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TAKING THE LEAD IN REDUCING DIESEL EMISSIONS

Technical Organisation

12 February 2007


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Taking the lead in reducing diesel emissions

TAKING THE LEAD IN REDUCING DIESEL EMISSIONS Reduction of diesel emissions is trans-national and must be approached‌ holistically include all types of motorised vehicles the whole supply chain from an international view point

Technical Organisation

12 February 2007


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Taking the lead in reducing diesel emissions

VOLUNTARY INITIATIVES: Maersk Line Air Quality Initiative for California... since March 2006 0.2 % low sulphur gas oil on both auxiliary and main engines 24 nautical miles from ports in California projected annual reductions: 70 % PM, 90 % SOx and 10% NOx is an effective, economically sound, global and mobile solution

Technical Organisation

12 February 2007


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Taking the lead in reducing diesel emissions

VOLUNTARY INITIATIVES Why we prefer the Maersk option over shore side electricity‌ Avoiding long implementation period Avoiding limited application Avoiding limited geographical reach Having same efficiency in terms of SOx reductions and PM Avoiding huge investments both ashore and onboard the ships

Technical Organisation

12 February 2007


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Taking the lead in reducing diesel emissions

Waste Heat Recovery systems Recovering 10% of engine output Reduction of all emissions by 10% Total plant efficiency of 55% The most efficient machine existing converting fossil fuel to mechanical energy

Technical Organisation

12 February 2007


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Taking the lead in reducing diesel emissions

VOLUNTARY INITIATIVES waste Heat Recovery Systems common rail technology for two stroke main engines and four stroke auxiliary engines cylinder lubrication system optimise engines optimise vessel planning

Technical Organisation

12 February 2007


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Taking the lead in reducing diesel emissions

VOLUNTARY INITIATIVES – IN THE FUTURE particle matter filter for ships catalytic reduction systems water injections data logger to optimise fuel consumption energy saving activities in general On the look for new technologies

Technical Organisation

12 February 2007


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Taking the lead in reducing diesel emissions

GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR OUR WORK HENCEFORWARD good decisions are data based global solutions are imperative for the shipping industry the best environmental solutions are achieved through energy efficiency improvements, efficient terminal design and mobile solutions

Technical Organisation

12 February 2007


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Taking the lead in reducing diesel emissions

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

Technical Organisation

12 February 2007


Matson Clean Ships Presentation San Diego Capt Jack Sullivan Vice President Vessel Operations


Matson, California and Hawaii A Long History Together • Development of tourism: “white ships,” Waikiki hotels • World War II service • Introduction of containerization (1958) • Wholly owned subsidiary of A&B (based in Hawaii, founded in 1870


Matson Today at a Glance

2005 Revenue

2005 Operating Profit

Matson Navigation Company

$ 878 M

$ 128 M

Matson Integrated Logistics

$ 432 M

$ 14 M

$1.3 B

$142 M

Total

• • •

Number of employees: 1,050 Seagoing billets: 285 The Matson Fleet: 17 vessels – Eight diesel-powered containerships, five steam-powered containerships, three container barges, one ro-ro barge

– One chartered ro-ro vessel, one chartered diesel-powered containership


SQE and ISO certification • 2003, Matson fleet became first ABS SQE certified U.S.-flag container vessel operator • 2003, Matson shoreside: ISO 9001 (Quality) and ISO 14001 (Environmental). Voluntary programs • Environmental management system: fully documented procedures, audits, objectives and targets • Continuous improvement • ISO 9001 and 1400 includes offices/employees


Matson and Hawaii: Pristine waters, beaches • Hawaii dependent on ocean transportation • Matson the state’s leading carrier • Acute awareness/ concern for preserving Hawaii’s natural beauty


Going beyond mere compliance

• Oil/water separators • Air emissions • Invasive species


Zero Solid Waste Discharge • Developed in 1993 with Ocean Conservancy • All waste materials placed into “Greentainer” at sea, except food scraps • Greentainer landed at Honolulu, contents to “cogeneration” plant • Implemented fleet-wide • Full support of seagoing personnel, marketing/sales


Oil/Water Separators: Matson Environmental Protection Zone • Procedures prohibit discharges through oil/water separator or incinerator operation within 50 miles of land


Oil/Water Separators • Law: 15 parts per million • Matson: Additional filters designed to reduce oil content to 5 parts per million or below • Quarterly samplings from entire fleet by an independent analytical lab – Ensure accurate readings from oil content monitors • Newest vessel, MV Maunalei, state-of-the-art oil/ water separator


Invasive species/ballast water: Partnership with CSLC • Ecochlor chlorine dioxide treatment system • Moku Pahu, integrated tug and barge bulk carrier • 13 ballast tanks, 17,000 metric tons of ballast • Research team gathering data on biological effectiveness of system, operational and maintenance requirements


Invasive species/ballast water: Partnership with CSLC • MV R. J. Pfeiffer: Optimar treatment system installed for demonstration project • Two step process: cyclonic separation chamber, ultraviolet radiation • Propulsion vibrations caused quartz tubes to break • New design installed in 2003 • Project produced valuable info on Optimar


Community Outreach • Hawaii program: Ka Ipu ‘Aina (Container for the Land) • Donate use of container equipment for cleanups by non-profits • $1,000 donated to non-profit following cleanup • To date, 180 cleanups, $180,000 to non-profits


Air Emissions Big plus: Four newly built containerships added to Matson fleet in past four years, all MARPOL Annex VI compliant


Emissions Reduction Initiatives • • • • • • •

Selective Catalytic Reduction Low Sulphur Fuel Slide valve fuel injectors Alpha Lubricators New diesel generators for C-9 Class Four new container ships Demolition of four steamships


NOx Reduction Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) • Proven Shipboard Technology since 1989 • The diesel engine exhaust gas is mixed with ammonia before being passed through a catalyst • Reduce nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions by half ton per day • Annual reduction: 65 tons per vessel


Green Port Policy January 31, 2005 The City of Long Beach adopted the Green Port Policy. Among other things, the Green Port Policy seeks to reduce the impacts of port operations through agreements such as new leases and lease amendments, and economic incentives.


Matson’s Lease Amendment • Original lease was designed primarily for our domestic Hawaii Service. • In February 2006 Matson inaugurated a new service calling on two ports in China. • The switch from primarily inbound empty containers from Hawaii to loaded inbound containers from China required an amendment.


Emissions Reduction •

SOx – Auxiliary Engine burning low sulphur fuel

NOx – Selective Catalytic Reduction

PM – New MAN B&W Auxiliary Engine


Lease Agreement Pertaining to Matson Ships • SSDG (auxiliary power diesel generator motors) (1) Use only CARB #2 diesel, gas to liquid diesel, biofuels, or a marine distillate fuel with a sulfur content of no more than 0.2% by weight on and after January 1, 2007 and with a sulfur content of no more than 0.1% by weight on and after January 1, 2008 or (2) use exhaust gas treatment technology that provides equivalent emission reductions.


• •

Lease Agreement Pertaining to Matson Ships Five newest ships to be equipped for cold ironing by 2012 (during scheduled dry docking). Alternative Technology which is 90% as effective as cold ironing can be proposed. Three C-9 Class ships (built 1982) will be equipped with cold ironing during next regularly scheduled dry docking. Alternative Technology that achieves 80% of the NOx and PM reductions of cold ironing may be proposed for the C-9s


Air Emissions: “Green port” lease agreement with Port of Long Beach, SSAT, Matson • POLB to invest in cold ironing electrical infrastructure • Matson to retrofit five newer ships for cold ironing or use technology that is 90 percent as clean as cold ironing • Also, retrofit C9 class ships with technology that is at least 80 percent as clean as cold ironing


Questions? Captain Jack Sullivan Vice President Vessel Operations 510-628-4283 jsullivan@matson.com


Market & Emissions Ches K King Business Development Manager, West Coast USA Seattle, WA


Agenda • Context • Market growth • Options for change • Conclusions

Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


Context

Local Air Quality Port Calls Traffic

Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.

Air Quality


Historically – new regulations were ‘forced’ by serious accidents

Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


2001

1990 1969 1979 1954

OPA90

MEPC 46 Phase out SH Tankers 2003

1995

MARPOL SBT

IMO

ESP 1998 1989

1978 PSC

ISM EXXON VALDEZ

1976

1967

URQUIOLA

1960

Clean Air Conference

AMOCO CADIZ

1970

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.

1980

2001 1996

1993

1978 TORREY CANYON

MEPC 50 Early phase out ERICA of SH tankers 1999

BRAER

SEA EMPRESS

LEVOLI SUN 2002

PRESTIGE

1990

2000

2010


Applicable conventions: • MARPOL Convention • Annex I Prevention of pollution by oil • Annex II Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances • Annex III Prevention of pollution by substances in packaged form • Annex IV Prevention of pollution by sewage • Annex V Prevention of pollution by garbage • Annex VI Prevention of air pollution by ships • Antifouling systems • Ballast Water Management Systems • Ships Recycling???

Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


Highlight containerships • 32% of today’s fleet is post-panamax • 52% of today’s order book is post-panamax • We have reached the magic 10,000 TEU • Is there a limit? China Shipping Group

8,500 TEU

Samsung HI

China Shipping Group

9,600 TEU

Samsung HI

COSCO

10,000 TEU

Hyundai HI

Zim

10,000 TEU

Hyundai HI

… Emma Mærsk, 11,000 TEU Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


Container market outlook – demand growth • • •

Demand for containerisation continues to grow – at about 9½% per annum Order book is very large – 51% of the fleet size Order today for delivery in 2010 at earliest

2,000

250

1,500

200 150

1,000 100 500

50

Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.

2012

2010

2008

2006

2004

2002

2000

1998

1996

0 1994

0

% of 2003 value

million tonne

Seaborne Unitised Cargo

Source: MSI


Container market outlook – fleet growth •

Demand growth may outrun the current delivery schedule

Substantial number of new orders required

Container Ship Contracting 2,500

7900+ TEU

'000 TEU

2,000

5100-7900TEU 4000-5100TEU

1,500

3000-4000TEU 2000-3000TEU

1,000

1300-2000TEU

500

500-1300TEU 100-500TEU

1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012

0

Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


How big is Emma Maersk?

1,305 ft Emma Maersk

Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


The engine…

1998, 12 CYLINDERS, EACH 96CM DIAMETER, APPROACHING 80,000KW

Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


OK… • Vessels are getting larger • Ordering will continue at current high levels • Long lead time for new vessels

Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


and • Long life of new vessels (25/30 years) • So given this how do we begin to make an impact in emissions?

• Key is “Effective Management”

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Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


The Way Ahead? • Industry partnership: port – ship – regulation

Ports

• Combine best of elements of incentive schemes and legislation to produce scheme to reward ship owners & operators for improved environmental performance • Define a baseline of legislative compliance, now and in the future.

Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.

Owners

Regulation


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Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


New specifications • Vessel’s being specified now will have to meet legislative requirements, these are standards are already quite challenging to meet. • Owners can do more by, for example • Emulsification (reduce smoke, NOx) • Scrubbers (Reduce SOx) • However both technologies are in infancy, especially exhaust gas scrubbers • But all owners can be more “efficient” by specifying • Heat recovery systems • Shaft generators (impact emissions on voyage) Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


What can be done now • Right now owners do have options • Application of standards like ISO14001 – Environmental Management System • Maintenance – manage maintenance to improve reliability, efficiency, and reduce waste production • Operational procedures – schedule optimization, speed control • Pollution impact – green passport, maintain inventory of hazardous materials to help maintenance, and aid eventual recycling of the materials on ships.

Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


Conclusion ¾ Must recognize good environmental management practices • Very powerful lever to effect positive change • Can be done by all operators today ¾ Specifications need to improve over time and • This is a long term objective given lead time, life of vessels and current average age of the fleet.

Clean Air Conference

Lloyd’s Register North America Inc.


Thank you For more information please contact

Ches K King

Ches.King@lr.org (425) 922 7478

Services are provided by members of the Lloyd’s Register Group Lloyd’s Register, Lloyd’s Register EMEA and Lloyd’s Register Asia are exempt charities under the UK Charities Act 1993.

LLOYD’S REGISTER NORTH AMERICA INC. SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

The Lloyd’s Register Group works to enhance safety and approve assets and systems at sea, on land and in the air – because life matters.


CRUISE SHIP SHORE POWER PROJECTS SHORESIDE INSTALLATION SEATTLE, WA 2005/2006 Tom Dow Vice President, Public Affairs Carnival Corporation & PLC Mike Watts Manager, Marine Division Cochran, Inc.


Criteria for a Successful Shore Power Project

Availability of an adequate supply of electricity at a reasonable cost.

Frequency of calls by cruise vessels equipped to connect to Shore Power.

Availability of the same dock and pier facility for these vessels for every call.

• •

Adequate dock and upland space for equipment. Willing partners including – utility, port and government agencies.


Shore Power Description Power is transmitted from an on-shore transformer to the ship through five flexible electrical cables. The cables connect to the ships electrical system through traditional male/female plugs & sockets and enable the entire ship to run on electricity rather than diesel. Power is transferred and synchronized to the ship under a closed transition process monitored and controlled by the ships automation system. Internal shore side monitoring and protection is achieved with protection relays, which insure safety and protection of both the ship and shore electrical systems.


Cruise Ship Shore Power Project Shoreside Installation Construction Process Step 1 – Electrical Design Step 2 – Equipment Procurement Step 3 – Equipment Installation Step 4 – Commissioning & Testing


Step 1 – Electrical Design Process •

Meet with local utility company to determine power source availability.

Coordination between utility company & design teams to determine utility requirements.

Design is generated & forwarded to local jurisdictions for approval.


Step 1 – Electrical Design System Components •

Main Metering Equipment

Transformer

Secondary Metering Equipment

Capacitor Bank (Power Factor Correction)

Grounding/Earth Switch

Cable Management Support (jib)

Power Cables & Connectors


Step 1 – Electrical Design One Line Diagram


Step 1 – Electrical Design Jib Crane Design


Step 2 – Equipment Procurement Process •

Approved design is sent to manufacturer.

Manufacturer revises designs based on local conditions and requirements.

Shop drawings are submitted for approval.

Shop drawings are approved and production begins.


Step 3 – Equipment Installation Sequence •

Excavation & Conduit Installation

• •

Concrete Pad & Transformer Installation Equipment Installation Main Metering Equipment Transformer Secondary Metering Equipment Grounding Switch Cable Winch Capacitor Bank Festooning System

Cable Installation


Step 3 – Equipment Installation Excavation & Conduit Installation


Step 3 – Equipment Installation Cable & Equipment


Step 3 – Equipment Installation Main Metering Equipment, Transformer & Secondary Equipment


Step 3 – Equipment Installation Ground Switch

Power Cable Winch


Step 3 – Equipment Installation Princess Festooning System


Step 3 – Equipment Installation Holland America Festooning System


Step 4 – Commissioning & Testing Process • Winch lowers cables into hull & cables are connected to the ships infrastructure. • Testing is conducted to ensure system functionality. • Commissioning is completed.


System Details Design Criteria (Seattle) • Primary Voltage

27,000 Volts

• Transformer

16.25 MVA Delta-Wye

• Secondary Voltage

6,600 & 11,000 Volts

• Primary Full Load

355 Amps

• Secondary Load

853 Amps @ 11,000 Volts

• Ship Hotel Load

11MVA

• Power Factor

.83 to .86

• Construction Budget

$1.6 Million

• Construction Schedule

6 Months

• Utility Rate (Interruptible)

Vary

• Annual Consumption

11-12 GWH


Maritime Emissions Best Practices  

Maritime Emissions Best Practices for reducing emissions

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