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Overview  Background  What is GreenEarth?  Silicone as a dry cleaning solvent  Properties  Process  Environmental fate  Performance  The Dry Cleaning Process using liquid silicone  The process of dry cleaning  Challenge of Hydrophilic Soil Removal  Summary

Most dry cleaners using petrochemical solvents  Can be dangerous to the environment and to people  Often misleadingly marketed as “organic”; organic means something very different when it describes chemicals vs. food  “Organic” chemicals are structured on a chain of carbon, the element found in all organic compounds ; gasoline is organic  85% use perchloroethylene, known as PCE or perc  EPA classified as air and water toxin, dangerous to human health  Exposure can lead to increased risk of cancer, reduced fertility and eye/nose/throat irritation  Approximately 10% use hydrocarbon solvents  EPA classified as VOCs (volatile air contaminants) and neurotoxins  Exposure poses risk of eye and skin irritants for workers

Three green alternatives  Professional wet cleaning  Uses water like home washing machines  Higher labor costs vs. traditional dry cleaning (garments can only be dried to 80%, then must be hand-blocked)  Watch out: potential for garment damage (e.g. wools) and toxic effluent (wet cleaning machines drain into city water system—no safeguard against dry cleaners who use detergents or spotting agents with toxic or VOC properties)  CO2 Cleaning  Coverts CO2 to liquid under high pressure. Uses reclaimed CO2. Process does release CO2 back into atmosphere.  Significantly higher equipment costs (2x-3x higher); operational costs also higher  Watch out: Solvair system uses gycol-ether (VOC chemical used in antifreeze) during wash cycle  GreenEarth Cleaning  Uses liquid silicone solvent  Comparable equipment costs to traditional dry cleaning. Lower labor costs (garments come out less wrinkled and require less finishing)

GreenEarth® Cleaning  Patented technology for liquid silicone (D5) based dry cleaning  Silicone used in many industries for many decades; dry cleaning a revolutionary application  Eight U.S. patents; many more in 42 countries around the world  An “accidental discovery”  Scientist working on cosmetic formulation stirred liquid silicone with finger and realized it removed fats and oils from his skin without drying it out…wondered if it could do the same for clothes  GreenEarth Cleaning LLC & trademark registered in 1999  GE Silicones and P&G founding members  GE a leading manufacturer of silicone, P&G their leading purchaser of silicone  Rights to process and trademark require annual license  License ~1400 machines globally  Austria, Australia, United States, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Ireland, New Zealand, Turkey, UK  System uses specially designed detergents  P&G pioneered detergency around silicone’s unique chemistry

Silicone (D5) as Dry Cleaning Solvent

Density: Viscosity: Flash Point: Appearance: Vapor Pressure: Supply:

Slightly less than water Similar to water 77 째C Colorless, Odorless liquid Low heat of vaporization Commercially available

GreenEarth meets industry needs  Viable alternative to petroleum based solvent systems  Safely degrades to sand and trace amounts of water and CO2—eliminates

regulatory and contamination issues  Similar equipment costs vs. traditional dry cleaning machines  Excellent overall cleaning  Able to clean wider variety of garments vs. harsh petrochemicals  Marketable difference  Science behind the system makes it better for fabrics  Solvents are not strong or weak on their own—strength measured on how they work in combination with additives to dissolve soil particulates  GreenEarth system uniquely able to clean clothes without damaging fibers  Designed to molecularly work with detergents and cleaning action of dry cleaning machines to remove soils without “touching” or chemically interacting with fabric fibers

Environmental Fate: D5 Silicone Antiperspirants, Skin Care, Other Personal Care products

Wastewater Treatment Plant

Air >99%

>1% Landfill Incineration

Note: Silicone is a main ingredient in many personal care products. With dry cleaning, silicone does not go to a water treatment plant, it is recycled within the machine, in a closed loop process.


Photodegradation 8-10 days

Soil Hydrolysis and Biodegradation

Various Silanols

SiO2 CO2 H2O Source: GE Silicones.

International Fabricare Institute (IFI) “Based on our overall evaluations, IFI’s findings are that GreenEarth® Cleaning is a viable alternative for the drycleaning industry, and while different in some respects, is comparable to a perc drycleaning process.” GreenEarth


A. Cleaning Performance B. Handle Garments you currently process C. Affordable/Operating Costs D. Realistic Capital Costs E. Health Issues F. Contamination Issue OVERALL Source: 2002 IFI Fellowship Study

The Machine Process of Dry Cleaning

Detergency Optimization

Cleaning performance

The right detergent dramatically improves cleaning ability in D5

Fabricare Optimization Gentler on fabrics than perc solvent or water 0.0


1.0 0.8

0.2 0.4

0.6 0.8









1.0 0.0




0.2 Oils


Quantum Mechanics and Cohesive Energy Density explain why silicone chemistry offers better balance of cleaning and care‌molecular interaction with fabric and detergent 0.0


fD Fractional Hansen Solubility Parameters: fi=di/(dD+dP+dH)

Hydrophilic Cleaning  Toughest challenge for cleaning in silicone… thermodynamically “uphill”  Destabilizing soil on fabric improves cleaning—why detergent emulsification key

Soil Removed and Kinetically stabilized



Fabric Hydrophilic soil


D5 Cleaning Process

Successful Cleaning Process

Hydrophilic Cleaning  Breaking soil-soil interactions make soils “liquid-like”  Delivering some water to hydrophilic soils is key for

effective cleaning

 Surfactants that “manage” water – deliver and make available to

soils – are most effective

 P&G pioneered the detergency for silicone based dry


Maintaining Fabric Care  GreenEarth’s chemically inert properties make it especially good

for fabric care in addition to fabric cleaning  Water swells fabrics and degrades/damages them; perc rubs on surface fibers and “wears” them out

 The more the cleaning process can minimize fiber swelling, the

better it can minimize:  Abrasion…looks newer, longer  Dye loss and/or transfer…keeps colors bright

Summary  GreenEarth Cleaning silicone (D5) based process excellent

for dry cleaning

 Advantageous physical properties: cleaning/care balance 

Excellent fabricare benefits…look newer, longer

 Safe for the environment 

Significant advantage over petroleum-based solvents

 Affordable equipment costs 

Sustainable “green” business model

 Successful implementation in the dry cleaning industry 

Marketable difference vs. other dry cleaning methods

 Not just solvent, optimized cleaning system  Based on molecular interactions of detergent, solvent & fabric

Scientific PPT on GEC Difference  

PowerPoint on science of GEC

Scientific PPT on GEC Difference  

PowerPoint on science of GEC