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We are an archive for Community Action. Articles in GFT document successful community projects supporting sustainability—culture and language, regional economy and ecological traditions respectful of Mother Earth. Communities, some with few resources, encouraged by these articles, persevere with their projects to keep time-honored traditions alive for future generations. Benefits to New Mexico and the Southwest include continuance of a knowledge pool for living in our desert environment. Traditions here have sustained cultures for thousands of years. Now more than ever is the time to preserve and implement these practices while protecting ecosystems and natural resources. Please consider a tax-deductible contribution to Southwest Learning Centers, Inc. (est. 1972) for Green Fire Times. Send to: P.O. Box 8627, Santa Fe, NM 87504-8627. Thank you.





























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GREEN FIRE TIMES News and Views from the Sustainable Southwest







Puye cliff dwellings near Santa Clara Pueblo in northern New Mexico

This is just one of several theories that attempt to explain the origins of New Mexico’s early people. Other research sites in North and South America have uncovered indications of even earlier inhabitants of the New World dating back 20,000 years or even more. One example of the difficulty of coming up with definitive answers regarding New Mexico’s first inhabitants is found in an excavation site that has intrigued researchers for many years and is located in a cave in the Sandia Mountains, outside of Albuquerque. In the late 1930s, archaeologists found what was believed to be evidence of early man that preceded any human settlements in New Mexico discovered up to that point. The so called “Sandia Man” was supposed to have occupied the Sandia Cave about 25,000 years ago.

Petroglyphs, Galisteo basin, northern New Mexico Photos © Seth Roffman

Original findings based on spear points, tools and animal bones, in relation to geologic evidence, seemed to indicate the presence of Sandia Man during this period. However, in more recent years, using more sophisticated research tools, most archaeologists have come to the conclusion that Sandia Man, while very ancient indeed and perhaps one of the earliest inhabitants of New Mexico, was not as old as he first appeared.

Who were the first New Mexicans? BY ANDREW LOVATO

Who were the first New Mexicans and what were they like? There are many studies and excavations that have been done by archaeologists in an attempt to identify and understand New Mexico’s earliest inhabitants. Although many significant discoveries have been made, there is still a great deal we do not know about the nature and lifestyle of these trailblazers. Scientists have endeavored to piece together our state’s earliest history based on bones, pottery shards, buried structures and scattered tools that were left behind hundreds and in some cases thousands of years ago. In exploring New Mexico’s past, it is necessary go back to a time when this region was very different than the one we know today. Picture New Mexico over 11,000 years ago. Instead of desert, much of the state was covered by rolling grasslands at the tail end of the last ice age. Large animals hunted and grazed over the territory, including mammoths, camels, mastodons, giant sloths and saber-tooth tigers. The first New Mexicans arrived during this period hunting large game across the state. These Paleo-Indian (ancient Indian) inhabitants likely set foot in New Mexico around 9500 B.C. or even earlier. They may have been the ancestors of people who crossed the Bering Strait between Asia and Alaska when a land bridge existed.



So when did the first New Mexicans arrive and attempt to scratch out a life in the region? Although this question cannot be answered with absolute certainty, the general consensus seems to be that the first settlers Petroglyphs, Galisteo basin that left behind any significant evidence Photos © Seth Roffman of their presence arrived around 9500 B.C. These Paleo-Indian hunters have been dubbed the “Clovis” people, after the eastern New Mexico city near where their distinctive spear points were first discovered. The Clovis were primarily big game hunters. They banded into mobile groups that roamed the territory in search of great mammoths, mastodons and other large, now-extinct Pleistocene animals. They used a spear thrower that provided additional leverage called an “atlatl,” tipped with spear points that they skillfully fashioned from stone to kill their prey. It appears that the Clovis spent much of their time on the move, stalking and butchering the animals they hunted in makeshift camps near the grasslands and shallow lakes (playas) that would have attracted their quarry. By about 8500 B.C., the climate in New Mexico had shifted to the extent that many of the animals that the Clovis depended on for their food supply began to go extinct. As the ice age environment receded, the area became drier and the seasons became more pronounced. As a result, the Clovis culture departed from the area, perhaps migrating eastward to other more hospitable environments.¢

Andrew Lovato is Santa Fe city historian and associate professor at Santa Fe Community College. He is the author of several books about Santa Fe history and culture.


The current shuttering of the Palace of the Governors for improvements to infrastructure and exhibitions makes San Miguel Chapel, centerpiece of El Barrio de Analco National Historic District, the most significant Early Spanish Colonial building in Santa Fe that is open to the public. The chapel attracts over 100,000 visitors each year. How many Día de Guadalupe, Nativity and Epiphany celebrations have taken place at the chapel? The tenacious little structure perched on a rise south of the Santa Fe River is widely presumed to be as old as the capital city itself, although evidence of its actual dates of inception or completion has yet to surface. The earliest surviving document to make passing reference dates from 1628. Presumably, by then the original building had been part of Santa Fe’s architectural landscape for some time. That document reveals that the site was known as “La Ermita de San Miguel”—a hermitage or shrine, often in a remote location associated with a specific group.

A legacy of 350 successive winter-season celebrations

Splitting the difference between the oft-cited but unconfirmed founding date of 1610 and that first verified date, let’s posit that the chapel was completed in 1618—exactly 400 years ago. The chapel sustained significant damage under the regimes of Gov. Rosas in 1640 and Gov. Otermín in 1680, making it necessary to subtract some 50 inactive years. Discounting other periods of disrepair, this estimate yields a legacy of 350 successive celebrations in honor of the Christ Child, the Three Wise Men and the Virgin of Guadalupe (a New World manifestation of Mary as conceived without sin, depicted ascending into heaven on a recumbent crescent moon sustained by cherubs). Who would have worshipped at San Miguel during those 350 Decembers? And how might each group—or each era—have inflected the seasonal rituals, attuning them to their own beliefs and practices? The first worshippers (and likely builders) were presumably Indian allies from the Viceroyalty of New Spain who accompanied the Novohispano colonists on first-Gov. Juan de Oñate’s authorized entrada of 1598 as warriors, herders, cooks, laborers and skilled artisans. In Spain’s drive to harness the labor of seasonally migratory Native peoples who populated the Viceroyalty’s silver-rich northern reaches, the Tlaxcalans played a pivotal role—initially as warriors and later as model settlers. In the latter capacity, they were customarily expected to settle “analco”—a Nahuatl term meaning “on the other side of the river.” Santa Fe became the most northerly of several New Spanish settlements to boast a barrio de analco, mirroring yet ethnically distinct from the Hispanic settlement on the opposite shore. In 1519, during their intrepid march from the harbor they named Vera Cruz toward the opulent, water-girded capital of Tenochtitlán (the future México City), Hernán Cortés and his troops traversed the fiercely independent realm of Tlaxcala, which shared a language with the Mexica (Aztecs), the empire-building enemy of both groups. In his True History of the Conquest of New Spain, written from Guatemala in 1568, former soldier Bernal Díaz del Castillo recounts how the Tlaxcalans engaged the invading Spanish forces in three mutually punishing battles before proposing an alliance. Their pact, which granted that Native group special privileges, endured for three centuries—until 1821 when México won independence from Spain. Fourteen wooden swords once lined the nave of San Miguel Chapel: Stations of the Cross painted with scenes of Christ’s passion (procession, prosecution, crucifixion, resurrection). Only one of the original 14 survives, its painted motifs

faded by time. Framed and labeled, it hangs on the right side adjacent to the altar rail. Might that ancient suite of surrogate-weapons-as-crosses derive from the first Indian allies of Santa Fe’s Barrio de Analco—likely a mixture of various pre-conquest peoples—and their 17th-century descendants? During the meticulously coordinated Pueblo Revolt of August, 1680, San Miguel Chapel and surrounding homesteads were reportedly early targets for attack. In 1693, Gov. Diego de Vargas—leader of the Reconquest on behalf of the Novohispano population, past and future—called for reconstruction of the chapel. That undertaking was apparently delayed until 1710, six years after the governor’s sudden death early in his second term. Comprehensive reconstruction was completed during the governorship of the Marquéz de Peñuela. In the Exterior, San Miguel Chapel c. 1920. Reproduced winter of 1709-1710, the namesake from Earle R. Forrest, Missions and Pueblos statuette—wearing a tiny silver helmet of the Old Southwest, Cleveland: and wielding a silver sword—perhaps also holding the (long-missing) pair Arthur H. Clark, 1929. of scales, signifying justice, in his left hand—embarked on an authorized voyage around the grandly named Kingdom of New Mexico to collect alms (limosna) for the project. Notwithstanding elaborate welcome ceremonies for the patron statue and two escorts, pervasive poverty ensured that contributions would be modest at best, whether in coin or in kind. Of the 98 pesos from 40 donors, 25 came from Major Sergeant Juan de Uribarri of Santa Fe, who also donated some chamois skins and a number of hens. Parishioners of Río Abajo donated 90 head of sheep. The escorts were awarded 60 pesos for their efforts. Reconstruction occupied 15 male laborers and supervisors along with two female cooks, one succeeding the other. Thanks to the punctilious record-keeping of project overseer Capitan don Agustín Flores de Vergara, Hermano Mayor of the Confraternity of San Miguel (1710), the diligence of town council secretary Christóbal de Góngora (1711) and the pioneering scholarship of architectural historian George Kubler (1939), the names, roles and salaries of all involved have been passed down to the present. (See Kubler’s pamphlet, The Rebuilding of San Miguel at Santa Fe in 1710, published by the Taylor Museum/Colorado Springs Fine Art Center). Imagine the interior of the refurbished chapel that reopening season, bedecked with fragrant boughs of piñon and juniper for the December celebrations. Imagine little San Miguel back in his modest niche, his silver attributes in place, special finery over original perforated gilding (estofado), and perhaps a hint of jubilation in his countenance. In 1714 a sacristy that also functioned as a baptistery was added on the south side (a museum in the 19th century; currently a gift shop). By 1755, repairs were again the order of the day, judging from the Last Will and Testament of Miguel Sandoval Martínez, which reads in part: “It is my last will that from my assets there should be given to the caretaker [hermano mayor/mayordomo] of San Miguel 50 pesos to help rebuild the chapel.” The elaborate altarpiece where the statuette resides today would not be gifted by its prolific patron, Antonio José Ortiz, a one-time city mayor from a family of appraisers, until 1798. At some point during the intervening nine decades, San Miguel served as military chapel and associated infirmary for 100 Presidio troops. From the mid-1700s, many Novohispano citizens chose to settle in Analco with their families. GREENFIRETIMES.COM


The first worshippers (and likely builders) were Indian allies who accompanied colonists on the entrada of 1598.

In addition to an unknown number of genízaros (detribalized, nominally Christianized members of semi-nomadic Indian nations pushed into this region by French and English conquests to the east), residents included army officers, reputed Tlaxcalan descendant Diego/ Juan Brito and blacksmith Bernardino Sena.

Baptiste Lamy recruited four Jean Baptiste de La Salle Brothers of the Christian Schools to develop a boys’ school in Santa Fe— counterpart of the girls’ school founded at his instigation seven years earlier by the Sisters of Loretto, whom he recruited from Kentucky. Education of youth continued to be in the hands of the clerics—from Franciscan missionaries at the pueblos, to Father Martinez’s introducing co-education at Taos, to the order of the Christian Brothers.

In his last will and testament, penned in 1765, that popular figure—chosen decades earlier to make the fundraising pilgrimage in the company of Pedro López—requested burial in “La Capilla del Señor San Miguel.” Given Sena’s eminent position as custodian for the Confraternity of Our Lady of Bethlehem/La Conquistadora based in the parroquia (parish church of Saint Francis, mother church of the region), his preference for burial in the modest San Miguel Chapel is striking. At the time of his death, his residence (today’s Sena-Boyle House) was likely the grandest of those south of the river, with two stories and 16 rooms. In 1760, under the governorship of Francisco Antonio Marín del Valle, an elaborate military chapel was erected on the south side of the plaza opposite the Palace of the Governors, replacing the original La Castrense on the east side of the palace, destroyed during the Pueblo Revolt. To adorn that structure—Nuestra Señora de La Luz (Our Lady of Light), the multi-talented Bernardo Miera y Pacheco (1713-1785: soldier, farmer, cartographer, painter, wood-carver, stone-sculptor) designed a massive baroque altar screen to be carved in pale limestone quarried at nearby Jacona. Exuberantly painted, and long attributed to some distant workshop in central New Spain, it has been belatedly recognized as the apogee of artistry on this far colonial-era frontier and properly credited to its resident creator. A canvas vision of the militant Archangel Saint Michael painted by the same artist hangs today at the apex of the chapel’s 1798 altarpiece. Miera y Pacheco’s depiction was only brought to light, literally, in the mid-1950s, thanks to the efforts of an assiduous restorer who laboriously removed the edge-to-edge overpainting. Another 20th century generation had to come of age before both the stone altar screen and the canvas rendering of the warrior archangel could be conclusively matched to their author. Not all period artists have been so happily rescued from anonymity. Art historian Robin Farwell Gavin attributes San Miguel Chapel’s painted wooden altar screen to the anonymous “Laguna Santero,” whom she credits with two other notable late-18th-century altar screens: San José de la Laguna and San Esteban de Acoma. At New Orleans in 1859, Bishop Jean

El Colegio de San Miguel opened its modest doors to 50 day students and 30 boarders, with instrucInterior, San Miguel Chapel, ci. 1920. tion primarily Reproduced from Forrest, cited above. in Spanish, the very year of the Christian Brothers’ arrival. How might the feast days of Nativity and the Three Kings have been celebrated in the 1860s, once Bishop Lamy had negotiated ownership of San Miguel Chapel and surrounding lands on behalf of the Christian Brothers, exclusively a teaching order? The necessary funds came in part from the Bishop’s decision to sell the site of the deteriorated La Castrense military chapel to two local merchants who replaced it with stores. Many decades later, La Castrense’s polychromed stone altarpiece would inspire construction of yet another church “on the other side of the river.” Designed in neo-Pueblo style by John Gaw Meem, Santa Fe’s foremost architect, Cristo Rey was completed during the Great Depression, thanks to heroic community-wide efforts. By the late 1930s, “El Barrio de Analco” designation was giving way to the “South Capitol District,” with several of its structures built on lands once attached to San Miguel Chapel. From the 1920s, Analco’s modest farmsteads were being repurposed by incoming artists and professionals from elsewhere. Initially, San Miguel Chapel served as a private worship space for the expanding cohort of Christian Brothers, whose many modifications to the interior predictably echoed places of worship they had known in their native France. In 1862, they expanded the entry and added a wooden floor and communion rail. The 1798 altar screen was disguised under layers of white paint behind gothic side-elements. Inherited works of art were replaced or painted over. [llustration #3: interior] In

Archangel Saint Michael by Spanish-born Bernardo Miera y Pacheco. Photograph courtesy of Blair Clark.



1955, pioneering art historian E. Boyd spent several weeks on a ladder removing the five layers of white house paint covering the altar screen’s original multicolored designs.

The San Miguel Chapel is open daily, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., except during Sunday masses. Adult admission is $1. To arrange an event for a group, join the new support group Amigos del Arcángel, explore docent opportunities, make contributions or inquiries, contact: Dave Blackman ( or curator Julianne Burton-Carvajal (505.570.7735, )¢

In 1875, when Bishop Lamy received a Papal award, ceremonies took place on the ample grounds of San Miguel Chapel. Three years later, during the administration of Brother Botulph, construction was completed on a massive adobe brick classroom/dormitory/ administration building facing the Santa Fe Trail (then called College Street) with crisp rows of neoclassical-style windows and a Floral artist Marie Coburn in her Dixon studio, in front third-story mansard roof. For nearly a century, masses of her rendering of the Virgin of Guadalupe, created in for the student body of St. 1996 and on view at San Miguel Chapel through Jan. 31, Michael’s College took place 2019. Photo by the author. daily in San Miguel Chapel next door—until a new campus was developed on the south of town in 1968. Named for Bishop Lamy, it was reduced to two stories by fire in 1926. Currently owned by the State of New Mexico, which uses a rear portion as a tourist center, the college’s first, still imposing building suffers from decades of neglect. In 1955, motivated by George Kubler’s 1939 publication mentioned above, the Christian Brothers contracted a pair of archaeologists from the nearby Laboratory of Anthropology to make a study of the sanctuary foundations. In response to their revealing report, authorities at “St. Mike’s” favored an interior renovation that would evoke the structure’s Spanish colonial origins. Among several local Hispanic artisans enlisted for that “retrospective updating” were wood carver Ramón Rocha (Stations of the Cross), tinsmith Eddie Delgado (perforated sconces, chandelier above the main entrance), adobe expert Fermín Gutiérrez (exterior walls and buttresses), and lime-plasterer Eligio García (interior walls). Unlike Loretto Chapel, now de-sanctified and operated for profit, San Miguel Chapel remains sanctified under the auspices of the Santa Fe Archdiocese, with one weekly mass in Latin and another in English. The Confraternity of San Miguel, active from the 17th into the mid-20th century, protected the chapel from ravages of climate and from various attempted demolitions. Preserving a structure now entering its fifth century is an ongoing challenge. Thanks to the expertise of Cornerstones Community Partnerships and grants from the Getty Preservation Trust and the National Park Service—among other benefactors—21st century repairs have included: • removal of exterior Portland cement, replacement of damaged adobe bricks, and overall resurfacing with permeable mud plaster • bell tower reinforcement • repairs to the south-facing portal roof (sacristy addition and gift shop entrance) As director of “Preserve San Miguel” since 2004, David K. Blackman has acted as interface between St Michael’s High School, owner of San Miguel Chapel, and Cornerstones Community Partnerships, adobe structure preservation specialists who have performed the repairs. With the goal of expanding the public profile of an historic treasure that has served such a broad spectrum of communities, this author will be working as consulting historian, programmer and curator.

After earning a doctorate in Romance Languages from Yale, Julianne Burton-Carvajal taught for three decades at the University of California– Santa Cruz. She relocated to Santa Fe to apply her experience as bilingual author, historian, journals editor—most recently Chronicles of the Trail/Crónicas del Camino for El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Association—and curator of exhibitions highlighting the art and history of the Spanish West and Southwest. This essay reflects suggestions from esteemed colleagues Hilario Romero and Cordelia (Dedie) Thomas Snow.


Las Posadas, hosted by La Sociedad Folklorica, 5 p.m. daily, except for 6 p.m. December 2, after 5 p.m. Mass DECEMBER 1:

View Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe in leaves, branches, and flowers. (through: January 31) 11 a.m.-12 p.m.: Conversation with Marie Coburn of Dixon, nationally-recognized floral artist. 12:30 p.m.: No-host lunch with the artist. DECEMBER 7:

Inauguration of the “Dialogues” Series: 3 p.m.: Robin Farwell Gavin, Curator Emerita, Museum of Spanish Colonial Art: “Introduction to the Hispanic Treasures exhibitions at the Albuquerque Museum” (through March)


Día de Guadalupe


Guided visit to “Spanish Treasures” exhibitions in Albuquerque for San Miguel docents and members of “Amigos del Arcángel,” support group. (By special arrangement; call 505.570.7735)



The education of New Mexico’s youth has taken place in a context shaped by issues of power, including genocide, multiple colonizations and immigration.

know you. When someone asks you to share your narrative, you are entering into a larger engagement of what this story means as part of the landscape and your heritage—that is a responsibility we take very seriously in our personal interactions and in our professional lives as educators.

Our integrity connects us to our ancestors, and it insists that when we engage, we must be in right relationship—a relationship that, according to environmentalist Jasmine Wallace, “involves the knowledge that there is no such thing as separation—everything in our world is directly involved with us and we are involved with it.” We are never separate from where we come from and our relations. And as Adrienne Maree Brown, author of Emergent Strategy: Shaping Change, Changing Worlds asserts, “We must meet at the intersections and lovingly figure out how to be in right relationship.” In New Mexico, we find ourselves in a moment where understanding right relationship is critical to the futures of all New Mexico youth.

A CALL TO RIGHT RELATIONSHIP How do we come-into-knowing a “sufficient” education for our children? BY BERNADETTE TRUJILLO-ELLIS AND PATRICIA MARINA TRUJILLO, PH.D.

We are sisters born and raised in the Española Valley to the legacy of education; one of us a professor at a small public college, the other an educator at a middle school. Our grandmother taught at Hernández Elementary for 44 years, and our parents were both educators in the public schools for close to 40 years each. This is to say that we come from a long line of public-school educators. We also had the privilege and grace to walk in relationship with our great-grandmother, Marina Montoya. She was born in 1886; we were born in the 1970s, and sit here reaching out to you in 2018. When reflecting on our memories of our Gramita Marina, we connect to a dicho she used to guide our education: “Dime con quién andas y te diré quién eres,” or “Tell me with whom you relate and I’ll tell you who you are.” When she said this, our younger selves heard this from a deficit perspective: “Stay away from trouble and negative influences.” It has taken time and a wider perspective to understand from an abundance model that “in relationship” is how we, as many indigenous scholars theorize, come-into-knowing. Leadership through relationship is not a new concept for anyone from northern New Mexico. Usually upon meeting someone new in the Norte, you get asked, “De dónde eres? Y de qué familia?” Where are you from and who are you from? This salutation puts you in relationship to the place and people who


On July 20, 2018, Judge Sarah Singleton of the First Judicial Court of New Mexico ruled that the state has violated the right of at-risk students and that every child has a right to a “sufficient” public education under New Mexico’s Constitution. The landmark ruling was brought about through the consolidated lawsuit Martínez & Yazzie v. State of New Mexico, in which the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF) and the New Mexico Center for Law and Poverty (NMCLP) represented multiple plaintiffs throughout the state. The decision matters because it recognizes that the expectation set forth in the New Mexico constitution, Article XII, Section 1, providing for “a uniform system of free public schools sufficient for the education of, and open to all the children of school age in the state shall be established and maintained” has not been met. Furthermore, the court ruled that “the legislature and the executive branches [shall] create a funding system that will meet the constitutional requirements. Therefore, the defendants will be given until April 15, 2019, to take immediate steps to ensure that New Mexico schools have the resources necessary to give at-risk students the opportunity to obtain a uniform and sufficient education that prepares them for college and career.” The ruling is particularly critical for students who qualify as English Language Learners, students with disabilities and students of low socioeconomic status because the court found they are not receiving the programs, resources and services necessary for a sufficient education. It is an affirmation that all students can learn and all students deserve justice, equity and access to educational opportunity.   Having a court ruling and having a constitutional right to a sufficient education does not make the right a reality. Rather it is the enactment of the constitutional right that does so. The education of New Mexico’s youth has taken place in a context shaped by issues of power, including genocide, multiple colonizations and immigration. The subsequent effects on our children in 2018 are apparent in the form of intergenerational grief, trauma and differential achievement. The decision of the court is a momentous occasion because in comparing and contrasting the language of the New Mexico Constitution to the lived reality our Diane Torres-Velásquez, president of the Latino Education Taskforce, discusses the Martinez v. State of New Mexico court case with educators and administrators from the Española School District.

students, it provides an opportunity for healing, for rethinking and for reconstituting ourselves as a community. As we reconstitute ourselves, it is vital to recognize our role in this context and that we willingly take on the work in right relationship because it is how we come-into-knowing what is sufficient. It is when we work with our community that meaningful, lasting and effective change takes place. Since Judge Singleton’s ruling, many policymakers have rushed in to claim institutional power in the form of recognizable status quo maneuvers, shifting conversations and decision-making away from the plaintiffs, or the very families and communities who sought redress from the courts in the first place. This form of relationship is troubled at the least, abusive at its worst. Our families and communities do not need people or organizations speaking for us while not including us as central participants. We need authentic, collaborative efforts for justice and liberation.

Our families and communities do not need people or organizations speaking for us while not including us as central participants.

On Nov. 14, 2018, educators and community members in the Española Valley dialogued about our values in the education of our children at two different meetings; one at Alcalde Elementary School and the other at Northern New Mexico College. The gatherings were called to inform and gather input on the Martínez v. lawsuit with the following intention: Nothing about us, without us, is for us. At these meetings over three dozen teachers, principals, students and community members gathered to discuss what we would like our schools to do for our children, families and communities. The lead MALDEF attorney, Ernest Herrera, and the president of the Latino Education Taskforce, Diane Torres-Velásquez, were invited to explain the history, background and ongoing work related to the lawsuit and subsequent decision. In these meetings we discussed the immediate educational needs that must be addressed and responses to the case ruling. Then we moved on and envisioned the funding and futures that our families and communities deserve. We imagined multilingual schools filled with every opportunity to learn across the spectrum. We laughed and lost ourselves in discussions of what dream schools might look like. To make something a reality, people must be able to first imagine it together. Too often our response to epic opportunities—such as redesigning public education for the state of New Mexico—is to stay in the established lanes of dominant paradigms. Let’s be brave enough to envision more, demand more and create the schools our children genuinely deserve. If our current elections show us anything, it is that New Mexico is ready to be a state of change. Let’s connect that energy to how we continue building right relationships around Martínez & Yazzie v. State of New Mexico. The gatherings held on Nov. 14 are the first of what we hope will be many to come in north-central New Mexico. If you’d like to take part, please email us at ¢

Bernadette Trujillo Ellis, an instructional coach at Washington Middle School in Albuquerque, has over 20 years’ experience as a dual-language, social studies and languages arts teacher. She works through a critical lens of ethnic studies & social justice to conceptualize student learning from multiple perspectives for student achievement and wellness. Patricia Trujillo, Ph.D., is the director of the Office of Equity & Diversity and an associate professor of English & Chicana/ of Studies at Northern New Mexico College. The Trujillo sisters were born and raised in the Española Valley. GREENFIRETIMES.COM


After thorough planning of the curriculum and organizational matters, the first Leadership Institute was launched in the Spring of 2014. Since then we have worked with six cohorts of young leaders who share an interest in the importance of land and water. Land- and water-based traditions such as acequias continue to face great challenges in communities across New Mexico due to over-development, urban encroachment, the commodification of water, climate change and continued drought. Because there is a great need to engage more young adults in the protection and preservation of land and water-based traditions in our community, the CESOSS Leadership Institute provides emerging leaders 18 to 30 years of age the opportunity to learn key themes related to these topics. Other major areas of focus are the importance of identity and culture, social justice and the importance of young adults becoming familiar with local policy development and the legislative process.

CESOSS LEADERSHIP INSTITUTE The power of community-based leadership development BY VIRGINIA NECOCHEA, PH.D.

In Western society, leadership development is often associated with higher education institutions. Across many business programs and majors where leadership development is key, models are presented that highlight the notion of a sole individual leading the masses or as an individual poised at the tip of a triangle, hovering above the rest because of his or her relentless pursuit of prestige and material gain. But those of us immersed in community advocacy and especially in ceremony have a much different understanding of what leadership entails. For many of us, leadership is not about individual success or merit; instead, it involves acts of selflessness, generosity, courage and honor. The CESOSS Cultivando Nuestro Futuro (Cultivating our Future) Leadership Institute is the heart of our small nonprofit that focuses on the protection and preservation of land and water resources and traditions based in the Middle Río Grande region. The Center for Social Sustainable Systems was founded in 2011 by community members who had a shared vision and commitment to the Valle de Atrisco (what many refer to as Albuquerque’s South Valley; Atlixco, a Nahuatl word meaning the “place near the water,” was changed to Atrisco, which is also the name of the original 1692 Spanish Land Grant). As a result of much strategic planning on how CESOSS could elicit effective change in our community, the idea of CESOSS Institute students at the New Mexico Legislature creating our own leadership institute was born. The main objective guiding our thoughts was how the community could take a more proactive approach in the development of its emerging leaders. Instead of standing on the sidelines waiting for academic institutions to fully prepare our leaders, we instead would take an active role in their development.


The institute provides a critical analysis of the Westernized notion of leadership. There are highly effective leadership models from Indigenous communities that have contributed to the building of sophisticated societies that included major astronomic, mathematical and scientific contributions. Western society has largely minimized or failed to recognize these models. The CESOSS Leadership Institute is based upon an Indigenous framework we have named the Maseuali Leadership Model. In Indigenous thought, leadership is viewed as a collective effort. In the institute, the idea of the maseuali is emphasized. In traditional

For us, leadership is not about individual success or merit. Mexica societies the maseuali were everyday people who made significant contributions—e.g., the teachers, artisans, musicians, farmers, poets, writers, et. al. The maseuali were recognized as “those who were deserving” because they deeply cared for the community. In essence, they were the stewards of the community. It is with that philosophy that we guide and mentor emerging leaders in our cohorts in reaching a greater understanding of current challenges impacting our communities. Each intern chooses a land- or water-based issue he or she is passionate about. Over the course of an academic year, we work with the cohorts to help them analyze and develop their own strategic plan specific to better understand the issue, offer viable solutions, and especially to see what they can give back to the community. Interns have focused on water rights issues, documentation of acequia history and preservation, shifting traditional definitions of watersheds, food justice concerns, agroecology, developing models for community organizing based on acequia philosophy, the impacts of

Diagram showing relationships of self-awareness, community, spiritual orientation and research sprawl developments, global water concerns and more. At a dinner gathering at the end of the program, each intern is given an opportunity to review his or her work with the larger community and in turn receive important feedback from community members. This event recognizes and celebrates these committed interns.

SANTOLINA DEVELOPMENT MOVES FORWARD For many across New Mexico who have been following it, the Santolina Master Plan seems to have reawakened a sense of environmental responsibility and stewardship. Santolina is a massive sprawl-type development proposed to be built on the west side of Albuquerque. It could become home to more than 95,000 residents. That would be the equivalent of a new Río Rancho stretching across 14,000 acres of the original Atrisco Land Grant. Ongoing concerns include its enormous water needs (millions of gallons per day) during a time of continued drought and possible major statewide water restrictions, increased air pollution from destruction of topsoil above ancient sand dunes, increased traffic congestion, outdated planning methods and up to $2 billion in tax dollars that will be used for developer incentives. Despite years of community opposition, on Nov. 12, the Bernalillo County Commission approved the Level B1 Development Agreement, again in a 3–2 vote. Chairman Steven Michael Quezada (Gomie on the TV series Breaking Bad), along with Lonnie Talbert and James Smith, voted in favor. Debbie O’Malley and Maggie Hart Stebbins were opposed. Subsequent decisions on Santolina will be made at the administrative level without public notice and with limited public participation. Opponents are hoping that through appeals and lawsuits filed with the support of the New Mexico Environmental Law Center, Santolina will be remanded to the Bernalillo County Planning Commission, where it will finally be stopped in its sandy tracks.

We have now worked with over 40 emerging leaders who are committed to the well-being of communities and Mother Earth. The institute is intent on the community being intricately involved in the development of its own leaders and in planting seeds of critical consciousness in the minds and hearts of upcoming generations. We are grateful to all of the individuals, family, friends and ally organizations who have supported us. NEXT STEPS

This year is the largest cohort we’ve had, with 10 young leaders and three team eads (interns who have returned to take a teaching and mentoring role). We also piloted a high school cohort with four students in collaboration with South Valley Academy Charter School. We intend to continue the CESOSS Leadership Institute and expand this work. We imagine the potential impact if we were able to host cohorts across New Mexico. ¢

Virginia Necochea, Ph.D., is executive director of CESOSS, a community-based think tank, cultural preservation and leadership development institute in Albuquerque, New Mexico’s South Valley (Atrisco).



19th Annual Congreso de las Acequias The New Mexico Acequia Association’s (NMAA) 19th annual Congreso de las Acequias was held on Nov. 17 in Albuquerque. The congreso is the largest gathering of acequias and supporters in New Mexico. Labor y Fe: Acequias Caring for the Land and Water in Times of Change was the theme, reflecting the challenge of sustained drought and the acequias’ endurance. The congreso featured testimonies from commissioners, mayordomos, farmers and ranchers about their strategies of adaptation. Younger voices spoke of their dedication to sustaining communities through local agriculture.  “Acequias have continued traditions of sharing water and growing food for centuries in New Mexico. We celebrate their endurance and also convene to discuss our future in the face of tremendous challenges related to mounting demands for water, a changing climate and the need to cultivate the next generation,” said Paula García, NMAA’s executive director.  Presentations included a discussion of state and federal policies. U.S. Sen. Tom Udall and Rep. Ben Ray Lujan gave updates on recent and proposed federal legislation affecting acequias. There was also a presentation about growing hemp in New Mexico and getting started in the industry. Leon Tafoya received the Mayordomo of the Year award; Max Martínez was honored as Rancher of the Year.  A trailer for Acequia, a new film by Arcy Chapa, was screened. Nuestras Acequias, another film, which was drawn from an oral history project in the Embudo Valley, also was screened. Grupo Teatro Acequiero performed a puppet show entitled Los Milagros de San Isidro Labrador. Acclaimed northern New Mexico musicians, David García and Jeremiah Martínez, along with former New Mexico Lt. Gov. Roberto Mondragon and other musicians, performed traditional songs. Acequia farmers who have continued working the land and protecting water rights in the face of urbanization were honored at a pre-congreso farm tour of Candelaria Organics in Albuquerque’s South Valley. For more information, visit Top: Max Martínez was awarded Mayordomo of the Year. He was flanked by NMAA’s President Harold Trujillo (left), daughter Alexia Elena Martínez, Steven Trujillo and NMAA Executive Director Paula García; Leon Tafoya received the Rancher of the Year Award. Standing next to him is Mary Vigil; Musicians included Roberto Mondragon (l), recorded by Miguel Santistevan. Below: the late NM House Speaker Ben Lujan’s wife, Carmen Lujan, Esther Garcia; Bottom left: Edwardo Gonzales offers water from Chamisal. Photos © Seth Roffman


Top: Sen. Tom Udall (D-NM) addresses the Congreso; Delegate Gabe Estrada speaks with Sen. Udall; Center: farmer Don Bustos; puppet show; Bottom left: NMMA Executive Director Paula Garcia; Vicente Cordova discusses hemp; Assistant Democratic Leader Rep. Ben Ray Lujรกn (D-NM) GREENFIRETIMES.COM


Southwest Intertribal Food Summit October 26-27, 2018 – Taos, New Mexico There is a growing Native foods movement. Young people from various tribes are becoming increasingly interested in in their history, culture and heritage. There are now many initiatives to get tribal community members motivated to pick, process and eat traditional foods. Native chefs and restaurants are popping up in different regions. Ingredients are being traded. In places such as the Tohono O’odham reservation, in southern Arizona, local schools and tribal colleges are including culinary arts in their curriculum, and Native chefs are being hired to teach. In October 2018, the first Southwest Intertribal Food Summit brought together Native farmers, cooks, entrepreneurs and educators from across the country (and Belize) to make connections and strengthen bonds. The two-day event was held at the Taos County Economic Development Corporation (TCEDC) in Taos and at Taos Pueblo. The summit was filled with good food and knowledge-sharing among Natives working in the indigenous food sovereignty movement. The summit included processing and cooking demonstrations, workshops and panel discussions. Topics included foods indigenous to different areas, traditional farming and gardening practices, foraging, seed saving, food preservation, the benefits of “pre-contact” diets, business development, fiber arts, women farmers, women’s reproductive wellness and its relationship to traditional food systems. A youth engagement panel discussed challenges tribal youth face and how tribal programs can provide solutions. The governor of Taos Pueblo, Gilbert Suazo Sr., gave a presentation on the return of Blue Lake to his tribe. The summit was put on by the Native American Food Sovereignty Alliance, Taos County Economic Development Corporation, Red Willow Farm, Traditional Native American Farmers Association and Taos Pueblo. Photos © Seth Roffman

MOUNTAIN WEST SEED SUMMIT FEB. 22-23, 2019 IN SANTA FE Regional seed stewards will be gathering in Santa Fe at the Institute of American Indian Arts for the second Mountain West Seed Summit. A rich, diverse and regionally focused experience with opportunities to network and build bridges with seed leaders is planned. A partial list of presenters: Charles Eisenstein, author of Climate: A New Story; Rowen White of Sierra Seeds and Seed Seva Immersion; Rebecca Newburn of the Richmond Grows Seed Library; Panagiotis Sainatoudis of the Peliti Seed Festival (Greece); Miguel Santistevan of the Sol Feliz Farm in Taos; Don Tipping of Siskiyou Seeds; Casey O’Leary of Snake River Seed Cooperative; Tesa Peters of the Organic Seed Alliance; Philip Kauth of Seed Savers Exchange; Greg Schoen, Glass Gem corn steward; and Bill McDorman of the Rocky Mountain Seed Alliance (RMSA). Regular registration is $295. Early bird registration (until Dec. 31) is $250. There is also a RMSA member rate ($225) and a youth/student rate ($150). Registration includes a local foods lunch on both days. There is an optional field trip ($75) on Feb. 21 to northern New Mexico seed sites. For more information, email or visit





One cannot expect positive results from an educational or political action program which fails to respect the particular view of the world held by the people. Such a program constitutes cultural invasion, good intentions notwithstanding. – Paolo Friere, in his book Pedagogy of the Oppressed

Native students deserve to see the contributions and histories of their tribes reflected in what they learn.

Consider the thousands of students sitting in New Mexico public-school classrooms right now. How many of these children know the locations of the independent nations in their own state? How many know indigenous histories and the impact of colonization on people? How many adults in our state understand the realities of governance and citizenship faced by Native people in our country? If you look through the New Mexico history textbook that schools have adopted, you will see sparse and sometimes insensitive treatment of indigenous people. Native students deserve to see themselves and the contributions and histories of their tribes reflected in what they learn—this goal is the primary motivation of Indigenous New Mexico, an initiative to develop a culturally relevant and state standards-based curriculum for all of New Mexico’s public schools. The project’s other goal is to bring to the forefront the perspectives and experiences of Native Americans, particularly the tribes of New Mexico.

Participants at the Pueblo Convocation for Pueblo Education, July 2018 Photo © Seth Roffman

Indigenous New Mexico is now ready for its pilot phase in public, K-12 classrooms. The state’s Indian Education Division (NMPED IED) began this work in its current form in 2016 and will complete the social studies phase of the project in March 2019. Teams of Native and non-Native curriculum writers have been working to create units of study.

A few other states have worked to achieve this pinnacle of the Indian Education Act—to change the teaching of history to include voices of Native people. What makes this work in New Mexico unique is the close collaboration with tribes in the creation and vetting of unit and lesson plans. Tribal members directed the content to be included in the curriculum, and community advisers have consulted with the writers. A team of community advisers has reviewed the work through lenses of cultural appropriateness and historical accuracy. Finally, unit and lesson plans have undergone official tribal consultation for endorsement. NMPED IED will provide free, on-site professional development for teachers and school administrators so that the new resources can be used appropriately in classrooms. Culturally responsive instructional strategies have been embedded into the curriculum so that using the lesson plans also provides professional development for teachers while meeting the needs of diverse learners. Gone are the days of reading and answering comprehension questions. In a complex world, students need to be active consumers of information and talk to each other to learn. The IED wants to get the word out to schools in New Mexico communities. For more information, contact Stephanie Owens ( or DeAlva Calabaza ( at the NMPED IED.¢

Stephanie Owens, Ph.D., an educational psychologist, is lead consultant for Imagine Education, Inc. (


KERES CHILDREN'S LEARNING CENTER AWARDED ANA GRANT The Keres Children's Learning Center ( is a Montessori school at Cochiti Pueblo for children ages 3 to 6 at Cochiti Pueblo. Its mission is to “reclaim the children’s education and honor their heritage by using a comprehensive cultural and academic curriculum to assist families in nurturing Keres-speaking, holistically healthy, community-minded and academically strong students. KCLC was recently awarded a three-year, Administration for Native Americans’ (ANA) Language Preservation and Maintenance—Esther Martinez Immersion grant. The funding will support a mentor-apprentice program for parents of KCLC children—and other community adult Keres learners—for intensive language learning using community elders as mentors. The grant will also fund an outdoor classroom with two teachers. These initiatives will allow KCLC to extend its impact in ways that re-establish Keres in the home and in everyday activities. 2018 RECYCLE BOWL COMPETITION

KCLC has teamed with Cochiti Pueblo’s Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) to represent Cochiti Pueblo, tribes of New Mexico and the State of New Mexico in the national Keep America Beautiful 2018 Recycle-Bowl Competition. One of DNRC’s outreach projects is to build the recycling capacity of the pueblo and surrounding communities. The DNRC’s Gene Ka-hee has conducted recycling, reuse and composting workshops and field trips with the students. The school won the national championship in 2016 and 2017 after collecting 15,000 pounds and 9,000 pounds those years. This year KCLC students collected 17,000 pounds. They are hoping for a third win. The results will be announced in February 2019.


Pueblog is a sharing space where members of Pueblo communities contribute short written pieces on issues, reflections and innovative ideas related to New Mexico Pueblos and the larger Native American population. As it evolves, it will include art, photography and poetry and will also be featured on the website. This month we are presenting the voices of four young adults currently in college and graduate school. They were asked to respond to a series of questions related to community, goals and influences—vision that has shaped their work and commitment. It is clear from these interviews that these youth are preparing to be active contributors in the environment, social work, education and food systems fields. Pueblog, through the Attach Your Heart Foundation, in association with Green Fire Times, is honored to feature their voices. Age: 22; High School: Walatowa High Charter School; College: Fort Lewis College, B.A./Psychology. Currently at New Mexico Highlands University for Master’s in Social Work. Community: Jemez and San Felipe pueblos



I spent a good amount of time in both my communities. I’ve come to cherish how close we are. My neighbors are my family. I am connected to everyone; not just geographically, but through my grandparents and some through clans. In college, people would say that they didn’t know their neighbors or see family until holidays. I love that I was able to grow up very close to my family. I also cannot forget about the food. I love it. I have traveled and tried different types of food, but there is nothing like Jemez enchiladas, oven bread and bone stew. CURRENTLY, THE ISSUE THAT I AM MOST PASSIONATE ABOUT AND THAT I’M WORKING ON IS…

Empowering Pueblo women. I want to help Pueblo women and youth who are struggling with domestic violence, drug/alcohol use/abuse, and help others further their education. Oppression of women has a long history, but it does not have as long a history within Pueblo communities. Women are the backbone to all we hold sacred. Everything goes smoothly because of them and life would not exist without them. I want to help break cycles of violence against all women, particularly Pueblo women. IF YOU COULD CHANGE ONE POLICY THAT HAS IMPACTED TRIBAL COMMUNITIES, WHAT WOULD IT BE AND WHY? There are many that I would change,

but currently I am focusing on the Violence Against Women Act. This policy has brought a lot of good to women, but it is still very hard for Native women and tribal nations. I would like to see justice for Native women who have suffered traumatic experiences. I would change the language of the policy to make sure that Native peoples, women and children see justice. All Native people who have lived on reservations know about jurisdictional issues. As a child, I knew that who a person was and where someone was indicated whether they would be held accountable. I hope that in the future this will be dealt with differently and more effectively. WHO IS YOUR GREATEST INFLUENCE AND WHY?

My greatest influences are my mom, grandmas and aunties. The hardest lessons I learned were taught by them. They taught me to be strong, yet kind, get things done fast, yet have patience, and no matter how hard it gets, the most important thing is family. They’re gifts that keep giving, regardless of how tired they are. They do what needs to be done for our family and the community, without question. When I was younger and didn’t want to tend to my chores, cook or clean, I would ask, “Why do women have it so hard?” They would respond by saying, “You think they (men) can handle all the things we do? No.” Then everyone in the kitchen would laugh. Back then, I did not think it was very funny, but now I do. They also taught me unconditional love and resilience. IN 2050, MY PUEBLO COMMUNITY WILL BE…

In 2050, my Pueblo communities will still remain strong and resilient. Pueblo women will

unapologetically continue to teach hard lessons about life, while laughing and joking. And by then, youth will have the tools they need to receive justice that our ancestors only dreamed of. We will look to them with happiness and be thankful for all the sacrifices we’ve made. NAME: NATHAN MOQUINO: Age: 23; High School: Bernalillo High School; College: University of New Mexico/B.A., currently working on Master’s in Public Administration; Community: San Felipe/Santo Domingo pueblos WHAT DO YOU LOVE MOST ABOUT YOUR COMMUNITY?

With both communities I love the strength of our traditions and culture. Whether it be the different dialects of Keres or the shared traditions between the two pueblos, the perseverance and resilience of each community is demonstrated every day. I am reminded in conversations with my parents and family that I am a part of this strength and perseverance to keep our traditions alive. Still, threats to our culture and traditions exist. Upholding our practices and language with the youth is key to maintaining the strength of our traditions and culture, which I love so much. CURRENTLY, THE ISSUE THAT I AM MOST PASSIONATE ABOUT AND THAT I’M WORKING ON IS…

It’s no secret that Native youth struggle in the education system. Our children are often at the lower ranks of essential skills like English, math and reading comprehension. We also see high rates of dropout and truancy among older students. Once it comes time to graduate, our rates hover around 50 percent. That being the case, my passion lies with helping develop ways for our youth to combat these seemingly lifelong trends. It’s an important cause because it helps create better futures for students who will one day become adults seeking work and may become parents themselves. Parents who understand the importance of education encourage and help their children achieve their own education. IF YOU COULD CHANGE ONE POLICY THAT IMPACTED TRIBAL COMMUNITIES, WHAT WOULD IT BE AND WHY?

The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act. While I recognize that the agreement between federal and tribal governments is needed, the way that it is executed is not right. Often times I’ve heard about a lack of federal funding. While the government’s rebuttal might be, “We are abiding by the Self-Determination Act,” it is often the bare minimum of funding that is being provided. So I would keep the language of the agreement, but would add that the funding must be enough to effectively serve Native communities. WHO IS YOUR GREATEST INFLUENCE AND WHY?

My greatest influence is my dad. He’s a highly respected man and has influenced my ways of thinking. He’s taught me how to pray and how to exist in our culture as a Pueblo man. I remember him helping me with my homework and always being encouraging. Nowadays, with my graduate school work, I find myself teaching him a few things. Coming this far with my education and personal development would not have been possible without him. IN 2050, MY PUEBLO COMMUNITY WILL BE…

My Pueblo communities will be thriving with traditionally strong Puebloans that are also highly educated. There will be nothing the people of my culture can’t accomplish. Their feet planted with roots of traditional upbringing will sprout with new opportunity for Pueblo communities. Our professors in nature and maestros in song will have the opportunity to be strong leaders within and outside the reservation. Our people can be entrepreneurs, advocates, policy makers and whatever their hearts desire. NAME: KYLEA GARCIA:  Age: 21; High

School: Santa Fe Indian School; College: Dartmouth College; Community: Santo Domingo Pueblo   GREENFIRETIMES.COM


KUNM 89.9 FM


I’m very grateful to have been raised in a community where we are able to practice our native language, ceremonies and traditional practices. Being away from home attending college on the East Coast has taught me that there are other indigenous peoples across the country and around the world that are not able to do so. My community has played a critical role in helping me create a sense of self-identity and support. This has been so important during my time at Dartmouth. It is what keeps me grounded and motivated to finish my studies. CURRENTLY, THE ISSUE THAT I AM MOST PASSIONATE ABOUT AND THAT I’M WORKING ON IS… 

Food sovereignty and food injustice. All people are connected in various ways to food— from production, distribution and trade. These processes are linked to bigger human political, cultural and economic issues. They affect the relationships between humans and our environments. Injustice becomes a detrimental factor affecting the health of indigenous people. Through food sovereignty, tribal communities have the ability to make decisions about issues that help or hinder Native people. Right now, I’m mostly working on educating myself and being part of classes that work with tribal communities that are struggling with these issues. IF YOU COULD CHANGE ONE POLICY THAT HAS IMPACTED OUR TRIBAL COMMUNITIES, WHAT WOULD IT BE AND WHY? 

Much more than


human-curated music

Tribal communities are still struggling with policies and laws in regard to sexual assault on Native American women. Sexual assault is a prevalent topic within our communities. I would like to see more institutional support when it comes to helping survivors of sexual assault so it doesn’t become such an emotional drain on those who experience and report it. WHO IS YOUR GREATEST INFLUENCE AND WHY?

My greatest influence is my older brother, Alvin. While some look to celebrities and other influential people, I think it is important also to acknowledge the hardworking people who come from within our families and Native communities. My brother was the first in my immediate family to go to college. He has completed 15 years of education and training in order to become a cardiac anesthesiologist. Through his experiences, he has been able to provide me guidance in many ways. His commitment to his future has helped motivate me. I’m forever grateful for the sacrifices, commitment and advice he has brought. IN 2050, MY PUEBLO COMMUNITY WILL BE…

Independent and self-sustainable. Tribal sovereignty is such an important power that tribal communities hold. Tribal communities are basically little nations within another nation. I feel that everything we do should be within our community. For example, rather than getting our food and other things from Walmart, we should be able to look to our community and buy from our local farmers. In short, I would like to see my community more economically self-sustainable, exercising our sovereignty and self-determination more and more. In addition, I hope that future generations of Pueblo Indians continue to speak our languages and partake in our traditions. NAME: KAYLEIGH WARREN: Age: 20; High School: New Mexico School for the Arts; College: Evergreen State College; Community: Santa Clara Pueblo WHAT DO YOU LOVE MOST ABOUT YOUR COMMUNITY?

My community is connected to our landscape like we are connected to our family. We acknowledge a reciprocal caretaking relationship and observe our responsibilities as protectors and preservers of our homeland and all the living beings within it. Santa Clara Pueblo is unique due to the convergence of several ecoregions on our 53,437-acre reservation. This results in diverse vegetation zones and wildlife habitats that each have individual management and protection needs, and creates for us a blessed challenge in caring for our homelands adequately. Santa Clara people also are active in land-based lifeways, such as agriculture, hunting, traditional arts and ranching. We are dedicated to maintaining our homeland, not only because it is our responsibility, but because it is our future.



The state of New Mexico is in the midst of a historic drought. In 2017, we experienced a bone-dry winter—the second-lowest snowpack on record. During the summer, several forests were closed to the public due to the major wildfire risk. From current climate change projections, these conditions are only expected to worsen, which will have a significant effect on the life present in our landscapes. As an undergraduate ecology student conducting vegetation monitoring, I have seen how changing conditions are impacting the prevalence and vigor of native plant populations and the ecosystems they inhabit. When speaking to family and elders in my village, I learned that the presence of certain plants with ethnobotanical value has decreased significantly in recent years. For example, riparian areas surrounding the Río Grande are historically a wetland—experiencing flooding which creates soil conditions that enable certain edible plants to grow successfully, even in arid weather. In the last few hundred years, the presence of these habitats has drastically decreased— eliminating conditions species such as wild plum and wild asparagus need. But degradation of wetlands is not entirely caused by climate change; poor land management also plays a critical role. In New Mexico, groundwater resources are drawn away from environments that need them to instead serve large cities. Overgrazing by non-native animals such as cows causes extensive damage to native plant life and opens the door for erosion and invasive species. I am exceedingly concerned with the threat that a deadly combination of climate change and poor resource management poses to tribal communities in the Southwest. We don’t know exactly what the future will look like, but we should anticipate significant changes—changes that land-based communities must be prepared to adapt to. I am currently working to complete my bachelor of science, focusing on ecology, botany and ecological agriculture, in order to have the education that will enable me to do my part in bringing back to my community knowledge and solutions to preserve the lands and natural resources that are so vital to who we are. IF YOU COULD CHANGE ONE POLICY THAT HAS IMPACTED TRIBAL COMMUNITIES, WHAT WOULD IT BE AND WHY? Roughly every five years,

the federal government conducts an analysis of the agricultural landscape throughout the country in order to renew the farm bill—an omnibus bill with laws and amendments. Soil conservation programs that encourage sustainable, ecological agriculture are a major segment of the bill. The 2014 farm bill covered a spectrum of food and farm issues, amounting to $489 billion in outlays. Congress was set to approve a new farm bill by September 2018, but was it was delayed. Because of this, programs are un-funded and unable to serve the communities and landscapes they are assigned to. The country needs a new bill with programs that acknowledge the damage crop monocultures do on an ecological level, the impacts of climate change on farming communities, and how those factors affect the unique needs of tribal farmers. Oftentimes, tribal agricultural needs are overlooked, despite that we depend heavily on our people to carry out vital farming traditions. The right

to self-sustainment through food sovereignty is a pillar of what true tribal sovereignty looks like, and programs and initiatives made possible by Farm Bill funding are critical in ensuring that tribal farmers can continue to have confidence in the availability of healthy soil and water resources that make agriculture possible. I am very blessed to have been influenced by members of my family, relatives in my village, mentors and colleagues. I was taught to care for the environment, to practice and preserve Tewa traditions, and to value sacrifice and dedication. I have been given experiences and knowledge that have helped shape the path I am on now, and have provided me with opportunities to apply the knowledge set I am growing to the goal of serving tribal communities and their lands.



Pueblo communities will be facing a plethora of challenges in regards to protection of our land-based lifeways. We will need to proactively adapt to changing climate conditions and learn to confront the impacts those changes will have. My hope is that by 2050, my community and others will have mobilized conservation efforts and will have made sustainable transitions as a collective—pooling knowledge and resources. We must ensure that our ecological footprint is significantly reduced, confronting the reality that we too contribute to climate change, and that our land management can be improved to be more sustainable even if our financial perspectives must change. By 2050, I want to see my community economically independent, self-sustaining and a leader in conservation and sustainability—setting an example for how all communities should take care of their lands with current environmental concerns in mind. I hope to see my community incorporating traditional ecological knowledge along with contemporary scientific innovations into land management plans that ensure our resources and lands are protected through our own vision. This work is crucial in the maintenance of our caretaking responsibilities, so that in years to come, our descendants will be able to have the same reciprocal relationship with the land. ¢

LEGAL CHALLENGE TO GRAND CANYON URANIUM MINE The Havasupai Tribe is concerned about the possible reopening of a uranium mine near Tusayan (Red Butte), an ancestral site near the Grand Canyon’s South Rim entrance they consider sacred. The tribe believes that mining could contaminate their water sources. In October 2018, a federal appeals court, while not agreeing that a 1988 environmental review should be updated, did revive a challenge by the tribe, the Grand Canyon Trust, the Center for Biological Diversity and the Sierra Club to Energy Fuels Inc.’s plan to reopen the mine once uranium prices rebound. The groups claim that the U.S. Forest Service, which backed Energy Fuels’ claim, failed to consider the environmental and cultural costs of mining. During the Obama era, new mining claims were prohibited on about 1,562 square miles outside the boundaries of the national park through 2032, but companies with grandfathered claims are still allowed to develop them.



Mount Taylor

Uranium Mining’s Toxic Legacy From the New Mexico Environmental Law Center Uranium workers and their communities are routinely thanked for their help in ending World War II (with the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with atomic bombs) and for helping defend the country during the Cold War. But they have never received serious attention for enduring decades of human health, cultural and environmental degradation caused by the uranium mining and milling in their communities. Between 1944 and 1986, Navajo lands in Arizona, New Mexico and Utah accounted for approximately four million tons of mined uranium ore, as evidenced by at least 500 abandoned mines. Non-Navajo uranium mining lands are referred to as the Grants Mining District, running through McKinley and Cibola counties to western portions of Bernalillo and Sandoval counties. The district was the major uranium-producing region in the United States from the 1950s until the late 1990s.

A slow-motion catastrophe

On July 16, 1979, United Nuclear Corporation’s Church Rock mill tailings disposal pond dam breached (tailings are the waste ore left after the marketable mineral is removed; they are usually mudlike). The catastrophe sent 1,000 tons of solid mill waste and 93 million gallons of radioactive and


acidified tailings liquids into the Río Puerco, where they traveled over 80 miles into the Navajo Nation. Most of the residents along the route of the spill were Navajo (Diné) and used the river as a water supply for grazing and irrigation. The Church Rock spill was a larger release of radioactivity into the environment than the Three Mile Island accident that occurred four months earlier in Pennsylvania. But Church Rock did not receive the attention and response given Three Mile Island. Then New Mexico Gov. Bruce King refused a Navajo Nation request that the tailings breach be declared a federal disaster area. As a result, assistance reached only those immediately affected. That was inadequate in addressing most of the spill’s impacts. As low-income, minority communities suffering from a disproportionate pollution burden, people living in Cibola and McKinley counties are textbook environmental justice (EJ) communities. Cibola County, west of Albuquerque and largely south of I-40, is 43

percent Native and 38 percent Hispanic. Forty-three percent speak a language other than English at home and 27 percent are under the official poverty rate. Grants, about 75 miles from Albuquerque and the Cibola County seat, is more predominantly Hispanic (50 percent) and white (28 percent), with 17 percent Native, and has declining household income. McKinley County, on Cibola’s northern boundary, is 79 percent Native and 14 percent Hispanic, with 55 percent speaking a non-English language at home and 34 percent in poverty. Gallup, the McKinley county seat, is near the border with Arizona, with a steeply declining household income and 29 percent in poverty. Thirty-five percent are Hispanic and 35 percent Native. Its neighbor to the east along I-40 is Church Rock, 130 miles from Albuquerque and 94 percent Native.

Uranium mining and milling has had a pernicious impact on communities.

Uranium mining and milling has had a pernicious and pervasive impact on communities, something that was not addressed for decades, even after there were federal and state agencies and regulations in place that could have begun to deal with the problems. Uranium workers were exposed to radioactivity from mining, milling and transport of uranium ore and processed minerals. These workers brought radioactive dust home on their clothes and boots, exposing their families. Blowing dust from waste rock and tailings facilities continues to circulate radioactive and other hazardous materials, which people breathe and which settles onto their land, waterways and plants. Similarly, leaching and runoff contaminates soil, surface water and groundwater. Abandoned mines create physical hazards from open pits and shafts. Uranium mill tailings contain radioactive radium, which decays to produce radon, a radioactive gas. Acute (short-term) non-cancer effects of these radionuclides can include inflammatory reactions in the nasal passages and kidney damage from inhaling uranium. Chronic (long-term) inhalation exposure to uranium and radon in humans can cause lung disease and other respiratory effects and radium exposure can cause severe loss of white blood cells, anemia, bone death of the jaw and other effects. Radium exposure (oral) may cause bone, head and nasal passage tumors, and radon exposure (inhalation) causes

lung cancer. Uranium may cause lung cancer and tumors of lymph and blood-cell producing tissues. Furthermore, uranium mining and milling is associated with significant toxic heavy metal contamination. The pathways for human health effects are the same as for radionuclides, through inhaling dust, through drinking water, and through eating plants and animals that have bio-accumulated the metals. The carcinogenic effects from radionuclides were well known prior to the mining activity starting in the 1940s, although other chronic radiologic effects and heavy metal impacts have only been established over the last few decades. Despite this, the federal government was slow to act. Uranium mining-impacted communities on Navajo and Grants Mining District lands have been advocating for decades for health and water assessments, compensation and mitigation of past mining. While some limited agency studies have said there are no statistically significant impacts to these communities from uranium mining, the communities themselves are well aware of the prevalence of cancer and chronic disease among their members. Even when an agency study says there is a link, that information is not always translated into effective action to mitigate past mining activities or to stop new ones from happening. In 2007, some community-based organizations came together as the Multicultural Alliance for a Safe Environment (MASE; The MASE communities are focused on restoring mining and milling-impacted sites and protecting their public health and cultural landscapes using intercultural engagement. The environmental, health and cultural effects are daunting and current agency responses are largely inadequate. The 320 square-mile San Mateo Creek Basin, which straddles McKinley and Cibola counties, running from Mount Taylor in the east to Crownpoint in the northwest and along I-40 from Bluewater to Grants, has become a “sacrifice zone” for legacy uranium contamination. The EPA is weighing designating the basin as a Superfund site. Even with a listing, there is no funding in the Superfund account and no political will to increase funding to levels that could address the scale of the problem. There is a slow-motion catastrophe at Red Water Pond Road, northeast of Church Rock, site of United Nuclear Corporation’s (UNC) activities. An annual march and public gathering in commemoration of the Church Rock disaster begins at the Red Water Pond Road community center. Members of the community live among the waste rock piles, tailings and other facilities left by the mine. Federal regulators contracted the removal of the most radioactive topsoil around homes in the area and conducted air quality monitoring for radon; the monitoring is no longer in effect. In December 2018, the EPA will release an Engineering Evaluation/ Cost Analysis report (EE/CA), which is supposed to provide the basis for cleanup of the Quivira Mine site. An earlier EE/ CA concluded that the best solution for dealing with the Northeast Church Rock tailings was to pile it on top of the UNC mill site tailings. It is anticipated that the December EE/CA will recommend “burial in place” as the best option. Currently, there is no groundwater contamination assessment. Recent decisions by the Trump administration have weakened regulations and encouraged mining. The EPA announced that it was withdrawing the Obama administration’s proposed rules for regulating in-situ leach (ISL) mining, which injects chemicals into an underground ore body to release uranium from surrounding rock. In part, the reason for the rule

Annual Churchrock Uranium Legacy Remembrance and Action Day



move straight to the Court of Appeals. For uranium mining-impacted communities, approving new mining before cleaning up legacy waste is an affront to both EJ and human rights to a healthy environment, clean drinking water, and cultural and religious practice. In May 2011, the Law Center and its client, Eastern Navajo Diné Against Uranium Mining (ENDAUM, a MASE member), requested that the IACHR investigate the health impacts of uranium mining on the Navajo Nation as a violation of human rights and direct that all uranium mining on Navajo Nation land stop. Recently, the Law Center received a query from the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), which wanted to learn if the case was still active. The Law Center and ENDAUM will respond with an emphatic yes and continue to wait for the IACHR’s response, which may take years. In a local effort to address uranium’s legacy, MASE and the Law Center have been engaged in discussions with the McKinley County Commission about a uranium mining moratorium in the county. For now, there is a draft resolution to establish a three-year task force to take a comprehensive look at the health impacts of uranium mining, the impacts on other natural resources, cultural impacts and the economic benefits and costs of mining. If approved, the task force would operate from 2019-2022 and provide the basis for determining how to quickly and comprehensively accomplish clean-up of legacy uranium industry waste and whether and how to regulate proposed uranium development.

Warning sign at Churchrock mine waste dump site bordering residences on Red Water Pond Road

For 75 years communities in Navajo land and in the Grants Mining District have been exploited along with the uranium they helped take from the ground. The wide-ranging and persistent human health and environmental impacts of the

withdrawal is a dispute between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the EPA over regulating ISL mining, but the administration also said that current regulation is adequate. The rules could have made a difference if they had been implemented as written, providing, for the first time, for comprehensive pre-ISL baseline water quality assessments and long-term post-mining monitoring to determine if contaminants were migrating off-site. In another case, Energy Fuels asked the Commerce Department to approve a “national security” quota requiring that 25 percent of uranium purchases for U.S. facilities come from U.S. sources. This has pitted the National Mining Association, which favors the subsidy, against the Nuclear Energy Institute, which opposes it because it will make domestic nuclear energy even more expensive. At the state level, the Mining and Minerals Division (MMD), backed by the Mining Commission, recently approved a “Return to Active status” permit for the Mount Taylor mine, one year before the 20-year “Standby” deadline for closure and cleanup would take effect. The permit was issued even though the mine’s experts and the MMD acknowledged that no marketable uranium would be produced during the eight-year life of the permit; in fact, the mine has not produced uranium since 1990. The New Mexico Mining Act makes it clear that permits are issued for mining “production.” MMD staff and the mine owner’s representatives indicated that they believed the clock would reset on shutdown once this permit was issued, meaning that if the mine stopped activities because of market conditions it could have up to another 20 years of Standby status before it would have to shut down and clean up. MASE and the New Mexico Environmental Law Center ( have appealed this decision, requesting at a hearing in District Court on Nov. 15 that it

“Yellow cake” for desert at Churchrock Legacy Day. Humor is important. “Yellowcake” is the solid form of mixed uranium oxides produced from uranium ore in the milling process. “Leetso Dooda” (“No more uranium mining”)


Mt. Taylor mine mill headframe and warning signs Photos courtesy New Mexico Environmental Law Center mining and milling and of the dumping of toxic waste rock and tailings are now well known. The fact that New Mexico and the federal government are reviving uranium mining while failing to take meaningful action to address the toxic legacy of past mining activities is incomprehensible and a gross insult to the communities living in the region.¢ The New Mexico Environmental Law Center’s mission is to protect New Mexico communities and their air, land and water in the fight for environmental justice. 505.989.9022,

SAN JUAN BASIN "DOUBLE DRILLING" APPROVED Northwestern New Mexico communities in San Juan and Río Arríba counties are home to more than 40,000 oil and gas wells as well as ancillary compressors, processing plants and pipelines. At least 91 percent of publicly managed lands in the area are leased for oil and gas development. Area residents live with toxic emissions, the stigma of the nation’s most concentrated methane pollution “hot spot” hovering over the Four Corners, and wasted oil and gas revenues from flaring, venting and leaking facilities.

scholarships, and the United Way will lose $150,000 in donations that SJGS has been providing. In addition, some property taxes could increase to cover outstanding bond payments. Efforts by community leaders are underway to diversify the area’s economy, including a workforce training program funded by PNM to train Navajo students for other industries such as tourism), food processing and renewable energy. Bills will be introduced in New Mexico’s upcoming legislative session to provide San Juan County with economic development funds.

Hilcorp Energy purchased ConocoPhillips’ assets in the San Juan Basin in 2017 and operates more than 5,000 wells in the Blanco-Mesaverde gas pool and thousands more in the rest of the basin. The Houston-based company asked the New Mexico Oil and Gas Conservation Commission for a rule change to allow “double drilling,” of Blanco-Mesaverde wells. Until now, under the “pool rule,” operators could drill eight wells per 640 acres. Hilcorp applied to allow 16. This could mean an additional 8,000 new wells and “recompletions” of existing wells.

The Navajo tribal government relies on the region’s power plants and coal mines for about a third of its revenue. Farmington city officials and the Navajo Nation are trying to get PNM to delay the SJGS’s closure. The tribe, which last month elected a new president, Jonathan Nez, has been considering buying the Navajo Generating Station and its mine to keep it operating. Tribal officials fought a ballot measure in Arizona, which voters rejected, that would have required the state to get 50 percent of its power from renewables.

On Nov. 20, at a hearing that drew more than 70 people, as well as hundreds of public comments in opposition, the commission granted Hilcorp’s request. The decision may be appealed.


Hilcorp representatives say that the rule change will generate millions of dollars in additional tax revenue, spur economic development and new investment in the region. In November, the Farmington City Council passed a resolution in support of the amendment. Mayor Nate Duckett said the new rule does not allow anyone to circumvent environmental and archaeological laws and regulations and that recompletions require retrofitting old wells with modern equipment that reduces leaks.

The U.S. has seen an unprecedented decline in both coal production and coal-based generation in the last few years. In October, Westmoreland Coal Co., one of the country’s oldest coal companies, filed for bankruptcy protection. Westmoreland, which operates in New Mexico and across the U.S., was the fourth major coal company (after Peabody Energy, Arch Coal and Alpha Natural Resources) to file for bankruptcy in the past three years. Westmorland is more than $1.4 billion in debt.

Opponents, such as the Río Grande Chapter of the Sierra Club, see Hilcorp’s move as a way to circumvent a thorough analysis of the impacts. They see the area becoming an oil and gas monoculture similar to the Permian Basin in southeast New Mexico. They believe additional wells and double drilling will hasten destruction of the fragile high-desert landscape, which is facing a water crisis. They say that it will decimate wildlife, destroy great fly-fishing and hunting areas and further fuel a rural exodus of people. They also think that health conditions, particularly for children and the elderly, will worsen. In New Mexico, there are over 32,000 children attending schools within a half mile of oil and gas wells, compressors and processors. Hilcorp has been granted nearly 70 exceptions within the past year. New Mexico Energy Secretary Ken McQueen and Oil Conservation Commission Director Heather Riley both used to work for WPX Energy, which, for years, was active in the San Juan Basin. Other members of the commission have also come from the oil and gas industry.

SAN JUAN GENERATING STATION CLOSURE IMPACTS Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) retired two of the San Juan Generating Station’s (SJGS) generating units in December 2017 and intends to shut down the remaining two units by 2022 and quit coal altogether by 2031. Most everything in the San Juan Basin was built around the extractive industry. The closure of the aging SJGS, which provides electricity to about two-million people in the Southwest, is expected to have severe economic impacts on schools and citizens of San Juan County. Thousands of Navajo workers could lose their jobs. A study commissioned by Four Corners Economic Development estimates that, in addition to the loss of state and local tax revenue, closing the plant and its coal mine will amount to $105 million in lost wages and nearly 1,500 lost jobs. Equipment suppliers will lose $31.7 million, students at San Juan College will lose $115,000 per year in

Coal companies are unable to compete with a glut of cheap natural gas, a trend by states to reduce or eliminate coal from their portfolios, and increasing use of renewable energy and the rise of renewables. Two of the four units of the Colstrip power plant in Montana will cease operation in 2022. Westmoreland mines have been providing coal for that plant, as well as for the San Juan Generating Station in New Mexico, which is slated to close sooner than expected. Europe has imported a lot of American coal and now faces increased pressure from environmental groups and political parties to stop burning coal. To reduce air pollution, China and India have delayed or cancelled coal-fired projects. China consumes half the world’s coal but is now also the world leader in solar and wind power installation. EPA RECALCULATING COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

The Trump administration’s “Affordable Clean Energy Rule” would replace the Clean Power Plan, Obama-era coal pollution restrictions designed to fight global warming. It would give states authority to regulate emissions from coal plants as they see fit and weaken rules for power plants that need upgrades. Some of the country’s dirtiest coal plants could keep running for years without adding scrubbers to pull sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide out of exhaust to limit smog. According to the administration’s own analysis, planned rollbacks of power plant emissions could lead to 1,400 additional premature deaths annually by 2030 as a result of an increase in particulate matter linked to heart and lung disease. Forty-eight thousand new cases of exacerbated asthma, up to 15,000 new cases of upper respiratory problems, a rise in bronchitis and tens of thousands of missed school days also are projected. Officials at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which crafted the rollbacks, say that other rules regulating pollution could reduce those numbers.



FARMINGTON, NEW MEXICO: A DESTINATION FOR RECREATION Outdoor recreation supports health, contributes to a high quality of life and attracts and sustains employers and families. Investing in outdoor infrastructure attracts employers and active workforces, and can help ensure that communities thrive economically and socially. According to the Outdoor Industry Association, more than twice as many jobs in New Mexico depend on outdoor recreation as on the energy and mining sectors combined. The state’s outdoor recreation economy generates 99,000 direct jobs, $2.8 billion in wages and salaries, $9.9 billion in consumer spending and $623 million in state and local taxes. Sixty-five percent of New Mexico residents participate in outdoor recreation each year. New Mexico residents are more likely to participate in camping than the average American. In the face of massive economic changes from closing power plants and low gas prices, and with widespread support from citizens and young people, the Four Corners area has begun to invest heavily in developing an outdoor recreation future. There is also increased support for traditional farming and ranching. Farmington, New Mexico, though it has rarely been promoted that way, has the potential to become a hot spot for outdoorists. Its recreational assets include Puebloan ruins, high-desert hiking trails and spectacular geologic formations. Many of the area’s ancient ruins and rock formations can only be reached using roads (open to recreationists) that were built and used by the extractive industry. It is possible to float right through town on the Animas River. You can camp on the shores of Farmington Lake. Every weekend in the summer, hundreds of sunbathers, swimmers and paddlers enjoy the beach on the north side of the lake, which is also the town’s water source. The city’s access fee of $5 per vehicle, in its first year, nearly paid for operations on the lake. As a result of the many positive impacts when the lake was opened to non-motorized watercraft in 2014, other existing resources are being considered for recreational activities. They include a mountain bike park, a river trail and a bike path system connecting all parts of the city. There is already a top-10-rated municipal golf course. In addition, Farmington has many mountain biking trails and hosts America’s longest-running loop mountain bike race, the Road Apple Rally. The city’s potential as an outdoor business hub is evidenced by a growing number of companies that rent tubes, rafts and inflatable boats. Bicycle and vehicle rentals are also in demand. Guide services, in addition to being available for visitors, also show locals the natural treasures in their own backyards. The Farmington Outdoor Recreation Initiative (ORII) was started in 2017. Revenue of $4.4 million generated by a .25-percent sales tax increase has been dedicated to “community transformation and economic diversification.” The ORII has become the primary focus of the new fund. Community leaders have begun using “Jolt your journey” as a marketing tagline. They plan to purchase plots of land to attract more outdoor outfitters and manufacturers and intend to upgrade the Four Corners Regional Airport.


CLEAN ENERGY CONFERENCE AND CLEAN ENERGY DAY JANUARY 28-29, 2019 A pillar of the campaign of New Mexico’s newly elected governor, Michelle Lujan Grisham, was a clean-energy agenda. Groups working to develop an effective response to the unprecedented challenge of climate change were heartened by Grisham’s election. One of them, a new organization, Climate Defenders-New Mexico (CDNM), has formed an alliance with environmental organizations (Sierra Club-Río Grande Chapter, 350 New Mexico, New Mexico Interfaith Power and Light, Environment New Mexico, New Energy Economy and others) to educate New Mexicans on climate change-related issues and how citizens can be most effective in working toward solutions. The effort has received financial commitments from several foundations and businesses. The New Mexico Community Foundation is accepting donations for the effort. CDNM is co-hosting a Clean Energy Conference on Jan. 28, 2019 at Temple Beth Shalom, 205 E. Barcelona Rd. in Santa Fe, preceding Clean Energy Day at the state capitol during the legislative session on Jan. 29. For more information, call 505.231.7271 or email

A ROADMAP TO MOVE ABQ TO 100% RENEWABLE ENERGY Mayor Tim Keller has announced plans to move the City of Albuquerque to 100 percent renewable energy within four years. The plan has several components, with a major piece involving a partnership with PNM where the company will build a 50 megawatt (MW) solar field as part of the PNM Solar Direct Program, which provides an opportunity for large electric customers to achieve clean energy- and carbon-reduction goals.  When taking office, Keller set an ambitious goal offsetting the city’s annual electricity consumption with 100 percent renewable energy. Upon completion of this large-scale solar project, the city will be getting about 58 percent of its electricity from solar within two years (compared with 4 percent today). The roadmap also includes continuing to add solar to city facilities, installing more energy-efficient street lighting and other measures to reduce energy consumption.

Once fully implemented by 2022, these efforts will amount to removing the equivalent of 93,000 metric tons of CO2 emissions every year. This is about the same as taking almost 20,000 cars off the road in a year. “We have a responsibility to current and future generations to put the city on a path to sustainability,” Keller said. “With this plan, we’ll get Albuquerque a large part of the way to using only renewable energy. There’s no reason not to seize upon our year-round sunshine to help build a better world.” Keller signed the Climate Paris Agreement and has pursued strategies to make the city more sustainable. In June, he announced the first phase of a $25-million investment to make Albuquerque a leading solar city, which involves installing solar panels at 12 different city-owned buildings. He also issued an executive order requiring new city facilities to use higher energy building standards. Once the new, large-scale solar facility is approved by the Public Regulation Commission (PRC), the city plans to subscribe to 25 megawatts annually, which will initially cover 58 percent of the city’s needs. Twenty-five megawatts is enough to power about 8,000 average homes. The city is expected to save millions of dollars in utility payments over the long-term.

GREEN ENERGY JOBS ARE THE FASTEST-GROWING IN NEW MEXICO As coal plants shut down in New Mexico, a lot of the replacement energy is going to come from renewables. Green energy jobs are projected to be among the fastest-growing occupations. According to the New Mexico Department of Workforce Solutions Occupational Outlook report, solar photovoltaic installation is projected to be the fastest-growing job in the state. These jobs are expected to grow by 113 percent between 2016 and 2026. The second-fastest-growing is wind turbine service technician, which is projected to grow by 57.5 percent during the same period. Companies are working with tech-oriented schools such as Central New Mexico Community College (CNM) and Santa Fe Community College (SFCC) to develop a trained workforce. Solar installers and wind service technicians are non-degree positions. Solar installers need a high school diploma and wind service technicians need a postsecondary certificate. Solar installers make an average of $42,920, and wind turbine technicians $45,160 per year.

WIND FARM DEVELOPMENTS A newly built 300-turbine wind farm in eastern Colorado is now operating. The Rush Creek Wind Project, on 100,000 acres, will power more than 300,000 homes. The facility is the largest wind farm in the state and the first owned and operated by Minneapolis-based Xcel Energy. It is projected to eliminate about one million tons of carbon dioxide annually that would have been a byproduct of conventional power generation. During the wind project’s 25-year life, landowners and counties will receive $180 million in lease payments and property taxes. Xcel is also building the $735-million Hale Wind Project, a 239-turbine, 478-megawatt (MW) facility in the Texas Panhandle that is to start operating in mid-2019, and plans to build a 522-megawatt wind farm near Portales, N.M. New Mexico’s wind capacity grew faster than any state in 2017, according to the American Wind Energy Association. In March, the New Mexico Public Regulation Commission (PRC) approved an overall $1.6-billion plan for two massive wind farms along the Texas-New Mexico border. In October the PRC approved a permit for Pattern Development’s Corona Wind Projects. The Lincoln County facility could be the largest wind farm in the Western Hemisphere. An estimated 950 turbines would produce 2,200 MW, about the same capacity as the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant in California, which will be retired by 2025. However, the PRC also rejected developer SunZia’s plan for a $2-billion, 520-mile transmission line to carry Corona’s power to California markets. The line’s proposed path has met with resistance from federal agencies, the military, environmentalists, community groups, farmers and ranchers. Pattern officials said that after the U.S. Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) review of proposed changes and the conclusion of negotiations with all landowners (including families who have owned their plots for centuries), they will work with SunZia on another proposal to be submitted in early 2019. Pattern Development, in partnership with the New Mexico Renewable Energy Transmission Authority (RETA), has also proposed a 140-mile, $150-million line to carry wind-generated energy from central to northwestern New Mexico. While some transmission lines are overseen by the PRC, the statute that brought RETA into existence exempted it from “the supervision or control of any other board, bureau, department or agency.” RETA also has the power to condemn land to enforce their offers. Some residents have questioned RETA’s low profile and the lack of official public meetings where they could express concerns about the impacts of 175- to 200-foot towers.



A REGENERATIVE REVOLUTION TO COMBAT CLIMATE DISRUPTION “The next few years are probably the most important in our history,” said Debra Roberts, co-chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Working Group II. The IPCC’s study, released in October 2018, details implications of the Earth’s warming, including dire food shortages, an increase in record-breaking weather events, mega-forest fires and large-scale human migration. To reduce the carbon emissions driving this scenario, the report, which examined more than 6,000 studies, calls for an unprecedented, rapid, global “regenerative revolution.” Regeneration is a design principle that ensures what goes into and out of various operations supports the health of those upstream and downstream and benefits ecosystems and human well-being. A regenerative approach that reduces or helps reverse climate change is not just carbon-neutral; it lowers CO2 levels in the atmosphere. Such a shift will require nothing less than transforming the business-as-usual extractive economy to an economic system that includes corporate social responsibility and investments to remediate some of the widespread harm that has been done. It will require the transformation of energy, transportation, agriculture and other sectors of society. The IPCC’s report says that fossil fuel use, which generates heat-trapping gasses, must be cut in half in less than 14 years and eliminated almost entirely in 30 years. Industries need to transition to carbon-free energy sources, employ technology to capture CO2 emissions and permanently store them. Recommended mechanisms also include carbon divestment—reallocation of some of the capital that has gone into fossil fuel companies—to now cost-competitive renewable energy options. Increased public and philanthropic investments are needed to incentivize the private sector to support incubators, accelerators and large-scale regenerative initiatives. A regenerative revolution also requires conservation and upgrading the value of “natural capital.” Soil and vegetation naturally capture carbon. Forests currently remove about 25 percent of our CO2. Rodale Institute researchers claim that if current industrial farming practices shifted to regenerative, organic methods, 100 percent of annual global CO2 emissions would be sequestered. But chemical-dependent, soil-debilitating operations are not close to shifting to the scale needed, although some major companies are transitioning their agricultural operations, sourcing and distribution.

The National Climate Assessment offers three main solutions.

Many people are willing to take part in a regenerative revolution if they are allowed to do so in a meaningful way in which they benefit. In countries such as China and Kenya, locally based currencies, facilitated by mobile phones, provide incentives for supporting soil and forest health and tree planting. Thirteen federal agencies released the second volume of the congressionally mandated National Climate Assessment on Nov. 23, predicting that if significant steps are not taken to address global warming, impacts will damage the U.S. economy by at least 10 percent by the end of the century. The report also details dire health and environmental effects, and says that trade and agriculture will be particularly impacted. The report offers three main solutions: put a price on greenhouse gas emissions, establish government regulations on how much greenhouse pollution can be emitted, and spend public money on clean energy research. Heads of state and international leaders are meeting in Poland in December for the next round of climate change talks. Whether they will find the political will to act to meet such momentous challenges and opportunities is the question. ¢


Ancient Medicine and Wise Practices BY JAPA K. KHALSA

For the past 20 years, the type 2 diabetes level in New Mexico has hovered between 10 to 14 percent (compared to the national average of 8 percent), and the number of those who are undiagnosed and unmedicated makes the percentage higher. It’s possible that our state has a tendency towards higher rates due to genetic influences. If your ancestors survived in a desert region with periods of famine, chances are your pancreas is highly efficient. Living in this time with lots of packaged foods and processed sugar puts a huge strain on the body, especially if your pancreas was trained for survival across multiple generations. Let’s consider ancient medicine and wise practices that bring us back to health and help prevent diabetes. But first, let’s understand what diabetes is. INSULIN RESISTANCE

Type 2 diabetes typically starts with insulin resistance, a condition where the body’s cells don’t absorb insulin efficiently. As a result, the body needs to make more insulin to help glucose enter cells. The pancreas gets profoundly stressed, cannot keep up with demand, and blood sugar levels spike, causing inflammation and distress throughout the body. Because of this, a person with type 2 diabetes runs a greater risk of blindness, heart disease, kidney failure and lower-limb amputation. RECONNECT WITH MOTHER EARTH: HEAL THE PANCREAS

Modern medicine points to lifestyle practices that prevent type 2: more exercise and staying on top of your weight. There are also genetic factors. Eastern medicine offers another perspective, one that points toward harmony with the Earth and selflove. Type 2 diabetes in Eastern medicine, known as “wasting and thirsting illness,” is seen as stemming from an imbalance with one’s relationship to Mother Earth. Most people on some level are looking for sweetness in life; love, connection and fulfillment. When one is disconnected from Mother Earth, it is harder to sustain a connection to the sweetness of life. It becomes more difficult for internal organs to respond to the sweetness of the glucose in the bloodstream. This can become a downward spiral where self-care habits that protect us from disease may fall away due to stress and lack of connection to what matters. We can forget simple pleasures such as cooking and preparing lots of vegetable-rich foods, walking regularly, spending relaxed time with family and refraining from overworking. The organ network in our body is like a child inside of us. Your pancreas needs a regular schedule, healing foods and regular exercise. If we take care of it and respond to its demands tenderly, it can protect health. Specifically, any lifestyle habits that connect us more deeply to the Earth element will act as a protection for diabetes as well as other illnesses. Here is a simple way to connect with the Earth and prevent type 2 diabetes or support your pancreas.

Pile up a big bag of fresh spinach in a casserole dish. Drizzle with fresh salt and pepper and then toss. Slice up two to three tomatoes and sprinkle on top. Crumble sliced feta or fresh mozzarella cheese on top. Cook at 375 for 20 minutes. Serve with fresh toast for a simple and satisfying meal. MEDITATION AS MEDICINE

In the early 1970s, Yogi Bhajan purposefully chose the beauty of sacred Northern New Mexico as his home. He taught in Española regularly and helped many people. Part of his legacy was Kundalini Yoga Therapy; how meditation and yoga can be used therapeutically as health interventions. Look to the New Mexico based The Guru Ram Das Center for Medicine and Humanology for more information. Research from this non-profit indicates that this meditation helps improve health and quality of life. We are our habits, and self-promoting habits bring us health. Use this practice below to start and maintain new health behaviors. It will help you understand that what you do makes a difference for yourself. PAURI KRIYA

It’s possible that New Mexico has a tendency towards higher rates due to genetic influences.

Sit comfortably with your hands on your knees, palms facing up with elbows straight. Close your eyes.

Inhale by dividing the breath into eight equal, separate parts, like sniffs. On the first segment, silently repeat the sound SA. On the second, silently repeat TA. On the third, repeat NA. On the fourth, repeat MA. Silently repeat SA on the fifth, TA on the sixth, NA on the seventh and MA on the eighth part of the inhalation. While you breathe and silently repeat the sounds, move the fingers of each hand in the following sequence: On SA, press the tips of the index finger and thumb firmly together; on TA, press the middle finger and thumb; on NA, press the ring finger and thumb tips; and on MA, press the little finger and thumb tips together. THE THREE G’S OF DIABETES PREVENTION

Ask yourself: What makes me smile the most in my life and how can I prioritize so that I can focus on feeling happier? Health recovery happens when you find out what you want to say a strong yes to!


You can drink much more water than you realize if you’ve been diagnosed with diabetes or are borderline diabetic. Chances are you are semi-dehydrated and this is contributing to blood-sugar imbalances. To correct this, gurgle away!


GREENS: Eat tons of greens; avocado toast instead of jam, green salad every day, greens at every meal. RECIPE HOT GREENS SALAD

This is delicious served fresh, only takes five minutes to pull together and cooks in 20. Nourishing, mineral-rich spinach shrinks down, so be sure to use a lot and really pile it up in your casserole dish. Use fresh tomatoes, olive oil and a little feta or mozzarella cheese, and you have a warm, vegetable-rich dish for the wintertime. INGREDIENTS

1 bag of spinach 2 to 3 juicy heirloom or beefsteak tomatoes to taste 4-6 oz. of feta or mozzarella cheese Olive oil Salt and pepper

To exhale the breath, recite aloud: SA, TA, NA, MA, SA, TA, NA, MA in a monotone. Coordinate the pressing of the thumb tips to the fingers with the corresponding sounds, just as you did during the silent eight-part inhalation. Continue the sequence 11 to 62 minutes. If you notice your mind wandering, simply return your attention to the breath, sound and finger sequence of the meditation. At the end of the meditation, inhale in one long breath, retain your breath briefly and exhale in one long breath. Relax your posture and open your eyes (© Teachings of Yogi Bhajan, KRI, Santa Cruz, NM.) ¢ Japa K. Khalsa, DOM, is co-author of Enlightened Bodies; Exploring Physical and Subtle Human Anatomy. She travels and teaches as an International Kundalini Yoga Teacher Trainer and inspirational speaker and teaches yoga in Santa Fe on Mondays at the Railyard. Email:




National Hispanic Cultural Center, 1701 4th St. SW

Up to 70 juried artists offer bultos, weavings, ironwork, jewelry engravings, retablos, furniture and more. Tickets: $6/$10 for two. 505.982.2266,

Dec. 8, 3–8:30 pm Iluminarte!

National Hispanic Cultural Center, 1701 4th St. Celebration of luminarias/farolitos. Presented in partnership with the Center of SW Culture’s Story Riders and Artful Life. Free. 3 pm: Enrique Lamadrid history lecture; 4:30: Illuminated bike parade; 7 pm: Poetry slam. 505.246.2261, nhccnm. org/events THROUGH JAN, 4, 2019 ART THROUGH STRUGGLE: RICARDO CATE


Voluntary collaboration of commercial property tenants, building managers, property owners and developers; real estate, energy and building sector professionals, lenders, utility companies; and public stakeholders such as government agencies, nonprofits, community groups and grassroots organizers. Property partners share anonymous utility data and best practices. Professional partners provide expertise and services. Public partners support the initiative as it overlaps with their own missions. Info:


Community Convention Center, 201 W. Marcy

The country’s largest recycled art market. Upcycled one-of-a-kind items. Kids can make-and-take art. DEC. 2, 5–8 PM 4 TH ANNUAL WINTER WATERSHED BENEFIT

Hotel Santa Fe

Author John Fleck of UNM’s Water Resources Program will speak on “Bracing for Troubled Waters: Climate Change and the Risk to Santa Fe’s Colorado River Water.” Silent auction, hors d’oeuvres. $50.

Indian Pueblo Cultural Center, 2401 12th St. NW

Exhibition of work by the Santo Domingo Pueblo cartoonist. 866.855.7902, THROUGH JAN. 6 THE CHINESE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE IN ABQ

ABQ Museum, 2000 Mountain Rd. NW

“From Invisible to Visible.” A testament to resilience, perseverance, determination and courage. 505.243.7255, FEB. 7–9, 2019 CREATIVE PLACEMAKING LEADERSHIP SUMMIT WEST

“Emerging Pathways” The first of 5 regional summits will bring together artists, activists, public officials and philanthropists to exchange ideas about cross-sector partnerships to improve communities through arts and cultural programming. FEB. 15–16 NM ORGANIC FARMING CONFERENCE

Hotel Albuquerque at Old Town

The Southwest’s largest organic gathering. Vendors welcome. Info:, www.nmofc, registration: FEB. 27, 8 AM–4 PM


Hotel Santa Fe

SW Seminars lecture by educator/author Wayne Ranney. $15. 505.466.2775,, DEC. 4, 6–8:30 PM OPENING EVENT DEC. 5–7 CONFERENCE JOURNALISM UNDER FIRE

Santa Fe Convention Center

Investigative journalists, photojournalists, political cartoonists and journalists discuss democracy, freedom of the press, corporatization, consolidation and change. Presented by the SF Council on International Relations. Tickets: www. DEC. 5, 12–2 PM PROTEST OF BLM OIL AND GAS LEASE SALE

Bureau of Land Management, 301 Dinosaur Tr.

The BLM plans to lease over 84,000 acres of public lands in NM, including more than 46,000 acres in the Greater Chaco area on Dec. 6 in an online auction. At least 20 organizations are part of this protest. events/552657035190518/



Hosted by the Land & Water Summit.



Ideas, strategies and examples of all aspects of water infrastructure. Listening circles to promote dialogue and action. Presented by Xeriscape Council of NM and Arid LID (Low Impact Development in drylands) Coalition. FIRST SUNDAYS NM MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND SCIENCE

1801 Mountain Road

Museum admission is free to NM residents on the first Sunday of every month. 505.841.2800 SATURDAYS, 1 PM WEEKLY DOCENT-LED TOURS

National Hispanic Cultural Center, 1701 4th St. SW

Tours of exhibits and themes in the Art Museum. $2-$3, free with museum admission. 505.246.2261,


Santa Fe Art Institute’s 9-month fellowship program the mentors local, emerging artists/creative practitioners of color in collaborative community engagement, working with government and non-arts organizations. 505.424.5050, ext. 1002,, DEC. 8, 9 AM–5 PM SANTA FE INDIAN SCHOOL ANNUAL HOLIDAY BAZAAR

Pueblo Pavilion Wellness Center, 1501 Cerrillos Rd.

Arts and crafts, live entertainment, food and silent auction. Unique gifts by local artists and small business from Native communities. Free admission. www.sfis. DEC. 8, 10 AM–4 PM SF WOMAN’S CLUB HOLIDAY HOME TOUR

1616 Old Pecos Tr.

$25. Self-guided tour of six homes benefits the club’s scholarship fund. 505.983.9455,


Make Santa Fe, 2879 All Trades Rd.

See what you can make with the tools available in a makerspace. $20/one child free with paying adult. 505.819.3502,

With Goldman Prize winner Destiny Watford. Hosted by NM Interfaith Power and Light and the Sierra Club Río Grande Chapter. 505.231.7271, ssladean@ JAN. 29, 8 AM–3 PM CLEAN ENERGY DAY AT THE ROUNDHOUSE

DEC. 8

NM State Legislature, 490 Old Santa Fe Tr.


Speakers, informational tables. Hosted by the Sierra Club Río Grande Chapter, NM Interfaith Power and Light, New Energy Economy.

Moving Toward Una Cultura de Salud: Policies That Drive Action. Opportunity for organizations and individuals working to improve community health to discuss issues and share legislative proposals. Presented by the NM Public Health Association. DEC. 11, 9 AM–4:15 PM NEW MEXICO NORTHERN WETLANDS ROUNDTABLE

Toney Anaya Building, 2550 Cerrillos Rd.

Conducted by the NM Environment Dept. as part of an EPA Wetlands Program to foster collaboration for restoration and protection of wetlands and riparian resources. 505.827.0581


Focused on training and inspiring seed producers across the Rocky Mtn. region. Presentations, demos, hands-on activities, discussions, seed exchanges and more. Info/registration $295, $150/student ($250 through 12/31) SUNDAYS, 11 AM JOURNEY SANTA FE CONVERSATIONS


International Folk Art Market HQ, 620 Cerrillos Rd. Folk art scholar/curator Dr. Suzanne Seriff will talk about the global impact for artists and consumers of the market that has developed for turning trash into treasures. Free.

Collected Works Books, 202 Galisteo St.

12/2: Student panel for New Mexicans to Prevent Gun Violence with host Miranda Viscoli; 12/9: Town Hall on the Legislative session with Sen. Peter Wirth and Speaker of the House Brian Egolf; 12/16: Author Bob Julyan presents The Wild Guide: Passport to NM with host Lois Manno; 12/23: Cartoonist Ricardo Cate (Santo Domingo Pueblo) with host Pat Hodapp. 12/30: no program. Free.


IFAM HQ , 620 Cerrillos Rd.

505.992.7600, DEC. 14, 6–9 PM; DEC. 15, 9 AM–5 PM; DEC. 16, 10 AM–3 P M SWAIA WINTER INDIAN MARKET

La Fonda on the Plaza

150 Native artists selling jewelry, pottery, paintings, weavings and more. Silent auction, live music & dance. 12/14: $50; 12/15-16: $10. 505.983.5220, DEC. 15, 9 AM–4 PM ANNUAL HOLIDAY MARKET

IAIA Campus, 83 Avan Nu Po Rd.

Works of art by 90 Institute of American Indian Arts students, staff, faculty and other Native American artists. Balzer Contemporary Edge Gallery. 505.424.5704, DEC. 17, 6 PM AS THE WORLD TURNS: A GEOLOGIC YEAR IN NEW MEXICO

Hotel Santa Fe, 1501 Paseo de Peralta

SW Seminars presentation by Dr. Kirt Kempter, volcanologist and independent field geologist. $15. 505.466.2775,, JAN. 24 5 TH ANNUAL FOOD & FARMS DAY AND SCHOOL NUTRITION DAY

The Roundhouse

Ceremony in the state capitol rotunda followed by a local food and farm-to-school awards luncheon. Coordinated by Farm to Table. JAN. 24, 6:30–7:30 PM INSIGHTS INTO THE CHACO WORLD USING NEW TECHNOLOGIES


SF Farmers’ Market, 1607 Paseo de Peralta

Art & gift galeria by local artists and crafters. 505.983.4098, MON.–SAT. POEH CULTURAL CENTER & MUSEUM

78 Cities of Gold Rd., Pueblo of Pojoaque

In T’owa Vi Sae’we: The People’s Pottery. Tewa Pottery from the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian. Nah Poeh Meng: 1,600-sq.-ft. core installation highlighting Pueblo artists and history. MON.–SAT.. 8 AM–4 PM RANDALL DAVEY AUDUBON CENTER

1800 Upper Canyon Rd.

Trails lead through several habitats and plant zones ranging from meadows to Ponderosa Pine forests. No dogs allowed. 505.983.4609 TUES.–SAT. EL MUSEO CULTURAL DE SANTA FE

555 Cam. de la Familia

Rotating exhibits, community programs and performances designed to preserve Hispanic culture. TUES.–SUN., 10 AM–5 PM GENNEXT: FUTURE SO BRIGHT

Museum of Spanish Colonial Art, Museum Hill

20 artists stretch the boundaries of New Mexican art. Through March 29, 2019. 505.982.2226,

James A. Little Theater


Chacoan Astronomy, Cosmography, Roads and Ritual Power. Presented by the School for Advanced Research. $10/free for SAR members.

1050 Old Pecos Tr.


Temple Beth Shalom, 205 E. Barcelona Rd.


Interactive exhibits and activities. 505.989.8359, FRIDAYS, 2 PM INDIAN ARTS RESEARCH CENTER DOCENT-LED TOURS

School for Advanced Research, 660 García St.



Collection of nearly 12,000 pieces of Native American art. $15/free to members. 505.954.7272, SAT., 8 AM–1 PM SF FARMERS’ MARKET

1607 Paseo de Peralta

Northern NM farmers & ranchers offer fresh tomatoes, greens, root veggies, cheese, teas, herbs, spices, honey, baked goods, body-care products and much more.


Northern New Mexico

Mid-Feb. through mid-Dec. farmer-to-farmer training program from the NM Acequia Association. Learn best practices and techniques for organic farming and how to increase production to sell commercially. Put your agricultural land and water rights to use. 505.955.9644, FEB. 23, 2019




Ghost Ranch, Abiquiú, NM

500 years of stories—from early Native inhabitants to today’s residents—told through artifacts, films, photographs, computer interactives, oral histories and more. 505.982.6466,


New Mexico History Museum, 113 Lincoln Ave.



Presentations and discussion of watershed issues. Presented by the San Juan-Chama Partnership. SUSTAINABLE GALLUP BOARD

Octavia Fellin Library, Gallup, NM

Community members concerned about conservation, energy, water, recycling and environmental issues welcome. 505.722.0039.

Tilt, 215 La Posta Rd.

Small group facilitated discussions on traditional agriculture, permaculture and home gardening. Dedicated to the idea that Taos can harvest its own food, energy and domestic needs. 575.770.8681, THIRD TUES. MONTHLY, 5:30 PM TAOS ENTREPRENEURIAL NETWORK


2600 Canyon Rd., Los Alamos, NM

Nature center and outdoor education programs. Exhibits of flora and fauna of the Pajarito Plateau; herbarium, live amphibians, butterfly and xeric gardens. 505.662.0460,

KTAOS, 9 State Rd. 150

Networking, presentations, discussion and professional services. Free or by donation. 505.776.7903,

WED, SAT., 9:30 AM


Docent-led two-hour tours of the Wells Petroglyph Preserve. $35. Pre-registration required.,


708 Hacienda Way

Northern NM-style Spanish colonial “great house” built in 1804 by Severino Martínez. 575.758.1000,



North of Española, NM


113 E. Logan Ave., Gallup, NM


Free presentations & classes on all things solar for DIYers & tribal members living off the grid. 505.728.9246,

Original jewelry, pottery, textiles and more from Southwest Native American artists. 505.455.5045,


Pojoaque, NM


Buffalo Thunder Resort & Casino

Explore the current state of economic and workforce development in NM. Presented by the Regional Development Corporation. DEC. 5–6 FINE ARTS/STUDENT ARTS SHOWCASE

Northern NM College Nick Salazar Center for the Arts, Española, NM Drawing, painting, pottery, photography, weaving, bultos & retablos, tinwork, Spanish colonial furniture. 12/5: 12–1 pm: Reception; 1–3 pm: Film & digital media art projects; 11 am–4 pm: art sale; 12/6, 11 am–8 pm: art sale; 6 pm: Presentation by artist Justin Clifford Rhody and performance of Vernacular Visions. Free. 505.747.2295. DEC. 12, 8:30 AM–4:30 PM NM SUSTAINABLE LIVESTOCK CONFERENCE

UNM Valencia Campus, 280 La Entrada Rd., Los Lunas, NM

Issues in Sustainable Livestock Production in the Rocky Mountain SW. Panel discussions. Lunch provided. Info/Registration:

Volunteers needed to help with food distribution. Also, math and literacy support during and after school; especially individuals with training in TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and Spanish speakers., BASIC LITERACY TUTOR TRAINING

Española area

After training by the NM Coalition for Literacy, volunteer tutors are matched with an adult student. 505.747.6162,, www.raalp. org/become-a-tutor.html SPIRIT OF THE BUTTERFLY

923 E. Fairview Lane, Española, NM

Women’s support group organized by Tewa Women United. Info/RSVP: Beverly, 505.795.8117 WILDLIFE WEST NATURE PARK

87 N. Frontage Rd., Edgewood, NM

122-acre park just east of ABQ. Interactive trail focuses on rescued, non-releasable, native New Mexican wildlife and native plants. http://

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Green Fire Times December 2018  

Green Fire Times December 2018