‘ It pays to make hay’
Australian Exporters Company
‘It pays to make hay’
Australia Hay & Straw Exports – Tonnage (kmt/year) (source ABS) 800
Australia’s oaten hay industry has developed significantly over the past 15 – 20 years. The industry has developed on the back of the growth in demand of the export hay industry and domestic (predominately dairy) industries and an increasing number of growers improving their hay production management skills. Three major reasons why it pays for more growers to consider growing oaten hay are:
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• Weed Management Tool • Rotational Benefits – grow more wheat and barley the following year • Suitable for dry sowing • Alternative ‘disease’ break crop • Potential to improve the productivity of low gross margin land
2. Farm Management Benefits • Potential to improve cash flow and gross margins of farm operations • Risk* Management Tool – Mitigating the impact of Frost and Drought – Alternative income stream to grain
3. I ncreasing Demand for Oaten Hay Export Hay Market • Australia’s Oaten Hay in Demand AFIA Graph of Australian Hay and Straw exports see right • Substantial growth in demand projected for fodder in key Asian markets Domestic Hay Market • Increasing use of oaten hay is an important feed source in Australia’s dairy industry AFIA Graph of domestic demand by sector see right.
*Please note: Growing oats for hay has its own risk profile associated with weather and the capital and/or operating costs involved. Growers need to take these costs and risks into consideration before deciding to grow oaten hay.
200 100 0
89/90 90/91 91/92 92/93 93/94 94/95 95/96 96/97 97/98 98/99 99/00 00/01 01/02 02/03 03/04 04/05 05/06 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12
1. Agronomic Benefits
Typical Hay, Silage and Straw Demand by Sector Expressed as Dry Matter Dairy 62%
Composters 1% Export pellets 1% Export hay/straw 10%
Other – on farm 13%
Australian Exporters Company Beef Feedlots 7% Horse 6%
AEXCO Variety Profiles Brusher is an early–mid season tall oat variety. It is recommended to replace this variety where improved resistance to stem and leaf rust or improved hay quality is desired. Major hay exporting companies often comment positively on the quality of the hay produced by Brusher. Forester is a very late season hay variety adapted to high rainfall and irrigated cropping regions. It has excellent early vigor and lodging / shattering resistance. Forester has excellent hay quality and is an improvement compared to other later maturing varieties Glider, Targa and Vasse but similar to Riel. Mulgara is a tall mid season hay variety similar in heading time and height to Wintaroo. It has improved stem, bacterial blight, lodging resistance and early vigour compared to Wintaroo. Mulgara has excellent hay color and resists brown leaf at hay cutting. Tammar is a new late season tall hay oat variety later in cutting time to Tungoo and Kangaroo. It has an excellent foliar disease resistance profile and is moderately resistant and moderately tolerant of CCN and resistance and moderately tolerant to stem nematode. Tammar has excellent hay color and resists brown leaf at hay cutting. It is recommended for medium to high rainfall zones.
Eight year (2005 – 2012) average hay and grain production of oat varieties tested in hay trials Hay Yield (t/ha)
Grain Yield (t/ha)
Rainfall zone Rainfall zone <375mm 375-500 mm >500mm <375mm 375-500 mm >500mm Tall (husked) – early to mid season maturity Brusher 6.4 8.8 11.6 1.7 2.7 2.8 Mulgara 6.7 9.3 11.7 1.9 2.8 2.9 Wallaroo 6.3 9.0 11.5 1.8 2.6 2.8 Wintaroo 7.2 9.9 11.7 1.9 2.8 3.0 Yallara 6.5 9.1 11.6 2.0 3.0 3.3 Tall (husked) – mid late to very late maturity Forester na 8.3 12.1 1.4 1.9 2.2 Glider na 8.2 11.9 1.5 2.1 2.4 Kangaroo na 9.1 12.2 1.8 2.5 2.9 Tammar na 8.9 12.0 1.8 2.6 3.0 Tungoo na 8.8 12.0 1.6 2.4 2.8 No. trials 14 40 21 23 46 27 SOURCE: SARDI
Further Information Sources
Tall (husked) Brusher Forester Glider Kangaroo Mulgara Tammar Tungoo Wallaroo Wintaroo Yallara
MG VG P MG MG M MP G M VG
T MT MT MT T MT MT MT T MT
E VL L ML EM LM ML E M EM
EM VL L ML EM LM ML E EM EM
Shattering Standing resistance ability MS R MS MS MR MS MS MS MS MR
MR R MR R MR R MS MS MR-MS R
Value for trait: Early vigour: VG=very good, G=good, MG = moderately good, M=moderate, P=poor, MP = moderately poor Plant height: D = dwarf, TD = tall dwarf, T = tall, ST = short tall, MT = moderate tall Heading and maturity: E = early, EM = early mid, M= mid season, ML = mid late season, LM = late mid season, L= late, VL=very late Shattering and standing ability: R = resistant, MR = moderately resistant, MS = moderately susceptible, S = susceptible. SOURCE: SARDI
AEXCO Seed Distribution
Plant Breeders Rights and Royalties
Wintaroo was released in 2003. It remains a very popular mid season hay variety continuing to deliver excellent hay yield and quality across the major hay producing regions of Australia.
For the latest information on the disease ratings of individual oat varieties please contact AEXCO or go to the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) website and search for Oat Sowing Guide.
AEXCO has licensed a number of regionally based seed growers and processors to distribute seed. A list of these companies, there location and contact details are provided on AEXCO’s website http://www.aexco.com.au/SeedDistribution.html.
Tungoo is a medium tall mid to late season hay variety with similar heading time to Kangaroo. It has an excellent disease resistance profile being resistant to leaf rust and red leather leaf and moderately resistant to BYDV, septoria and bacterial blight and moderately susceptible to stem rust.
Disease resistance of hay oat varieties – field reactions
Agronomic features of hay varieties
• ‘Producing Quality Oat Hay’ (Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation – 2006, Publication Number 06/002). http:/www.rirdc.gov.au/search-results?searchCriteriaproducing+quality+oat+hay • ‘Growing Oats in Western Australia for hay and grain’ (Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia – Bulletin 4798 August 2011). http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/objtwr/imported_assets/content/ fcp/cer/oat/cp/bn_growing_oats_wa.pdf • General articles and presentations and on oaten hay production and industry. http://www.aexco.com.au
AEXCO oat varieties are protected by Plant Breeders Rights, any unauthorized commercial propagation or any sale, conditioning, export or stocking of propagating material of this variety is an infringement of the Plant Breeder’s Rights Act, 1994. Growers are able to retain seed from production of this variety for their own use. A $2.20 per tonne (GST Inclusive) end point royalty applies to all AEXCO varieties for any hay or grain produced from these varieties.
AEXCO Contact Details If you need further assistance please contact AEXCO’s representative (Denis McGrath) on 0408 688478.
The importance of plant breeding to the oaten hay industry. A small team of scientists work for the National Oat Breeding Program (NOBP). The activities and outcomes of the NOBP play a vital role for the future prosperity of the oaten hay industry. Without the breeding of new and improved hay varieties the Australian hay industry will slowly struggle to compete with other grain crops and hay exporting countries.
Key Points about the NOBP
Key Objectives of the NOBP
• Australia’s NOBP oaten hay breeding program is the only oat breeding program in the world focused on breeding oat varieties for hay yield and quality.
•A ccelerate the introduction of new sources of stem and leaf resistance as well CCN resistance and tolerance.
• Plays an increasing important role of releasing varieties that will improve the productivity and profitability of growers, marketers and end users of oaten hay.
•B roaden the maturity profile of available oaten hay varieties.
• The funding of the NOBP hay activities relies significantly on the capture of end point royalties from growers using these varieties.
For more information on the NOBP please read the NOBP annual newsletter on http://www.aexco.com.au
NOBP is supported by
• I mprove the yield and quality potential of oaten hay varieties.
NOBP Evaluation and Demonstration Locations by State. Western Australia •C alingiri, Wongan Hills, Katanning, Pingelly, York, Manjimup, and Rylington Park. South Australia • Pinery, Turretfield, Riverton and Arthurton. Victoria • Longerenong and Elmore.
Department of Agriculture and Food Australian Exporters Company
Disclaimer: The material presented on these pages is from official and other sources and is considered reliable. It is provided in good faith and every care has been taken to ensure its accuracy. AEXCO does not accept any responsibility for the consequences that may arise from the acceptance and recommendations made.
‘It pays to make hay’