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AIR Dimitri Blazos 2013

AIR Part A

Case for innovation

Dimitri Blazos Tutors: David and Adam 2013

Table of Contents About Me......................................................................01 About Me: Past Work.....................................................02 Case For Innovation Architecture as a discourse............................................04 Satolas TGV....................................................................05 Vikingskipet....................................................................06 Computation vs Computerisation...................................07 Architecture and the design space.................................08 ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012................................09/10 Parametric Modelling and Scripting Cultures....................11 BOXEL.........................................................................12/13 Capital Gateway.............................................................14 Algorithmic Exploration..................................................15/16 Conclusion......................................................................17 Learning Outcomes........................................................18 References.....................................................................19


About ME

Dimitri James Blazos My name is Dimitri, I am a current student of Melbourne University studying a Bachelor of Environments. I began my journey at a polytechnic school in 2010, studying a Bachelor of Architecture. I familiarised myself with freehand drawing, drafting, model making, sculpture, AutoCAD etc. After completing my first year, I transfered interstate and studying Bachelor of Architecture at the University of Canberra. Here I further studied design and architectural history, also taught myself Revit to help with the conceptualisation of my designs. In Canberra our design focus was to not treat physical models as something precious, rather as a tool for improvement. This involved moving parts, cutting and glueing. After completing a semester in Canberra and finding out I was accepted into the University of Melbourne I packed my bags and headed home. After completing second semester 2012, and having to do first year core subjects I further learnt more about computer design. Virtual Environments taught me a lot about Rhino which allowed me to create forms which would have been time consuming and difficult in Revit or AutoCAD.


computer aided design

Freehand drawing has always been something I have used in the inital stages of conceptualisation. In partnership with models , simple forms I find are much quicker to do by hand which I guess had become an intuitive part of my designing. After completing Virtual my perception began to change, about the usefullness of CAD in the conception process. With plug-ins such as Grasshopper, the manipulation of a form can help to simulate that of freehand drawing, which I believe is a very useful tool.

About ME

Past Work

2nd Year: University of Canberra 2013 My work in second year at the University of Canberra was a step up from my previous studies at a polytechnic design school in Melbourne. The assignment (fig 1.1, fig 1.2) was to design a house which was constrained to 100m^2, which attempted to adapt to its landscape. This assignment focused on ideas of circulation and how one would arrange the spaces of a house (e.g. Work, Rest, Play). This design was a modification of an initial design which was inspired by a snake and its articulated properties. As far as using computation it wasn’t manditory but I felt that it would help with conceptualising the space. Having known the skills now of Rhino, I think I would have used them because constraints such as the 100m^2 did change the outcome of my design. By using parametrics this would have allowed me to manipulate the form later in the design process, not allowing those sorts of parameters to determine my design. Having completed my first semester of second year in Canberra I moved back to Melbourne where I completed some first year subjects at the University of Melbourne - most beneficial being Virtual Environments. Virtaul Environments introduced us to Rhino as a modelling tool for forms, I utilised panelling tool plug-ins to creating geometries on the surface of my form.

fig 1.1

First year: Virtual Environments 2012

fig 1.2

fig 2.1

fig 2.2

fig 2.3

The surface contained a point attractor which varied the size of the openings along the surface. The design itself was inspired by a sound wave and the properties which make up any wave (peak, trough, amplitude). By using a three point pipe command I created the surface to express a change in amplitude of a wave. The spikes along the surface expressed the intensity change with the change in amplitude (fig 2.2). Virtual Environments gave me the fundermentals I needed for Design Studio Air, as the fabrication process introduced us to Grasshopper in order to create tabs along the fabricated sheets of paper. The photograph shows the final fabricated panel, which became one of 36 pieces which formed my design. The image underneath shows the A1 paper layouts of the “unrollings�.


Case for innovation

architecture as a discourse The origins of the word discourse relate to communication as a written or spoken form. When we speak about it in relation to architecture, discourse focuses on what has been said about particular architecture and its varying interpretations. Throughtout time, architectural meaning; and what defines good architecture has changed and is constantly changing. This changes the discourse of what architecture is and how it is defined, either by a proffessional or non professional public.

Architecture & Visual Culture

This weeks reading emphasises how architecture is ubiquitous in our daily lives. Being perceived as an art form, architecture is superior to its counterparts (sculpture, painting) but requires a similar mindset to these forms of artists. To have a good piece of architecture is to challenge what was believed in the past and present and to be innovating and exciting. Due to its social and polical relations, architecture is open to interrogation and criticism, from non-specialised public. As an art historian might describe the facade and aestheic appeals of a building the discourse in architecture and what has been said about particular buildings differs and is open to interpretation. Barthes analyses buildings such as the Eiffel Tower where he suggests “a radical openness to interpretation” and in comparision to Ruskin who would look at its origins and engineer. Lastly architecture needs to concern its occupants and their experience within the urban environment and the psychological effects it may have upon them- “Architecture as sign one; architecture as urban and social experience another”.


According to Barthes architecture is open to interpretation and an understanding of the architects intentions in relations to determining the form, its contextual (why was it possitioned in a specific location) and what emotions the architect intended to enlist within its dwellers. All these ideas and interpretations are what make up the discourse within architecture.


The blob is a metaphor used to express a material which is neither singular nor multiple. Its form is very much related to its contextual constraints, “they possess neither a global form nor a single identity”. This notion and idea of a blob has stimulated new architectural thought which creates alternatives to Cartestian Volumes. It is the new age of architecture of investigating topological surface organisations. These are completely different ideas to the perpendicular and oblique forces which traditional design focuses on. Mark Rakatansky’s, Adult Day Care Cenre is an example of Blob construction, which stems away from “symmetrical articulated upright man”. This concept of thinking, rather as Blob Construction illustrates a forward approach to architecture and thinking, in a more complex way.

This new age of technology aided by the developments of computer technology has allowed for recent projects which require complex roof forms. The most obvious example, being our very own Southern Cross Station reminds me of the metaphor of the blob. The roof is very much like a membrane, similar to the blob. It is like a singular cell organism which acts as a multiple.

Santiago Calatrava Satolas TGV

fig 1.1

fig 1.1

fig 1.2

fig 1.3

The Satolas TGV in France, designed by Santiago Calatrava came from a early sculture of his (fig 1.3). His inspiration originated from large birds in flight, using a process of time lapse to depict this. The discourse through photography (fig 1.1) and understanding the local area and its function helps us to justify reasonings for the architects decision making process - traditionally the area operates as a large airport. The new TGV allows for connection to the city of Lyon, which is 30 killometres away. In further investigating this building and coming across a YouTube Video. It became clear as to the bird influence being represented through the structural elements of the building. If you imagine a bird in flight, its wings travel in an arc motion creating a peak and trough. Calatrava emulates this through large cylindrical arches which support and stiffen the roof structure. The struts which follow the curvature, signifies a sort of frame rate personification. Each strut being the change in positioning of the bird. The elements of this building make it quite sculptural, as it is not a large train station, so its intentions in my opinnion are to appeal more aesthetically and to exemplify structural capabilities. As spoken about by Richard Williams, “Architectural training still imagines architects to be essentially artists, who will not be much involved with the construction of the building, but will be drawing and talking about idea”. As much as I agree to an extent with this statement, the modern day architect how now become much more than an “artist”. As I will speak about this more in the Parametric Design section, the modern day designer is very much involved with the construction and is no longer a designer - but a computer scientist and a mathematician. Calatrava’s building, even though being very sculptural and does not really blend into its surroundings has a lot of these modern day thoughts on construction and parametrics. In my opinnion it is a good mix of new and old.

Biong & Biong

Olympic hall, hamar

Located within Hamar, Norway is this large olympic ice skating rink. Labelled the viking ship, the form represents the hull of a traditional Norweigen Oselver boat. Besides the fact that Norway has a tradition of ice-skating its form suggests an emphasis on cultural maintaince and its importance to the city.

The gigantic hull appears to float seemlessly, with its simplicity being deceptive, as it contains 10 different roof heights. Context as well as economic factors were large determinents of the discourse of the architectural form and its positioning.


Having an understanding of what the form is. It is then clear as to why the architect made certain structure decision as well as site decisions. Its hull influence showed through timber construction on the interior, as well as being positioned next to water - to further suggest its connection to sailing.

“the viking ship”

1. Hull would be moved 50m away from the bird sanctuary 2. Oversvation towers for bird watching 3. Positioned next to lumber terminal for economic savings.

If we were to compare Norways ice skating rink with Swedans design by ‘BIG Architects’, the discourse surrounding ice skating rink design would be the same but the architects intent for a specific design on a specific location is ultimately what distinguishes a design. In contrast to “The Viking Ship” the hidden design of the Norwegian rink connects with its landscape, not leaving such a large triumphal state which the Olympic Hall makes. The Viking ship also displays cultural significance and creates a bold statement letting its occupants know that its here, rather than being tucked away to appear melting into the landscape.

Computation Vs Computerisation The increasing and revolutionary inclusion of computational design within architecture, has transformed the way we discourse about architecture, as well as the approach to design. This innovative and exciting transitifion from traditional approaches, of rectalinear buildings which do not represent real life, create a new dimension and approach to the design proccess. Dr. Roudavski in his lecture spoke about this design process approach which begins before the brief is assigned, allowing for a generation of computational ideas which have the capability for later manipulation to fit the brief of the client. Kalay reflects on this idea, with the use of geometric puzzles. Where a “desired solution can be formulated prior to and independently of the search for the solution that satisfies them”. These ideas are further discusses in the Woodbury reading on the ideas of the design space. Kalay further emphasises the power of computational utilisation and the abilities of discourse between allied building and engineering professionals. This approach allows for inputs to be made, such as structural analysis, goal setting, as well as devising actions that might accomplish them.

Patrik Schumacher of Zaha Hadid architects reflects on this new and innovative approach to architecture. As the discourse surrounding architecture and ‘style’ is changing, parametricism deserves to be given its own movement. As this new modern style is still hidden behind closed doors in the architectural world, it is only time before it will break out into the world. Parametricism is a large shift from conventional drawing methods, as it treats architectural elements to be malleable. “Instead of classical and modern reliance on rigid geometrical figures- rectangles, cubes, cylinders, pyramids and spheres - the new primitives of parametricism are animate geometrical entities -splines, nurbs and subdivs”. Through my own exploration in parametric design using Grasshopper this is very much the case. The shift from very geometric shapes to more organic shapes is now being reflected more in my work, as can be seen in my “Algorthmic Exploration” section on page 12. I hope to also bring this new ‘style’ to the gateway project.

Architecture and the design space Design space in refernece to computing, is the idea that design involves the analysis and manipulation of design to create alternatives. This design space, which is organised into cell like structure, isolates the separate components which make up the design space. Designers who initate some sort of form, use this as a guide to aid for evaluation and re-configuration of a concept. An undiscovered design often is linked and its derivation is often determined by the amount of pathways it has. Figure 1 outlined in Woodbury’s reading, illustrates how multiple design solutions (discovered designs) help to determine an undiscovered design solution. This suggests that with exploration, possible parametres could be set which can help to form a solution. With my work using grasshopper, generating ideas helped me formulate a solution - as it worked as a progressive realisation, of the capabilities to progress a design from an initial motivator. The interesting thing about architecture is that it is becoming less static and computerisation allows designers to amplify idea, which may be to difficult and complicating to conceptualise and manipulate by freehand as well as brief and client constraints. Similar to figure 1, figure 2 outlines this application of the design space to the real word and the design constraints.

This idea is very relevant to the gateway project and the ability to form a concept which can later be alternated when a design brief and certain constraints are given.

ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012

Institute for computational design

The University of Stuttgart completed a research pavilion which was manufactured entirely through robotic procedures - the fabrication involved using carbon and glass fibre composites. Being part of the ICD and the ITKE, students from the engineering and architecture department formed an alliance to generate a form which uses “biomimetic design strategies� and robotic production. Inspired from a biological sense, research involved looking As the design process of any architectural building requires a team effort of engineers, contractors and quantity servayers, the benefits of computer design, allows for sharing of information which can be manipulated and sent The use of robotics in the fabrication stage is very much so computer related. The computer works and sets rules , alogorithms, which act as simple instructions for the 6-axis robotic arm which spanned 2m and was elevated on a pedestal.

The discoruse surrouning such projects and other projects, especially pavilions (which I have found a new facination for) I would like to stress is influenced by its inspirations, context but also computation. A project such as this, as intricate and as complex would have been ultimately impossible to conceive and to build conventionally. For this reason the Gateway project needs to have an intent, it needs to relate to its context and it needs to satisfied an unprecedented design which does not rely on past precedent to be the driving force. Furthermore, using computational design allows architects and students to integrate material choice and form into their designs, making comparisons, analysing which structure or material performs better, as well as fabrication capabilities and installation time. Is it insitu, or transported to the site?

Parametric Modelling and scripting cultures “Parametric

Designers and architects are constantly under the spotlight, to create new ways of designing and thinking - forcing them to explore new ways of representing ideas, constructing ideas and fabricating ideas. It has only been in the last decade where parametric design has really changed and evolved the way architecture is constructed and perceived. Robert Woodbury’s analysis of the new paradigm, suggests that the modern day designer, needs to be a “designer, a computer scientist and a mathematician”. He suggests that the task of being a designer in itself is difficult enough for the individual. In my opinion, this statement suggests that designers need to grasp concepts well beyond mere aesthetics and form creation. The modern day designer is required to critically understand concepts of programming, algorithms and geometry all branches of mathematics. This shift eliminates the capabilities of utlising conventional design techniques (T squares, set squares), and rather assist the cognitive limitations of humans to generate more complex geometries. This statement though is challenged in Mark Burrys’ reading, that parametric design allows for the simplification of geometry. But further discourse into parametric design suggests that an understanding of how parametric systems operate or work is unnecessary. An understanding which scrapes the surface and doesn’t delve into the ‘nitty gritty’ mathematics/programming associated with the scripted language. Mark Burry refers to this idea as scripting culture which is said to be as “the implications of lower-level computer programming”. In contrast to Woodbury’s views, Burry suggests and reinforces the importance of designer engagement with scripting, and having the ability to “completely reconfigure software”.

Design forces the designer to be a designer, a computer scientist and a mathematician”

To further analyse this shift from conventional methods, this process of constant improvement and if you like, assistance, is helping design as a whole. Woodbury demonstrates this concept through ideas of pen and paper, then to incorporating T square, triangle, which made drawings more accurate. This shift is very similar to making models which initially are ‘easy’ to construct, but ultimately difficult to manipulate and change its dimensions and compositional properties. This often causes problems because it may limit the exploration and effectively restrict the design. As a student I have come across these limitations, in attempt to create complex geometries. Even in an attempt to create them, designs have become inaccurate or very time consuming to complete. Similarly to Woodbury, Burry recognises this constant debate and tension between computer design as practical “aide-decamp” (assisting), and computer as “digital



BOXEL Students of Detmolder Schule

This parametric temporary structure created by university students of Detmolder Schule, designed this structure from beer boxes. It was designed as a pavilion project for the students of the architecture department. It functions as a presentation area, concert stage and gathering area of events. The project was created under the digital design course, where students were asked to create a mock up in scale 1:1, using digital design and fabrication tools. The freeform geometry created with 2000 beer boxes was created with the Grasshopper plug-in for Rhino. This sort of software allowed students to control the positioning of boxes in relation to its overall geometry. Something which would have been ultimately very difficult to do with conventional methods of design. Students could use stress analysis to determine the loads of the structure and its overall performance. Similar in my own exploration, creating a surface which expresses contours and then assignining geometry to that contoured surface which you can see in the photos below. A continuation of this would then be an extrusion of those geometries on the surface to creat something similar to the BOXEL project. Of course the BOXEl uses much more complex geometry as it twists laterally as well.

The discourse surrounding pavilions is an interesting topic to look at seen as though I have also reviewed the ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012. In analysing these two structures it is important to understand why the designer (student) came to a certain design and what was the overall intent. In evaluating the two, their intentions seem to be similar but branch off in different directions. As both create a shelter for people to circulate through the form, this suggests that an initial design involved a skin (or a surface) which was then later manipulated to create very specific contextual and cultural information. Especially with the BOXEL project, to me, the beer boxes resembles a facination with alcohol amounghts students within the university environment, a ‘culture’ which appeals to students. As for the Reasearch Pavilion, its intent wasnt as much contextual rather material exploration in robotics and exoskeletal structures. Regardless of their different intents both perform a similar task and abide by the clients (the projects) outlines.

Capital Gateway: RMJM architects Abu Dhabi

Having looked at small scale projects through my exploration into parametric design and modelling. How does this apply to very large scale and indeed revolutionary buildings to architecture? In understand the basics of computer programming and scripting culture, designers can use these techniques to apply to very large scale projects. Allowing them to do very complex stress analysis of structures (such as the one on the left) which would have been practically impossible or very time consuming in the past. When searching parametric architecture you get a range of projects and proposals designed by famous architects and students. But if I was to challenge parametric and its meaning, it is difficult to give it a clear and generic meaning. If a simple way to express parametric design as merely being ‘change’ as Woobury says in his article, how does that change the way architecture is produced? For large scale projects such as the Leaning Tower of Abu Dhabi, this ‘changability’ means that a set of parameters or constraints set by the client, allow for small adjustments to be made to the form or structure. Other ideas of change could be that the triangulation on the surface which may have been produced when/if the building was linear doesnt need to be regenerated when changes are made to the model. For many, such as Michael Meredith, believe that this movement to parametric design is “The mastering of hi-tech engineering software” which is used to produce architecture which is ornate and decorative. His views suggest that parametric is superficial and still skin-deep and maybe “lacking framework of referents, narratives, history and forces”.

Similarly to the Capital Gate, Wyndam Cities Gateway needs to act as an iconic structure which represents a given meaning of the city (what is to come). The Capital Gate for example attempts to represents the dynamism of Abu Dhabi and its forward thinking in technology and architecture. In my exploration for the Wyndam City Gateway I will attempt to find a connection contextually and culturally in order to create a monumental piece of parametric architecture that is functional and aesthetically appealing. Thinking about “Architecture as Art”, but not forgetting its purpose and its uses.

Algorithmic Exploration

fig 1.1


With the introduction to Grasshopper, I began in Week 1, grasping concepts of lofting and baking. For this reason I wanted to express my workflow in a timeline to show the progression as well as the more complex ideas which came about as the weeks progressed. My exploration with Rhino after week 1, made me realise the strengths associated with parametric design in Grasshopper. The readings were a great starting point for me in understanding how parametric design can be useful, as it allows for changes to be made to the design during the design process. My exploration helped me realise how a tool such as Rhino- Grasshopper can be used as a design tool to manipulate, tweek and adjust to a design brief, well into a project. I chose (fig 1.1) because it shows the capabilities of Grasshopper to completely alter a set geometry to better suit its intent. Because at the end of the day, all projects have a purpose and without a client there is no project.

Week 2 Week 2 was very much an extension of what was learnt in Week 1 and applying it to real life design. I felt that in Week 2, Grasshopper became a lot more clear, in terms of the “Why am I applying this node” which allowed me to complete the vase assignment. In my vase exploration, I looked at different ways of expressing the same thing, because I felt this was the only way of really understanding what I was doing. In designing the vase I explored lofting, rotating, mirroring, C plane’s and arcs to fomrulate a solution (or the best possible solution) to my intent. Figure 1.2 is my further exploration have already designed the vase - which expresses this further understand of planes as well as list and point connections. My research thus helped me to extend the material within the tutorial and apply what I learnt into the next class to help me understand more complex ideas. My research benefitied as well from the readings which helped me to realise how one would apply this knowledge in the real workd.

fig 1.2

Week 3 Week 3 proved to be very beneficial with my algorithmic exploration with Grasshopper. I found that I was beginning to really understand what I was doing and was capable of creating designs which made sense and that I understood apply to real life building projects - designing a seat. Through my exploration, once again it extended beyond the tast of creating some that people could sit on, but I also looked at applying more commands that I knew. I applied what I learnt in Week 1 (lofting) then what I had learnt in Week 2 (Dividing and an understanding of the plane) to form the base of my final design. Finally with Week 3, it focused on lists and Explode Tree in order to assign points along three curves with the same numerical value. In doing so I needed to understand how lists work, as well as grid systems which were the first tutorials of Week 3. I have included (Fig, 1.5, 1.6 and 1.7) to show my exploration with using Geodesic.

LOFT > Divide > Geodesic

fig 1.3

fig 1.4

fig 1.5

fig 1.6

fig 1.7

fig 1.5


As Robert Woodbury states “Parametric Design forces the designer to be a designer, a computer scientist and a mathematician” is now broadening the scope of architecture and the way it is produced. With my knowledge in computer science and mathematics, I intend on bringing these skills to the Gateway Project to design unprecedentedly. My exploration throughout this journal helps to eliminate the linear thinking of ‘CAD’ and conventional drawing methods, which often mask further exploration due to time constraints and congnitive limitations.

My experience with architectural computing in contrast with the readings has changed the way i approach design. i treat design as a constant manipulation, which later leads to buildings. My experience with parametric design has allowed me to treat design, as i would, using conventional methods - but eliminating the cognitive limitations as well as the capability to generate more complex and well thought out designs.

Learning Outcome

with the knowledge i have/will gain from this semester, past works could have been explored further and i would have been able to compare my first proposal to my final. this exploration is known as the design space, where ‘putting something on the page’ as a starting point, later leads to other branches of design proposals which may better suit a given brief.

References 1. Archspace, 2013, image [online] 2. NIELSTORP, OLYMPIC HALL, VIKINGSKIPET ACCESSED 26/3/13 [ONLINE]- 3. bjarke ingels group 2012, accessed 26/3/13 [online]- 4. Arch20 ICD-ITKE accessed 26/3/13 [online] b. futures design accessed 25/3/13 [online] 5. evolo “Eco sustainable housing” parametric design accessed 25/3/13 [online]- 6. CAD-A-Blog accessed 27/3/13 [online]- 7. Jordana, sebastian 2010 “arch daily” accessed 28/3/13 [online] - 8. Michler, Andrew (2010), Capital Gate: Parametric Design Results in Worlds Steepest Leaning Building accessed 29/3/12 [online]-

Text references: 1. Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 116 2. Lynn, Greg (1998) “Why Tectonics is Square and Topology is Groovy”, in Fold, Bodies and Blobs: Collected Essays ed. by Greg Lynn (Bruxelles: La Lettre volée), pp. 169-182. 3. Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25 4. Woodbury, Robert F. and Andrew L. Burrow (2006). ‘Whither design space?’, Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, 20 , 2, pp. 63-82 5. Woodbury, Robert (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-48 6. Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 8 - 71 7. Patrik Schumacher on parametricism - ‘Let the style wars begin’ accessed 2/4/13- [online]- http://app.lms. id%3D_262336_1%26navItem%3Dcontent%26attachment%3Dtrue%26href%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.

Design Studio Air

Part B: EOI 2

B.1. - Case Study 1.0- Design Focus - SECTIONING B.2. - Case Study 2.0 B.3. - Architecture by implication B.4. - Bitmap, Point Attraction, wae B.5. -Refinement





ectioning is the cut or slice of a geometry to form an orthogonal cut through the object. These pieces, in its most basic form, form orthogonal slots which are placed parallel to each other in order to generate or imply a surface or geometry. Some examples of this include contour or topographies which use ribs placed in sequence, parallel to each other to create a larger shape.


he Banq restaurant project was a development to an existing office building space. Its refurbishment involved parametric design CAD, CAM processes to generate the sectioned surface. The timber structure of forested spruce, were organised in a “curvilinear continuity” [1] as stated. In order to create the intended form, care was taken within the fabrication process as well as within the exploration process to make sure that the spacing of the ribs would be set at the correct intervals in order to generate a surface which expresses the designers intention.

figure 1


he Gateway Project is a great and useful example of our intention to create architecture through implication. Its form suggests motion and according to the angle in which a viewer observes the structure, things become hidden or visible, e.g. allowing light to come in where ribs are parallel to sun rays.

figure 2


figure 3

figure 4

figure 4



figure 5



he Webb Bridge, he “curved and similarly to the Banq sinuous” [2] arches Resterant Project used the which cover the walkway existing Webb Dock Rail have been generated by Bridge, which connects the computation in order Docklands and the new to be prefabricated. It is residential development. essentially a tunnel which The Webb Bridge Project changes in intensity as is sectioning in a different one walks towards the application with a different south which is said to intention. This change in represent the heart or intensity through spacing cacoon of the structure of ribs is what we intend to (figure 6). achieve through the Gateway Project and a sense of being in constant motion (figure 5).


his change in intensity through spacing of ribs is what we intend to achieve through the Gateway Project and a sense of being in constant motion.

figure 6


B.1. - CASE STUDY 1.0 Matrix: x: Exploration of the Banq Resterant



1 Through our exploration we looked at changing parameters of the “OfficeDA Banq restaurant. 1A-right through to 1D looked at ways to adjust the surface division planes in order to create a parametric surface that could have potential for movement through.

2 In adjusting this parameter the aim was to see whether two extremes of the same parameter adjustment can still give similar effect. A1 expresses a more simplified version of 1D, yet its basic idea is still present.

3 Row 3 adjusts the base thickness giving the sectioned surface added height.

In adjusting this parameter the aim was to see whether two extremes of the same parameter adjustment can still give similar effect. A1 expresses a more simplified version of 1D, yet its basic idea is still present.

Architecture through implication





e then looked at how we might use this technique to create something that could work as a real structure. Instead of using a flat surface we created our own using a curve to define the direction of the ribs. Making changes to the grasshopper file, changing sliders, adding radomisations, we could come up with different surfaces and geometries. Creating a waffle then helped us understand how the component parts can be merged together to form a structure. The waffle forms the very basis of what we intend to achieve in the future.


e came up with a arched form which as a gateway could have a road or freeway running beneath it. We then divided the surface in two directions to create an interlocking structure as another desing alternative.


Grasshopper Algorithm to generate basic surface curves

The wae was the most basic organisation we discovered when creating these curves upon the surface which had the potential for fabrication. Our only concerns with this form is that it is repeated in many works around the world. Later in the journal I speak about a table which uses this method of sectioning.

B.2-Case Study 2.0



figure 7


cafe by day and a venue for talks and events by night, the 2005 Serpentine Gallery Pavilion by Alvaro Sizo is a great example of how sectioning can be used to produce a structure. Similar to our exploration, the pavilion is based on a waffle like grid system, which are made from short planks of timber which are then folded down at the edges to form angled walls. Panes of polycarbonate fill in the squares of the grid until it meets the ground on extended “legs” (figure 7). The Pavilion is a good example of architecture adapting to its context, as the original form was meant to have a different sort of geometry, (rectangular) however due to the position of nearby trees the form was changed to account for them. This demonstrates the flexibility of the sectioning tech-

nique, in adapting to an environment which would have been much more difficult with, for example a solid wall. Thus in our Gateway project we hope to adapt our sectioning structure to the enviormnet of the site and make it appear as a product of the landscale rather than a ‘spaceship’ which has landed.

Serpentine Gallery Pavilion


Reverse-Engineering Serpentine Gallery Pavilion




figure 8


he sectioned coffee table named “Sectionimal” was created by a digitial design team from Chili gt_2P. The design utilised digital design software in order to generate the sectioned volumetric surfaces. The design team looked at fabrication, manufacturing and construction from these media. It is clear from the photos that this form of design sugguests that sections join using a slotting method which reduces the requirement for joinary or no joinary (figure 8). A large issue which we have explored, especially in the Banq Resterant project is minimising waste. A table such as this, which is made from flat pieces requires large areas of material to generate surfaces to form the wedged shape. This is my biggest cristicism with many waffle projects we see, it would be good in exploring for the Gateway project a way to minimise waste.


Reverse-Engineering SECTIONIMAL - gT2P

Through our exploration of the sectionimal project we began our research by generating algorithms through Rhino. It involved generating a basic surface which was then exploded and simplified in order to create multiple frames along the surface. This was the basis for the more complicated model below.

The algorithm which we ran in order to generate a very similar sectioned surface to the Sectionimal project involved applying what was learnt in the above example and then duplicating the commands and changing the item node in order to alter the direction in which the planes are created. This change was made by changing the slider from 5 to 4 which if you imagine a square from plan it chooses the east line after having been allocated initially the north line an addition of these creates the grid system. Through further research we will develop ways of joining the pieces through minimal connections.

Architecture by implication


Input Curve

Surface or Geometry Sectioning is Architecture through implication, it is about dissecting a form and then referencing it with less than the sum of its parts. Because sectioning is about cutting up an original form, what we can do is defined by the original geometry or surface. So the origin form is just as important as what we choose to do with that form.


D e s i g n D i a g ra m: S e ctio ning and explora t i on








Fabcrication Exploration

Though my exploration into grasshopper I looked at two diferent exampples of creating a very similar outcome. My first attempt on the left looked at creating curves, dividing and utilising the pframes command to create a poly surface which resembles something which could be laser cut. Though this exploration I came across many difficulties which I am still challenging. The photo above shows how I am trying to go about creating the notches. The example on the left is a more suitable approach I took but with a much more complicated algorithm,. The algorithm below cuts the geometry into sections which then allowed me to copy, move and position where I wanted the notches. The text tag 3D command then allowed me to number these in order to fabricate clearly, knowing where to place objects.

B.3 Bitmap, point attraction, non orthogonal wae


Static VS The Dynamic Structure

The Wyndham City Gateway Project The Site


he idea that architecture is viewed in a “state of distraction” is discussed by some critics such as Walter Benjamin. He expresses it as something which is viewed in the corner of your eye, something which you pass through to ger to your destination. As the critic Walter Benjamin argues, most people tend to look at architecture in a ‘state of distraction’, as something to be viewed from the corner of your eye, but not looked at in detail, as something to pass through to where you need to go.1 A large problem we face with the Gateway Project is people perceiving the structure as a state of distraction and not a structural form to be admired. We perceived freeways to be path or rail which takes us on a journey (preferably quickly) in order to get to our destination. Therefore, to be in-tune with the user we have chosen MOTION as our design approach. As a team we feel that this approach is suitable for a possible arch form which depicts this speed that is desired by the user of the freeway. Sectioning is a great tool for depicting speed as the ribs act as frames which can be manipulated to play tricks on the user.

1 Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, p. 103.




he ‘portal of Awareness’ by Rojkind Arquitectos is a public installation that is designed to be a space that experienced in motion. One of the eight projects commissioned by coffee maker Nescafe, the installation contains 1500 metal cups attached to the inside of a diagonal mesh of steel rods which casts dynamic shadows on the sidewalk,which changes according to the positioning and angle of the sun. The curved asymmetrical structure creates a sense of motion and allows the form to be different from various angles. It also show how colour can be used to create a sense of change.




Other areas of exploration A t t r a c t o r Po i n t G r i d Sy s t e m


n extrusion of the point attracted polygonal surface with changing radius. I used the hexagon in order to represent how the surface changes dynamically as the point travels along the reperamatised curve. This is our other side of the spectrum to our bitmapping approach as it allows us to apply a surface to a bitmap which has curvature to it.


his distribution is another extrusion of what is generated when I moved the attractor point along the curve. For this example the radius of the circle increases as the attractor point travels further away. The closest items to the point remain the smallest. This example shows how attractor points play on scale. In reference to the gateway such an idea is used in creating the panels which generated our surface for our final model.



Non Orthogoonal Grid


Grid Attractor Point Matrix






Point Attractor




figure 9


he Contemplay pavilion designed by students of McGill University, is a clear example of fluid movement through material choice and application - with a clear understanding of structure and material properties. The structure consists of timber which has been formed and paired with steel beams shows clear movement or motion through time-lapse (figure 9). Our intentions for our design is the user to engage with the structure, especially how it changes according to the dierent angles it is viewed at.



Twist Surface


After our mid semester crit, it was really put into perspective for us that we needed a clear direction to take rather than three approaches. As a team we took the feedback given by the tutors and made further developments to our explorations, bringing all our ideas together and collaborating them into a coherant form which expresses the exploration directions we took. Our final outcome shows our abilities to apply the knowledge of the sample algorithms and to form our own definition which applies to our intent. As our initial structure lacked innovation, our further exploration shows that we have gone beyond and continued to develop our ideas. Our knowledge of parametric modelling is continously improving and we feel that this is being represented throug our work.

Learning Objectives and Outcomes


1- as well there are pictures of main street for this website 2- 3- Webb pictures from webb-bridge-melboune-australia.html 4- Yatzer Banq Resterant by Office dA Accessed 20/4/13 [Online] http://www.yatzer. com/BANQ-restaurant-by-Office-dA 5- Walking Melbourne “Review of New Webb Bridge at Docklands” accessed 25/4/13 [online] 5b. Imagines: “Where was it shot” Webb Bridge accessed 25/4/13 [online] http://www. 6- Inhabitat “Alvaro Ciza’s Serpentine Gallery Pavilion” accessed 24/4/13 [online] http:// 6b. Web Urbanist “Serpentine Gallery Pavilion by Alvaro Siza Vieira” accessed 24/4/13 [online] 6c. d,e- [1] - [2]- 7. Triagnulation “Sectionimal” gt_2p accessed 24/4/13 [online] all images included within site 8. ArchiTravel ContemPLAY Pavilion Completes accessed 25/4/13 [online] http://www. 9. Image: Portal of Awareness accessed 25/04/13 [online] http://www.123inspiration. com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Portal-of-Awareness-Mexico-City-3.jpg 10. Ziggurat of Ur accessed 5/05/13 [online]

Expression of Interest  

Expression of Interest

Expression of Interest  

Expression of Interest