STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR SPOTTING TEXTILES
FOREWARD The following Standard Operating Practices (SOPs) are intended to provide a guideline for proper spotting techniques when using GreenEarth silicone solvent. These techniques are similar to those advocated by the International Fabricare Institute (IFI) and Neighborhood Cleaners Association (NCA). It is recommended that either IFI or NCA be consulted for additional spotting procedures and techniques. It is important to only use detergents or additives that are GreenEarth approved. As a part of the approval process, General Electric evaluates detergents and additives as to their influence on the characteristics of silicone. A list of the approved detergents and additives can be found on GreenEarthâ€™s website (www.greenearthcleaning.com). Additives are chemical agents that are introduced into the cleaning machine. Approval is not needed if chemical agents are used locally on the spotting board then flushed prior to textiles being placed in the machine. Since dry cleaning programs may change based on the model of machine in operation and detergent used, it is best to consult the representative of the cleaning machine and the representative of the chemical company. This SOP is explicitly written for an experienced spotter. One who has had experience in spotting and the processing of textile garments will best understand the terms and explanations.
SECTION I: STAIN REMOVAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT The following tools are necessary for proper removal of stains. 1.
White Towels: a. Used as an absorbent for either solvent or water. b. Used to absorb stains as they are flushed from a fabric. c. Used to test or indicate dye bleeding from fabric. d. Used to clean spotting board surface.
Spotting Brushes: a. Two colors of brushes are used: i.
Black with agents on the dry side.
White with agents on the wet side.
b. At least two brushes per color should be available with different bristle hardness. c. A padded spotting brush is useful. d. Brushes are used for tamping. The mechanical action aids in the removal of stains. 3.
Spatula (Bone): a. Used to break up stains; allows agents to penetrate. b. Should not be used in a pointed fashion. c. Used only with minimal mechanical action.
Cheesecloth: a. Used for feathering. b. Used for testing for dye or colorfastness.
Scissors: Used to cut small samples of fabric for testing purposes.
Eye Dropper: Used to apply small amounts of agents.
Open Water Container (Bowl): a. Used for water source and spotting. b. Used for flushing wet side agents.
Spotting Board: a. The main piece of equipment that allows you to remove stains. b. Please refer to Appendix SP 1.
SECTION II: THE SPOTTING BOARD AND ORGANIZING CHEMICALS The spotting board has a flat working surface where most tamping and mechanical action occurs. The nose or front of the board has a Teflon cover and has the ability to vacuum when activated by a foot pedal. A flat surfaced sleeve board allows for work on cuffs and small areas of garments. It, too, has a nose that has a vacuum when activated. The board is equipped with three pedals that activate steam. Additionally, the board has a spotting gun that creates a vacuum and/or emits air. The preferred gun has a venturi ability, coupled to a supply vessel allowing for the agent to be atomized with the air or steam flow. At the rear of the spotting board is a storage area for spotting agents, brushes and bowls. Please refer to Appendix SP 2 for proper organization of agents.
SECTION III: TYPES OF STAINS There are four basic types of stains that require different techniques and agents. 1. Solvent Soluble Stains: These stains are typically oils, greases and waxes. Because the Kari-Butanol (KB) factor of GreenEarth is low it may be necessary to use an additional POG (paint, oil and grease remover) agent on the board prior to cleaning. In most cases this will not be necessary. The low KB value found in GreenEarth is what allows previously non-dry cleanable garments to be processed. The typical cleaner no longer has to wholesale as many items as cleaners using other solvents. 2. Water-Soluble Stains: These stains are typically sugars, salts, food, beverages and perspiration. These stains normally require pre- or post-spotting. The removal of these stains is augmented with the use of detergents and/or hydrated solvent. After cleaning in GreenEarth, wet-side stains can simply be blown out on the board. 3. Insoluble Stains: These stains are particle stains such as carbon, dust and sand. The low surface tension of GreenEarthâ€™s silicone helps penetrate and remove these stains. Insoluble stains may also require some mechanical action (tamping). While cleaning, it is important to have a high flow rate of solvent and ability to suspend or deposit these particles away from the garments. 4. Soluble Stains in Chemical Agents: These stains are made up of products like nail polish, lipstick, rust, paints, glues and albumin. It is necessary to use chemical agents to solubilize these stains. After working on the spotting board, it is important to flush the stain and chemical on the board prior to introducing the garment into the cleaning wheel. This insures the cleaning machine continues to operate with the most environmentally safe system. Please refer to Appendix SP 3a to 3g for a general breakdown on stains and categories classified in and for removal procedures.
APPENDIX SP 2 STAIN REMOVAL AGENTS AND PROCEDURES The following is the configuration of Agents on the back of the spotting board. The Chemical Agents are arranged in the following manner:
BACK OF BOARD
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
FRONT OF BOARD
Volatile Dry Solvent ( VDS ) Paint Oil and Grease Remove ( POG) Amyl acetate Leveling agent Neutral Synthetic Detergent ( NSD ) Tannin Formula or Acetic Acid General Formula Rust Remover Protein Formula or Ammonia 26% Digester
APPENDIX SP 3a STAIN REMOVAL AGENTS AND PROCEDURES CATEGORY OF STAIN: OILS, GREASES, FATS AND WAXES INCLUDING OXIDIZED AND NON-OXIDIZED OILS. VDS
POG PROCEDURE: FOR REMOVAL OF STAINS 1 Apply VDS to the stained area ( this allows other agents to be flushed easier and acts as a wetting agent. 2 Tamp 3 Flush with VDS 4 Apply VDS and POG if stain remains, if stain is hard allow chemical to saturate and remain on stain for softening. 5 Tamp 6 Flush with VDS 7 Reclean if necessary
APPENDIX SP 3b STAIN REMOVAL AGENTS AND PROCEDURES CATEGORY OF STAIN: NAIL POLISH, PLASTIC, SOME DYES ( DRY SIDE )
AMYL ACETATE PROCEDURE: FOR REMOVAL OF STAINS 1 Apply VDS to the stained area 2 Tamp or use Spatula ( use only necessary mechanical action) 3 If stain remains and fabric is safe apply VDS and POG. 4 Apply Amyl Acetate to stain area 5 Repeat steps 1 - 4 as needed 6 Flush with VDS 7 If steps 1 - 4 do not remove the stain, apply Acetone. Confirm fabric is compatible with Acetone. 8 Flush with VDS 9 Reclean if necessary
APPENDIX 3c STAIN REMOVAL AGENTS AND PROCEDURES CATEGORY OF STAIN: TANNIN STAINS AND CARAMELIZED SUGAR STAINS
TANNIN OR ACETIC ACID
RUST REMOVER PROCEDURE: FOR REMOVAL OF STAINS 1 Flush thoroughly with steam 2 Apply NSD and tamp. Then, flush with steam 3 If stain remains use tannin formula or acetic acid 4 Tamp or flush with steam 5 If stain remains use general formula; tamp and flush with steam 6 If traces remain use rust remover. While using rust remover be sure to use gloves, eye protection and a towel to protect the surface of the spotting board. Flush thoroughly. 7 As a last resort apply an oxidizing bleach to the stain after testing the fabric.
APPENDIX 3d STAIN REMOVAL AGENTS AND PROCEDURES CATEGORY OF STAIN: Animal glues, and albuminous materials ( Protein )
PROTEIN FORMULA OR AMMONIA 26 %
DIGESTER PROCEDURE: FOR REMOVAL OF STAINS 1 Flush thoroughly with steam 2 Apply NSD 3 Tamp and flush with steam 4 If stain remains, try protein formula or ammonia 5 Tamp and flush with steam 6 If stain remains use a digester 7 As a last resort apply an oxidizing bleach to the stain after testing the fabric.
APPENDIX 3e STAIN REMOVAL AGENTS AND PROCEDURES CATEGORY OF STAIN: Dye stains, any stain contain water and a dye i.e. cough syrup
TANNIN OR ACETIC ACID
PROTEIN FORMULA OR AMMONIA 26 % PROCEDURE: FOR REMOVAL OF STAINS 1 Flush with steam 2 Apply NSD 3 Tamp and flush with steam 4 If stain remains use tanning formula or acetic acid 28% 5 Tamp and flush with steam 6 If stain remains use general formula 7 Tamp and flush with steam 8 If residue remains use rust remover, use proper precautions 9 If necessary use protein formula or ammonia 26% 10 Tamp and flush with steam 11 As a last resort apply an oxidizing bleach to the stain after testing the fabric.
APPENDIX 3f STAIN REMOVAL AGENTS AND PROCEDURES CATEGORY OF STAIN: Combination stains; dry inks, cosmetics, crayons, paints, etc.
TANNIN OR ACETIC ACID
PROTEIN FORMULA OR AMMONIA 26 % PROCEDURE: FOR REMOVAL OF STAINS 1 Apply VDS to the stain area 2 Tamp and flush with VDS 3 If stain remains apply VDS and POG 4 Tamp and flush with VDS 5 Repeat steps 1 - 3 until bleeding stops 6 If stain remains flush with steam 7 Apply NSD, tamp flush with steam 8 If necessary follow same wet-side steps with protein formula or ammonia 9 Flush with water or steam 10 If stain remains use tannin, Tamp. Use general formula tamp, rust remover 11 As last step, use a reducing bleach after testing fabric.
APPENDIX 3g STAIN REMOVAL AGENTS AND PROCEDURES CATEGORY OF STAIN: UNKNOWN
TANNIN OR ACETIC ACID
PROTEIN FORMULA OR AMMONIA 26 % PROCEDURE: FOR REMOVAL OF STAINS 1 Apply VDS to the stain area 2 Tamp then flush with VDS 3 If stain remains apply amyl acetate 4 Flush with VDS 5 If necessary flush with steam and water 6 Apply NSD to stain area, if necessary 7 Flush with steam and water 8 Apply; tanning formula or acetic acid 28%, flush with steam and water 9 Apply general formula, tamp and flush with steam and water 10 Apply rust remover, caution should be taken, flush with steam and water 11 Last step use protein formula or ammonia and flush with steam and water