distribution and adoption of appropriate technologies that will substantially increase cowpea productivity and utilisation in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to achieve this goal, smallholder cowpea farmers in the region need higher yielding varieties that can perform well under adverse conditions and, in particular, that are genetically resistant to major insect pests, such as the Maruca pod borer. Farmers also need to learn and apply new cropping systems that can significantly increase cowpea productivity and profitability. AATF’s role in this project includes negotiating access to the cry1Ab gene, which confers resistance to the Maruca pod borer; providing liability protection to the technology provider; ensuring high quality seed production and availability; licensing improved seed and technology distribution in Africa, and helping to develop relevant markets. The Foundation has supported three consultative meetings with stakeholders that defined project activities, roles and responsibilities to deliver expected outputs.

Partner Institutions • African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) • Network for the Genetic Improvement of Cowpea for Africa (NGICA) • Monsanto Company • The Kirkhouse Trust • National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) in West Africa • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Plant Industries, Australia

36

Projects under Development Improving Banana and Plantain Productivity Bananas and plantains are major food sources for a number of African countries. There are two major types of varieties used as staple foods: the East African highland bananas, which produce mainly cooking (matoke) and “beer” bananas, and the plantains, mainly found in the lowlands of West and Central Africa. The productivity of bananas and plantains in sub-Saharan Africa is severely constrained by a range of pests and diseases including nematodes, banana bacterial wilt, banana weevils, Fusarium spp., and the leaf-spotting disease known as black Sigatoka. Modern biotechnology tools are now being used in the region to improve the productivity of bananas and plantains. A number of laboratories outside Africa, working in collaboration with researchers in Africa, are using novel approaches to develop bananas and plantains with resistance to prevalent diseases and insect pests. The overall goal of this initiative will be to provide smallholder farmers with access to suitably adapted high-yielding banana and plantain varieties with resistance to abiotic and biotic constraints. AATF’s role in this project is intended to focus primarily on resolving the IPR issues associated with obtaining access to and using advanced transgenic crop improvement research methodologies, ensuring regulatory compliance, as well as project stewardship.

Partner Institutions AATF is in the process of negotiating with project partners. So far consultations are going on with the following institutions: • National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO), Uganda


Project Portfolio Summary

• Academia Sinica, Taiwan • Institut de recherche agronomique et zootechnique (IRAZ), Burundi • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) • National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) in the Great Lakes Region of Africa [particularly Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Rwanda]

produce mycotoxins thereby contributing to reduced food spoilage and improved human health AATF’s role in this initiative will focus on addressing IPR issues associated with obtaining access to technologies for reducing mycotoxin contamination, sub-licensing and project stewardship. The Foundation is striving to foster the formation of research consortia to address the complex problem of mycotoxins in food grains in Africa.

Mycotoxins Reduction in Food Grains Food safety is a major health and economic concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Outbreaks of food poisoning, sometimes resulting in the loss of life, are not unusual in the region. Fungal contamination of food crops reduces their quality and leads to the production of high levels of dangerous toxic substances, known as mycotoxins. Research has shown that mycotoxicoses contribute to the development of liver cirrhosis and cancer, and compromise the immune systems of people and animals, making them susceptible to infection by other diseases. In addition to health risks, mycotoxin contamination in foods poses considerable economic risks to agricultural producers who must meet very stringent regulatory requirements of importing countries in order to sell their crops on the international market. The fungi that produce mycotoxins are ubiquitous, yet there are methods for planting, harvesting, storing and processing food crops that can greatly reduce the dangers they pose. Intellectual property issues, however, currently limit the availability to sub-Saharan African countries of potentially useful technologies for reducing mycotoxin contamination in food crops. The overall goal of this project is to reduce contamination of food grains with moulds that

Partner Institutions AATF is in the process of negotiating with project partners. So far consultations are going on with the following institutions: • The Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (ARS-USDA) • CircleOne Global International • The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)

Improving Cassava Productivity Cassava – a very hardy root crop – serves as a major subsistence staple in sub-Saharan Africa. It is also an important cash crop for many smallholder farmers in the region, and it plays a key role in famine situations. More so than other major food crops, cassava is tolerant to poor soils and adverse weather conditions. Cassava fits well into the farming systems of smallholder farmers in Africa. The carbohydrate yield from cassava per unit of land is higher than for other major staples, it thrives across a wide range of ecological zones, and it is normally available all year round, thus contributing to household food security. However, its roots, which represent

37


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

its most economically valuable part, have poor keeping qualities and must be processed within three days. However, inefficient traditional African production practices and processing methods lead to comparatively high production costs and to cassava products that are of generally low quality. This limits the ability of African cassava products to enter local industrial markets or to compete with maize in global starch markets. Measures that will reduce the production costs of African cassava producers will help reduce poverty by making cassava farming more profitable while lowering the price of cassava to consumers. A technology needs assessment for improving cassava productivity was conducted during the 2004 symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops – Africa Branch (ISTRCAB) to identify technological interventions that could increase cassava productivity in Africa. The results suggest that farm mechanization

ing. Working with its partners, the Foundation will help organize a meeting of experts in 2005 to develop a master plan for the industrialisation of cassava in Africa. This plan will be designed to facilitate the efforts of all stakeholders along the cassava value chain to promote cassava-based industries in Africa.

would make the greatest contribution to increasing cassava productivity. However, cassava farming and processing machinery producers from outside Africa are reluctant to sell equipment to African countries for fear that such equipment will be copied by local engineers, pointing to an IP issue that needs to be resolved. The overall goal of this project will be to improve cassava productivity through appropriate mechanisation aimed at optimising labour productivity during production and processing operations and opening up new market opportunities for cassava products. AATF’s role in this project is to clarify and seek to resolve key IP issues involved in the acquisition and deployment of proprietary machinery for cassava production and process-

About 40–50% of the region’s population remains malnourished each year and the region is worse off nutritionally today than it was 30 years ago. Many of the hungry and malnourished are the more vulnerable members of society – women and children. The most widespread micronutrient deficiencies in Africa are those of iron, zinc and vitamin A. In children, malnutrition often leads to diminished cognitive development and suboptimal functioning of their immune systems. In communities where vitamin A deficiency is endemic, improving availability of the vitamin can reduce child mortality by over 20% and mortality due to measles by as much as 50%. Building the required micronutrients into food through biofortification is both sustainable and cost effective. In this instance, a combination

38

Partner Institutions • African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) • United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

Discontinued Projects Pro-Vitamin A Enhancement in Maize Malnutrition is common in sub-Saharan Africa.


Project Portfolio Summary

of approaches is being used to produce varieties of maize containing high levels of ß-carotene and other pro-vitamin A carotenoids. The overall goal of this effort is to provide smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa with access to seed of maize varieties containing high levels of ß-carotene and other pro-vitamin A carotenoids in order to reduce the incidence of vitamin A deficiency. Project partners reviewed approaches to nutritional enhancement, from transgenic to conventional breeding. Institutes involved in attempts at biofortification of maize through genetic transformation are proceeding with these efforts. AATF’s role in this project was to help access and negotiate IP on the required proprietary technologies, facilitate the selection of testing sites and the dissemination and adoption of proven technologies.

Partner Institutions • African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) • The HarvestPlus Consortium

Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) Maize is one of the most important sources of calories for the poor in Africa, second only to cassava. It is a significant part of the diets of millions of smallholder subsistence farmers, who grow it primarily in mixed cropping systems. Small- to medium-scale farmers – those who cultivate 10 hectares or less – grow 95% of the maize produced in Africa. Diseases and insect pests, particularly several different species of stem borers, cause significant yield losses in all

African eco-regions where the crop is grown. Losses vary, normally ranging from 15 to 40%, but when conditions favour disease development and/or insect infestation, total crop failure can occur. A combination of traditional plant breeding and novel gene technologies is being used to produce maize varieties that are resistant to stem borers. The ubiquitous Bt bacterium contains genes which encode crystal (cry) proteins that are toxic to a variety of insect pests. The cry proteins are harmless to plants, are neutral to the environment, and have been used as the active ingredient in many different biological insecticides for nearly half a century. But challenges relating to IP, licensing and liability protection remain. The overall goal of the ongoing IRMA project is to provide sub-Saharan Africa smallholder maize producers with access to suitable Bt maize varieties that are resistant to the major insect pests (stem borers) that limit maize productivity in the region. AATF’s role in the project was to evaluate, advise on, and help resolve relevant IPR issues and to explore issues that may emerge from the commercialisation of Bt maize in the region.

Partner Institutions • African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) • International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) • Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture

39


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

Financial Report This is AATFâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first audited Financial Statement. It covers a period of 16 months (September 2003 to December 2004) and provides comparative figures for the 5-month inception period from April 2003 to August 2003.

Funding Total contributions from development partners amounted to over US$2.6 million, a testimony to the loyalty of our donors and the importance of our mission. AATF is sincerely grateful to and acknowledges the contributions made by all its development partners.

Expenditures Overall expenditures for the period were US$ 2.1 million. Supporting services expenditures for operations were 51% of this total. The high proportion spent on these services was due mainly to the costs associated with establishment and set up of the Foundation. However, AATF also got off to a good start with respect to its projects, which comprised 42% of total expenditures. AATF is firmly committed to responsible stewardship of the funds entrusted to it and aims to achieve a significant increase in project spending in 2005 and beyond, while notably reducing its expenditures on support services.

Summary Statement of Activities (abridged version) For period ended 2004 with comparative totals for 2003 2004

2003

(US $)

(US $)

2,665,640

488,377

13,593

313

2,679,233

488,690

Project Costs

886,410

200,459

Communication, Publicity & Advertising

148,927

6,516

Operating costs

1,058,505

128,096

Total expenditures

2,093,842

335,071

585,391

153,619

Income Grants Other Income Total Income Expenditures

SURPLUS FOR THE PERIOD

40


Financial Report

Statement of Financial Position (abridged version) As at 31st December 2005 2004

2003

(US $)

(US $)

93,075

22,986

9,952

103,027

22,986

ASSETS Non current Assets Equipment and Motor Vehicles Intangible Assets Current Assets Bank and Cash

469,208

Accounts Receivables

312,393

177,528

781,601

177,528

884,628

200,514

Total Assets LIABILITIES AND FUND BALANCES Current liabilities Accounts payable & Accrued Expenses

145,618

46,895

Total Liabilities

145,618

46,895

Fund Balances Restricted

29,907

19,112

Unrestricted

709,103

134,507

Total Fund Balances

739,010

153,619

Total Liabilities and Fund Balances

884,628

200,514

Income

Total Expenditures Communication, Publicity & Advertising 7%

Other Income 1%

Project Costs 42%

Grants 99%

Operating Costs 51%

41


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

Launching AATF The formal launch of AATF took place at the Foundation’s headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya on 16th June 2004. The following are a selection of quotes from presentations made that day.

Hon. Kipruto arap Kirwa MP (Minister for Agriculture, Kenya)

“AATF is an acknowledgement that improvements in African agricultural productivity are not likely to be made in American or European labs – nor should they be – but in applied settings, most likely by African scientists drawing upon the best of the world’s expertise in real world situations.

“The role of agriculture in the overall economic development of Kenya and indeed sub-Saharan Africa cannot be over-emphasised. Reforms in agricultural practices to boost production are, therefore, central to economic progress in many of our countries. The poverty situation in sub-Saharan Africa and the dependence on agriculture by the majority of our people is reason enough to give this sector all the support necessary. My ministry is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that we have the necessary

There is no magic solution that will solve Africa’s complex agricultural challenges, but the problem is so big that Africans should have the right to consider every possible tool at their disposal. [But]…we must examine the current system and ask ourselves, ‘How can those who care about the fate of the small-scale farmer make technological options more available?’ The rise of a sophisticated global intellectual property system covering many building block technologies has meant public researchers [in Africa] have little access to new ideas and tools in their field. Left to its own devices, the gap is likely to grow – with wealthy nations’ farmers using techniques that are ever more sophisticated and poor farmers left with the same tools they have used for centuries.”

mechanisms to encourage the application of new approaches in science and technology; either developed here or acquired from elsewhere. AATF is a well thought out initiative whose aims and goals address the African farmers’ problems from an African perspective. I am encouraged by the fact that AATF recognises the various players in agriculture, both public and private, respecting their contributions and good practices. I note that the Foundation will seek to engage these sectors in partnerships and collaboration that will ensure delivery of products to farmers at affordable costs and in the most effective manner. This kind of cooperative effort in development…motivates further support of donors and partners.”

Sir Gordon Conway Former President (Rockefeller Foundation)

42


Launching AATF

Dr Nick Hooton (Former DFID-UK)

Dr Peter Ewell (USAID)

“DFID is very pleased to play a part in the establishment of AATF as part of our broader strategy for supporting technology development and dissemination in Africa. This project is consistent with the commitment of African leaders to generate growth through agriculture in order to benefit the poor – a strategy embraced by the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), which we are also please to support. DFID feel that the Foundation provides a much-needed mechanism for negotiating access to proprietary technologies held by the public and private sectors, both in OECD and in developing countries. Yet it is not enough to simply gain access to new technologies; it is also necessary to adapt them to African conditions,

“The vast majority of agricultural research in Africa is, and will remain for some time, in the hands of public institutions. Many private sector companies – both in developed and developing countries – are looking for ways to assist in Africa’s long-term development. We at USAID believe that public–private partnerships can and should play important roles. AATF is designed specifically to identify and build on the common ground that exists among public and private organisations involved in agricultural development. It is a neutral third party that can and will negotiate in good faith the transfer of proprietary technologies to the benefit of resource-poor African farmers. USAID is proud to be a founding donor and partner in this innovative initiative.”

to assure regulatory approval, to demonstrate their performance potential, and to distribute end products in ways that make them affordable to millions of small farmers. To do all this requires new public–private partnerships aimed at transferring proprietary agricultural technologies to and within sub-Saharan Africa, partnerships which ensure that vital linkages among key players are developed and maintained over time. This is where AATF comes in – engendering new public/private research and development partnerships and helping to ensure that the benefits of such collaborative initiatives accrue to the resource-poor small farmers of sub-Saharan Africa.”

Mr Paul Okong’o (Kenyan farmer) “ The maize variety to fight Striga …the farmers have seen it work. I am not talking of imaginary things. Those of you who have visited my farm have seen – we have managed to put Striga out!”

43


A New Bridge to Sustainable Agricultural Development in Africa

Board Advisory Committee The Board Advisory Committee advises the AATF Board on a wide range of strategic issues relating to AATF operations. Gerard Barry Golden Rice coordinator International Rice Research Institute Manila, Philippines Douglas Gibson Brew Senior Natural Resources Adviser UK Department for International Development (DFID) UK Giselle Lopes D’Almeida President Interface Network Dakar, Sénégal

Monty Jones Executive Director Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) Accra, Ghana Josette Lewis Biotechnology Advisor US Agency for International Development (USAID) Washington, DC, USA Peter Joseph Matlon Director, Africa Regional Program The Rockefeller Foundation New York, USA

Josué Dioné Chief Sustainable Development Division United Nations Economic Commission for Africa Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Aleke Dondo Managing Director K-Rep Development Agency Nairobi, Kenya

44

John Mugabe Advisor to NEPAD Secretary, NEPAD’s African Forum on Science and Technology for Africa’s Development Pretoria, South Africa William Niebur Vice President, Product Development Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. Johnston, Iowa, USA


Left to right: George Njogu, Running Head Phelix Majiwa, Maina Gathu, Mpoko Bokanga, Joan Abila, Jacob Quaye, Nancy Muchiri, Peter Werehire, Nancy Okita, Richard Boadi. Seated: Martha Tilahun

The AATF Team (as of 31st December, 2004)

Mpoko Bokanga Executive Director Phone: +254 (0)20 422 3725 Email: m.bokanga@aatf-africa.org

Samuel Kariuki Administrative Assistant Phone: +254 (0)20 422 3740 Email: s.kariuki@aatf-africa.org

Joan Abila Executive Assistant to the ED

George Njogu Driver

Phone: +254 (0)20 422 3725 Email: j.abila@aatf-africa.org

Phone: +254 (0)20 422 3742 Email: g.njogu@cgiar.org

Nancy Muchiri Communications and Partnerships Manager Phone: +254 (0)20 422 3733 Email: n.muchiri@aatf-africa.org

Martha Tilahun* Administration and Finance Manager

Richard Boadi Legal Counsel Phone: +254 (0)20 422 3735 Email: r.boadi@aatf-africa.org Peter Werehire Publications and Website Officer Phone: +254 (0)20 422 3731 Email: p.werehire@aatf-africa.org

Nancy Okita* Administrative Assistant Jacob Quaye* Consultant & Interim Finance and Administration Manager Phelix Majiwa* Consultant, Project Manager â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Technical Operations Maina Gathu* Consultant Accountant * On staff as of 31st December 2004, but have since left the 45 Foundationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s employ.


African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) c/o International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) P.O. Box 30709 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 00100 Nairobi, Kenya

Internet: Email: aatf@aatf-africa.org Website: www.aatf-africa.org

Telephone and Fax: Direct AATF Switchboard: +254 (0)20 422 3700 AATF Fax: +254 (0)20 422 3701

Via USA Phone: +1 650 833 6660 3700 Fax: +1 650 833 6661 3701


AATF_English_Final(low-res)  

Inaugural Report The African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) better tools, better harvests, better lives May 2002 – December 2004

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