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FALL 2011

Special Drupa Preview Issue

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Features 12 Cold Spraying: A New Technique for Coating of Printing Forms for Gravure Printing

By Thomas Klassen, KouichiroOnizawa, Matthias Schulze, Frank Gärtner, Helmut-Schmidt-University, University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, Germany


15 Roll to Roll (R2R) Gravure for Manufacturing Penny RFID Tags

By G. Cho

Cover Feature 18 Drupa 2012: The Focus is on the Future of Printing 22 Innovative Plate System for Sheetfed Gravure

By Linda M. Casatelli


28 2011 Golden Cylinder Awards 40 Gravure’s Influence on Wallcoverings

By Daniel Triassi

46 Two Sides to Launch in the United States 48 Educators Breakfast


Departments 4 Publisher’s Corner: In This Case the Future is Now 6 Editor’s Desk: Changing Seasons, Faster Pace 8 Industry News 39 GAA 2011 Calendar of Events GRAVURE/Fall 2011



A Conference for the Future


owever, in the case of printed electronics the future is now. That was the message that was conveyed to the attendees by our chair Don Carli and many of the speakers at the GAA Printed Electronics and Intelligent Packaging Symposium at the Sonoco Institute on the campus of Clemson University. The attendees represented all gravure market segments as well as several current and future printed electronic markets. It was noted that for Printed Electronics and Packaging there are three distinct areas of printed electronics: Displays, Logic and Power Storage. For most applications all three would be required. The question was: How do you integrate all three in a product? Are we talking the first moment of truth or the second moment of truth? In addition, Printed Electronics will play a major role in high value applications and high growth markets such as supporting Anti-Counterfeiting efforts and security of many of the medicines we take for granted as being safe. The two morning keynote speakers, Ken McGuire from Proctor & Gamble


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and Hal Heinze from General Mills, really opened eyes as they provided not only insight but also some specific samples of products using printed electronics in packaging for brand building and recognition. Now that was really cool! Sam Ingram and several faculty members at Clemson discussed materials, technologies and production methods for printed electronics. They provided an ideal setting and good overview from the academic side that included round tables and a tour with focus on their hybrid press. It would take half the pages in this issue to cover all the material that was exchanged. My suggestion would be for you to visit our website. All presentations should be posted and members have access. All you have to do is log in. The responses to the symposium were not only positive but some commented that this was the best conference we have had to date. So, how does our industry organize itself to Lead and Win? Stay tuned. –Bill Martin 

President & CEO Bill Martin, Publisher of Gravure Magazine Director of Conference Planning & Administration Pamela W. Schenk Business Manager/CPA Linda Pfingst Association Manager Michelle Giuliano Administrative Assistant Susan L. Schippits Technical Support JD Harris Executive Director of GEF Bernadette Carlson IT Webmaster Allen Krusenstjerna

Publisher: Bill Martin Editor and Associate Publisher: Linda M. Casatelli Gravure Association of America, Inc. P.O. Box 25617 Rochester, NY 14625 Phone: (201) 523-6042 Fax: (201) 523-6048 E-mail: Vol. 25, No. 2 ISSN 08944946 USPS 000-565 Gravure magazine is published online three times a year.

E d ito r’ s De s k


Changing Seasons, Faster Pace

hile I love the long, lazy days of summer, I do enjoy the changing seasons. Autumn has a lot to offer with its colorful palette—the reds and yellows of the changing leaves, the orange pumpkins, the black Halloween cats— and crisp windy days for walking in the woods. The industry pace begins to accelerate in the fall, when trade shows and conferences abound. One of the largest trade shows in the printing industry is Drupa, held every four years in Germany. Although the next Drupa is not due until May 2012, this issue features a preview (page 18 ), complete with a map of the Messe Fairgrounds and an introduction to some mega trends—printed electronics, packaging and digital customization—currently driving the printing industry. Also featured this month are some GAA/ GEF events that happened earlier in the fall. The Educators Breakfast (page 48) took place during the Graph Expo show and the induction of the members of the Gravure Cylinder Society was part of the GAA Packaging and Product Conference (page 39). Another highlight of the GAA Packaging Conference, was the announcement of the winners of the Golden Cylinder Awards for the Packaging and Products Categories (page 40 ). Each year, the Gravure Association of America conducts the Annual Golden Cylinder Awards Competition to promote the gravure process and to provide peer recognition for technical achievement. The winners of the Publication Category will be announced at the GAA GPC Conference in November. In keeping with Gravure magazine’s focus on technical innovations, this issue offers several reports. “Cold Spraying: A New Technique for Coating of Printing Forms for Gravure Printing,” by Thomas Klassen, Kouichiro Onizawa, Matthias Schulze, Frank Gärtner (page 12 ) discusses research at Helmut University and the Univer-


GRAVURE/Fall 2011

sity of the Federal Armed Forces in Hamburg, Germany on cold gas spraying, which is a rather new coating technology that is able to produce high-quality oxide-free metallic coatings on printing rolls. When compared to conventional coating, it allows shorter processing times, relatively easy implementation and process control, thus it has the potential to replace galvanic zinc or copper plating in the printing industry. “Roll to Roll (R2R) Gravure for Manufacturing Penny RFID Tags” by G. Cho (page 15) details ongoing studies at Suncon University in Korea. While it poses challenges, printed electronics offer tremendous potential for the printing industry in general and gravure in particular. This report focuses on gravure printing for RFID tags. The second installment of Dr. Cho’s work will be published in a future issue. Also featured is another winner of the Flint Technical Writing Content: “Gravure’s Influence on Wallcoverings” by Daniel Triassi (page 40). While gravure has traditionally been known as a web-fed process, interest in sheet-fed gravure is growing because of the increase in shorter runs. “Innovative Plate System for Sheetfed Gravure” (page 22 ) reports on the collaboration of H.C. Moog and Flint Group to develop a novel solution in the sheet-fed area—laser-imaged digital gravure plates, which clamp on the sheet-fed press. Last, but certainly not the least interesting piece is “Two Sides to Launch in the United States”—an update on Two Sides, a non-profit organization that started in Europe in 2008 to promote the responsible production and use of print and paper, and encourage its use as an attractive, practical and sustainable communications medium (page 46). We trust this issue has something of interest for everyone. Please provide us with your input so we can plan future issues. You can reach me at

Publisher: Bill Martin Editor and Associate Publisher: Linda M. Casatelli

Magazine Advisory Board Betsy Barker Castillo, RR Donnelley & Sons Victor Basile, Jr., Publicis Miriam O. Frawley, e-Diner Design & Marketing, Inc. Terrence Frawley, e-Diner Design & Marketing, Inc. Thomas Meisel, Parade Publications, Inc. Cathy Merolle, Hearst Corporation Walter Vail, St. Marys Paper Limited/ St. Marys Sales Robert G. Whitton, Jr., Arellton Group, LLC Stephen F. Young, Mundet International

Subscriptions Gravure is available free of charge to employees of GAA-member companies. Subscriptions for nonmembers in the U.S. and Canada are $67/year or $145/two years.

Business, Advertising, & Editorial Offices Gravure Association of America, Inc. P.O. Box 25617 Rochester NY, 14625 Phone: (201) 523-6042 Fax: (201) 523-6048 E-mail:

Our dynamic template solution leverages your existing content for deployment on any mobile device, allowing you to bridge the digital gap with minimal effort. Now accepting reseller applications.


Chris Bondy Named Interim Administrative Chair of RIT’s School of Print Media Rochester Institute of Technology’s College of Imaging Arts and Sciences has named print industry veteran Chris Bondy to the Gannett Distinguished Professorship and appointed him as interim administrative chair of RIT’s School of Print Media. Bondy most recently served as principal at Quest Consulting Solutions. In addition, he acted as group director of cross-media workflow solutions at InfoTrends, where he worked with technology vendors, print/marketing service providers and enterprise marketing executives on strategy and technology implementation planning. During his decades of industry experience, Bondy’s focus has included strategy implementation, business development, product planning, process reengineering and sales/ marketing. Commercial printing enterprises, publishing and in-plant printing companies, and manufacturers of graphic arts and marketing communication products and services have all benefited from his expertise. Bondy has held several other leadership positions over his career including chief technology officer for Direct Mail Holdings, where he conceptualized and launched several nextgeneration Web-services solutions for consumer photo memory products and digital asset management. He also standardized all information technology applications across the company by driving common use of key software solutions. Bondy graduated from RIT in 2007 with a master’s degree in new product development. He also studied graphic design and mass communications at Ambassador College and received his bachelor’s degree in interdisciplinary studies at New York Institute of Technology with a concentration in business marketing, behavioral science and graphic design. 8

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Sonoco’s Trident Division Enters Alliance with Janoschka Sonoco has announced that its Trident division, which provides print tooling and global graphics management, has entered into a strategic alliance with Janoschka, a German-based global supplier of prepress solutions and tooling, to provide global consumer products goods companies and rotogravure printers with the widest coverage area available in the market. Based in Hull, England, Trident and its 450 associates operate global graphics management systems from nine locations across Europe, Asia and North America and have print tooling capability in three locations in the United States and Canada. Founded in 1899, Sonoco is a $4.1 billion global manufacturer of industrial and consumer products and provider of packaging services, with more than 300 operations in 34 countries, serving customers in some 85 nations. Janoschka, founded in 1976, is headquartered in Kippenheim, Germany. The company specializes in prepress for the packaging, tobacco and decor market. As a full service prepress provider Janoschka is a technology leader with a comprehensive product range that includes artwork & reproduction, color management, print tooling for gravure and flexo printing, embossing rollers and cylinder bases.

R.R. Donnelley Acquires Sequence Personal/Genesis R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company has acquired New York-based Sequence Personal, an innovative provider of proprietary software that enables readers to select relevant content to be digitally produced as specialized publications. Focused originally on the creation of individualized medical journals with targeted advertising, Sequence’s technologies have expanded to enable custom publishing across a broad variety of verticals. Sequence will become a part of RR Donnelley’s CustomPoint Solutions Group, which provides collaborative strategies for originating creative and editorial content, multi-channel marketing, proven e-subscription models, self-serve direct marketing and custom publishing. In a further expansion, RR Donnelley has acquired Lemont, IL-based Genesis Packaging & Design Inc., a full service provider of custom packaging, including designing, printing, diecutting, finishing and assembling. Beyond packaging production, Genesis offers a broad spectrum of services, including the design and production of pointof-purchase displays and signage. The operation features a range of value-added capabilities, including the ability to print and coat on the inside of packaging products, which is especially attractive to customers in the food and beverage industry. RR Donnelley’s international packaging services include design, print production, finishing, assembly, pack-out and other capabilities.


Toyo Ink Launches Production Site Toyo Ink America, LLC, a member of the worldwide Toyo Ink Group, has expanded production of liquid and ultraviolet inks for packaging applications, in the North America region. The company recently relocated its headquarters to a more spacious, state-of-the-art facility in Wood Dale, Illinois. The roughly 109,000-square-foot-facility dramatically boosts the company’s production, development and technical support capability by affording room for new equipment, an expanded R&D laboratory and an increase in sales and technical staff. At the new site Toyo Ink America plans to produce and develop water- and solvent-based liquid inks, offset and UV inks and coatings, primarily targeting the flexible packaging, folding carton, bag, foil and label printing markets. The Toyo Ink Group, a longtime leader in package and print innovation throughout Asia, aims to strengthen its position in this sector in the Americas, a move in line with the Group’s expansion plans, both regionally and globally. The acquisition of Fluid Ink Technology’s flexographic, gravure and UV product assets, and the establishment of a sales branch in Sao Paulo, Brazil—both of which took place in 2010—have boosted demand for these products and a broader support base. To keep up with this demand Toyo Ink has been devoting greater resources locally to ramp-

Sun Chemical/ Color Solutions International Announce Brand Color Standards Partnership Sun Chemical has been named the exclusive supplier of packaging inks for Color Solutions International (CSI) for the manufacture and distribution of brand color standards for the graphic arts market. A recognized supplier of physical color standards for brand owners both in textile and in the graphic arts markets, CSI will be working with Sun Chemical to ensure that brand color consistency is maintained across all possible packaging substrates and presses across the world. The move is designed to provide customers with the most “press realistic” color standards in the marketplace and to remove risk and delay with new packaging design launches.

ing up its R&D and manufacturing capability for the development of packaging materials, printing inks, adhesives and other specialty polymers. The latest investment is another sign of the Group’s strong commitment to the packaging segment in the region. In addition to the new Wood Dale facility, the Toyo Ink Group in North America has manufacturing and research facilities throughout the region. The facility in Moorpark, California produces flexographic, gravure and UV inks. Toyo’s plastic colorants and liquid inks production site is located in Conyers, Georgia. In 2008, Toyo established a specialty polymers and inks manufacturing facility in Bryan, Texas.

RIT Expands Scholarship Program Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), located in western New York, is opening its doors for more applicants to an endowed scholarship geared toward the university’s School of Print Media. The Southwest School of Printing Management Inc. Education Fund, given to students attending RIT, will now include applicants from Arizona, Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas. The scholarship is now available for the first time to those entering print graphic arts and communications related fields of study such as media arts technology, visual communications, new media publishing, graphic design, photography or journalism. The funds were previously only dedicated to undergraduate and graduate students in the print media program. The Southwest School of Printing Management Inc. established the endowment in 1982, which now totals nearly $800,000. The fund is permanently endowed and invested under the direction of RIT’s Board of Trustees. For more information about Rochester Institute of Technology, go to


Twenty-five Years of GPC

Improving With Age That is the theme of the upcoming conference as the Gravure Publishing Council celebrates its 25th Anniversary. The Conference will be held November 15-18, 2011 at the Naples Beach Hotel and Golf Club in Naples, Florida. GPC Chair Mike Schilaci and Vice Chair Kathy Barbee have put together an standing program with keynote speeches by Paul Nicklen from National Geographic; Chuck Herrig from Target; and Tom Carroll from RR Donnelly. Included in the presentation topics are Social Media, Economics, the Postal Service, Premedia, Print Through the Years and the RISI Paper Market Outlook. In addition, representatives from Best Buy, Office Depot and Talbots will discuss their perspective on sustainability. Other highlights include: the Golden Cylinder Awards Luncheon for Publication Segment including the Cylinder Society Inductees; and the 25th Anniversary Celebration Dinner with a live auction to benefit the Gravure Education Foundation. It is an event not to be missed. So make your plans now. For more information, log onto conference-seminar-schedule or contact Bill Martin at


Cold Spraying: A New Technique for Coating of Printing Forms for Gravure Printing By Thomas Klassen, Kouichiro Onizawa, Matthias Schulze, Frank G채rtner, Helmut-Schmidt-University, University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg, Germany


old gas spraying is a rather new coating technology that is able to produce high-quality oxide-free metallic coatings on printing rolls. The main advantages over conventional coating techniques are short processing times, relatively easy implementation and process control, as well as reliable and high coating quality. Therefore, cold spraying has the potential to replace galvanic zinc or copper plating in printing industry. In cold spraying, powder particles are accelerated in a gas stream and impact the substrate in solid state at velocities up to 1200 m/s. The high-velocity impact leads to localized plastic deformation at the interface of particles and substrate [1-3]. In this way, the kinetic energy of the particles is transformed into heat, and, consequently, the particles bond and a continuous coating is formed. Contrary to conventional thermal spraying techniques, deposition in cold spraying occurs without melting. The comparatively low process temperatures, the very short time scales and the use of more or less inert process gases lead to high-quality oxide-free coatings [4-6] with thicknesses in the range of 100 micrometers up to several centimeters. The process is easily controlled by monitoring gas pressures and temperatures. Optimum process parameters for a particular material can be estimated using empirical equations, based on the respective mechanical and thermal properties [3]. Current equipment for cold spraying is able to deposit up to 15 kg copper per hour per gun. Thus, process times can be significantly reduced as com-


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The spray gun is being adjusted in the experimental spray booth.

Technology Technology

Fig. 2: Mass loss of different cold-sprayed coatings during cavitation tests.

Fig. 3: Hardness of cold-sprayed coatings (HV0.3 for Cu, HV0.1 for Zn and Zn-based alloys).

Fig. 1: Microstructures of cold sprayed coatings; Cu (a, b), Zn (c, d), Zn - Mg 3.6 (e, f) and Zn - Mg 2.4 - Al 3.9 (g, h). Optical microscopy (a (etched), b, c, e, g) as well as scanning electron micrographs (d, f, h).

pared to galvanic plating. In addition, a wider variety of materials and alloys can be exploited. Today, cold spraying is already a well-established coating technology for several materials and applications. Some examples are ferritic stainless steel coatings on aluminum cooking ware for induction stoves, or copper coatings that improved cooling efficiency for silicon chips in electronics by a factor of four. A short overview of the deposition mechanism and the application potential for different materials is given in [1]. Zinc-based Coatings The focus of the work presented in this article is producing coatings for laser engraving, in particular zinc-based coatings. Often, the quality of state-of-the-art galvanic zinc coatings is

not satisfactory: depending on the conditions of the electrolyte, coatings may show pinholes or inclusions of impurities, which lead to imperfections during laser engraving and appear as faults in the print. Furthermore, galvanic processes increasingly become a concern because of the environmental issues connected to the chemicals and their disposal. Coating Microstructures and Properties Spray parameters for different zinc-based alloys have been optimized, reaching deposition efficiencies of up to 70% for pure Zn. Respective coatings are free of any critical porosity and the microstructure of the powders with finely distributed precipitates is retained (Fig. 1). The distribution of the structural constituents is sufficiently fine in order to guarantee the required resolution upon laser engraving. As a measure of the particle/particle bond, the coatings were subjected to cavitation tests. The cold-sprayed coatings always exhibit better cavitation resistances than conventional zinc GRAVURE/Fall 2011



Fig. 4: Polished printing rolls with cold-sprayed coatings; Cu (a) and Zn-based alloys (b, three test areas coated with different Zn-based alloys, Ø: 100 mm, L: 220 mm).

Close up photos of the laser-engraving of the printing roll.

Fig. 5: Laser engraved test pattern in cold-sprayed and polished coatings: (a) Zn, (b) Zn-4wt.%Al.

sheet (Fig. 2). The cavitation resistance scales roughly with the coating hardness (Fig. 3). This indicates that the bonding of the particle interfaces is sufficiently good for all coatings. With 153 to 220 HV 0.01, the Zn-Mg

and Zn-Mg-Al coatings exhibit up to five times the hardness as coatings on the basis of pure Zn or Zn-Al. With regard to depositions for the laser engraving of printing rolls, the considerably higher hardness as a result of alloying with Mg is expected to increase the coating lifetime. However, a final electrodeposited hard chromium facing is still advisable to cope with the current tribilogical system of the printing machine, and to provide the requested wetting behavior for the ink system. Engraving Tests Different test rolls have been coated and mechanically polished, as depicted in Fig. 4. While some small residual surface porosity is detected after polishing in the case of pure Zn, the polished surfaces of

The polished printing roll in Figure 4 has now been laser-engraved.

the alloy coatings are free of defects. Fig. 5 demonstrates that cold-sprayed Zn-based coatings can be successfully engraved by laser evaporation. The engraved test structures are well defined and do not show any faults or undesirable fragmentations, which could affect the printing pattern. These results demonstrate the high potential of cold spraying for applications in gravure printing. This study was supported by the German Ministry of Economic Affairs and Technology undergrant IGF 15.503 N / DVS No. 02.003

References [1] Klassen T., Gärtner F., T. Schmidt T., Kliemann J.-O., Onizawa K., Donner K.-R., Gutzmann H., Binder K., Kreye H.: Basic principles and application potentials of cold gas spraying, Mat.-wiss. u.Werkstofftech. 41 (2010), S. 575-584.

[4] Alkhimov, A.P., Kosarev, V.F., Papyrin, A.N.: A Method of Cold Gas-Dynamic Deposition, Sov. Phys. Dokl.,35 (1990) 12, S. 1047-1049 (Transl: American Inst. of Phys., 1991).

[2] Assadi, H., Gärtner, F., Stoltenhoff, T., Kreye, H.: Bonding Mechanism in Cold Gas Spraying, ActaMaterialia, 51 (2003) 15, S. 4379-4394.

[5] Papyrin, A., Cold Spray Technology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2007.

[3] Schmidt, T., Gärtner, F., Assadi, H., Kreye, H.: Development of a Generalized Parameter Window for Cold Spray Deposition, ActaMaterialia, 54 (2006) 3, S. 729-742.

[6] Stoltenhoff, T., Kreye, H., Richter, H.J.: An Analysis of the Cold Spray Process and Its Coatings, J. Thermal Spray Technology, 11 (2002) 4, S. 4379-4394.


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Printed E lectronics

Roll to Roll (R2R) Gravure for Manufacturing Penny RFID Tags By G. Cho


fter movable type was first invented by Gutenberg in 1452, the method for transferring information dramatically changed the level of human interface from a small number of people to everyone1. In simple terms, it means people can access and transfer information through printed materials anytime. This printing technology has evolved over the years and the newest innovation is printed electronics. Thus the level of interface with people has been changed from a rigid and expensive portable electronic device to lower cost and wearable electronic device—such devices can be worn by humans and affixed to all types of goods. If all goods can have their own electronic ID and instantaneously communicate with their surroundings via wireless means, the idea of ubiquitous printed electronics would be fully realized. Radio Frequency Identification Tags To achieve this, radio frequency identification (RFID) tag has been considered as a core technology for exchanging the information with all goods since basic ubiquitous IT device units, such as RF

communication, memory, sensors, and digital processors, are integrated in the tag. In other words, by utilizing RFID tags, all goods can start having the interface with human to exchange information so that the ubiquitous society will be fully realized. However, current silicon-based RFID tags would not be applicable for this purpose mainly because of their costs, not from the silicon chip but from chip bonding, labeling, and tagging. Furthermore, adding sensors or the other functions will dramatically raise the cost. Therefore, a number of efforts have been focused on developing a new technology to manufacture a priceless RFID tag, called a penny RFID tag. To achieve a penny tag, we should find not only successful materials but also a process to replace the current silicon-based technology. Among developed processes to produce the penny RFID tags, a roll-to-roll (R2R) printing technology has been considered as the most practical one because of its high throughput and convenience to integrate with package printings2.

Which Printing Method? The R2R printing methods such as gravure, flexo, and offset have been used for a long time to produce graphic arts, books, magazines, news papers, etc3. Those R2R printing systems have become well optimized in controlling the web, ink formulations and printing machines for the mass production of printed information during the last hundred years3. Among them, R2R gravure has been considered GRAVURE/Fall 2011


Printed E lectronics as the most practical method to produce a penny RFID tag due to its high throughput, simple structure and the durability of gravure cylinders4,5. Of course, a major reason for employing R2R gravure for manufacturing the penny RFID tags originated from the fact that the much packaging printing already uses a roll-to-roll gravure system. Therefore, we can easily integrate RFID tag printing units into the packaging printing system (Figure 1). Just like printing current barcodes, RFID tags could be R2R gravure printed with the integration of current package printings (Figure 1) so that the cost of chip bonding, labeling and tagging can be eliminated. In recent years, those R2R gravure-printing systems have been tested for printing microelectronic devices, especially for the mass production of the penny RFID tags4,5. Research Work To prove the working concept in Figure 1, wires, antenna, diodes, resistors, capacitors, transistors should be integrated using completely R2R gravure on plastic foils with minimum electrical fluctuations on each device. The first priority to provide such a uniform electrical property is to understand the major difference between printing graphic arts and electronic devices. As a typical example, for printing the graphic arts, less than 100 μm of printed defects are tolerable while those defects will generate very critical device failure in printed electronic devices. Therefore, in this article, I would like to first introduce why this difference is so critical and how we can avoid those defects in R2R gravure through ink formulation and optimized quality of printed patterns to print the penny RFID tags. Detailed R2R gravure process for practical production of penny RFID tags will be introduced in the next coming article. Simply, if there is a single 50μm defect in a printed graphic image, the naked human eye cannot see that defect. Therefore, millions of magazine or books have been R2R gravure printed without any single failure. 16

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Figure 1

Schematic description of roll-to-roll gravure process for printing RFID tags with the inte-gration to a package printing process. At the 1st printing unit, print antenna, wires and electrodes, and consecutively print dielectric layers, drain-source electrodes, active layers for TFTs, active layers for diodes, top electrodes of diodes, wires to connect and then, passive layers. At the 9th printing unit, print laminating layers, and then finally, complete color packaging printing process.

Figure 2

3D images for R2R gravure printed silver wires with defects and without defects at 100 μm of pattern width.

Figure 3

Images of engraved cell structures with the wall thickness of 25 μm (a) and 11 μm (b).

Printed E lectronics In the other words, there are almost no variations in printed words, figures, and images in each page of millions of magazines or books. However, as shown in Fig. 2, 50 μm defects in printed wire will completely disconnect the electronic device, even though the naked eye cannot see that defect. Even nanometer sized unevenness in printed patterns will generate fluctuations in printed devices, thus the devices even with several hundred transistors cannot be integrated by R2R gravure on plastic foils. Currently, silicone-based photolithographic process has been developed enough to fabricate the identical transistors so that a couple of millions transistors can be integrated without any problem. However, up to present, plastic foil-based R2R printing process is not yet capable to print the identical transistors so that only a couple of hundred transistors can be integrated on plastic foils right now. Challenges to Address Although there are numerous issues for generating inconsistency on the printed transistors, the following three major issues should be first addressed to employ R2R gravure for manufacturing penny RFID tags. The first one is the microscopic inconstancy (> 1 µm) of R2R gravure printed patterns so that the R2R gravure printed transistors on plastic foils will be less fluctuated depending on the quality of patterns. The second one is the overlay printing registration accuracy (OPRA) of R2R gravure which should be less than 10 % of channel length of transistors (~10 µm) to integrate a number of transistors for generating the digital codes, even though the OPRA of R2R gravure for graphic arts is about ±100 µm to give acceptable printing quality. The last one is providing reliable and printable insulating, semiconducting and metallic inks to keep constant threshold voltages and same level of on-off currents of printed transistors. Furthermore, the electronic ink formulations cannot follow the same or similar technology of the typical gravure ink formulations. Unlike traditional gravure

”Since the three major factors (for gravure printed electronics) are interconnected with each other, the fluctuations of printed devices can be minimized by the combinatorial consideration of inks, printing process and overlay printing registration accuracy (OPRA).” color ink formulation, the ink formulation for printing electronic devices is very limited because the selection of binders and additives has to be considered because of the generated electronic junctions and parasitic capacitances after printing. Therefore, the binders and additives to control the rheology of inks need to be carefully selected by the consideration of energy levels of active ingredients. Furthermore, the vehicle should be electronic grade, especially ionic and metallic impurities need to be minimized so that intrinsic fluctuation of printed electronic devices can be avoided. Factor Interaction Since the above mentioned three major factors are interconnected with each other, the fluctuations of printed devices can be minimized by the combinatorial consideration of inks, printing process and OPRA. As a good example, the relationship between engraved cell structures in a gravure cylinder and a given ink rheology is the most critical one. Just 14 μm difference of wall thickness in the cell structures as shown in Figure 3 brings a completely different device yields under given ink rheology. The cells in Figure 3a will give 100 % of device yield on plastic foils while the cells in Figure 3 b will give less than 30% of device yields. Therefore, to print electronic devices using R2R gravure, the microscopic reliability of ink transfer with optimized engraved cell structures becomes very critical. Therefore, a clean room with

controlled temperature and humidity with very narrow variations is usually required to print electronic devices for attaining reliable and even microscopic ink transfer for the less electrical fluctuations. To microscopically control the ink transfer, both the dimensions of engraved cell structures and the ink ingredients should be designed and controlled with the view of nanometer range and molecular levels. Therefore, providing a R2R gravure printing system with appropriate materials to print the transistors with minimized electrical fluctuations is a key issue to achieve completely R2R printed RFID tags. In the next coming issue, based on well formulated electronic inks and gravure systems, the details of R2R gravure printed RFID tags where antenna, diodes, capacitors, and transistors are integrated on plastic foils will be introduced. References 1. Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. The Printing Revolution in Early Modem Europe (2nd, rev. ed.), Cambridge University Press (2005). 2. Sung D. “Gravure as an Industrially Viable Process for Printed Electronics.” Technical Report, University of California at Berkeley, No. UCB/EECS2008079 (2008). 3. Gravure Process and Technology, Gravure Education Foundation & Gravure Association of America (2003). 4. Jung M., Kim J., Noh J., Lim N., Lim C., Lee G., Kim J., Kang H., Jung K., Leonard A.D., Tour J.M., Cho G. “All-Printed and Roll-to-Roll-Printable 13.56-MHz-Operated 1-bit RF Tag on Plastic Foils.” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 57, 571-580 (2010). 5. Cho G. “Caught on film” (Research Highlights). Nature 464, 10 (2010).

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drupa 2012: The Focus is on the Future of Printing


rior to the actual opening of Drupa 2012, the fair company will engage in several world tours as a preview for the show. Reaching far into February 2012, around 60 Drupa events will take place in more than 40 countries. The event format ranges from trade press conferences in smaller groups, half-day industry workshops right up to presentations with several hundred participants. “In this way we immediately reach the Drupa visitors and can provide them with information on the latest facts concerning Drupa 2012, noted Manuel Mataré, Director of Drupa 2012. Moreover, because the events stimulate a direct dialogue, the show company can better determine the interest and needs of potential visitors. In addition to current trade fair facts, the World Tour presents a preview of the industry’s megatrends, which will be shown at Drupa from May 3 - 16, 2012 in Düsseldorf, Germany. “The future of printing lies very clearly in the areas of packaging, printed electronics (RFID) and digital print with personalization. Especially package printing will play an ever increasing role in the future,” explained Dr. Markus Heering, Managing Director of the Association for Printing and Paper Technology within the German Engineering Federation (VDMA).


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TRADE SHOWS While traditional markets are close to being saturated, the printing market in the emerging countries is developing very dynamically. In Asia, the volume has increased from Euro 133 billion to Euro 168 billion and in China alone it has doubled to Euro 49 billion—and these dynamics are continuing. Market research institutes estimate that the printing volume in China will increase to Euro 70 billion by 2014. Cautious optimism is reflected in the printing and paper industry before the start of Drupa 2012. Thus, Drupa will again be held at exactly the right time. Many innovative developments together with successful business ideas promise the printing industry exciting future perspectives.   Multi-talent Printing Like no other trade fair, Drupa will present the complete global range of products: whether global players or ambitious newcomers, providers from emerging countries or from industrial nations—they will all be represented at Drupa 2012. The entire fairground with its 19 halls will be transformed into the largest printing plant of the world. Approximately 1,800 exhibitors from over 50 countries will showcase the versatility and innovation strength of their industry—regardless of whether it is all about newspapers, package printing, commercial or functional printing.   Highlights In contrast to the last Drupa held in 2008, the suppliers of digital solutions have become even more important and thus clearly reflect the megatrend of digitization. In six halls, Drupa 2012 will show everything concerning digital printing, workflow or webto-print applications, just to name the most important examples. Companies such as Agfa, Canon, Kodak, Epson, Fujifilm, Hewlett-Packard, Konica Minolta, Ricoh,

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TRADE SHOWS Screen and Xerox can be found in halls 4, 5, 8a, 8b, 9 and 10. A positive trend can also be seen in the field of post-production where the exhibitors have noticeably enlarged their presentation.. Other important cornerstones of Drupa 2012 will be: • Halls 1 and 2: Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG with its network partners (e.g. Polar-Mohr) • Hall 3: Printing as well as materials and services (e.g. Leonhard Kurz, Sakurai) • Hall 6: PrintCity with manroland and other exhibitors • Halls 10 to 12: Paper processing and  packaging supplies production (e.g. Bobst AG, Mitsubishi Paper, Comexi) • Halls 12 to14: Printing post-production (e.g. Horizon, Müller Martini, CP Bourg) • Halls 15 to 17: Printing machinery and printing post-production (e.g. Cerrutti, Ferag AG, Goss, Koenig & Bauer AG, Körber PaperLink, Kolbus GmbH & Co. KG, Shanghai Electric, Windmöller & Hölscher KG)   The dynamic development of the Chinese printing market is also reflected by the large number of exhibitors at Drupa 2012: with around 118,400 square feet, China’s participation has increased by almost 100% compared to 2008.   Highlight Tours Drupa 2012, print media trade fair, will again offer the Highlight Tours of the latest themes and products on display. These guided tours will cover ten current industry topics and lead the visitors to the relevant exhibitors during the tour. While Drupa offers visitors the unique opportunity to get to know the international leaders in technology, their products and services firsthand, the extent of the fair sometimes


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makes it difficult for the visitors to find an overview of their particular areas of interest. This is where the Highlights Tours offer a unique benefit. In small groups (maximum of ten visitors), the tour participants are brought to six to eight selected exhibitors. Competent advisors will explain the respective technology and will be available to answer questions. This enables tour participants to obtain a lot of useful information in a very short time, thus optimizing their visit to Drupa.    The Drupa 2012 Highlights Tours are offered for the following ten topics: • Creation and production – design, image editing and production control • Workflow systems – web and print: Perfect cross medial production • Offset print – economic production through automation • Value added printing – more value on all aspects of printing • Green printing – ecologically efficient production • Growth market digital printing – printing and postprinting • Large format printing & advertising technology • Printing post-production & logistics • Packaging and label production • Functional print products – the new dimension of printing   The Technology Guides, corresponding to each of the topics, will complement the Highlights Tours. Since time only allows a selection of Drupa 2012 exhibitors to be visited during the Highlights Tours, the bilingual publications (German and English) will present the complete overview of trends, pioneering technologies and the relevant exhibitors.   Extra Attractions The ideal addition to the exhibitors’ product displays and special shows (e.g. the Drupa innovation park and the Drupacube) will be the professional “add-ons” such as the presentations of the Mainz Gutenberg Museum, the Leipzig Museum for Printing Arts and the show of the Type Directors Club of New York (TDC). At Drupa 2012, the winning entries of the current worldwide competition will be presented for the first time. The world’s most important competition for typeface and graphic design started as a club internal competition. Today, an award from the Type Directors Club of New York (TDC) is considered the Oscar for Typography, a career launching pad and an important creative ranking feature. For further information about the show, visit the Drupa web site

your link to print one world – one drupa may 3 – 16, 2012 düsseldorf, germany

dru1202_105x267_US.indd 1

GRAVURE/Fall 201101.09.112110:49

Gravure Gravure Presses Presses

Moog’s 1 TBR compact sheet-fed gravure press.

Innovative Plate System for

Sheetfed Gravure By Linda M. Casatelli


ravure has traditionally been known as web presses and as a high-quality printing process, renowned for its consistency and repeatability. It is especially suitable for long runs because of durable engraved cylinders used for inking. Thus, gravure occupied a major role in both publication and package printing for many years. With the market split between web fed and sheetfed machines, the choice has usually depended on the run length. However, over the past few decades, the printing market has changed significantly. In all areas of printing, there has been a move towards shorter runs, shorter production cycles and quicker turnaround. In the packaging area, there are more diverse products within a brand category, as well


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as more regionalization of distribution. In the publication section, there is also a move towards more targeted brochures and magazines. Furthermore, companies are looking to minimize costs, so they are also looking for smaller inventories to store. As these market conditions have increased and the economy slowed, the drive towards shorter runs has intensified. Sheetfed gravure has always been known for its ability to produce high quality printing with a high level of ink coverage and excellent repeatability across a range of substrates. Typically, cosmetics and security were the markets targeted with sheetfed gravure. The tobacco industry has also joined the ranks, because the visual impact of the cigarette carton has assumed a new level of importance with the banning of media advertising in so many countries. In addition, the growth of illegally produced counterfeit products has strengthened the

Gravure Presses

“We see our press technology as the best solution for consistent color reproduction, which is vital for global branding, and for the stability that packaging converters demand when very fine characters need to be printed across the full sheet with no loss of quality and legibility,” said Achim Kurreck, CEO, Moog.

Precise high gloss UVmetallic gravure printing can avoid problems and cost in cold-foil applications.

case for gravure printed packaging for brand protection applications. Sheetfed Gravure With the move towards shorter runs in the market, sheetfed gravure presses with their greater flexibility; faster makeready (typically 90 minutes for 4-colors); and ability to use up to eight printing stations including varnish and micro emboss in-line, (which enables sending sheets direct to the die-cutter) has become more attractive in the packaging area. “We see our press technology as the best solution for consistent color reproduction, which is vital for global branding, and for the stability that packaging converters demand when very fine characters need to be printed across the full sheet with no loss of quality and legibility,” said Achim Kurreck, CEO, Moog. “With the right cylinder configuration we can print up to four times the ink quantity of the ‘kiss impressions’ of flexo and offset, and deliver a sheet that is ready for further processing. In addition, the waste levels are significantly lower than those of web-fed gravure lines.” Moreover, sheetfed gravure works well in combination with offset. It also offers an economical alternative to hot foil stamping, particularly where less than 50% sheet coverage is required, which is highly wasteful of expensive unused foil. For example, high gloss gold, or silver can be printed in one unit, rather than hot foil stamping and then overprinted with a yellow varnish. An additional benefit is that the product is recyclable, unlike laminated foil.

Tonal calibration on Dextrin coated transfer paper.

Flint nyloprint ® laser-imaged plates for sheet-fed gravure.

GRAVURE/Fall 2011


Gravure Presses Gravure Plates However, even with laser engraving of gravure cylinders, they have been a sticking point when it comes to short runs because of the high cost, which cannot be spread over a large volume printing. Moreover, considerable time is involved in engraving such cylinders. Several companies who supply to the gravure industry have combined their efforts to develop an innovative solution to add to the advantages of sheetfed gravure for today’s market demands. Flint Group Flexographic Products launched the nyloprint® WSA 52 digital gravure printing plate and H.C. Moog GmbH developed and constructed a new type of cylinder clamp for photopolymer gravure plates. The complementary work became the foundation for the innovative 1TBRCompact, a one-color sheetfed gravure press with a 74 by 104 Photorealistic reproduction of cm format. Subsequently, the half-tone images in ceramic European sheetfed gravure press printing. manufacture now offers the new equipment -designed specifically for folding carton production, labels and all kinds of converting. The press is equipped with a high-pile feeder, which accurately aligns the front and side register marks, while the impression cylinder holds the sheet in its grip systems and presses it against the inked form cylinder which carries the nyloprint® printing plate. In addition to the standard drying system, there is an option for the use of a combination of an infrared radiator with high-speed hot air dryers, which is particularly effective for drying challeng-

Sheet-fed gravure cylinder with mounted nyloprint WSA S2 digital printing plate.

ing water-based ink systems. The press also enables the use of UV-based inks. Printing Ceramics with Gravure Plates As an example, one customer, SND Porzellan Manufaktur GmbH prints transfer papers with sheetfed gravure printing technology. After printing, the image is transferred and burned onto ceramics. Printing porcelain inks can often be difficult because of the pigment size and the requirement for a thick ink layer. However, compared to screen printing ceramics, gravure enables much finer screen rulings for more photorealistic image details. Moreover, due to the controlled cell depth and precisely defined quantity of ink, a very constant print quality can be realized through the entire print run. While the company has been using gravure technology to print ceramic inks since 1993, it was no longer satisfied with the reproducibility of conventional gravure cylinders. This is where the digital nyloprint®—a water-washable photopolymer gravure plate— played a role. Initial tests showed a high ink transfer with excellent halftone reproduction. Despite, extremely abrasive ceramic colors, which had already worn out four doctor blades, print runs of more than

Embossing with Photopolymer Plates A plate for embossing can be prepared digitally, so that many designs can be realized. The fast and independent preparation of a plate enables a more flexible use for the embossing-print in a gravure station. Sheet-fed gravure printing uses the same plate size for each job. Also conventional form cylinders have a fixed size, no matter the repeat size of the printed package. Three-dimensional embossing results are possible with a sheet-fed gravure press, because a cylinder is used in which line embossing requires less pressure for transmission than a flat bed embossing machine. Stray graining over the whole sheet is often used in the cosmetic- and perfume-industry to present a high quality and eye catching product at the point of sale. 24

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1,5000 sheets could be accomplished with the polymer plate. This year, SND Porzellan Manufaktur used the plates for the first commercial jobs. The Flint nyloprint ® plates are laser imaged at resolutions up to 10,160 dpi, with screen rulings up to 120 L/ cm. When used for sheetfed gravure printing, the plates are suitable for printing metal pigment inks, pearlescent inks, gloss and matt varnishes and haptic (using the sense of touch) effect coatings. The sheetfed gravure plate enables high ink transfer (up to 24 grams/m²), with excellent solid coverage. “The combination of high ink transfer with brilliant halftone reproduction offers sheetfed gravure printers a quality advantage compared to offset and flexographic printers,” said Markus Muehlfeit, Product Manager Flint Group Flexographic Products. “This provides an opportunity to standout in print finishing.” In addition, the printing form can be ready to print in less than 50 minutes, significantly cutting lead-time and production set-up. The cell profile and associated ink transfer properties for every application can be defined in prepress by the variation of the screen count and cell-wall ratio. Therefore, the ink transfer can be determined before printing and start-up waste can be reduced to a minimum. In addition, since the printing form is now generated by the printer, it enables further savings. H.C. Moog H.C. Moog GmbH was founded in 1950 as an engineering enterprise with a special focus on the development and design of Moog single and multi-color sheetfed gravure presses. Originally established by Henry Cornelius Moog, H.C. Moog GmbH is now owned by the Kurreck family. Moog’s customized machines have become the leading brand for sheetfed gravure worldwide. Sheetfed gravure is well-known in Europe, but has only recently started to make inroads in the North America market. One of the driving factors in the growth is the adoption of sheetfed gravure by offset packaging printers. By combining the two processes, offset printers can now print the eye-catching metallics and pearlescents, which are increasingly used by brand owners for their packaging. Some of the options that are available from Moog for its sheetfed gravure presses include: multi-color presses; single-color presses for finishing and repeat operations; UV cassette, IR cassette, high-speed air knife or hot air knife for drying; electrostatic print assist; in-line varnishing; and in-line debossing. The presses are capable of handling substrates from paper to cardboard to synthetics.

PaPer that’s focused on green. Catalyst’s ‘Sage’ designated papers are the culmination of everything we know about producing paper in an environmentally responsible way. With Sage, Catalyst offers absolute certainty of quality, press performance and environmental pedigree including 100% certified fibre sources. Sage is also manufactured carbon-neutral with third-party verification and tracking throughout the chain of custody. These attributes are the reason why marketers, retailers and publishers across North America are now choosing Sage to signal their commitment to environmental values. Learn more about Sage – a wiser shade of green, today.

ElEctrabritE ™ SagE | ElEctrabritE ™ book SagE ElEctracal™ SagE | ElEctracotE ™ SagE ElEctracotE ™ britE SagE | ElEctraprimE™ SagE ElEctraStar™ SagE | ElEctraStar™ max SagE pacificotE SagE

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CO-CHAIRS Matt Huber – jcpenney media, l.p. Rudy Flores – Stage Stores, Inc.

2011 Golden Cylinder Awards


ach year, the Gravure Association of America conducts the Annual Golden Cylinder Awards Competition to promote the gravure process and to provide peer recognition for technical achievement. Submissions from around the world were received, cataloged, and displayed for the intensive two days of judging and deliberations. The quality of the entries was excellent, making the evaluation process challenging. The Golden Cylinder Awards for the Packaging and Product categories were announced at a luncheon at the GAA Packaging Conference at the Oakbrook Marriott Hotel in Chicago on September 14. The Golden Cylinder Awards for Publication will be announced at the GAA GPC Conference. These judges included: Back Row: Jim Tenorio, Professor University of Wisconsin-Stout; Kim Spencer, Director Print Production Talbots; Richard Keser, Cylinder Department Manager, Nordenia USA; Nathan (Rick) Oberholtzer, Manufacturing Supervisor, RR Donnelley; Todd Luman, Laser Engraving Manager, Interprint, Inc.Sitting: Reba Meek, Sales Director, Mundet Inc.; Bob Kikkert, Manager, Packaging Services, Altria; Trish Goffredo, Graphics Coordinator, Fres-Co System USA, Inc.

2011 Cylinder Society Inductees The Gravure Cylinder Society (GSC) is an honorary Society founded in April 1981 by the Gravure Technical Association and Gravure Research Institute. Each year the Society nominates industry leaders who have rendered outstanding or extraordinary contributions to the Gravure industry. The photos show this year’s members who were inducted at the packaging conference.


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Bill Martin, President and CEO of GAA; Edward Broadhusrt, Trident America; Sabine Heimann, Graphische Technik Und Handel Heimann; and Robert Kikkert, Altria Group with Cylinder Chair Hubert Metzger, Chema Technology.

Hubert Metzger presenting Robert Kikkert, Altria Group with his cylinder society pin at the packaging conference.

2011 Golden Cylinder Awards

BEST OF THE BEST Packaging | Flexible Packaging-Film Product: Protica Sunkist Protein 24g pouch w/tap Submitted by: Fres-co System USA, Inc. The gravure printed process was required to “splash� on the scene with this landmark package. The graphics, designed by the manufacturer, and separated by the printer offer the purity on the outside of the package to translate the freshness and flavor that is contained within. The packaging material is a construction of polyester/aluminum/ nylon/polyethylene. The advanced ink formulations are held in tight registration to one another on a 35+ inch wide web. The process work, with butt fit and phantom shadows complemented by vivid red, was reverse printed on clear film in 8 colors and is laminated to the balance of the substrates all in-line on a Cerutti press. Designer: Protica Inc. Separator: Fres-co System USA, Inc. Engraver: Southern Gravure Printer: Fres-co System USA, Inc. Press Manufacturer: Cerutti Substrate Manufacturer: Fres-co System USA, Inc. (printed Poly) Ink Manufacturer: Siegwerk Ink

Packaging | Technical Innovation Product: Protica Sunkist Protein 24g pouch w/tap Submitted by: Fres-co System USA, Inc. The package is comprised of a combination of elements including some patented or proprietary technologies. The features consist of: gravure printing, a distinctive pouch making process with seals to allow the package to stand up, an easy carry handle, and a measured dispensing tap. The hot filling process and patented tap allows the protein shots to remain fresh inside the bulk package without refrigeration while the flexible package reduces in size each time the product is dispensed. One Protica, Inc., Sunkist portable pouch replaces 48 individual serving packages, is provided at a more then 30% reduced cost per serving aid can be stored anyplace the consumer desires. This cooperative endeavor offers quality and sustainability while expanding a brand that exemplifies freshness.

Trish Goffredo with Bill Martin and Linda-Allen Hawkins

Designer: Protica Inc. Separator: Fres-co System USA, Inc. Engraver: Southern Gravure Printer: Fres-co System USA, Inc. Press Manufacturer: Cerutti Substrate Manufacturer: Fres-co System USA, Inc. (printed Poly) Ink Manufacturer: Siegwerk Ink

GRAVURE/Fall 2011


2011 Golden Cylinder Awards

Packaging | Technical Innovation Image Preparation Prior to Engraving Product: Gavina Don Francisco’s Family Reserve Submitted by: Fres-co System USA, Inc. Gravure printing was the only way to express the style required to communicate the quality of this winner. Meticulous color selection and precise color separation produced the timeless sepia tones, conveying the intended message. Designer: DuPuis Separator: Fres-co System USA, Inc. Engraver: Southern Gravure Printer: Fres-co System USA, Inc. Press Manufacturer: Cerutti Substrate Manufacturer: Fres-co System USA, Inc. (printed Poly) Ink Manufacturer: Siegwerk Ink

Packaging | Technical Innovation Product: Gavina Don Francisco’s Family Reserve Submitted by: Fres-co System USA, Inc. F. Gaviña & Sons, Inc. positioned among eminent retail brands in Southern California and among the top 10 nationwide. The brand offers the craft of their roasting history as a family spanning four generations. To this day, the roasting process always involves a family member. As they prepared to launch an exceptional selection of 100% Arabica coffees, they wished to communicate their rich history in their packaging. Utilizing only six colors along with matte and an easy open pattern, the meticulous selection of the color palette and precise separations provide a warm matte finish parchment to present this timeless sepia illustration. There are dark chocolates amid opulent colors laid down to reveal foil providing luminescence to the logo and description. This was reverse printed four across and two around on a wide web Cerutti press. The finished structure,matte/polyester/ aluminum/polyester/polyethylene/easy open pattern, are comprised by a mixture of elements including some patented and proprietary technologies. Designer: DuPuis Separator: Fres-co System USA, Inc. Engraver: Southern Gravure Printer: Fres-co System USA, Inc. Press Manufacturer: Cerutti Substrate Manufacturer: Fres-co System USA, Inc. (printed Poly) Ink Manufacturer: Siegwerk Ink


GRAVURE/Fall 2011

Trish Goffredo with the five Golden Cylinder Awards won by Fres-Co System

PACAKGING | Labels | Wrappers – Paper Product: Bush’s Best Original Baked Beans 28oz. Submitted by: Mundet Tennessee, Inc. Bush Brothers and Company presented a unique and intriguing opportunity, which was to take Bush’s Best Original Baked Beans and revitalize the iconic label’s print quality. The process began with the release of artwork from Deskey Branding to Mundet’s own in-house prepress development team. While metalized paper provides the brilliance required for Bush’s classic look, it presented challenges for the printer. Bush Brothers wanted the label to exude the same quality on the outside of the can as the contents inside. The primary issue was to improve the exiting four-color process imagery to a level of photographic quality printing over a white base. Beyond the process imagery, expectations for the logo colors were just as high. The look over the exposed metalized area was just as important as the areas printed over a white mask. Designer: Bush Brothers Engraver: SGS International Printer: Mundet Inc. Press Manufacturer: Schiavi Substrate Manufacturer: Vacumet Ink Manufacturer: Sun Chemical

Bill Martin, GAA; Rob Harvey, Reba Meek and Stephen Young from Mundet; Linda AllenHawkins, Altria Group.

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2011 Golden Cylinder Awards

PACKAGING | Labels | Wrappers – Film Product: Caprice-Aloe Vera Submitted by: Multi-Color Corporation The Caprice line of shrink sleeve aerosol cans continue to challenge the press operators with the extreme registration requirements and neutral halftones required for the skintones. The hair itself requires so much in terms of tiny highlight dots and full density shadows to pull out all the texture and tone in every strand. The fantastically reproduced process image is surrounded by strong spot colors that give the product visual identification. All of this was printed on an unstable film across a wide web gravure press.

PACKAGING | 26" & Less Narrow Web on any substrate Product: Hannah Foods-Bruschetta Submitted by: SleeveCo, Inc. The customer came to us wanting a package that would jump off the shelf and appeal to the consumer’s taste buds. The realistic feel of the printed tomatoes, garlic, and basil were a high priority since they were next to the clear “window” and being compared to the actual Bruschetta. This package design had one goal: to ensure the consumer they were getting a fresh and authentic product. The customer knew the only way they were going to achieve their picture perfect package was with the high line screens rotogravure provides. Separator: SleeveCo, Inc. Engraver: Alliance Graphics Printer: SleeveCo, Inc. Press Manufacturer: W.R. Chestnut Engineering Substrate Manufacturer: Bonset Ink Manufacturer: Sun Chemical Inks


GRAVURE/Fall 2011

PACKAGING | Paperboard – Board | Substrates Product: Skyline King Size & 100s Pack & Carton Submitted by: Southern Graphics Systems The highlight of the box includes a pearlescent royal blue overprinted by a metallic purple vignette that together produce the iconic Marlboro chevron. The smooth, subtle transition of the deeper purple to the lighter blue was a result of the stochastic screening capability of Southern Graphic Systems Schepers indirect laser engraving system. The design requirements were exacting, and required precise attention to detail to ensure visual alignment of the pack and its accompanying carton. These packages were produced by two different gravure printing companies. Adjustments were made to all vignettes to counteract doctor blade action with a turnaround layout, both on the carton and hard pack. Designer: Altria Engraver: Southern Graphic Systems

Bruce Ogden, Southern Graphic Systems with Bill Martin and Linda Allen-Hawkins.

GRAVURE/Fall 2011


2011 Golden Cylinder Awards

BEST OF THE BEST PRODUCT | Decorative Laminates Product: Sunset Ridge Submitted by: Interprint This winner is a striking design engraved to meet the customer’s requirement for large format natural inspired material intended for the residential, commercial and hospital segments. The engraving offers virgin manuscript copy of a petrified wood slab across the web and is separated in CMYK format to achieve the deep rich saturated colorations. The slab of petrified wood was scanned at 300 dpi on a Cruse scanner and digitally separated into four print units. Only through laser engraving are the 5% through 100% tonal gradations realized offering remarkable translucency along with jet black richness. The cylinder preparation was completed on a Daetwyler direct laser system. The engraving is a continuous tone 250 line screen. Cell volume ranges from 0.45 BCM (billion cubic microns/square inch) to 9 BCM. The cell configuration in combination with the engraving gradation used made this eye pleasing design.

Flanked by Bill Martin and Linda Allen-Hawkins, William Hines beams at the two golden cylinder awards won by Interprint.


GRAVURE/Fall 2011

PRODUCT | Vinyl Substrates Product: Black Granite Submitted by: Canadian General Tower The challenge with the Black Granite design was to create a realistic slate tile that would print on and complement a black substrate, while capitalizing on the use of four cylinders. The styling and detail of the Black Granite forges an elegant modern product with exquisite sapphire tones once installed in a pool. The black tones of the vinyl react as a reflective agent with water creating a distinct look and the black surface acting as a thermal collector by absorbing light and generating heat. Printing on a vinyl substrate requires an enormous amount of work due to its flexible properties. Both during the color separation stage all the way through to the production stage where registration obstacles were tackled with this particular design. Printing an almost transparent color on the black substrate created an issue where the optic eye had a very hard time seeing the color because the light is bright and makes it hard to see the contrast between the film and the ink. To compensate for this design uniqueness and the challenges it posed we had to make manual adjustments to the fiber optic eyes at each unit in order to hold register.

Dominika Marcisz from Canadian General Tower with award, with Bill Martin and Linda Allen-Hawkins

GRAVURE/Fall 2011


2011 Golden Cylinder Awards

technical innovation | Cylinder Manufacturing Product: Melt Free Direct Laser Engraving Company: Schepers GmbH & Co. KG This entry provides for direct laser engraving in copper without generating incidental debris at the cell walls. This melt-free cylinder engraving technique makes it a winner in this category.

Ralph Daetwyler accepted the award for Schepers.


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technical innovation | Inks and Substrates Product: Water-Based Gravure Printing Friendly to People and Environment Submitted by: Fuji Tokushu Shigyo Co., Ltd. This award winner decreases the burdens on the environment, such as reduction of residual solvent, thru water-based gravure printing instead of oil-based ink printing. To address the issue of VOC control, Fuji Tokushu Shigyo Co., Ltd. started development of a water-based gravure printing system in 1996. In 2010, a 70% ratio of the water-based gravure printing to other gravure printing methods was achieved (printed film length: 164,500,000 m/year with the average printed film width of 800 mm). In addition, the company resolved the technical problems. As a result, comparing with the conventional oil-based gravure printing, the company has achieved with a water-based gravure printing system the reduction of ink consumption by as much as 40%, and in terms of VOC content in gravure ink, the composition ratio of VOC in the water-based ink by as much as 85% down from the oil-based ink. This has served as a source of environmental load reduction by 30% in global greenhouse gas and 90% in photochemical oxidant, improving the operational and global environment. The company believes the best way to reduce VOC in gravure printing on the way toward zero containment is by making the gravure printing water-based. This effort is the most sustainable. The technology for the packing materials printed by the water-based gravure printing can be sustainable and evolvable to make them increasingly friendly to people and environment.

From the left (next to Mr. Bill Martin), Mr. Kimio Sugiyama, President of Fuji Tokushu Shigyo Co., Ltd., Mr. Takashi Miyakawa, President of Frystar Co., Ltd., Mr. Okifumi Kato, Board Director of Dupont-Mitsui Polychemicals Co., Ltd., and Mr. Mamoru Sasajima, President & CEO of Toyo Ink America LLC and Linda-Allen Hawkins.

GRAVURE/Fall 2011


2011 Golden Cylinder Awards

technical innovation | Press Product: AccuPress MicroGravure Printing System Submitted by: Daetwyler R&D Corp. The market for printed electronics is growing. The advantages of gravure printing for printed electronics are recognized as extremely fine resolutions, high ink transfer volume, and the ability to print on a variety of substrates. Unlike other printing methods, gravure is capable of transferring high volumes of ink at fine resolutions. Ink deposition is not only defined by x and y, but also the depth, z, which benefits printing of thin conductive lines. Building on decades of experience in the gravure industry, Daetwyler R&D created the MicroStar MicroEngraving system to engrave cylinders for the printed electronics market with cells smaller than 5Îźm. Recognizing the lack of gravure presses capable of the tight tolerances, high accuracy and layer-tolayer registration required for printed electronics, DR&D developed the AccuPress MicroGravure System. This high-precision sheet-fed gravure press uses cylinders engraved on a MicroStar system. The AccuPress System is used for ink and substrate testing as well as limited production. AccuPress systems are in place at the Center of Advanced Printed Electronics (CAPE) located at Western Michigan University, the Palo Alto Research Center, the University of California Berkeley and a multinational company based in Germany. Another system will be installed in France before the end of the year.

Flanked by Bill Martin and Linda Allen-Hawkins, Udo Dittmar, President of Daetwyler R&D Corp receives the Golden Cylinder Award .


GRAVURE/Fall 2011

Product | Postage Stamps & Security Printing Product: Stamps of Famous People in History: Mother Teresa, Ronald Reagan, Oveta Hobby Submitted by: Avery Dennison – DES - Clinton SC Ronald Reagan and Mother Teresa stamps were printed using fourcolor process inks. The bright image overall and facial features were a challenge, as register is critical with facial pictures. The background and facial features used all YMCK inks at the lower percentages from 10-40% to make up the lighter colors. To hold the knock-outs in four colors and light percentages of YMCK in the face and background images. we ran the four-color process inks at line screens of 300-400 dpi. The challenge on the Oveta Culp Hobby stamp was to keep Oveta’s facial features subtle but have some detail to her hair and emblem on the hat. We were able to accomplish this on press with the shadows and face blending. We used the PM~ Gray / Brown for the background. Notice the trap of only 0 .0021from PMS to Process colors was a challenge to hold on the run. Substrates: Fasson Face Stock Laminated to liner Inks/Coatings: Siegwerk Engraver: Trident Press Type: Dia Nippon Kiko 10 Color Roto-Gravure

2011/2012 GAA Calendar of Events November 15-18

Gravure Publishing Council Conference (GPC) Golden Cylinder Awards Luncheon for Publication Categories The Naples Beach Hotel and Golf Club Naples, FL

January 16-18

Premedia Conference The Naples Beach Hotel and Golf Club Naples, FL


GAA Basic Gravure Seminar


GAA Environmental Workshop


GAA Advanced Seminar


GAA Packaging & Products Technology Conference


GPC Conference GRAVURE/Fall 2011


Product Gravure

Gravure’s Influence on


By Daniel Triassi


he power of print technology has transformed once arduous techniques into highly productive mediums. This paper will look specifically at wallpaper manufacturing from its inception to its current and future implications. Historically, wallpaper arose close to the time that paper was first introduced to Europe. The process was further improved through mechanical means by implementing engraved cylinders and longer web lengths. Today, the main means of wallpaper production is through gravure printing. Based on gravures key attributes such as consistency, color reproduction, large press forms, varying ink-film thickness, stability, and fast press speeds gravure is an incredible asset to wallpaper production.

Additional technology, such as improved performance with an increase in automation and the development of universal ink systems that both reduce cost and cleanup times are in the works to make gravure printing and wallpaper production an even more efficient process.

aging, varying ink-film thickness, stability, and fast press speeds. These characteristics have propelled gravure wallpaper production into the 21st century.

Introduction In the age of the Internet, print still has power. With its depth and lasting quality, in contrast to the ephemeral nature of much of the Webs content, print today represents an ideal balance of tradition and innovation. Since its inception, print has caused massive social, political and psychological changes. Print has been instrumental in bringing about major shifts in art, science, religion, politics and the modes of thought that are commonly associated with modern Western culture.

History of Wallpaper Printing Before the existence of gravure printing, wallpaper production was limited to early craft techniques such as woodcut, paint and stencil. The medium itself first developed soon after the introduction of paper making to Europe during the latter part of the 15th century. Although it is often assumed that the Chinese invented wallpaper, there is no evidence that it was in general use in Asia any earlier than the time of its appearance in Europe. In 1481 Louis XI, King of France, had portable wallpaper made, so that he could take the decorations with him as he traveled from castle to castle. Most wallpaper was pasted on walls during that period, as both a decoration and an easy way to chink up cracks that let in cold air in the winter. Yet, wallpaper as we know it (with repetitive patterns) had to wait for the printing press. (Benhamin, 2010)

Illustration of the gravure process (Eldred, 2010


GRAVURE/Fall 2011

One medium in particular, wallpaper printing, has a rich history that combines tradition with innovation. The medium has evolved with the advent of new printing technologies. Today, the majority of wallpaper production is benefited by the gravure printing process. The method is known for such attributes as consistency, large press forms, continuous im-

Instead, the earliest wallpapers in England and France were hand painted or stenciled. During the 17th century, decorative techniques also included block printing

Product Gravure and flocking, a process whereby powdered wool or metallic powders were scattered over paper on which the design had been drawn with slow-drying adhesive or varnish. The oldest existing example of flocked wallpaper comes from Worcester and was created in approximately 1680 (How Wallpaper is Made, 2010). In 1675, the French engraver Jean-Michel Papillon, considered the inventor of wallpaper, started making block designs in matching, continuous patterns (Benhamin, 2010). Thus, wallpaper not only repeated but it was continuous from one sheet to the next.

to improve the printing process. During his first ten years as an engraver, he used woodblocks, then copper sheets and ultimately engraved copper rolls, which resulted in a faster printing process. In 1785, Oberjampf invented the first machine for printing wallpaper. Soon after, Louis Robert invented a process for manufacturing endless rolls of paper (Benhamin, 2010). In the nineteenth century, printing costs were greatly reduced by abandoning labor intensive block printing in favor of cylin-

During the 18th century, wallpaper manufacture developed far beyond the expectations of the early makers. From the very beginning, wallpaper had been regarded as a substitute for tapestry, painted cloth, leather and wood paneling. The first wallpapers were esteemed because they so cleverly and inexpensively simulated the appearance of more costly hangings with the repeated pattern technique. However, later designs expressed the decorative possibilities inherent in the medium itself. (Benhamin, 2010) Two problems plagued wallpaper manufacturing until the mid-nineteenth century. One was the problem of producing long sheets of paper for printing; the other was printing attractive wallpaper inexpensively. Until the mid-1700s, ragbased paper was individually printed in sheets, then applied to walls. At that time, wallpaper manufacturers were pasting the pieces together, ground coating them, then printing them (How Wallpaper is Made, 2010). Christophe-Philippe Oberkampf was instrumental in evolving the mechanical process of wallpaper production. He began working as an engraver at a printing company. Later, he established a cotton printing factory. Oberkampf employed some of his best skilled workers

Christophe-Philippe Oberkampf (Museeprotes­

der printing. Wood-block printers applied each color by hand using a separate block for each color in the pattern. A cylinder for each color was mounted within one machine and the paper was mechanically fed between cylinders until the wallpaper was completely printed. By 1885, wood pulp paper printed with cylinders so greatly reduced wallpaper costs that it was cheaper to wallpaper a house in the United States than to paint it (How Wallpaper is Made, 2010).

For the next 100 years, few advances took place in the wallpaper industry. However, the 1950’s and 60’s brought more developments in wallpaper manufacturing. New processes enabled designers to decorate wallpaper with photogravure and electromechanical engraving. Also, high-speed technologies were developed for the more traditional screen printing and woodblock methods (Benhamin, 2010). Today, the wallpaper industry has kept abreast of modern trends in design and printing production, producing papers with both the latest gravure technologies and fashions. Recent advances, which include improvements in the durability and maintenance of wallpaper have been achieved through the use of plastic coatings, new inks and solvents. Gravure Process Today Much of the historical developments of wallpaper manufacturing (developing a continuous image, cylinder engraving, and use of webs of paper) are essential assets to gravure printing today. Currently, gravure is used for nearly 20 percent of all printing done in the United States (Kasdorf, 2003). Wallpaper printing subsides into product printing, which is one of three distinct gravure categories. Product printing also includes the printing of materials such as vinyl, floor coverings, and textiles. The other two subsets of gravure printing are packaging and publication printing (Kipphan, 2001). With influence from the early industrial manufacturers, the gravure process still uses an engraved cylinder with recessed cells to transfer ink to substrate. The method currently consists of an ink fountain, a gravure image cylinder, an impression cylinder and a doctor blade. The size and depth of each halftone dot can be modified to give gravure the widest tonal range of all printing processes. The deep cells hold more ink and produce the darker, or shadow, areas of the image. The shadow cells hold smaller amounts of ink GRAVURE/Fall 2011


Product Gravure and produce the lighter, or highlight areas of an image. Gravure is the only method that allows the designer the opportunity to achieve a complete, continuous color deposit ranging from 100 percent full tone down to almost a 5 percent tone. Due to the often ornate, intricate and vibrant characteristics of wallpaper design, the quality and consistency of gravures color is an essential asset to the product. Lastly, because the ink transfers directly to the substrate from the gravure cylinder there is precise color control throughout the press run (Eldred, 1990). Gravure Inks and Color Gravure printing requires fluid ink. Fluid inks have a low viscosity, meaning they have a low resistance to flow. This characteristic allows them to easily transfer from the ink fountain to the engraved cylinder, and then from the recessed cells to the substrate. If the ink had a high viscosity, like paste inks, the ink would not coat the engraved cylinder evenly, causing the printed substrate to have an inconsistent color density (Eldred, 1990). As gravure’s color spectrum and consistency are two of their chief benefits, fluid inks are vital to the method. The characteristics of gravure inks are important as they relate to printing wallcoverings. Gravure can deposit significantly thicker ink films than offset and flexography. Therefore, gravure can produce vibrant, opaque colors and rich blacks. Gravure is the only high volume printing process that can apply a variable ink film thickness (Eldred, 1990). This results in dramatic richness and a near-continuous tone appearance.       Zita Seahra, quality assurance manager of International Wallcovering agrees gravures color as it relates to wallcoverings is particularly important. “The benefits of gravure include high quality in a broad gamut of colors on a variety of substrates,” Seahra said. “The ability to produce transparent, metallic and opaque prints with 42

GRAVURE/Fall 2011

consistent results over long runs at high machine speeds make gravure printing the way to go. ‘Batch to batch’ reruns are made simpler with fewer variables to control. Another benefit of this printing process is its superior ability to print line and tone in the same cylinder. This type of print is capable of producing process work of outstanding quality and is very adaptable to precise reproduction of digital, CAD and art work.” (Pianoforte). Further, the chemicals used in product gravure are similar to those used in both publication and packaging gravure. However, product gravure uses both water- and solvent-based inks (Eldred, 1990). The

An example of early wall­paper design (Museeprotes­

industry has used water-based inks successfully on medium-weight papers and on nonabsorbent substrates such as plastics, aluminum, and laminates (Eldred, 1990). Problems such as paper distortion and curl persist with lightweight papers (Eldred, 1990). Ongoing, product gravure uses heattransfer inks for textiles. Heat transfer inks contain a subliminal dye. The dye is printed on paper using gravure. When the printed paper is heated and pressed against a textile, the dye sublimes (evaporates) and migrates into the textile fibers, decorating the textile (Schunck).

It is also important that gravure inks be nonabrasive. Gritty particles in abrasive inks wear cylinders and doctor blades. If the cylinder is scratched due to abrasive ink, there will be unwanted recessed areas on the cylinder. Ink will then get stuck in the scratches, resulting in image in nonimage areas. If the doctor blade is damaged, the result will be streaking, which will ruin the job. To fix both of these problems, the entire press must be stopped and the job must be delayed until the cylinder is either repaired or replaced (depending on the level of damage) and/or the doctor blade is replaced (Eldred, 56). The gravure cylinder is resistant to virtually all chemicals and inks can be formulated to print on any substrate. The inks are also fast drying, allowing for faster print-run times. Faster print-runs allow increased productivity for the wallpaper. Finally, gravure inks do not rub-off the finished product. This is important for wallcoverings because they are constantly touched be both hands and furnishings. Gravure Paper and Standards In terms of paper for wallpaper gravure, the most serious printability problem is a lack of contact between the individual cells of the gravure cylinder and the paper during the printing impression. This lack of contact prevents ink from transferring from the cells to the paper and results in missing dots described as skips, snow, or speckle. Irregularities in paper surfaces such as holes, pits, or fiber bundles produce skips or missing dots, particularly in the highlight and midtone areas. Smoothness under the printing impression is the most essential paper requirement for good gravure wallpaper printability(Wilson, 71). Specifically, the wallpaper industry divides the manufacture of wallpaper into two categories: those used in residences and those hung in businesses or other public buildings. The two categories of paper differ in weight, serviceability, and quality standards. Residential-use wallpa-

Product Gravure pers are made from various materials and can be purchased prepasted or unpasted. There are no mandated serviceability tests for residential wallpapers (Schunck). The commercial-grade wallpapers are divided into categories based on weight, backing composition and laminate/coating thickness. All commercial-use wallpapers must have a vinyl surface and pass rigorous physical and visual tests as mandated

cally tests the fabric for minimum requirements (“How Wallpaper is Made,” 2010). As the backing is printed, constant visual checks ensure proper adhesion of vinyl to backing, correct color, no streaking or unwanted shading, and trimmed edges. Representative samples are physically and visually examined before being cut into smaller rolls (How Wallpaper is Made,” 2010). Results: In general, gravure printing is better known for its applications for catalogs and inserts. Still, gravure printing for wallpaper has become an important niche market. Aston Mendoza, Director of Operations for Walker Greenbank, a luxury interior furnishings group of companies which design, manufacture, market and distribute wallcoverings, furnishing fabrics and associated products for the consumer market, spoke on the varying ways they print wallpaper.

by the Chemical Fabrics and Film Association (CFFA) (Kipplan, 2001). The mandates demand that all papers undergo testing on such attributes as minimum coating weight, tensile strength, tear strength, coating adhesion, abrasion resistance, flame spread, smoke development, shrinkage, heat aging, and stain resistance (Kipplan, 2001). Additionally, each wallpaper printing company conducts visual inspections in the form of spot checks or representative product samplings to ensure their product conforms to certain values established by the manufacturer. Generally, wood pulp and ground wood paper backings are given visual checks to see if there is foreign matter embedded in the backing. When woven backings are received by printers, the printer checks thread count and physi-

“Depending on the design and style, we use several methods for printing our wallpapers. Some are hand blocked printed, some are rotary screen printed, some are flat bed screen printed, some are printed by gravure, some are surface printed, and others are flexographic printed,” Mendoza said (A. Mendoza, personal communication, Nov. 8 2010). The gravure process is commonly thought of in terms of publication and packaging printing, but over the years gravure has become firmly entrenched in other less known areas such as product printing. Wall and floor coverings are an area of growth for gravure printing. According to Mendoza, producers are choosing gravure printing for wallpaper for its speed, quality and flexibility with lesser grade stocks. John Rooney, vice president of R&D at Sun Chemical Ink, also spoke to gravures application for wallpaper. “While publication gravure and printing on film, foil GRAVURE/Fall 2011


Product Gravure and paper for packaging are well known, one of the primary advantages of gravure printing is the ability to print continuous patterns,” said Rooney. “Unlike most flexographic and lithographic processes, gravure does not have a plate gap. Consequently, gravure is used to print simulated woodgrain paper for laminated furniture, wallboard, textiles, flooring and other product applications, where uninterrupted patterns are necessary,” (Pianoforte). The ability of the gapless cylinder to achieve a continuous print, or pattern makes gravure ideal for printing wallpaper. As Rooney mentioned, the gapless cylinder allows for many different image layout options including random and nested images. Thus, one of the chief

benefits of gravure printing as it applies to wallcoverings is the gapless cylinder. A gapless cylinder allows the image or pattern to go completely around the cylinder (unlike lithography). Lithographic plates take up only a portion of the cylinder because space is required to fasten the plate to the cylinder, and there is a gap where nothing is being printed as the cylinder rotates (Kasdorf, 2003). Waste Print productivity has always been a primary concern for the graphic arts industry. Yet like any scientific process, there is room for error, and error means downtime, waste and an inferior print job. In the past decade, heightened awareness of environmental concerns has forced

many businesses to become astute and increase efforts to become more efficient entities. Printing firms have begun to ferret out and remove every single scrape of waste, whether it is paper, materials, energy, labor or time. Gravure printing for wallpaper has minimal waste driving cost efficiencies. Gapless technology does away with the gap between blanket edges in an attempt to combat the problems of cylinder “bounce,” caused when the edges of the plate contact the edges of the blanket on their respective cylinders. According to Mendoza, this jars the cylinders, producing a slightly misregistered print (A. Mendoza, personal communication, Nov. 16 2010).

References Aston Mendoza. Interview. 16 Nov. 2010. Benhamin, Alan. “The Vinyl Wallcovering Handbook.” Wallpaper History. Web. 11 Nov. 2010. Charlesworth, Karen. “Web Offset Presses.” Print Week 22 Mar. 2001. Web. 20 Nov. 2010.>. “Does Size Matter?” Grafix. 29 June 2008. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. < html>. Eldred, Nelson Richards., Terry Scarlett, and Terry Scarlett. What the Printer Should Know about Ink. Pittsburgh, Pa., United States of America: Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, 1990. Print. Geiselhart, Roland. “A Modern Solvent Based Ink System for Gravure.” Huber Gruppe. Print. “Golden Cylinder Award Past Winners.” Gravure Association of America. Web. 18 Nov. 2010.  <>. “The Gravure Update.” Ink World. Web. 12 Nov. 2010. <http://www.>. “How Wallpaper Is Made.” Made How. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. <http://>. John Roney. Telephone interview. 17 Nov. 2010. Kasdorf, William E. The Columbia Guide to Digital Publishing. New York: Columbia UP, 2003. Print. Kipphan, Helmut. Handbook of Print Media Technologies and Production Methods. Berlin: Springer, 2001. Print. Klauk, Hagen. Organic Electronics: Materials, Manufacturing and Applications Weinheim: WILEY-VCH, 2007. Print. McLoone, Chris. “Consistent Across the Board.” Package Printing, June 2009. ProQuest. Web. 14 Nov. 2010.


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“Nanotechnology Is Impacting Inks, Pigments, Printing. (European Report). - Free Online Library.” Free News, Magazines, Newspapers, Journals, Reference Articles and Classic Books - Free Online Library. Gale, Cengage Learning. Web. 9 Nov. 2010. <http://www. is impacting inks, pigments, printing. (European...-a098272639>. Phillips, Phil. “Plastic Finishing Methods.” Appliance Manufacturer, June 1999. ProQuest. Web. 18 Nov. 2010. Pianoforte, Kerry. “The Gravure Update.” Ink World. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <>. “Printer Ink - Gravure Inks.” Castle Ink. Web. 11 Nov. 2010. <>. Rehmann, Erik. “High-Volume Commercial Offset or Publication Rotogravure.” GravurExchange. Web. 2 Nov. 2010. <http://www.>. Schunck, Rebecca. Wallpaper Installer. Web. 16 Nov. 2010. <>. Smith, Mark. “Make Ready for Change.” Printing Impressions, May 2003. ABI/INFORM. Web. 13 Nov.  2010. <http://proquest.umi. Mode=2&sid=2&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName =PQD&  S=1290322320&clientId=17870>. “Untitled.” Printers’ National Environmental Assistance Center: Environmental Information for the Printing Industry. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. < info11.cfm>. Walker Greenbank Contracts. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. <>. Wilson, Lawrence A. What the Printer Should Know about Paper. Pittsburgh: GATFPress, 1998. Print.

Product Gravure “Proponents of gravure printing point out that the process allows printing of continuous tones and patterns, as well as nested patterns with minimal waste,” Rooney said. “They would say that efforts by lithographic press manufacturers to develop gapless and single-fluid processes reflect a need to copy the features of gravure printing. Gravure is a relatively simple process, and the durability of the imaged cylinder permits long print runs,” (Pianoforte). A gapless system also cuts down on makeready times. It increases productivity partly because cylinders, which don’t have to withstand bounce, can be built longer, which allows more copies off the delivery end (Geiselhart). New Technology In general, gravure printing has a number of new technologies emerging. The focus has been on improving performance with an increase in automation and the development of universal ink systems that both reduce cost and cleanup times. According to some market insiders, in an effort to compete with flexography, gravure is trying to go to lighter sleeves and quicker turnaround time, in an effort to improve performance on shorter runs (A. Mendoza, personal communication, Nov. 16 2010). “The gravure industry is working to decrease some of the costs that are involved with shorter run lengths,” Mendoza said. “There are many companies that are experimenting on sleeves that can be placed on cylinders that reduce high costs. These have been used with a little success in narrowing the cost and variation between flexography and gravure. If they can do that, gravure will be more viable for shorter run lengths.” Still, efforts are being made to reduce prepress time with cylinder preparation. “Gravure offers certain features that are difficult for other printing processes to emulate,” Rooney said. “The chief obstacle to the growth of gravure continues to be the relative complexity of the cylinder preparation, although there are a num-

ber of initiatives underway to address this area. Many new packaging gravure presses are hybrid machines incorporating other printing processes, such as flexo, ink jet and screen printing to accommodate a wider range of output,” (Pianoforte). In 2008, OMNOVA Solutions won a Golden Cylinder Award for technical innovation for their Ecore Advanced Wall Technology. The technology was the industry’s first “no-compromise,” ecofriendly wall covering platform utilizing patented nanotechnology in the form of a unique “nano-textile” as a wallcovering substrate (GAA). With the technique, polyester and polyamide are spun into endless segmented filaments, which are then split by high-pressure water jets into nano-size microfilaments and subsequently printed by gravure utilizing water-based inks. Gravure was used for creating base colors, achieving print fidelity requiring new ink viscosity standards and specific line screen cylinders, and developing new color matching methodology. Cylinder suppliers were required to create cylinders that would print on a rough surface (GAA). Concluding Remarks Like printing itself, wallpaper manufacture is a medium that blends tradition and innovation. Its role in society began quietly, as a decorative backdrop that was universally acknowledged. Technological advances and aesthetic gear-shirts slowly began to turn the medium into a powerfully expressive and creative force.

Throughout history the need for faster production speeds and longer webs of paper lead to developments in these two areas. Today, the benefits of gravure printing make it the most viable method for printing wallcoverings. Characteristics such as gravure’s gapless cylinder, use of fluid inks, limited amount of waste, continuous tones, consistency, long cylinder life, large press widths, amount of solvent recovery from ink and wide color spectrum continue to benefit the manufacture of wallcoverings. For the most part, gravure is a mature technology. This is a testament to the quality, strength and relative stability of the process. Still, new technological advances are being made that will improve the performance and increase the automation of gravure printing and thus benefit the product printing sector. For wallcoverings specifically, OMNOVA solutions has developed an eco-friendly wall covering platform utilizing patented nanotechnology. Technological innovations like these will continue to merge traditional wallpaper printing with the innovations of today. As technology advances and new ideas come into fruition the historically rich medium will persist to be an important part of the gravure industry for decades to come. Daniel Triassi won first prize in the undergraduate category of the Flint Technical Writing Contest. This paper was his submission.

Gravure magazine will be published three times for 2012—Spring, Summer and Fall. If you have any suggestions for articles for Gravure magazine, contact GRAVURE/Fall 2011



Two Sides to Launch in the United States


wo Sides is a non-profit organization that started in Europe in 2008 to promote the responsible production and use of print and paper, as well as encourage its use as an attractive, practical and sustainable communications medium. Using advertising, direct mail pieces and other publicity targeted to media buyers and influencers to communicate its objectives, the campaign has been very successful in Europe. In addition to distributing 18 regular newsletters, the organization has established a website (, which has become a repository for information about the sustainability of print and paper.

Currently, Two Sides has over 1,000 members including major pulp and paper producers, merchants, brokers, ink and chemical manufacturers, pre-press, press, printing, finishing and publishing. The entire print media supply chain is represented. Present in 12 countries, the organization has links to similar projects in Australia and Japan. Expanding its presence into the US Now there is a Two Sides initiative launching in the United States due to the efforts of member companies, leading organizations in the U.S. print me-


Appleton Coated LLC Boise Inc. Mohawk Paper Co. Monadnock Paper Mills Neenah Paper Sappi Fine Paper North America UPM-North America

Retail Eastman Kodak Company


American Paper Corp. Anchor Paper Co. Ariva ARC Paper, L.L.C Bosworth Papers, Inc. Bradner Smith & Company Butler-Dearden Paper B.W. Wilson Paper Co., Inc. Central Michigan Paper Co. Central Paper Co., Inc. Clampitt Paper Dennis Paper Co. Graphic Paper, Inc. Jackson/Newell Paper Company 46

GRAVURE/Fall 2011

J.P. Gasway Company Lindenmeyr Division of Central National-Gottesman Mac Papers, Inc. Midland Paper, Packaging + Supplies Olmsted-Kirk Paper Co. Omaha Paper Co., Inc. Pochteca Papel Printing Papers, Inc. Redd Paper Company Sandia Paper Co., Inc. Shaughnessy Kniep Hawe Paper Co., Inc. Spicers Paper, Inc. Sterling Paper Company Unisource Worldwide, Inc. Warwick Paper Co., Inc. WCP Solutions

Allied Organizations

NPTA Alliance Printing Industries of America (PIA) Print Services and Distribution Association (PSDA) TAPPI (Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry)

dia supply chain and support from the NPTA (National Paper Trade Alliance). The result is the formation of Two Sides US. According to the new organization’s President, Phil Riebel, the initiative quickly gained support from stakeholders thereby securing the necessary funding to establish the organization here in the United States. “Currently, over 30 paper merchants have signed up, eight pulp and paper companies and one large retailer, with more joining every month (see sidebar),” Riebel noted. “Our goals and strategies will be based on the European template but tailored to the US Phil Riebel, market. Initially, President of Two Sides U.S., Inc it will probably be more business-tobusiness education, but it will migrate to business-to-consumers as we grow our budget.” “Kodak supports Two Sides in the U.S. because a key part of our business relies on the sustainable use of paper and print,” says Charles J. Ruffing, director of health, safety, environment and sustainability at Eastman Kodak. “We believe that both electronic and print communications will co-exist in the future, and we want to continue educating people about the sustainable life cycle of print and paper.” One of the current goals is to enlist the support of publisher members to

ENVIRONMENT provide ad space for communications explaining the industry’s efforts to create environmentally sustainable paper production. “The role of publishers is critical for Two Sides because they provide an ideal channel to reach the public. As an example, our publisher members in Italy generously provided 160 pages of free ad space to us last year. In the UK, the Economist magazine featured two of our ads with a circulation of over 400,000,” noted Riebel. Sustainability Education Another area that Two Sides US is going to address is educating government officials and corporations on many of the sustainability issues regarding print. According to Riebel, there is a rapidly growing trend in government and corporate offices of going paperless based on the assumption that switching to electronic media is better for the environment. “The main issue is that many organizations are sending misleading messages related to

the environmental impacts of print and paper, and they are not properly considering the impacts of increasing electronic communications. Our task is to provide people with factual education that print and paper are sustainable, and challenging some of the misleading messages. A

sustainable forest products industry not only provides hundreds of thousands of jobs in the U.S., it also ensures a long-term incentive for private landowners to keep healthy forests instead of selling the land for development and losing the forest to malls, condos or highways. Print and paper have a great sustainability story to tell, and Two Sides is committed to spreading the word as our U.S. effort continues to grow.” At the present time, Two Sides

early adopter membership drive has been completed, the governance structure is in place and a U.S. strategy and web site are underway. Member Benefits Since it has earned a reputation as an industry authority on the sustainability of print and paper, the organization aims to provide top environmental service to its members. The website provides valuable resources and facts about the sustainability of print and paper, including environmental reports, case studies, and an audio and video library related to the use of print and paper as an effective communications medium. In addition, the networking around the global print media value chain can enable members to make key contacts and become more educated on the sustainability of print and paper. For more information, contact Phil Riebel, President, Two Sides US at; phone: 1-855-twoside.

Paper and Print is Just Part of Our Story. At a time when many companies are cutting back, Graphic Communications continues to invest. As one of the world’s leading paper and print consultants, we’ve expanded our specialties and adapted innovative technologies. Whether it’s customized paper and print platforms, strategic, environmental packaging solutions or programs to elevate your brand’s image, GC does it like no other provider can. We’ve spent millions on world-class systems that help our corporate partners drive compliance companywide. Graphic delivers the data essential to managing your printed media – and your business – most effectively. These advances come at no additional cost to our national and global customers, whose time and money are better spent elsewhere. With age comes wisdom and change. We’re writing new chapters and would love to be part of your success story.

GC is a Unisource Company and Proud Continuing Sponsor of the GPC Conference I 866-650-5522 I

GRAVURE/Fall 2011




GEF Educators Breakfast

he Gravure Education Foundationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Educators Breakfast was held September 13, on the morning of the Persons of the year Awards Luncheon. The site was the Park Hyatt Hotel, located in downtown Chicago. Because the breakfast was held during Graph Expo, many Graphic Communications students and professors were in town. There were 9 professors, 10 students and many Trustees from the GEF and Board members from the GAA. The GEF was pleased with the turnout.

Veronika holds a BS in Printing Management and a MS in Paper and Imaging Science and Engineering from WMU. Her awards include the 2002 Sun Chemical Flexographic Research Fellowship; Gutenberg Award for excellence in Spot Color Lithography IGAEA and IAPAC. She was Vice President of TAGA WMU Chapter. Later in the program, Mike Green recognized the First place winner of the Flint Technical Writing Contest, Adwahoot Shendye, who was in attendance.

The Breakfast began with a presentation by Bernadette Carlson discussing what the Gravure Education Foundation can do for you. She explained the GEF was founded in 1979 and has distributed over 540 Scholarships and hundreds of grants over the years. In 2011, nine scholarships and three Technical Writing Awards were distributed, and she strongly encouraged students to apply for the 2012 scholarships. They will be available on the website in January. The Keynote speaker was Veronika Husovska, a PhD candidate at Western Michigan University in Paper and Imaging Science and Engineering. Veronika is herself a former recipient of the Gravure Education Foundation Scholarship. Her experience included interning at International Paper, Beverage Packaging Division, and at Flint Ink in the R & D Division. In addition, she was a chemist at Flint and a Technical Service Representative of Global Ink Product Development at Silberline Manufacturing. From 1993 until 1996 she was a Teaching Assistant for paper making in Slovakia; and from 1998-2001 was a student research assistant in the Paper and Imaging Science and Engineering Department at WMU, and a teaching assistant from 2002-2003.

Staff pictured in the photo include: (l to r): Jerry Addie, UW-Stout; Jim Tenorio, UW-Stout; Keif Oss, UW-Stout; Liam Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Hara, Clemson Univ.; Tom Schilgen, Arizona State Univ.; Ted Bensen, UW-Stout; Pete Schlosser, UW-Stout; Kevin Cooper, Cal Poly; and Peter Galante, UW-Stout.

GEF Mission The Mission of the Gravure Education Foundation is to promote and support educational development in gravure technology by raising and properly distributing money and resources to deserving educators, institutions and students. By doing so, the Foundation will motivate and develop individuals with technical proficiency and leadership skills for the print communications industry.


GRAVURE/Fall 2011

Students included: (l to r): AwadhootShendye, Western Michigan Univ.Tech. Writing Contest Winner; Valerie Speedling, UW-Stout; Sara Koller, UW-Stout; Marissa Thayer, UW-Stout; Russell McGough, Graduate student at Clemson University; Carley Frea, UW-Stout; VeronikaHusovska, Western Michigan Univ.-Breakfast speaker; Devon Block, UW-Stout; and Cheryl Falkner, UW-Stout.

GAA Press Operator Certification Program GAA Press Operator Certification Program is the first nationally recognized gravure press operator skill certification training course. Having certified press operators in your organization demonstrates to your customers and employees the level of commitment your company places on insuring excellent manufacturing practices to produce the highest quality printing. The significance you attach to guarantee these manufacturing and quality practices exist in the operation is a definite employee morale booster and it is an excellent method to evaluate, recognize, retain, reward, and advance talent. Certified press operators will help increase quality, reduce press downtime, increase productivity and factor heavily in your efforts to reduce total systems cost in the operation. We believe that is a very powerful sales tool.

There are currently eight modules completed. These initial courses cover:

➊ Pressroom Safety ➋ The Impression Roll ➌ Doctor Blades ➍ Cylinders ➎ Inks ➏ Color Theory for Press Operators ➐ Pressroom Troubleshooting ➑ Gravure Press Fingerprinting

We anticipate that certification will provide a distinct competitive advantage to those companies that participate, and we want everyone to have an opportunity to get involved at its inception. Go to for more information and a link to a program presentation that summarizes the Operator Certification Program content, training options, and the economics.

GRAVURE Magazine 2011 Subscription Form Please enter my subscription for GRAVURE Magazine United States/International:

‰ 1 Year/ $67.00

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Type or print clearly the following information: Name _______________________________________________________________________________________ Title ________________________________________________________________________________________ Company Name ______________________________________________________________________________ Address ____________________________________________________________________________________ City, State, Zip Code, Country & Postal Code _______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Phone Number _________________________ Fax __________________________________________________ Email Address __________________________Website _______________________________________________

If a Printer:

We print: We use the following processes: In-house, we have:

If a Print Buyer: We purchase printing for: We purchase using the following processes: In-house, we have: We purchase substrates directly: We purchase image carriers directly:

‰ Publications ‰ Packaging ‰ Products ‰ Gravure ‰ Flexography ‰ Lithography (offset) ‰ Prepress ‰ Engraving/plating ‰ Bindery ‰ Converting Operations ‰ Publications

‰ Packaging

‰ Products

‰ Gravure ‰ Design ‰ Yes

‰ Flexography ‰ Prepress ‰ No

‰ Lithography (Offset)

‰ Yes

‰ No

If a Supplier: We support: Our primary business is:

‰ Publications ‰ Packaging ‰ Products ‰ Paper ‰ Ink ‰ Manufacturing ‰ Other, please explain _____________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

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Return this form with payment to: GRAVURE Magazine P.O. Box 25617 Rochester, NY 14625 Phone: (201) 523-6042 Fax: (201) 523-6048 web: Rev. 03/11

GRAVURE Fall 2011  

GRAVURE Fall 2011

GRAVURE Fall 2011  

GRAVURE Fall 2011