Just Say No (to Art)
Just Say No (to Art) concept and design by Allison Gray
The art department at Sunnyville Springs Elementary was gutted.
Art happens here.
PORNOGRAPHY INCLUDES ROBERT
A PRIVATE SCHOOL ART
I DO NOT THINK WE
TEACHER MAY BE GIVEN A
MTV, AND A WIDE RANGE OF
LOWER CLASSROOM BUDGET
BOOKS, FILMS, VIDEOS, SONGS
FOR PURCHASING SUPPLIES.
AND WORKS OF ART.
A “DECLARATION OF WAR” AGAINST
EVER SINCE THE BIRTH OF
THE NEA HELPED MOVE CONGRESS
MODERN ART, ART BASHING
TO SLASH THE AGENCY’S BUDGET,
BY OTHERWISE INTELLIGENT
AND PAVED THE WAY FOR THE
PEOPLE HAS BEEN AS
ANTI-ART RHETORICAL FRENZIES
COMMON AS BLUE JEANS. 5
OF THE 104TH CONGRESS.
IF THE ONLY REASON I’M HAVING
THEY SHOULD BE THANKING
ART IS TO IMPROVE MATH, LET’S
ME, BUT INSTEAD I GET
JUST HAVE MORE MATH.
YELLED AT WHEREVER I GO. 6
PUBLIC FUNDS ON 7
THIS KIND OF STUFF. 4
THE MEDIA RESEARCH CENTER PROVIDES A PLATFORM FROM WHICH TO BASH THE ARTS AND POPULAR CULTURE. 10
IN A TIME WHEN PRESIDENT BUSH’S “NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND”
MOST ARTISTS ARE NO
POLICY EMPHASIZES TEST
BETTER THAN PLUMBERS. 5
RESULTS, THE ARTS DO NOT EASILY LEND THEMSELVES TO QUANTIFIABLE MEASUREMENTS. 3
LOCAL CELLS OF THE AFC HAVE BECOME INCREASINGLY SHRILL IN THEIR CAMPAIGNS AGAINST ABORTION, GAY RIGHTS, AND ‘WEIRD ART’. 8
WHO REALLY NEEDS ART
IT’S SIMPLY JUST A
WASTE OF TIME. 7
THE CHRISTIAN ACTION NETWORK HAD ALMOST MADE ART-BASHING A FULL-TIME CAREER. 2
YOU’RE NOT MUCH GOOD AT THIS. 9
CONTEMPORARY ART IS ESSENTIALLY AWFUL. 5
Ms.Applewhite, what happened to art class?
Well Judy, unfortunately, our schools funding isnâ€™t as much as it used to be. So theyâ€™ve had to cut back on art.
But wouldnâ€™t it be wrong to neglect the importance of the creative economy and the importance of rich and vibrant museums, galleries, and the dollars generated by tourism?12 Even in narrow economic times? Especially in narrow economic times. But not everyone attaches a high value to arts and culture.
Well, we understand what it does for our economy and more than just that, we understand the economy is a means to a higher end and that higher end is a society.13
Very right you are James.
Yeah, the challenges facing the country and the world cannot be addressed without the arts and humanities. A persons complexity comes from their language, identity, history, faith and culture.14
Itâ€™s just a shame that so many narrow minded people in this town think arts funding is not worth cherishing.
Hey guys! Did you know that young artists, as compared with their peers, are more likely to: !"#$%&'%(")'((*+,-."/$%0,)$" !"#1%-,),#1-$",+".'*-2"3%'*#/" !"%$14"&'%"#5$1/*%$" !"1--$+4"(*/,)6"1%-6"1+4"41+)$")51//$/715
Yes Dick! They embrace creative thinking and are also more likely to: !"8$"%$)'3+,9$4"&'%"1)14$(,)"1)2,$0$($+-" !"8$"$5$)-$4"-'")51//"'&:)$";,-2,+"-2$,%"/)2''5/" !"#1%-,),#1-$",+"1"(1-2"1+4"/),$+)$"&1,%" !";,+"1+"1;1%4"&'%"/)2''5"1--$+41+)$" !";,+"1+"1;1%4"&'%";%,-,+3"1+"$//1."'%"#'$(715
On the other hand, without art education, school drop out rates are excessive! Students with high levels of arts involvement are less likely to drop out of school by grade ten. 1.4% of students, with high arts involvement will drop out as opposed to 4.8% with low arts involvement!15
If the arts are so important, why is funding being cut?
Well the break down is fairly simple. By far, the primary local revenue source is property taxes. In Pennsylvania, property taxes account for 76% of total local school district revenue and provide 45% of all revenues collected by school districts. Then a school district uses its revenue to purchase a variety of goods and services that produce the educational programs for their students. In some cases, a district also provides a variety of services for nonpublic school students. Spending will vary among districts because of community preferences and the student needs within each district. Teacher salaries typically represent the largest single item of expenditure in a school district. Teacher salaries are subject to collective bargaining at the school district level. Also included in collective bargaining requirements are $(#5'.$$"8$+$:-/716
So, overall, a school district’s main purpose is to provide public education. This means that the district must provide for classes such as math, reading, physical education and social studies. <+4"155"'&"-2$/$"/#$),:)")'*%/$"%$=*,%$($+-/"1%$" established by the State Board of Education.16 Although a school district can make additional locally determined requirements, art usually falls short of these “educational requirements.”
So what should we do when students only get 30 minutes of art a week for half the school year?17
Oh golly! That translates to 10.5 hours a year of art instruction, and thatâ€™s far less than other independent schools in the area provide!17
Someone needs to come up with a strategy to better disperse public education funding!
Well what can we do about it?!
Letâ€™s just save ourselves from failure and drop out of school!
Woohoo! Oh my goodness.
Is this the kind of culture we want to lead
STATE OF THE ARTS
GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR THE ARTS 18
Represented in millions of dollars. In 2010, local and state government support fell an estimated 8 and 10 percent, respectively. NEA funding increased and was augmented by an additional $50 million in jobs funding from The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act.
HOW PUBLIC SCHOOLS ARE FUNDED 16
local property taxes
other local sources
WHAT EDUCATION COSTS ON AVERAGE PER PUPIL 19
$12,829 per pupil
WHAT SCHOOLS HAVE TO OFFER 21
AVERAGE INCREASE IN POINTS ON SAT BY ART STUDENTS 20
2 3 4 5
Data from The College Board show that students who take four years of arts and music classes while in high school score 91 points better on their SATs than students who took only one-half year or less (scores of 1070 vs.979, respectively).
AFTER SCHOOL ART PROGRAMS RESULTS 22
DROP-OUT RATES 15
4 7 1
According to a skills assessment, all of the young artists had gained the skills necessary to produce quality art. As well as remarkable improvement in the participantsâ€™ appreciation for art. All youth showed improvement in art skills, cooperation, participation, and communication.
1.4% v. 4.8% Art v. No Art 1
communication w/ adults
communication w/ peers
task completion preprogram postprogram
Longitudinal data of 25,000 students demonstrate that involvement in the arts is linked to higher academic performance, increased standardized test scores, more community service and lower dropout rates. These cognitive and developmental benefits are reaped by students regardless of their socioeconomic status.
NATIONAL ARTS INDEX 23
% OF TOURISM IN ART 25
THE ARTS AND HEALTHCARE 24
The National Arts Index is a highly-distilled annual measure of the health and vitality of arts in the U.S. using 76 equal-weighted, national-level indicators of arts activity. The Index score for 2008 is 98.4, down 4.2 percentage points from 102.6 in 2007. A score of 105.5 would bring the Index back to its highest point, measured in 1999.
Nearly half of the nationâ€™s healthcare institutions provide arts programming for patients, families, and staff. 78 percent provide these programs because they benefit patients and create a healing environment.
visual art exhibits
bedside art activities
art activities for staff
Cultural travelers, both domestic and international, are ideal tourists. They spend more and stay longer.
ARTISTS IN THE WORKFORCE 27
ARTS BUSINESSES 26
Nationally, there are 668,267 businesses in the U.S. involved in the creation or distribution of the arts. They employ 2.9 million people, representing 4.05 percent of all businesses and 2.18 percent of all employees, respectively. These data are current as of January 2010.
more than 12K 6-12K 3-6K 3K or less
Compared to 1965, artists comprise 1.4 percent of the U.S. workforce, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The unemployment rate for artists grew to 9.5 percent in 2009, and is increasing at a faster rate than all professional workers.
“Art does not solve problems, but makes us aware of their existence.” — Magdalena Abakanowicz, sculptor
Arts education, on the other hand, does
foundation to forge social bonds and community
solve problems. Years of research show that it’s
cohesion. And strong arts programming in
closely linked to almost everything that we as a
schools helps close a gap that has left many a
nation say we want for our children and demand
child behind: From Mozart for babies to tutus
from our schools: academic achievement, social
for toddlers to family trips to the museum, the
and emotional development, civic engagement,
children of affluent, aspiring parents generally
and equitable opportunity.
get exposed to the arts whether or not public
Involvement in the arts is associated with gains in math, reading, cognitive ability, critical thinking, and verbal skill. Arts learning can also
schools provide them. Low-income children, often, do not. It has become a mantra in education that
improve motivation, concentration, confidence,
No Child Left Behind, with its pressure to
and teamwork. A 2005 report by the Rand
raise test scores, has reduced classroom time
Corporation about the visual arts argues that
devoted to the arts (and science, social studies,
the intrinsic pleasures and stimulation of the art
and everything else besides reading and math).
experience do more than sweeten an individual’s
Evidence supports this contention — we’ll get
life — according to the report, they “can
to the statistics in a minute — but the reality is
connect people more deeply to the world and
more complex. Arts education has been slipping
open them to new ways of seeing,” creating the
for more than three decades, the result of tight
budgets, an ever-growing list of state mandates
school districts. Many of these models are based
that have crammed the classroom curriculum,
on new findings in brain research and cognitive
and a public sense that the arts are lovely but
development, and they embrace a variety of
approaches: using the arts as a learning tool
This erosion chipped away at the
(for example, musical notes to teach fractions);
constituencies that might have defended the
incorporating arts into other core classes (writing
arts in the era of NCLB — children who had no
and performing a play about, say, slavery);
music and art classes in the 1970s and 1980s
creating a school environment rich in arts and
may not appreciate their value now. “We have
culture (Mozart in the hallways every day) and
a whole generation of teachers and parents
hands-on arts instruction. Although most of
who have not had the advantage of arts in their
these initiatives are in the early stages, some
own education,’’ says Sandra Ruppert, director
are beginning to rack up impressive results. This
of the Arts Education Partnership (AEP), a
trend may send a message to schools focused
national coalition of arts, business, education,
maniacally, and perhaps counterproductively, on
philanthropic, and government organizations.
reading and math.
Yet against this backdrop, a new picture
“If they’re worried about their test scores
is emerging. Comprehensive, innovative arts
and want a way to get them higher, they need
initiatives are taking root in a growing number of
to give kids more arts, not less,” says Tom
“Arts education enables those children from a financially challenged background to have a more level playing field with children who have had those enrichment experiences.” — Eric Cooper, president and founder of the National Urban Alliance for Effective Education
Horne, Arizona’s state superintendent of public
In a 2003 report, “The Complete
instruction. “There’s lots of evidence that
Curriculum: Ensuring a Place for the Arts and
kids immersed in the arts do better on their
Foreign Languages in American Schools,” a
study group from the National Association
Education policies almost universally
of State Boards of Education noted that a
recognize the value of arts. Forty-seven states
substantial body of research highlights the
have arts-education mandates, forty-eight
benefits of arts in curriculum and called for
have arts-education standards, and forty have
stronger emphasis on the arts and foreign
arts requirements for high school graduation,
languages. As chairman of the Education
according to the 2007-08 AEP state policy
Commission of the States from 2004 to 2006,
database. The Goals 2000 Educate America
Mike Huckabee, then governor of Arkansas,
Act, passed in 1994 to set the school-reform
launched an initiative designed, according to
agenda of the Clinton and Bush administrations,
commission literature, to ensure every child
declared art to be part of what all schools should
has the opportunity to learn about, enjoy, and
teach. NCLB, enacted in 2001, included art as
participate directly in the arts.
one of the ten core academic subjects of public
Top-down mandates are one thing, of
education, a designation that qualified arts
course, and implementation in the classroom is
programs for an assortment of federal grants.
another. Whatever NCLB says about the arts,
it measures achievement through math and
courses dropped 46 percent from 1999-2000
language arts scores, not drawing proficiency
through 2000-04, while total school enrollment
or music skills. It’s no surprise, then, that many
grew nearly 6 percent, according to a study
districts have zeroed in on the tests. A 2006
by the Music for All Foundation. The number
national survey by the Center on Education
of music teachers, meanwhile, declined 26.7
Policy, an independent advocacy organization
percent. In 2001, the California Board of
in Washington, DC, found that in the five years
Education set standards at each grade level for
after enactment of NCLB, 44 percent of districts
what students should know and be able to do
had increased instruction time in elementary
in music, visual arts, theater, and dance, but a
school English language arts and math while
statewide study in 2006, by SRI International,
decreasing time spent on other subjects. A
found that 89 percent of K-12 schools failed to
follow-up analysis, released in February 2008,
offer a standards-based course of study in all
showed that 16 percent of districts had reduced
four disciplines. Sixty-one percent of schools
elementary school class time for music and
didn’t even have a full-time arts specialist.
art — and had done so by an average of 35 percent, or fifty-seven minutes a week. Some states report even bleaker numbers. In California, for example, participation in music
Nor does support for the arts by top administrators necessarily translate into instruction for kids. For example, a 2005 report in Illinois found almost no opposition to
“When you think about the purposes of education, there are three. We’re preparing kids for jobs. We’re preparing them to be citizens. And we’re teaching them to be human beings who can enjoy the deeper forms of beauty. The third is as important as the other two.” — Tom Horne, Arizona’s state superintendent of public instruction
arts education among principals and district
the opportunity to exceed the minimum
superintendents, yet there were large disparities
in school offerings around the state. In many districts, the arts have suffered
Yet some districts have made great strides toward not only revitalizing the arts but also
so long that it will take years, and massive
using them to reinvent schools. The work takes
investment, to turn things around. New York
leadership, innovation, broad partnerships, and
City mayor Michael Bloomberg has made arts
a dogged insistence that the arts are central to
education a priority in his school reform plans,
what we want students to learn.
and the city has launched sweeping initiatives
In Dallas, for example, a coalition of arts
to connect more students with the cityâ€™s vast
advocates, philanthropists, educators, and
cultural resources. Nearly every school now
business leaders have worked for years to get
offers at least some arts instruction and cultural
arts into all schools, and to get students out
programming, yet in 2007-08, only 45 percent
into the cityâ€™s thriving arts community. Today, for
of elementary schools and 33 percent of middle
the first time in thirty years, every elementary
schools provided education in all four required
student in the Dallas Independent School
art forms, according to an analysis by the New
District receives forty-five minutes a week of
York City Department of Education, and only
art and music instruction. In a February 2007
34 percent of high schools offered students
op-ed piece in the Dallas Morning News, Gigi
Antoni, president and CEO of Big Thought, the
arts education to all K-12 students. Horne, a
nonprofit partnership working with the district,
classically trained pianist and founder of the
the Wallace Foundation, and more than sixty
Phoenix Baroque Ensemble, hasn’t yet achieved
local arts and cultural institutions, explained the
his objective, but he has made progress: He
rationale behind what was then called the Dallas
pushed through higher standards for arts
Arts Learning Initiative: “DALI was created on
education, appointed an arts specialist in the
one unabashedly idealistic, yet meticulously
state Department of Education, and steered $4
researched, premise — that students flourish
million in federal funds under NCLB to support
when creativity drives learning.”
arts integration in schools throughout the state.
The Minneapolis and Chicago communities, too, are forging partnerships with their vibrant arts and cultural resources to infuse the schools with rich comprehensive, sustainable programs — not add-ons that come and go with this year’s budget or administrator. In Arizona, Tom Horne, the state superintendant of public instruction, made it his goal to provide high-quality, comprehensive
Some have restored art and music after a decade without them.
This mutual estrangement has had enormous cultural, social, and political consequences. America needs its artists and intellectuals, and they need to reestablish their rightful place in the general culture. If we could reopen the conversation between our best minds and the broader public, the results would not only transform society but also artistic and intellectual life. There is no better place to start this rapprochement than in arts education. How do we explain to the larger society the benefits of this civic investment when they have been convinced that the purpose of arts education is mostly to produce more artists â€” hardly a compelling argument to either the average taxpayer or financially strapped school board? We need to create a new national consensus. The purpose of arts education is not to produce more artists, though that is a byproduct. The real purpose of arts education is to create complete human beings capable of leading successful and productive lives in a free society. â€” Dana Gioia Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts Stanford Commencement address, 2007
The main selected text has been taken from an article by Fran Smith, “Why Arts Education is Crucial, and Who’s Doing it Best: Art and Music are Key to Student Development.” Fran Smith is a contributing writer for Edutopia, an online foundation which empowers and connects teachers, administrators, and parents with innovative solutions and resources to better education. This article was also originally published in the Feb 2009: Arts Education issue of Edutopia magazine as “State of the Arts”.
1 Peters, Robert. “Morality in Media.” March 2002. Online Posting to Know Your Enemies. E-mail. 22 Feb 2011. 2 Mawyer, Martin. “No Subject.” March 2002. Online Posting to Know Your Enemies. E-mail. 22 Feb 2011. 3 Pogrebin, Robin. “Book Tackles Old Debate: Role of Art In Schools.” New York Times Aug. 4, 2007. 4 Bourne, R., Ph.D. “RoadKill Art: Should We Condemn This Form of Art?.” Yahoo News (2007). Web. 20 Feb 2011. <http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/240442/roadkill_art_should_we_condemn_this.html>. 5 Fendrich, Laurie. “Art Bashing.” Chronicle of Higher Education (2007). Web. 24 Feb 2011. <http://chronicle.com/blogs/brainstorm/art-bashing/5563>. 6 Elliott, Tim. “Art battle turns ugly as Aborigines condemn sculpture’s sacred image.” Sydney Morning Herald. (2010). 7 Dobson, Dr. James C. “Focus on the Family.” March 2002. Online Posting to Know Your Enemies. E-mail. 17 Feb 2011. 8 Grant, Dr. Robert. “No Subject.” March 2002. Online Posting to Know Your Enemies. E-mail. 22 Feb 2011. 9 de Bretagne, Rachelle. “The pros and cons of formal art classes for children.” Helium: After School. Helium, March 18, 2007. Web. 22 Feb 2011. <http://www.helium.com/items/218672-the-prosand-cons-of-formal-art-classes-for-children>. 10 Johnson, Larry. “The worthless cocksucker who started Media Research Center. Brent Bozo.” Oct. 2, 2007. Online Posting to Stern Fan Network. Web. 22 Feb 2011.
11 “Who Needs Arts Education, Anyway?.” Conversations at the Wienerburger Diner. blogspot, July 28, 2009. Web. 24 Feb 2011. <http://wienerburger.blogspot.com/2009/07/who-needs-artseducation-anyway.html>. 12 Crossick, Prof Geoffrey, and Prof Rick Trainor. “Don’t ditch arts funding in favour of science. It’s vital to our society.” Observer (2010). Web. 22 Feb 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/theobserver/2010/feb/28/observer-letters-arts-funding>. 13 Gould, Alixandra. “The Case for an Arts Education.” Varsity (2010). Web. 22 Feb 2011. <http://thevarsity.ca/articles/24854>. 14 Robertson, Emily. “How the Conservatives are killing our culture.” ScanOnline (2010). Web. 22 Feb 2011. <http://scan.lusu.co.uk/ comment/2010/10/19/how-the-conservatives-are-killing-ourculture/>. 15 Catterall, Dr. James S., and Dr. Shirley Brice Heath. “Arts Facts... Improved Academic Performance.” Americans for the Arts. (1998). 16 Pennsylvania School Boards Association. United States. Focus on Public School Funding. Pennsylvania: Pride & Promise. 17 Seltz, Johanna. “School Committee member supports parents’ fight for more art.” boston.com, Oct. 25, 2010. Web. 17 Feb 2011. <http://www.boston.com/yourtown/news/milton/2010/10/parents_want_more_art_taught_i.html>.
IMAGE & METRIC CREDITS
Page 2-3, Gustav Klimt, Farm Garden. 18 Americans for the Arts, National Assembly of State Arts Agencies, 2010. 19 Pennsylvania School Boards Association. United States. Issue: School Funding and Finance. 2011, Print. 20 The College Board, 2009. 2009 College-Bound Seniors: Total Group Profile Report. 21 U.S. Department of Education, United States. Education Survey: Fall 1999,â€? FRSS 67. 22 Clawson, Heather J., and Kathleen Coolbaugh. The YouthARTS Development Project. U.S. Department of Justice. United States. Office of Justice Programs. 2001. Print. 23 National Arts Index 2009, Americans for the Arts, 2010. 24 Americans for the Arts, 2008. Survey conducted by The Joint Commission, Americans for the Arts, and Society for the Arts in Healthcare. 25 Travel Industry Association of America, U.S. Department of Commerce, 2010. 26 Dun & Bradstreet. Analysis by Americans for the Arts, 2010. 27 National Endowment for the Arts Research Note #97, 2010. Page 48, YouthOrchestra2.jpg, 17 Jan 2011, <http://www.scphilharmonic.com/calendar.aspx?event_id=25>.
Page 50, Sat ballet (12).jpg, 17 Jan 2011, <http://www.newattitudedanceacademy.com/classes.html>. Page 54, dsc03641.jpg, 17 Jan 2011, <http://greatwest.wordpress.com/program/>. Page 56, 498941621_1740d4625c_o.jpg, 17 Jan 2011, <http:// www.flickr.com/photos/ableman/498941621/>. Page 60, dscf3523b.jpg, 17 Jan 2011, <http://www.southwestchildrenstheatre.com/>. Page 61, Press Photo_UDSS_Captain Louie_Aug4-6.jpg, 24 Jan 2011, <http://www.playgroundbuzz.com/MomBlog/tabid/311/ ID/13/Childrens_Theatre_at_Summer_Stage__Ticket_Giveaway. aspx>. Page 62, img_0467.JPG, 24 Jan 2011, <http://ecbacc.com/ wordpress/2008/09/10/ecbacc-supporting-the-mural-artsprogram/>.
This project was produced in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Senior Studio in Graphic Design, College of Art and Design, The University of the Arts, Spring 2011. Instructor: Jan C. Almquist, Adjunct Professor, Graphic Design Advising Editor and Guest Critic: Tim Appignani, Senior Lecturer, Liberal Arts Professional Consultant and Guest Critic: Joel Katz, Joel Katz Design Associates Hans-U. Allemann Concept and design by Allison Gray. Photographed “School-Room” images, produced elementary artwork 1991-1996, redesigned the “State of the Arts” metrics, and created the design for the words; movement, unity, and variety. This book is dedicated to my son, James. Cherish your imagination and dreams. And may your future flourish with the arts. I love you. Special thanks to: My parents for their patience, support, and guidance. Taylor for making me laugh and believing in me. The Graphic Design Department for pushing me to succeed and reach my full potential as a designer.