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New Energy-Related Revenue Streams for the Paper Industry Migration Issues Challenge Food Packaging Market

SUSTAINABILITY Who cares about the environment ? We do. And we know you do too. In every step of the papermaking process, UPM is committed to responsible environmental stewardship. Our raw materials are harvested from only sustainably managed forests. Climate-neutral biofuels have helped us reduce fossil CO2 emissions by 40%.

UPM. Paper that makes a world of difference. Visit


p.8 Features 8 Migration Issues Challenge Food Packaging Market

By Linda M. Casatelli

14 Gravure Printing to Manufacture Printed Electronics

By Tessa Libby

20 Cover Feature: Will Producing and Selling Renewable Bioenergy Transform the U.S. Paper Industry? Verso Says Yes and is Leading the Way

By Kathi Rowzie

26 26

2011 GEF/Flint Group Technical Writing Competition Winners Metamerism and Color Inconstancy for Spot Color Printing


By Awadhoot Shendye

33 Graph Expo Highlights 34 Gravure Day At CalPoly University

By Jenn Owen and Sarah Willis

36 2011 GEF Scholarship Winners 38 DRUPA 2012 Will Focus on Print Applications


By Linda M. Casatelli

Departments 4 Publisher’s Message: Attention Grabbers 6 Editor’s Desk: Summer 32 GAA 2011 Calendar of Events 39 Industry News 39 Classified Ads GRAVURE/Summer 2011



Attention Grabbers I

f you are in marketing, sales or public relations, you understand the importance of grabbing the attention of your clients as soon as possible. Those of you in package printing understand the importance of packaging graphics to catch the eye of the consumer in the retail environment. Once you have that attention, you can deliver your message, sell your product or just inform your listeners. Your publisher and editor of Gravure magazine as well as the team at GAA feel we have a valuable product that can help our readers improve their knowledge of the gravure process, keep abreast of the latest technology, and promote gravure education. However, first we need to catch your attention. This month’s cover is an intriguing concept—a paper mill with an electric outlet smack in the middle of it. Hopefully, it will entice our readers to open the magazine and discover the relationship between paper mills and energy, and what it might mean to them as a way to generate revenue and move forward in a changing industry. We thank Verso Paper for the concept, which illustrates a strategy that it has developed to meet these challenging times. For many in the business community and the printing industry, concern for the environment has meant increased governmental regulations, restrictions on how they conduct business and additional expense in these tough economic times.


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However, viewed from a different perspective, those challenges often represent opportunities. Last month’s cover illustrated a women looking through a printed electronics circuit, to emphasize the importance printed electronics is beginning to play in the printing industry and its growing significance for the future. Here at the Gravure Association and Gravure magazine, we are continuing to provide the valuable services that promote gravure printing and education. However, we are striving to update our image to catch your attention, which may have lapsed. All of the elements—our redesigned magazine, with its focus on technical articles; the enhanced website, providing a wealth of information; and our education endeavors, such as technical manuals and communications, Basic and Advanced training seminars, our technical repository, Gravure Days and scholarships (made possible through the generosity of industry companies)—contribute to our new look. However, please don’t stop with a look—explore what the GAA and Gravure magazine have to offer. We think you will not only find the updates and changes of interest, but even more valuable as an industry resource than ever before. What do you think? Linda and I are most interested in your comments. –Bill Martin

President & CEO Bill Martin, Publisher of Gravure Magazine Director of Conference Planning & Administration Pamela W. Schenk Business Manager/CPA Linda Pfingst Association Manager Michelle Giuliano Administrative Assistant Susan L. Schippits Technical Support JD Harris Executive Director of GEF Bernadette Carlson IT Webmaster Allen Krusenstjerna

Publisher: Bill Martin Editor and Associate Publisher: Linda M. Casatelli Gravure Association of America, Inc. P.O. Box 25617 Rochester, NY 14625 Phone: (201) 523-6042 Fax: (201) 523-6048 E-mail: Vol. 25, No. 2 ISSN 08944946 USPS 000-565 Gravure magazine is published online three times a year.

GAA PRESS OPERATOR CERTIFICATION PROGRAM GAA Press Operator Certification Program is the first nationally recognized gravure press operator skill certification training course. Having certified press operators in your organization demonstrates to your customers and employees the level of commitment your company places on insuring excellent manufacturing practices to produce the highest quality printing. The significance you attach to guarantee these manufacturing and quality practices exist in the operation is a definite employee morale booster and it is an excellent method to evaluate, recognize, retain, reward, and advance talent. Certified press operators will help increase quality, reduce press downtime, increase productivity and factor heavily in your efforts to reduce total systems cost in the operation. We believe that is a very powerful sales tool.

There are currently eight modules completed. These initial courses cover:

➊ Pressroom Safety ➋ The Impression Roll ➌ Doctor Blades ➍ Cylinders ➎ Inks ➏ Color Theory for Press Operators ➐ Pressroom Troubleshooting ➑ Gravure Press Fingerprinting

We anticipate that certification will provide a distinct competitive advantage to those companies that participate, and we want everyone to have an opportunity to get involved at its inception. Go to for more information and a link to a program presentation that summarizes the Operator Certification Program content, training options, and the economics.


Summer Y

ears ago, Nat King Cole sang of “the lazy, hazy, crazy days of summer.” I think it is an apt description, because while the pace may slow down a bit during the summer, life is pretty hectic no matter what the season. School may be over for the year, but other activities such as the beach, baseball and barbecues are sure to fill the days. And while summer used to be a slower season for print shops, companies today are always busy striving to improve their business and to maintain their profitability in these tough times. Regardless, we hope that you find some lazy days to read the summer issue of Gravure and that you find it valuable. The academic year is over, but this issue covers some of the campus activities relating to gravure this year. Gravure Days (page 34-35) recaps the annual Gravure Day at Cal Poly University, where students heard about some of the new technology in gravure and options for career paths in the industry. We are also pleased to applaud the winners of both the Gravure Education Foundation Scholarships (page 36-37) and the Flint Group Technical Writing Contest (page 26). Furthermore, this issue features two papers from winners of the technical writing contest: “Gravure Printing to Manufacture Printed Electronics” by Tessa Libby (page 14-17) and “Metamerism and Color Inconstancy for Spot Color Printing” by Awadhoot Shendye (page 27-32). The paper from the third winner, Daniel Triassi, will be featured in the fall issue of Gravure. We trust that the Printed Electronics paper will whet your interest for the upcoming GAA Printed Electronics and Intelligent Packaging Symposium at Clemson University on October 4-6. There are exciting things happening in printed electronics today and


GRAVURE/Summer 2011

the gravure process is becoming a main player. The symposium is an excellent opportunity to remain abreast of the latest innovations. Packaging is another theme of the issue. Although packaging is a growth segment in the industry, it is not without its challenges. “Migration Issues Challenge the Food Packaging Market” (page 8-11) provides an in-depth look at one of the current concerns prompted by instances of contaminated food packaging due to ink migration and the new restrictive legislation that as been enacted as a consequence. Other issues in the packaging industry, as well as growth opportunities will be the focus of the GAA Packaging & Products Technology Conference on September 14-16 at the Oakbrook Marriott in Chicago. It is another venue to gain valuable insight into what is important in the industry. Because it helps to plan ahead for trade show attendance, this issue also provides previews of several upcoming trade shows—Graph Expo in Chicago at McCormick Place on Sept 11-14 (page 33) and Drupa (page 38 ) in Dusseldorf, Germany at the Dusseldorf Fairgrounds on May 3-13, 2012. The fall issue will also feature a more in-depth look at Drupa 2012. Last, but certainly not least, is the environmental feature from Verso Paper (page 20-24), which explores ways for paper companies to produce and sell renewable bioenergy as a means of expanding their business model to meet the challenges of a changing market. It is this thinking beyond the box that enables the industry to remain healthy in these tough and changing times. Enjoy the issue and drop us a line on topics that you would like to see addressed in future issues of Gravure. It is your magazine, so your input is valuable. You can reach me at

Publisher: Bill Martin Editor and Associate Publisher: Linda M. Casatelli

Magazine Advisory Board Betsy Barker Castillo, RR Donnelley & Sons Victor Basile, Jr., Publicis Miriam O. Frawley, e-Diner Design & Marketing, Inc. Terrence Frawley, e-Diner Design & Marketing, Inc. Thomas Meisel, Parade Publications, Inc. Cathy Merolle, Hearst Corporation Walter Vail, St. Marys Paper Limited/ St. Marys Sales Robert G. Whitton, Jr., Arellton Group, LLC Stephen F. Young, Mundet International

Subscriptions Gravure is available free of charge to employees of GAA-member companies. Subscriptions for nonmembers in the U.S. and Canada are $67/year or $145/two years.

Business, Advertising, & Editorial Offices Gravure Association of America, Inc. P.O. Box 25617 Rochester NY, 14625 Phone: (201) 523-6042 Fax: (201) 523-6048 E-mail:

Our dynamic template solution leverages your existing content for deployment on any mobile device, allowing you to bridge the digital gap with minimal effort. Now accepting reseller applications.


Migration Issues Challenge Food Packaging Market By Linda M. Casatelli


ackaging has always served an important role in the food supply chain. In mature countries around the world, the majority of foodstuffs are packaged—approximately 90%, and food packaging is a major growth area in emerging nations. Packaging provides protection for products (a barrier against humidity, gases, a protection against flavors/odors or light), it also provides product information for the consumer and helps to establish brand identity. In these tough economic times, the food packaging market is one of the few growth areas. However, it is not without its challenges.


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Packaging Trends Currently, there are three areas representing significant trends in food packaging— graphics, sustainability and regulation. Each of them presents unique challenges to the both the ink manufacturer and the printer/converter Although packaging has always been used to establish brand identify, more recently, packaging also serves as an advertising medium. Packaging is the most important first point of contact by which a company presents its products to consumers. Most buying decisions are made in a few seconds right in the retail store. Brand owners realize that it is critical that their product packaging be more attractive to the consumer than the competition merchandise. “More bright colors, more photo-quality process work, bolder graphic designs and more specialty inks are now being used to catch the consumer’s eye as brands jostle for shelf appeal and space,” noted Mike Impastato, Vice President Strategic Marketing, Packaging and Narrow Web, Flint

Group. However, this emphasis on the graphic appeal of the package using specialty materials has to be balanced against production efficiencies necessary for the converter to remain profitable. Some of the specialty products require higher coating weights, slower press speeds, or different application components. Environmental Concerns In recent years, package design has also evolved to address the need for source reduction and sustainability. “Source reduction, a smaller number of packaging layers, along with a decrease in packaging size continue to be ways consumer packaged goods companies are looking at in support of their sustainability efforts,” said Paul Hunt, European Technical Director, Liquid Ink/Packaging, Sun Chemical. “Additionally, biodegradable and recyclable flexible packaging materials are currently being favored by some retailers and brand owners.” Recycling is good for the environment, but printing on recycled materials can often be a challenge for the

Comparison of Global Regulations for Inks Used in Food Packaging COUNTRY



Requires a Letter of No Objection from the Health Protection Branch for any packaging that may come in contact with food.


Provides guidelines via several compliance regulations Framework Regulation (EC) Food contact materials shall not transfer their components No. 1935/2004 into the food in quantities that could endanger human health, change the composition of the food in an unacceptable way or deteriorate organoleptic characteristics of foodstuffs. ResAP (2205)2

Applies to printing inks and varnishes, and sets elaborated resolutions and guidelines for the manufacture of materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs.

GMP Regulation No 2023/20061

Lays down rules on Good Manufacturing Practice for materials and articles intended to come into contact with food.


Requires that the inertness of food packaging must be ensured.


Provides for A list of substances that are approved for use in food packaging; B list is unevaluated substances.


Only regulates direct and indirect food additives, not inks

converter, and the ink maker, whose role is to formulate printing inks that will work well on these challenging substrates. There is a further environmental trend towards sustainability in all areas of business. While protection of food products may still be of a higher concern than for other types of products, the Consumer Packaging Council (CPC), retailers and to some extent the consumer is pushing for more responsible packaging as it relates to environmental impact. “In general, most package printers were already moving in this direction due to cost and efficiency considerations, but the sustainability movement has pushed it quicker and requires more documentation of the process,” added Impastato. Consequently, there has been a rise in packaging materials derived from renewable resources, particularly in the area of bioplastics. There is also increased interest in environmentally friendly printing inks and many ink companies also offer products with some percentage of components that come from renewable resources. The final trend in packaging relates to increased regulation of the chemical components of inks used in food packaging. This increased regulation is prompted by concerns for food safety that might be compromised by ink migration in food packaging. “There is more activity by both governments and private companies to regulate the materials which are acceptable to be used in and on food packaging,” commented Impastato. “We expect a change resulting in some tighter regulations, so we would anticipate more focus being placed on food safety in the near future,” commented Mark Hill, Vice President of Research & Development at INX International Ink Co. Recurrent Concerns While food manufacturers rely on their packaging suppliers to provide outer wraps that are attractive and catch the consumGRAVURE/Summer 2011



er’s eye on the retail shelf, they also trust that food safety is ensured. However, contamination can occur and the results are costly. There have been several incidents where migration of printing inks used in indirect contact packaging has become a concern. The latest culprit was 4-methylbenzophene and benzophenone—a lowweight photoinitiator used in some UV inks—that was found to be above threshold levels in chocolate muesli in Germany. Although the cereal was packed in polyethylene pouches inside cardboard boxes, the pouch did not form an effective barrier to ink migration. An earlier incident involved 2-isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) which is a lowmolecular-weight photoinitiator, also used in UV-curable inks. Here, the ITX was found in infant milk products made by Swiss multinational Nestlé and manufactured by Tetra Pak. The migration occurred due to set-off or the accidental transfer of the ink onto the adjacent sheet in the reel. It became clear that even if printed and/or varnished layers are not intentionally brought into direct food contact, transfer can happen nonetheless. While both instances of food contamination involved UV inks, ink set-off can occur with all types of inks in the presence of low molecular substances. “Migration can potentially occur through the application of any type of ink technology and printing process where smaller molecules are used in inks in order to impart critical functionality, such as adhesion, flexibility, friction control, and toughness, to mention but a few of the properties inks are supposed to impart on the pack’s exterior,” added Hunt. “Anything with a low molecular weight would be suspect for a high level of migration,” agreed Hill. A consequence of the ITX case was the Regulation (EC) 2023/2006 on Good Manufacturing Practices issued by the European Commission. It was the first time 10

GRAVURE/Summer 2011

that printing inks were explicitly regulated in the European Food Packaging Legislation. With each successive contamination incident, there is a move towards more restrictive regulation, particularly in Europe (See regulations sidebar). The latest regulation is a Swiss ordinance which actually lists acceptable raw materials that can be used in food packaging inks. “While legally this Ordinance only affects inks and packaging within Switzerland, it has a far reaching effect on inks throughout Europe and beyond. In fact, many of our customers and brand owners outside of Switzerland expect our inks to comply with the Swiss Ordinance requirements,” said Hunt. An additional issue, one that could have the largest impact on package printers and their ink suppliers, is the concept of functional barrier. “In the past inks that were printed on the outside of the package were not considered food contact products and were not covered under the typical food contact regulations as long at there was a functional barrier between the inks and the food contact surface,” explained Impastato. “Most substrates were assumed to provide that functional barrier. With the higher sensitivity analytical capability and severe migration testing protocol the functionality of many substrates may now be in question. No longer can one assume that if the inks are printed on the outside they will not migrate to the inside.” Other Migration Factors There are several conditions that may increase the amount of migrants in an ink layer and/or affect the diffusion of migrants. These include the drying process, print shop behavior and packing. There are several instances within the drying process where insufficient drying may lead to increased residual solvents: insufficient heat drying; insufficient drying energy at high speeds; high amount of ink or varnish printed on the substrate.

In the print shop, when making pressready inks, the addition of printing additives which are not recommended can lead to migration. In addition, the use of inappropriate print equipment cleaning agents may cause the substances to carryover and contaminate the non-printed inks and subsequently the printed product. Another area of potential concern in the print shop is the winding or stacking area. If a print remains in the reel or stack for a long time, or there is high pressure it may increase invisible set-off. The same applies to off-line lamination stacks or reels. In both cases, storage above ambient temperature can affect migration. Similarly, hot temperatures in the packer/filler can increase migration. For the Future Unfortunately, the issues involving migration in packaging printing are not likely to go away, but rather increase. Moreover, under the new legislation, it is the package printer who is responsible ultimately for testing of the completed package. Most of the major ink manufacturers have responded to the challenge with low-migration products, which comply with even the most stringent government regulations, as well as guidelines imposed by some brand owners, such as Nestlé. In addition, companies such as Siegwerk and Sun Chemical have provided guidelines, which assist the converter in establishing best manufacturing practices so as to comply with existing regulations. Despite the challenges, by working together the members of the supply chain can ensure that packaging for indirect food contact is safe.


MIGRATION MECHANISMS Migrants are substances which are available for transfer through a material layer because of their chemical characteristics and molecular size and will travel if a pathway becomes open for them. Called, migration, it is measured by the volume of a component of one billion parts; at present; a typical printing ink could give a contamination reading of 100-150 parts of every one billion parts of packaging measured. Diffusion migration, whereby the substance transfers or diffuses, can happen both while the printed material is not yet converted into a food package or after it is filled with food. In the later case, the food “extracts” the migrants from the packaging material. Set-off migration occurs when migrants “jump” from one layer to another, for example from a printed layer to a non-printed layer. Later, that non-printed layer is brought into contact with food and the migrants contaminate the food. This type of migration takes place when the two different layers are brought into close contact in a reel or stack after printing. Gas phase migration is a term used when migrants “fly” from one layer to another. An example of this migration is when migrants from a printed layer have penetrated a cardboard layer (this is termed the releasing reservoir) during the gas phase in a stack. When the cardboard comes in contact with the food (termed the recipient reservoir), the migrants end up in the food. Potential migrants from a printed surface in most cases result from ink additives.

In the illustration below, the figure on the top shows set-off migration in a reel or stack demonstrating that migration can occur even if an aluminum foil (indicated as “barrier”) prevents diffusion migration across the packaging material layers. It also shows that set-off migration can take place even if the ink layer as such is not in direct contact with the inner (food contact) PE layer, but another PE layer lies in between. The figure on the bottom shows both diffusion or penetration migration and set-off occurring. Both illustrations show liquid food cartons.

The bottom illustration shows an inner pouch constructed of aluminum, thick enough to provide a functional barrier so migration is prevented.

An illustration of Diffusion Migration

Offset Migration

Source: Siegwerk Ink

Source: Source: Siegwerk Siegwerk Ink


In the next drawing, migration via diffusion and the gas phase are illustrated. The ink is printed on the outer layer, which represents a cardboard box. On the top drawing, it can be seen that despite an inner pouch to separate the cardboard box from the food, the PE or paper pouch does not provide a functional barrier to migration.

In diffusion migration, the concentration of migrants in the packaged food depends on the initial concentration of the migrant in the printed packaging; the diffusion speed; and the equilibrium or distribution of the migrant, i.e., its solubility in the printed packaging and the foodstuff. It is important to recognize that the nature of the surface that comes in contact with the ink/varnish layer can also affect set-off. Set-off can be reduced if the surface is rough rather than completely even.

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GAA Packaging & Products Technology Conference September 14-16, 2011 Oak Brook Marriott Hotel Chicago, Illinois In the big picture, gravure excels at packaging customer requirements for quality, consistency, economics and brand/regulatory compliance. Gravure…The Premier Process of Choice is the theme of GAA’s annual Packaging and Product Technology Conference. It will be held September 14-16, 2011 at the Oak Brook Marriott Hotel in Chicago, Illinois. Learn from ultimate users and service providers alike how growth opportunities abound in precise execution against a complex packaging need set. Moreover, growth also comes from deploying incremental and transformative technologies to create or build on gravure process specification in targeted, high impact value chains. Among the keynote speakers are Jay Sperry of HAVI Global Systems; Alberto Garza of Kraft Cadbury; and Dan Sanchex of Clorox. Company. Topics include: Sustainable Gravure Printing; Leveraging Technology for all Participants in the Supply Chain; Gravure Market Mix; Standards and Requirements. Moreover, there will be panel discussions on the End-User Perspective; Ink and Substrates; and Cost Control. Additional highlights include the Golden Cylinder Awards Luncheon and the ERA report from James Siever, Secretary General of the European Rotogravure Association. Don’t miss this opportunity to keep abreast of the newest technologies and become aware of customer perspectives on gravure for packaging. For more information and a conference brochure, log onto conference-seminar-schedule or contact bmartin Look forward to seeing you there.


Gravure Printing to Manufacture Printed Electronics By Tessa Libby

Printed electronics is a growing market because of its potential to be produced more economically and efficiently then traditionally produced electronics. This paper discusses the ways in which gravure printing is the ideal printing process for printed electronic production. Through extensive research, gravure printing proves to be the ideal print production process for printed electronics because of its unique characteristics that will specifically benefit printed electronics, such as continuous imaging, high volume, high speed, and high quality. Introduction The unique characteristics of gravure printing make it the ideal and most cost effective process for the production of printed electronics. Not only is gravure known for its potential of continuous imaging, but also for its capability to print large volumes at high speeds. Ad-

Printed electronic circuits. Photo courtesy of Printed Electronics News


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ditionally, gravure is noted for its high quality print production and, with the help of new laser engraving technologies, is now able to print fine detail without serrated edges. Due to key elements of gravure, such as continuous imaging, large volume, high speed, and high quality, it is evident that gravure printing is the

paramount printing method to be used for the production of printed electronics. Requirements for Printed Electronics and Background Information about Gravure By creating electronics through printed production, as opposed to conventional production, large volumes can be made “very quickly and inexpensively” (Kahn). Therefore, it is economical and efficient to approach electronic production from a printing standpoint. Since printed electronics are still “an emerging market, there is not much known about the printability of materials needed for the technology” (Bagshaw). Printing techniques are chosen for the production of

Flexible organic photovoltaic cell. Photo courtesy of Fraunhofer ISE


Digilas 5000. Photo courtesy of Schepers GmbH

printed electronics “based upon their suitability for printing the desired well as by their capability to print the desired feature sizes required by the device” (Bagshaw). Based on these few necessities, gravure printing proves to be an ideal candidate and incidentally exhibits many other qualities that prove suitable for printed electronics. Most importantly, gravure is a printing system capable of achieving quality higher than that of other systems. Additionally, gravure prints well on a variety of substrates including, “paper, films, and foils, as well as laminated materials” (Keif). The variety of substrates that can be printed in gravure is what makes it capable of producing various applications of printed electronics. Gravure is a printing technique that utilizes recessed image areas in which ink is applied to the cylinder’s surface and wiped by a doctor blade. The doctor blade removes any ink that is on the surface of the cylinder, leaving ink within the recessed cells. The fixed cost of producing the gravure cylinders is high but is compensated by gravure printing’s strengths. Additionally, it is favorable that the most expensive aspect of gravure, the cylinders, typically last for several million impressions before needing to be replaced. Advantages of gravure include continuous imaging, “[holding] color constantly throughout the run... high press speeds, wide web widths, high quality, the ability to run millions

of impressions, variable cut off lengths, and flexible folding equipment.” However, “the most significant advantages offered by gravure are the economies of scale” (Wuerl), because in the end, the foremost objective and benefit of printed electronics is the potential ability to “manufacture electronics at a lower price” (Bagshaw). Gravure Characteristics Beneficial for Printed Electronics One primary standard feature of gravure printing is capable of achieving continuous imaging. Although other printing processes are potentially capable of continuous imaging as well, it is the standard of both offset lithography and flexography to utilize mounted plates rather than sleeves or directly imaged cylinders. Of printing practices common for high volume production, gravure is noted as the process of choice for both flexible materials and continuous imaging products. Continuous imaging is achieved with gravure because the cylinders “can be easily engraved with a seamless repeating pattern” (Keif). Continuous imaging is very advantageous specifically for printed electronics because of its ability to create a repeated image throughout the printing process. Printed solar panels and other solar applications could definitely benefit from this characteristic of gravure printing. In addition to continuous imaging, highspeed production and high volume run

Fine edges can be eliminated with laser engraving. Photo courtesy of Schepers GmbH

Silver nanoparticle inks can be printed with gravure. Photo courtesy of DuPont Micromaterials

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lengths are two prominent benefits to gravure printing. Notably, using a traditional printing process, such as gravure, makes it possible to produce “functional devices in high volume very economically” (Kahn). Specifically, gravure “is known as the most cost effective at long run lengths or for repeat work.” Any practical production of printed electronics is not likely to be a small run length and rather will be a run of “over half million impressions” (Keif), as is suitable for gravure. Additionally, beyond being fit for long runs, gravure is also qualified for high press speeds, which again assists the economic benefits of gravure. Gravure is unique in this aspect because, unlike other printing processes that experience a reduction in quality at higher press speeds, gravure has the advantage that “inks can be applied at high speed without cracking or flexing with age” (Bagshaw). More importantly with a printed electronic, which is produced for a certain functionality, as opposed to a traditionally printed product, the ability to sustain its worth through time is invaluable. To reiterate, not only it is advantageous that gravure “is one of the highest volume printing processes,” but gravure is also distinguished for its ability to produce “high quality graphic materials” (Kahn). Variable Film Thickness An aspect of gravure that is beneficial specifically to the application of printed electronics is that “the platform of the gravure process has the ability to print variable film thickness in one print unit, which provides high resolution and throughput” (Bagshaw). In fact, gravure “is one of the few printing processes that can be used to deposit different amounts of material in different locations” (Kahn). This aspect can be very useful in order to apply various amounts of conductive inks as well as dielectrics 16

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In addition to continuous imaging, high speed production and high volume run lengths are two prominent benefits to gravure printing. and other materials in order to produce the desired electronic feature. Additionally, innovative gravure presses “are capable of achieving layer-to-layer registrations of 35-50 μm,” (Pekarovicova) which is very valuable when applying multiple layers of various inks in order to accurately produce an electric circuit. It is highly important with printed electronics that registration is meticulous, tightened beyond the requirements for typical commercial printing, especially because “it is aimed to print integrated circuits, where precise overprinting of materials is critical for circuit performance” (Pekarovicova). Even the slightest disturbance in the printing process can determine whether a printed circuit is functional or worthless. Typical concerns in traditional printing practices including registration, consistency, and complete ink coverage in intended areas are monitored even more closely when printing electronics. Incidentally, gravure is considered the “most consistent and reliable process when discussing...electronic printing” (Bagshaw). Particularly, it is important for anything printed with the intended application of printed electronics to be of the highest possible quality. The high quality that gravure is famous for is partially due to the ability of achieving superior resolution, which “is a result of the ultra high image definition of the chrome coated cylinder.” Gravure printing naturally “delivers the most consis-

tent results that companies are satisfied with” which is why gravure is also being chosen for the use of printed electronics (Bagshaw). Actually, “gravure printing has long been considered the Cadillac of printing process” meaning that gravure is the most luxurious, highest quality option of all printing processes (Keif). An extension of its inherent high quality reproduction capabilities includes “gravure’s ability to lay down a thick threedimensional ink film” (Keif). This aspect adds a large range of potential for printed electronics as well as addresses some of the most prominent necessities for a printing process of printed electronics. Jagged Fine Lines One of the largest drawbacks to gravure printing, however, is actually its most widely identifiable feature, jagged fine lines. Due to the nature of the traditionally engraved cells of gravure cylinders, the edges of printed features often are not smooth or straight and rather serrated and uneven. This aspect alone could deter consumers from choosing gravure for printed electronics because of the small feature sizes required for printed electronics. However, this issue has been resolved “by the development of software programs and the introduction of laser image engraving” (Wuerl), which eliminate jagged lines altogether. Gravure has traditionally used electromechanical engraving to image the cylinder, which produced “resolutions slightly above 200 LPI” whereas


“current systems, such as Ultimate from Aabach, allow for elecromechanical engraving of halftone dots and line features at the same time, creating fine detail without serrated edges at resolutions of 350 LPI.” This increase in LPI directly impacts the reproducible resolution on gravure presses that use this technology. Additional “improvements have been made in this aspect by using laser technologies, which offer much higher resolutions than normally possible with electromechanical engraving.” Such laser systems are offered by Hell Gravure Systems and Daetwyler. Technological improvements to the engraving of gravure cylinders “not only improved edge definition, but also enables cell depths to be varied, which is not possible with electromechanical engraving” (Pekarovicova). The advancements being made in the quality of gravure are raising gravure’s already renowned high quality. (LPI stands for lines per inch. This term is a measure of resolution for halftones in printing. The more lines per inch that a printing process is capable of producing create a higher resolution

and therefore higher quality image.) Concluding Remarks Because printed electronics is a new and growing market, problems are continuously being exposed and solutions to those problems are being generated accordingly, creating endless opportunities for this market to flourish over time (Bagshaw). Many of these opportunities come in the form of variety. Because there are so many possible applications for printed electronics, there are more opportunities for the growth of the market. Many of the possible applications of printed electronics are achievable through gravure printing, therefore gravure printing is essentially the ideal method to use at this time. For example, “the printing of necessary functional layers for RFID, solar cells, displays, or sensors and disposable electronics is possible by rotogravure.” Gravure is not only capable of printing continuous imaging at very high production speeds but also, simultaneously, capable of achieving “consistent print quality at higher reso-

lutions than possible with other printing methods” (Pekarovicova). Gravure, being the “printing process which offers the highest resolution, highest speed, and largest volume production in the graphic arts,” is clearly the most “viable technique for printed electronics” (Vornbrock). Undoubtedly, gravure is the ideal candidate for the application of the developing technology of printed electronics. Not only does gravure provide the best option for the required needs of printed electronics, but also gravure provides a very cost effective process. When the goal of switching to printed electronics, as opposed to traditionally manufactured electronics, is to reduce cost, gravure is clearly the preeminent option.

Tessa Libby won second place in the undergraduate section of the Flint Group Technical Writing Contest with this paper.

REFERENCES Bagshaw, Kristin. Gravure and the Future of Printed Electronics. Gravure Education Foundation, 2009. Cross, Lisa. “Taylor Focuses on Printing Electronics.” Graphic Arts Monthly 1 Oct. 2006: ABI/INFORM Global, ProQuest. Web. 10 Jan. 2010. Ding, Jau M., Alejandro de la Fuente Vornbrock, Ching Ting, and Vivek Subramanian. “Patternable Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells on Plastic by Rotogravure Printing.” Elsevier (2009). Gravure; Process and Technology. Rochester: Gravure Foundation and Gravure Association of America, 2003. Print.

Hecker, Klaus, Wolfgang Clemens, and Donald Lupo, eds. “White Paper: OE-A Roadmap for Organic and Printed Electronics.” Organic Electronics Assocation (2008). Kahn, Bruce E. “Organic Electronics Technology.” Organic Electronics Association (2006). Keif, Malcolm, and Tom Goglio. “Identifying High-Volume Printing Processes.” (2004): 35-42. Krebs, Frederik C. “Fabrication and Processing of Polymer Solar Cells: A Review of Printing and Coating Techniques.” Elsevier (2008). Pekarovicova, Alexandra, Erika Hrehorova, Paul D. Fleming, Marian Rebros, and Margaret K. Joyce. “Gravure Printed Features for Printed Electronics.” Gravure Exchange. Mar. 2009. Web. Jan. 2010.

Pudas, M., J. Hagberg, and S. LeppaVuori. “Roller-Type Gravure Offset Printing of Conductive Inks for High-Resolution Printing on Ceramic Substrates.” International Journal of Electronics 92.5 (2005): 251-69. Web. Jan. 2010. Vornbrock, Alejandro de la Fuente. “ Roll Printed Electronics: Development and Scaling of Gravure Printed Technologies.” University of California, Berkeley, 2009. Wuerl, Peter. “Gravure: More Ups Than Downs. ” Graphic Arts Monthly 1 Apr. 2007: ABI/INFORM Global, ProQuest. Web. 10 Jan. 2010. Yan, He, et al. “A High-Mobility Electron-Transporting Polymer for Printed Transistors.” Nature 457 (2009). Macmillan Publishers Limited, 5 Feb. 2009. Web. Jan. 2010.

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GAA 2011 Printed Electronics And Intelligent Packaging Symposium

October 4-6 , 2011 Clemson University Clemson, SC

GAA 2011 Printed Electronics and Intelligent Packaging Symposium October 4-6, 2011 Sonoco Institute of Design at Clemson University, Clemson, SC Gravure printed electronic packaging, point-of purchase, lighting and display products are a business opportunity TODAY… and it is projected that printed electronics applications will become a $300 billion market within 20 years. If you think market opportunities for printed electronics have been over-hyped or that they are not for you, take a few minutes to read what will be discussed and demonstrated at the GAA 2011 Printed Electronics and Intelligent Packaging Symposium at the Sonoco Institute of Design, Clemson University, May 17-19, 2011. In addition to technology tutorials and hands on sessions in Clemson’s printed electronics labs, this Symposium will bring together retail brand leaders, major consumer packaged goods companies and automotive products companies as well as leaders from the electronics industry, the printing industry and Clemson University research centers to present best practice case studies and address the confluence of two critically important industries, printing and electronics. Topics to be addressed include:

• Key materials, technologies and production methods for printed electronics • A hands-on session in a printed electronics pressroom • Toxicology and lifecycle environmental aspects and impacts of printed electronics materials • High value-applications and high-growth markets for printed electronics • Knowledge competencies and best practices required for success in printed electronics • Pharmaceutical, consumer packaged goods and automotive brand leaders sharing case studies and discussing the business case for high-value printed electronics applications in packaging, point of purchase and signage • Open Innovation and Printed Electronics: What Directors of Innovation, R&D and Sustainability from leading brands are seeking and investing in

In addition, we have an impressive list of speakers waiting to educate you in their fields of manufacturing, technology, consumer packaging, printing and retail as well as research. This is also a great networking experience.

For more information, contact Bill Martin via email, or Don Carli, Symposium Chair, at Look forward to seeing you there.


Will Producing and Selling Renewable Bioenergy Transform the U.S. Paper Industry?

Verso Says Yes and is Leading the Way By Kathi Rowzie As the U.S. paper industry continues to evolve over the next decade, the companies that thrive will be those that transform their business models to adapt to changing market realities. A mature domestic market, rising input costs, increasing electronic communications and low-cost global competition will challenge U.S. papermakers to innovate beyond their traditional boundaries. Believing that the production of renewable bioenergy will be the transformational lever that keeps U.S. paper

competitive, Verso Paper Corp. is leading the way to a more energy-focused future that is both economically and environmentally sustainable. “Verso’s overall business strategy is pretty straightforward,” says Verso Vice President for Energy and Technology Mark Daniel. “We’re a paper company that’s committed to enhancing lightweight coated products for our core magazine, catalog and commercial printing customers. But as the world changes around us, we know we have to broaden our thinking, operate more efficiently and cut costs to be able to keep that commitment for the long term.” To help them do it, Verso is developing new, non-traditional products and implementing a green energy strategy that will not only reduce the company’s energy consumption, costs and carbon footprint, but also create new energy-related revenue streams that will contribute to its future economic success.

Verso CEO Mike Jackson (left) with DOE Assistant Secretary Cathy Zoi and DOE Industrial Partnership Technologies Program Supervisor Jeffrey Walker at the Save Energy Now LEADER pledge signing ceremony in Washington, D.C.


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About a year and half ago, Verso was recognized as an “energy management champion” when company president and CEO Mike Jackson signed the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Save Energy Now (SEN) LEADER pledge to cut energy intensity—the amount of energy used per ton of product manufactured—by 25 percent over the next 10 years. Reduced energy intensity and the resulting decrease in greenhouse gas emissions is the core of Verso’s energy philosophy and the foundation for its long-term energy strategy. It is estimated that if the entire U.S. paper industry implemented the SEN


pledge, the reduced energy intensity would be equivalent to 1.8 billion gallons of gas per year. Verso’s Strategic Energy Initiative In 2010, Verso introduced the first phase of its energy strategy, a multi-year initiative that will allow the company to reduce fossil fuel use, increase renewable biomass use and further leverage the high-efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) technology at its paper mills. With an estimated 71 percent return on investment (after government incentives), Verso’s strategic energy initiative includes four focus areas. DOE Grant By the end of 2011, the company will have completed 12 projects under a $9.3 million DOE grant that was awarded in 2009. Under the terms of the grant, Verso invested an additional $13 million in matching funds to develop technologies aimed at more efficiently recovering and reusing water and steam in the pulp and papermaking operations at its Androscoggin Mill and Bucksport Mill in Maine and its Sartell Mill in Minnesota. When complete, the projects will provide an estimated annual energy savings of 1.27 trillion Btus and reduce annual carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions an estimated 56,000 metric tons. Quinnesec Mill Renewable Energy Project In the third quarter of 2010, the company began construction on a $45 million project that will enable its Quinnesec Mill in Michigan to use renewable biomass for more than 95 percent of its onsite electricity generation. With expected start-up by December 2011, the project includes upgrades to the mill’s existing boiler, a new biomass handling system and a new turbine generator. In addition to displacing fossil fuel with renewable biomass that will Verso Energy Strategy

further reduce the mill’s carbon footprint, the completed project will reduce annual mill energy costs an estimated $7 million. It will also create a new revenue stream through the sale of renewable energy credits. Bucksport Mill Renewable Energy Project Verso is investing $42 million to modify the No. 8 boiler at its Bucksport Mill, eliminating nearly all fossil fuel use for this equipment. Coal and tire-derived fuel burned in the boiler will be replaced with biomass, mostly wood waste, with just a small amount of natural gas used to ignite the boiler at start-up. Burning the wood waste will generate steam to power a new 25-megawatt turbine generator. When the modified boiler becomes operational in 2012, it will use about three times more renewable biomass than before. This will result in a 27 percent increase in total thermal energy production for the mill and a 110 percent increase in thermal energy from the modified boiler. In addition to Verso’s investment, funding for this project includes a grant from Efficiency Maine, an independent trust that invests in alternative energy projects to reduce energy costs and improve Maine’s business environment. Realizable Gap Projects Verso is investing $6 million in a series of energy efficiency projects designed to close the gap between the company’s current energy-related operational practices and what management believes to be achievable best practices. Maximizing Energy Assets Verso’s $100 million-plus energy initiative will set the stage for the company to maximize its assets for energy production and revenue. “We believe the capability to produce and sell wood-based bioenergy to the grid and ultimately to produce and market advanced biofuels and biochemicals will be a critical element in Verso’s future success— and in the success of the entire U.S. paper industry,” Daniel says. “We are uniquely posi-

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tioned to play a key role in the nation’s renewable energy future.” Verso and its U.S. paper industry peers have three important advantages that most other energy producers do not: cost-efficient logistics, high-efficiency CHP generation systems and decades of experience using a renewable resource. U.S. paper mills are strategically located near the nation’s forest resources, making burdensome transportation costs or capital investment to build new infrastructure unnecessary. About 65 percent of U.S. pulp and paper mill energy is generated by biomass-fueled CHP systems, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) calls one of the most efficient energy technologies available. CHP technology, sometimes called co-generation, combines electricity generation with the use of recycled waste steam to generate both power and thermal energy from one fuel source. According to the DOE, traditional fossil-fueled power plants are about 33 percent efficient, while CHP systems are up to 80 percent efficient. Standalone power plants that use biomass are only 20 percent efficient. Perhaps the most significant advantage paper manufacturers bring to the table is the expertise gained by actually using a renewable resource—wood fiber from trees—and by engaging in and promoting sustainable forest management practices. “Supporters of alternative energy often use the terms renewable and sustainable interchangeably, but they are not synonymous,” Daniel says. “Just because forests are renewable, does not mean they will be managed responsibly and renewed.” A comparison of disappearing forests in the


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BDC an Important Resource To expand its window into the bioenergy field, Verso has become an active member of the Bioenergy Deployment Consortium (BDC), a non-profit network of companies interested in influencing the course of the emerging bio-economy in the United States. “Verso takes full advantage of BDC’s wealth of resources,” says Ben Thorp, one of the organization’s three founding board members. BDC was created to build private and public institutional readiness to participate in the U.S. bio-economy with a focus on deployment of developed technologies. In addition to being a reliable source for the latest verified news in the field, BDC provides companies with opportunities for frank interaction with leading bioenergy experts. Members also have the chance to tour pilot biorefineries to see real-world operations and talk with facility management and operators. “This open discussion and up-close view of the industry helps our members separate fact from hype and unfounded hope,” Thorp says. Verso Energy and Technology Vice President Mark Daniel agrees. “Our participation in BDC gives us a wider view of the bioenergy field, allows us to add detail to our strategic energy plan and helps us make sure we include all critical elements in our implementation strategy.” For more information, visit the BDC website at developing world with thriving U.S. forests illustrates his point. According to the 2010 Forest Resources Assessment by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the two key causes of deforestation in the developing countries are expanding agriculture and unsustainable logging for wood-to-energy uses. Forests are declining in these regions because they are not responsibly managed. In the United States, however, forests have flourished despite extensive urban development over the last 100 years. During this period, the amount of forestland remained essentially the same at about 750 million acres while the volume of standing trees increased nearly 50 percent, according to the U.S. Forest Service and the Society of American Foresters. Much of this productivity can be attributed to the responsible forest management practices implemented by the paper and forest


products industry. “As we look to the forest to help meet society’s growing demand for renewable and sustainable energy in the United States and globally, sustainable forest management must top our list of priorities,” Daniel says. The Value Chain of Wood The increasing demand for forest resources also will make it critically important to maintain the value chain of wood, that is, to make sure society gets the most value out of every tree. Value is measured not only in terms of wood-based end products, but also by a cascade of economic contributions from equipment, other materials and jobs required to produce the products, tax revenues generated by those jobs and so on.

would increase dramatically. Higher prices for paper products would reduce demand and increase less expensive imports. A reduction in demand would mean reduced production and lost jobs. Lost jobs would result in lower tax revenues, which would lead to increased debt. For the paper industry, which directly supports some 900,000 U.S. jobs, and for the country as a whole, the economic aftermath of such a shift would be potentially devastating.

“All parts of a tree are not equally suited for energy production,” Daniel explains. “For example, the high-grade trunk wood that is required to manufacture lumber for housing, wood for furniture and pulp for paper could potentially be sent directly from the forest to be burned for energy. But doing so would eliminate the many direct and indirect jobs and other value accumulated throughout the manufacturing process. It makes far more sense to use the residual parts of the tree—treetops, limbs and bark—to produce energy since they have limited use in value-added manufacturing applications.” The value chain of wood should be an especially critical consideration in how the government creates wood-to-energy incentives. A general incentive to burn all grades of wood for fuel would likely create a damaging ripple effect. If, for example, high-grade wood otherwise well-suited to make paper is shifted to electricity production, the cost of manufacturing all types of paper products Job Creation: Traditional Wood-based Products vs. Bioenergy.

Verso Vice President for Energy and Technology Mark Daniel leads the company’s overall energy strategy and the strategic energy projects at each of Verso’s mills.

Partnerships are Vital Good public policy related to the production and use of biofuels demands an unbiased approach that ensures both environmental sustainability and economic balance. “To ensure both, all stakeholders have to participate in the process,” Daniel says, “and Verso is encouraging involvement wherever we can.” Non-traditional funding, mostly through public-private partnerships, is a requisite component of Verso’s strategic energy plan and will be necessary for the paper industry to become a successful commercial energy producer, according to Daniel. While some believe that a mature industry like papermaking should not

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ENVIRONMENTAL qualify for programs aimed at “new” alternative energy development, Verso makes a strong case to the contrary. “Our country needs to move away from its dependence on fossil fuels sooner rather than later,” Daniel says. “By supporting initiatives like those in Verso’s strategic energy plan, federal dollars provide a significant boost that decidedly accelerates advancement and expansion of existing high-efficiency bioenergy capabilities like the CHP systems at our mills. We have a strong plan in place that will allow us to contribute to the nation’s energy independence goals, but we could not have come so far so quickly without the partnerships we’ve established with the U.S. DOE and Department of Agriculture,” he says. An Optimistic Outlook Verso has made great progress in implementing its own energy strategy and through its leadership is promoting green energy as a transformational force to keep the U.S. paper industry competitive in the global marketplace. While this progress is cause for optimism, Daniel admits there are some uncertainties. “Commercialization of renewable energy is difficult in and of itself, especially in today’s tough economic envi-

ronment,” he says. “We’re extremely confident in Verso’s strategic energy plan and our ability to implement it, but successful business investment needs certainty and there are some things we simply can’t be sure of. Will we face ill-advised wood-to-energy incentives that disrupt the paper industry? Will cost-prohibitive environmental regulations or legislation halt our progress? Will access to money dry up if public interest in renewable energy wanes?” Verso believes this uncertainty can be significantly diminished if all paper stakeholders—paper manufacturers and their customers, suppliers and communities—get involved and make their voices heard. “There are nearly a million people directly involved in the U.S. paper business and millions more who depend on the products we make,” Daniel says. “With this much influence, our industry can have a dynamic future making paper and delivering bioenergy solutions that help our country reduce its dependence on fossils fuels. Personally, I hope to one day work for Verso Paper and Energy Corp.,” he concludes.

Kathi Rowzie is a sustainability communications consultant with The Gagliardi Group in Memphis, Tenn.

The Gravure Association of America ( The recently revised website for The Gravure Association of America ( provides information about all the GAA activities at your fingertips, as well as updates on what is going on at the Gravure Education Foundation (GEF). Some of the highlights of this valuable resource include: • Gravure Magazine 2011 Buyers Guide, which contains comprehensive information about companies in all segments of the gravure industry—including packaging, product and publication printers. Equipment and materials suppliers are also listed, as well as gravure training programs and educational institutions. • Current and archived issues of Gravure Magazine, the only technical trade magazine that’s dedicated to the publication, packaging and product gravure process. • A comprehensive search engine with the complete library of all GAA’s whitepapers, and other pertinent technical information • An internal social networking feature that will enable you to connect with GAA members through forums, blogs and classified ads. You'll be able to share ideas, ask and answer questions, and exchange information.

These new online services and GAA social networking capabilities are available only to members. You can obtain information about becoming a member on the website. 24

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Twenty-Five Years of GPC‌Improving With Age That is the theme of the upcoming conference as the Gravure Publishing Council celebrates its 25th Anniversary. The Conference will be held November 15-18, 2011 at the Naples Beach Hotel and Golf Club in Naples, Florida. GPC Chair Mike Schilaci and Vice Chair Kathy Barbee have put together an outstanding program with keynote speeches by Paul Nicklen from National Geographic; Chuck Herrig from Target; and Tom Carroll from RR Donnelly. Included in the presentation topics are Social Media, Economics, the Postal Service, Premedia, Print Through the Years and the RISI Paper Market Outlook. In addition, representatives from Best Buy, Office Depot and Talbots will discuss their perspective on sustainability. Other highlights include: the Golden Cylinder Awards Luncheon for Publication Segment including the Cylinder Society Inductees; and the 25th Anniversary Celebration Dinner with a live auction to benefit the Gravure Education Foundation. It is an event not to be missed. So make your plans now. For more information, log onto or contact Bill Martin at bmartin



GEF/Flint Group Technical Writing Competition Winners


ach year Flint Group, Plymouth, MI in conjunction with the Gravure Education Foundation sponsors a Technical Writing Competition to encourage scholarly inquiry into technical subjects related to the gravure printing process. The contest is open to all full-time college students in either an undergraduate or graduate program. Congratulations to this years winners: Awadhoot Shendye, Graduate Student for “ Metamerism and Color Inconstancy for Spot Color Printing”; Daniel Triassi, First Place Undergraduate for “Gravure’s Influence on Wall Coverings”; and Tessa Libby, Second Place Undergraduate for “Efficient and Economical Production of Electronics: Gravure Printing to Manufacture Printed Electronics.”

Tessa Libby was born and raised in Santa Cruz, California. Since graduating high school in 2007, she has attended California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo and will be graduating in June 2011 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Graphic Communications. Additionally, she has a concentration in Graphics for Packaging and a minor in Packaging. While attending Cal Poly, Tessa has held various positions at UGS (University Graphic Systems), Cal Poly’s student run printing company, including Marketing Intern, Marketing Manager, and Production Manager.


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Daniel Triassi graduates in June 2011 from California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo with a double major in Journalism and Graphic Communication. Prior to learning about Graphic Communication, he would write words; now he has an understanding of the processes which are used to print and produce those words. Originally from the Bay Area, he plans to venture back there after graduation to pursue a career in print design and production. Daniel spends most of his non-working hours perusing his favorite blogs on the Internet, traveling with friends and family and consuming his favorite Thai dishes.

Awadhoot Shendye is graduate student of Western Michigan University. He has completed his research under Dr. Alexandra Pekarovicova. He has completed his bachelor’s degree from PVG’s COET Pune University India. He has worked in Flint Group and Hostmann-steinberg. Currently he is working in Daetwyler R & D as an intern. His interests are ink formulation, color and printed electronics.

In addition to a cash prize, the students will have the winning papers published in Gravure magazine throughout the year.


Metamerism and Color Inconstancy for

Spot Color Printing By Awadhoot Shendye


he use of the metamerism index and the color inconstancy index were studied for the approval of spot colors used in decorative gravure products, especially spot col-

ors, which are viewed under different light sources at the customer’s end. This work shows that the metamerism index is not sufficient for the approval of spot colors, because it doesn’t provide any idea about how colors will transform under different light sources. The color inconstancy index makes use of chromatic adaptation transforms to assess the effect of the change in light source, and thus, it helps in selection of a spot color and, at the same time, reduces color-engineering problems in color reproductions.

Introduction In processes like product gravure, a lot of spot color inks are mixed in house. Manufacturers are often concerned about the best utilization of inks, and if possible, recycle press return inks to make the production more sustainable. Mixing spot colors from recycled inks may often lead to their metameric behavior. Moreover, these products, e.g., wood grain laminates and wallpapers are tested in a standardized environment, using light sources D50 or D65 (Wyszecki, 2000) for spot color approval, but they are exposed to fluorescent or incandescent light at the moment of purchase (Wu et al., 2008). Therefore, it is also necessary to assess their behavior under different light sources, which enables one to predict their performance. Usually the decision about passing or failing of a spot color is decided on the basis of acceptable tolerances of color difference values. Many times, the metamerism index and color inconstancy index are not considered, while making the decision of pass/fail of a color match (Noor, 2003). If other assessment methods are used, which include behavior of color under different light sources, along with color differences, then the criteria for deciding about acceptance or rejection of matches would be more reliable. Naturally, for deciding acceptance of matches for different recipes to match a specified standard, only regular (e.g., nonmetallic, nonpearlescent, etc.) color samples can be considered. Ideally, a color match should be selected on the basis of closeness of the reflectance spectra of ink pairs (Berns, 2000). Due to limitations in the selection of colorants, it may not be alGRAVURE/Summer 2011



ways possible to generate unconditional matches (Berns, 2000). This leads to the necessity to include metamerism and color inconstancy indices in decision making about the acceptance or rejection of a particular shade. According to Wyszecki, “metameric color stimuli have identical tristimulus values, but different spectral radiant power distributions” (Wyszecki, 2000). If this phenomenon is found in the case of objects (reflection or transmission), then they are known as metameric objects. If this occurs for illuminants, then they are referred to as metameric illuminants (Kang, 2006). One can determine the degree of metamerism, which is also known as the magnitude of the effect for a given pair of samples. Two ways of doing this are suggested, leading to general and special metamerism indices. Metamerism index (MI) equation for change in illuminant (CIE 15.2 section 5.2 MI) suggested by Hunter (Hunterlab (A), 2008; Hunterlab (B), 2008), is defined as follows:

MI = √(∆L n1 – ∆L n2) 2 + (∆a n1 – ∆a n2) 2 – (∆b n1 -∆b n2) 2 This MI equation accounts for parmerism (Anni Berger-Schunn 1994) and is therefore a good measure of relative metamerism. Where ∆ indicates the difference between standard and sample, and subscripts n1 and n2 indicate first and second illuminant, respectively (Choudhury, 1998). The L* a* b* values can be of the Hunter or CIELAB color scale. This type of index does not distinguish between test and reference illuminants, but only the illuminant pairs. MI from 0 to 0.5 is considered as a “perfect” match, and 0.5 to 1 MI is considered as good match. MI > 1 corresponds to a questionable match, thus it needs to be a subject to additional analysis (Hunterlab (A), 2008; Hunterlab (B), 2008). Color Inconstancy Wood grain laminates are designed electronically, and shades are selected many times without considering limitations in color reproduction. Shades on a computer can show their CIEL*a*b* values under some illuminant/observer condition, and reflectance data of those digitally selected shades are not available. When only CIEL*a*b* of a shade under one illuminant/observer condition is available, then there could be many shades of the same CIEL*a*b* values, which are metameric to each other, but with likely different behavior under different light sources. The least metamerism index is not sufficient, because a design is viewed under different light sources, without comparing to any other shade under that light source. Therefore, it is important to study color inconstancy along with metamerism.


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A certain color may be perceived to change when it is viewed under different light sources, what is referred to as color inconstancy. In other words, color constancy is nothing but perceiving the same appearance after changing the light source (Berns, 2000). A memory-matching technique is involved, when a shade is viewed by switching light sources. To convert this memory-matching phenomenon into a numerical color difference, a corresponding color concept is used, which is predicted by calculation of a chromatic adaption transform. The difference between the corresponding color and color coordinates calculated from reflectance data, under the test light source, is defined as the color inconstancy index (Berns, 2000). An example of color constancy occurs when our eye accepts that a paper looks white after switching light sources. Our eyes accept lighting conditions, and theoretically, we should not perceive changes of color after acceptance. Nevertheless, we do perceive changes in color after adjustment of our eyes to a given condition. So ideally, color constancy does not exist, because, if we look carefully, paper looks white under different light sources, but those whites are not the same. Therefore, we need to study how much color change is perceived after changing the light source and that phenomenon is known as color inconstancy. Color inconstancy is very important for printed gravure laminates, or other printed products, because they are viewed under several light sources, usually D50 or D65 at print manufacturer site, but most likely they will be exposed to F2 light source at the moment of purchase. When colors and recipes are selected, the criterion of color constancy is not usually considered. Metamerism has a close relation with color inconstancy. In metameric pairs, the two samples will likely have different color inconstancy indices (CII). So, the CII of a standard and recipe will help the matcher to select a recipe that has the least CII & MI. When a designer selects a shade, the behavior of the color under different light sources is not accounted for. The example of wallpaper printing shows that in color reproduction processes, as per matching practice, matching is carried out using one standard light source. When the light source is changed from the standard to any other one, then color appearance also changes. When the shade of wallpaper is approved under D65 and is viewed under illuminant ‘A’, then with memory matching (color perceived under D65 compared against its perception under incandescent light) one must not perceive drastic changes in shade of wallpaper with this light source changing. While printing wood grain laminates, first a background ink is printed on special gravure paper. This is known as the pad layer. Then spot colors are printed on this pad-coated paper, as is the industrial practice. Most wood grain patterns are printed in yel-


low, beige and brown colors. Therefore, yellows and reds are base colors used in the greatest quantities. Sometimes, these base colors are used directly as individual spot colors. The aim of this work is to evaluate and calculate how selected spot color inks will behave under changing lighting conditions. Two base color sets were selected for this experiment, in which the base colors are close to each other. Experimental A white coating was pad coated onto a special gravure paper supplied by Omnova solutions. Inks used in the printing of woodgrain laminates (Omnova Soultions) were printed onto the pad coated paper using a 150 LPI plate and gravure K-proofer. Yellow 1 and Yellow 2 were standard yellow inks and Yellow 1P and Yellow 2P were proposed replacement inks. Similarly, Red 1 and Red 2 were standard red inks, and Red 1P and Red 2P were their replacements inks. Draw downs of two sets of base colors were made with the minimum lightness difference possible, using a K-proofer gravure laboratory proofing press. Metamerism indices (MI) and color inconstancy indices (CII) of both sets were calculated. CII for selected Pantone Matching System (PMS) colors were also calculated for comparison purposes. Color Inconstancy Indices (CII) Calculation The procedure for calculation of CII is given as follows: Step 1) Measure/calculate tristimulus values of color under source illuminant, Step 2) Use chromatic adaptation transforms to calculate tristimulus values under test illuminant, Step 3) Calculate color difference (Wyszecki, 2000), between measured colors coordinates under test illuminant and calculated correlated color coordinates under test illuminant. Chromatic Adaptation Transform Model CMCCON02 Calculation The CMCCON02 formula is recommended with (l:c being 2:2), but any other color difference formula can be used (Luo, 2003). For the CMCCON02 formula, the procedure is the same as above, but the CAT02 model is used as the chromatic adaption transform and the CMC (2:2) formula is used for calculating color differences. Step 1) Calculate tristimulus values under source illuminant, CIE XYZ and L*a*b*c*h* Step 2) Use CAT02 formula and calculate CIE XYZ & L*a*b*c*h* values under destination illuminant

Rc= R[D(Rwr/Rw) + 1-D] Gc= G[D(Gwr/Gw) + 1-D] Bc= B[D(Bwr/Bw) + 1-D]

MCAT02 matrix is bases on cone response for converting tristimulous values to cone response space. Where X,Y,Z

Tristimulus values of color under reference illuminant R,G,B Cone responses of color under reference illuminant Rc,Gc,Bc, Cone responses under test illuminant Rwr,Gwr, Bwr Cone responses of reference illuminant Rw,Gw, Bw Cone responses of test illuminant Xc,Yc,Zc, Corresponding color tristimulus values D Degree of adaption Step 3) Calculate color difference by any color difference formula, but the CMC (2:2) color difference formula is preferred by CMCCON02. Results and Discussion A comparative study was carried out between metamerism indices (MI) and inconstancy indices (CII) of metameric and non metameric color pairs of solvent-based inks used in product gravure. Two base color ink sets were compared. Reflectance data readings were measured with a spectrophotometer and CIE L*a*b* coordinates were calculated for D65, A, F2, & D50 illuminants (Hunterlab (C), 2008). D65/10 is chosen as the source illuminant, with illuminants A, F2, & D50 being considered as additional light sources for calculating metamerism indices and color inconstancy indices. Some chromatic adaption transforms were used to calculate color coordinates and then inconstancy indices were calculated from the transformed values. Decisions of pass/fail based on ∆E, MI & reflectance data were compared against decisions based on ∆E, MI and reflectance data including CII. Table 1 shows the color differences ∆E CMC(2:2) under D65/10, between draw downs of the four ink color pairs. Ink pairs Red1/Red 1P, Red 2/Red 2P and Yellow 1/Yellow 1P GRAVURE/Summer 2011


COLOR THEORY reached acceptable ∆E CMC(2:2) bellow 3, but replacement yellow (Yellow 2P) has unacceptable ∆E CMC(2:2) of 5.47. Figures 1-4 show the reflection spectra of the two sets of red and yellow ink pairs, from which the colorimetric (tristimulus) values were obtained. Spectra of Red 1 and Red 1P are almost iden-

change from D65 to D50 were in the range of 0.26-1.50, the smallest was found for Yellow 1 (0.25) and largest for Red 1P being 1.50. As expected, the largest CII was found in illuminant change D65 to F2, which was in the range of 3.14 to 9.85, the largest being for Yellow 2 ink.

Table 1 Color difference ∆E CMC(2:2) of ink shades used in decorative laminates printing Standard Red 1 Red 2 Yellow 1

Proposed Red 1P Red 2P Yellow 1P

∆E CMC(2:2) 1.37 2.21 0.97

tical in the range 380-610 nm, but for 620 -720 Red1P shows a much larger reflectance, thus it is redder. Red 2 and Red 2P reflectance spectra differ in the region of 380-460 nm, thus in the blue region. Yellow 1 and Yellow 1P differ in the blue region in the range of 380 to 480 nm, and also in red region from 600 to 720nm. Yellow 2 and yellow 2P differ in blue and green region of spectrum (380-560nm). However, it is difficult to judge suitablility of color replacement based soleley on difference in reflection spectra. Therefore, metamerism indices (MI) were calculated. Table 2 shows the MI of the different ink pairs for A, D50 and F2 illuminants. The lowest MI were found for Red 2 and Red Table 2 Metamerism indices (MI) of standard and replacement ink pairs for decorative laminates Ink 1 Red 1 Red 2 Yellow 1 Yellow 2

Ink 2 Red 1P Red 2P Yellow 1P Yellow 2P

D65→A 2.36 0.20 1.38 3.03

D65→D50 0.61 0.11 0.30 0.70

D65→F2 2.88 0.44 1.89 2.59

2P, being in the range of 0.11-0.44, followed by the Yellow 1 and Yellow 1P pair with 0.3-1.38 range of metameric indices. The largest MI were found for Yellow 2 and Yellow 2P, being I the range 0.7-3.03. As expected, the lowest MI occurred with illuminant change from D50 to D65 (0.11-0.70), with lowest MI for Red 2 to Red 2P at D50 to D65 being 0.11. The largest MI was found for illuminant change from D65 to F2. Color inconstancy indices (CII) for all inks are illustrated in the Figure 5. CII for illuminant change D65 to A was found in the range of 1.74 to 3.51, smallest was found for Red 2P being 1.74, and largest for Red 1P being 3.51.CII for illuminant 30

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Figure 1 Reflectance spectra of red inks Red 1 and Red 1P

To summarize, considerable spectral color differences were found between Red 1 and Red 1P, along with considerable MI up to 2.88, but the least CII values, and even if they have the least CII values, Red 1P becomes a doubtful match. In the case of Red 2 and Red 2P, they show low metamerism and moderate color difference, but acceptable CII along with similar spectra, and therefore the Red 2P shade can be accepted. The Yellow 1 and Yellow 1P pair show the least color difference, but doubtful MI and large CII values, and therefore, the proposed replacement shade may not be acceptable for changes in light source conditions. Yellow 2 and Yellow 2P shades show similar reflection spectra, but the two colors have unacceptable ∆E values, along with large MI in illuminant A, as well as unacceptable CII under illuminant F2. Thus, the substitute shade becomes unacceptable for the required situation. Perception of color depends on light source used to illuminate it. In wood grain laminate industry at the time of printing sheet is viewed under standard light source like D65. However, at customer’s end any different light source may be used, so it not possible always to use light source used at customer end for viewing, in some cases it may not it be known. So at the time of first matching it is important to know how much perception of shade will change when it will be viewed under different light source Color inconstancy is an inherent property of the behavior of color, when viewed under different light sources. For comparison, calculations of CII for several PMS (Leatrice Eiseman, Pantone, Inc 2000) basic colors (Figure 6) were done. It was found that


Figure 3 Reflectance spectra of yellow inks Yellow 1 and Yellow 1P Figure 2 Reflectance spectra of red inks Red 2 and Red 2P

Figure 4 Reflectance spectra of yellow inks Yellow 2 and Yellow 2P

PMS yellow, yellow 12, Red 032, violet, blue 72 have less inconstancy, while PMS process blue and orange 21 show unacceptable color inconstancy for the required criteria. Acceptable limits of color inconstancy index can be decided by psychophysical experiments or by the contract proof method. This limits selection of these basic colors, or shades, in various product-printing conditions. The important point to notice from Figure 6 is that large CII for some illuminant changes shown in Figure 5 are not that unusual, since similar behavior is shown for inks

Figure 5 Color Inconstancy Indices (CII) of standard and proposed substitute inks

References Berns R. S., 2000, Billmeyer and Saltzman’s Principles of Color Technology, 3rd Edition, Wiley, , 29-215. Choudhury A. K. R., Chatterjee S. M., 1998 Color Research & Application, Volume 21, Issue 1, 26 – 34. Hunterlab (A) 2008, “Metamerism Index”, Insight on Color, Vol. 9, No., accessed 3/3/2010. Hunterlab (B) 2008, “Metamerism”, Insight on Color, Vol. 6, No.13,, accessed 3/3/2010. Hunterlab (C) 2008“Equivalent white light sources and CIE lluminants”, Insight on Color, Vol. 17, No.5,, accessed 3/3/2010. Kang H., 2006, Computational Color Technology, SPIE press, 27-28. Luo M. R., Rigg B., Smith K. J., 2003, “CMC 2002 Colour inconstancy index: CMCCON02”, J. Coloration Technology, Volume 119, Number 5, , pp. 280-285(6) Noor K., 2003, “Effect of Lighting Variability on the Color Difference Assessment”, M.S. Thesis, North Carolina State University,, accessed 3/3/2010. Wu Yu Ju, Pekarovicova A. and Fleming P. D., 2008. “The Effect of Paper Properties on the Color Reproduction for Digital Proofing of Gravure Publication Printing”, TAGA Journal, 4(2), 72-83. Wyszecki G. and Stiles W. S., 2000, Color Science: concepts and methods, quantitative data, and formulae, Wiley-Interscience; 2nd Edition pages 451--830.

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used to print PMS books. Thus, the two ink sets discussed here are not necessarily “bad�, but some light sources create more artifacts under light source changes than others. Conclusion This study confirmed that the spectral reflectance curves of ink pairs, along with metamerism indices are not sufficient measures for finalizing a shade match, especially when the printed jobs are exposed to different light sources. Combination of spectral reflectance graph matches, MI and CII help to select the best ink shades for the job, and thus help to reduce color-engineering problems. Acknowledgement The author is grateful for generous support from Omnova Solutions, Inc.

Figure 6 Color Inconstancy Indices (CII) of Pantone Basic Colors

Awadhoot Shendye is graduated from Department of Paper Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Imaging, at Western Michigan University. He conducted his research at Center for Ink and Printability under Dr. Alexandra Pekarovicova. Also he has published several papers in different conferences. This paper won first prize graduate division in the Flint Group Technical Writing Content.

2011 GAA Calendar of Events Date Event September 11-12 GAA/GEF Fall Board Meetings September 13 Educators Breakfast Persons of the Year Awards Luncheon September 14-16 GAA Packaging & Products Technology Conference September 14 Cylinder Society Ceremony for Pkg/Products Golden Cylinder Awards Luncheon for Pkg & Product Categories October 4-6 GAA Printed Electronics and Intelligent Packaging Symposium October 10-14 Basic Gravure Seminar October 11-14 Advanced Pressroom Technology Seminar November 15-18 Gravure Publishing Council Conference (GPC) November 16

Cylinder Society Ceremony for Publication Golden Cylinder Awards Luncheon


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Place Park Hyatt Chicago, Chicago, IL Park Hyatt Chicago, Chicago, IL Park Hyatt Chicago, Chicago, IL Oak Brook Marriott Hotel, Chicago, IL Oakbrook Marriott Hotel, Chicago, IL Oakbrook Marriott Hotel, Chicago, IL Clemson University, Clemson, SC Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI The Naples Beach Hotel and Golf Club Naples, FL The Naples Beach Hotel and Golf Club Naples, FL The Naples Beach Hotel and Golf Club Naples, FL


September 11-14, 2011 McCormick Place South • Chicago, IL USA


What is GRAPH EXPO 2011? GRAPH EXPO 2011 is the year’s largest and most inclusive exhibition of offset and digital technologies, products and services for the commercial and package printing, publishing, mailing and transactional industries in the Americas—Canada, North America, Central America, South America and the Caribbean—fully customized to ‘speak’ directly to today’s graphic communications industry professionals.

Why is GRAPH EXPO customized for 11 key industry segments?

How many exhibits will be at GRAPH EXPO 2011, and who will be exhibiting?

Because the printing industry no longer is “one size fits all.”

More than 400 exhibitors will fill the expansive McCormick Place South with the year’s global premiere of the hottest new presses, the latest innovations in related equipment, unique new applications and new product introductions.

• The graphic communications industry understands that the most effective communications today are individualized and personalized. • Printing is no longer solely about ink on paper. GRAPH EXPO 2011 is about graphic communications in the broadest sense and the integral role it plays in today’s social media: everything from ultra-personalized trans-promo, to short run books and bound documents, to unique media such as building wraps…even new ways that mailings are processed.

Unique applications and ‘live’ demonstrations will make new profit possibilities come to life for buyers seeking to expand their services to appeal to new customer market segments.

• Graphic communications professionals are expanding their businesses with new solutions and services to meet their customers’ unique challenges and goals. • The GRAPH EXPO 2011 experience will be individualized and customized for each attendee to best serve his or her needs.

What distinguishes GRAPH EXPO 2011 from among ALL other print industry trade shows? GRAPH EXPO 2011 does not stop when the ink dries—it’s about the entire process for getting a printed message into a consumer’s view, or hand, to generate a response. GRAPH EXPO 2011 is a world-class event that reaches far beyond traditional commercial printing by featuring live running applications of the hottest new technologies. Here, attendees will see and explore everything from wide format printing, to advanced trans-promo and trans-educational applications, to revolutionary mailing equipment—and a host of other innovations.

Who will come to GRAPH EXPO 2011?

Innovation in every show floor section & pavilion! The show floor will feature 9 distinct sections of special interest to attendees spotlighting today’s— and tomorrow’s—most in-demand and emerging products and services: • Prepress/Software/Workflow • Press/Finishing • News Print • PackPrint

• Future Print • Mailing & Fulfillment Center • Marketing Pavilion • GREENspace • Education Main Street

Buyers of printing-related equipment, products and services from around the globe will come to GRAPH EXPO 2011: • Commercial Printers • Book Printers & Publishers • In-Plant Printers • Wide Format Printers & Imagers • Transactional Printers • Newspaper Printers & Publishers • Digital Print Imaging/ • Creative Services Quick & Instant Printers • Marketing Pros/Advertising • Package & Specialty Printers • Media/Print Buyers • Mailing & Fulfillment Pros • Photo Imagers

GRAPH EXPO 2011 attendees will also:

Representing key components of the graphic communications industry, 80% of attendees are decision-makers and key influencers.

• Discover new profit opportunities.

• Gain the latest updates on ‘green’ initiatives. • Learn new methods for improving production quality, speed and cost. • Exchange best practices to improve their company’s efficiency and profitability.

Graphic Arts Show Company, Inc. • 1899 Preston White Drive, Reston, VA 20191 USA T 703.264.7200 • F 703.620.9187 • E-mail: •


Gravure Day

At CalPoly University

By Jenn Owen and Sarah Willis


he Graphic Communication Department Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo hosted its annual Gravure Day on Wednesday, January 26, 2011. The morning began with student, Sarah Willis; lecturer, Nancy Cullins; and professor, Kevin Cooper; giving speakers a department tour. Soon after, Graphic Communication students filled the presentation room for the first speaker: Bill Staab from RR Donnelley. RR Donnelly Presentation Staab’s presentation covered the gravure sect of RR Donnelley, from the basics of their technology to examples of their applications. His thirty-seven years of experience at RR Donnelley allowed him to speak with confidence and knowledge about the prestigious company. After teaching his audience about the various details of gravure printing, Staab invited both students and professors to ask questions. One student asked how RR Donnelley faces the increasing challenges due to the decline of print, an issue that all print companies must address. Staab replied that RR Donnelley adapts to the ever-changing needs of their customers, adjusting their services as time goes on. The presentation concluded with the possible career opportunities at RR Donnelley for Graphic Communication students. Printer Perspective The second presenter of the day was Scott Stensby from New Page. Stensby brought


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Student Sarah Willis provides a tour for visiting speakers.

with him a package of printed samples for each student in attendance and discussed the different papers and finishing techniques. New Page often works on labels for wine bottles and Stensby was able to provide a wide range of designs for students to enjoy. Students appreciated the hands on experience and were able to see a different perspective of design. Exploring Career Paths Flint Group, represented by Tom Stokes, Jeff McRea, and Tom Smatlak, gave the final presentation before the Speaker’s Lunch. Each speaker’s background allowed him to bring unique strengths to the group’s presentation, which enhanced audience engagement. After earning his Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration, Stokes’ first print industry assignment was as a trainee in a Research & Development Laboratory. He now serves as Flint Group’s Western Regional Vice

President. McRea began his journey in the print industry in RR Donnelly’s pressman apprenticeship program, and is now Flint Group’s Western Regional Manager for Technical Support. Smatlak, whose career started as a jogger on a triple web M-1000 press., completed the trio. He is currently the Director of Technical Services for Day International, which is one of the companies that make up Flint Group. The three representatives answered the student audience’s questions about Flint Group and each speaker’s individual career paths, bringing the first part of the day to a close. Quad Graphics Insight After a quick lunch break, Michael Pender from Quad Graphics surprised the students with his diverse background and history. Originally form Ireland; he included in his presentation the lessons he learned while transitioning to life in the United States. Pender also spoke about


John Seymour speaks to students about color control.

Students fill the room and wait anxiously for the next presentation to begin.

the history of Quad and its family-values based structure. The overview of the company was extremely beneficial for students who were not as familiar with the history of the industry. Pender also made sure to focus on the students’ interest in future employment and spent a significant amount of time answering career, internship, and training related questions. QR Codes The next presentation from Roger Belanger had informally begun two days earlier, when posters went up around the graphic communication building displaying a QR code. (A QR code (Quick Response) is a specific matrix barcode (or two-dimensional code), that is readable by dedicated QR barcode readers and camera phones. The code consists of black modules arranged in a square pattern on a white background. The information encoded can be text, URL or other data.

A QR code is scanned directly from Roger Belanger’s presentation

Students were instructed to scan the image or text in the code for the opportunity to win prizes. During the presentation, Belanger revealed to students that every ten minutes someone would receive a return text announcing that person as the next prizewinner. Belanger explained how QR codes work and how they can be used to integrate print with the World Wide Web. This was the most interactive presentation of the day. Not only were students encouraged to participate with prizes, but were also invited to scan a QR code directly from the presentation. Color Control Systems John Seymour, the Principal Engineer for QuadTech, spoke mostly about QuadTech’s innovative Color Control System and AccuCam. As someone who was instrumental in the development of these systems, Seymour was able to inform and answer questions with ease. To spice up his presentation, Seymour threw candy to the audience when a student or professor asked an interesting question. The entire audience enjoyed his informative and high-energy segment. Printing To the Cloud The final presentation of the day was from John Grubb of EFI. Grubb explained to the students all about printing to the cloud and how EFI has developed

easy-to-use technology. Grubb used the example of being able to complete an assignment at a local coffee shop and use EFI’s technology to print right then and there. This idea fascinated students who are always looking for efficiency and ease. Grubb explained how this is all possible with the cloud. Grubb is also a member of the Graphic Communication Advisory Board and a regular visitor to Cal Poly. Informal Networking After a long day of presentations, the speakers, several professors, and students Jenn Owen and Sarah Willis attended dinner at a local restaurant. It was the perfect setting for the speakers to relax and for the San Luis Obispo residents to get to know their visitors on a personal level. Sarah had the opportunity to learn more about RR Donnelley’s Bill Staab and Flint Group’s Jeff McRea. She thoroughly enjoyed hearing about Staab’s college fraternity memories and McRea’s wonderful family. Jenn was seated next to John Seymour and his wife, thus getting the chance to learn about their life in Wisconsin. Everyone was friendly and jovial, which led to a fantastic dinner. The evening ended with speakers, professors, and students agreeing to stay in touch. Jenn Owen and Sarah Willis are students at CalPoly.

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GEF Scholarship Winners Corporate Leadership Scholarships Seven Corporate Leadership Scholarships were awarded for the 2011 academic year in the amount of $1,500 each, made possible by sponsorship of companies in the gravure industry, including Alcoa, Cerutti, Gravure Publishing Council (GPC), K Walter Services, NewPage, UPM and Toyo Ink. This year’s winners are Parshav Jain, Clemson University; Lin Wang, Clemson; Nicholas Gawreluk, RIT; Josh Stolz, Clemson; Kristen Zeleznik, Clemson; Joshua Boland, Clemson; and Gregory DeGross, Western Michigan University, respectively. Memorial Scholarships In addition, two Memorial Scholarships were awarded to honor the memory of former leaders and supporters of Gravure Education—Harry V. Quadracci Memorial Scholarship and Werner B. Thiele Memorial Scholarship. These were won by Jaclyn Burge from Murray State University; and Lexie Conat from CalPoly, respectively. Parshav Jain is a graduate student in Graphic communications at Clemson University. He completed his undergraduate studies in printing technology from Pune University, where he started his journey into this field. Currently Parshav is involved with the Technical Association of Graphic Arts (TAGA) and Packaging Science Club at Clemson. He plans to pursue his research in the field of functional printing (non-graphic use of printing) and feels fortunate to receive the Alcoa Foundation Scholarship. This scholarship will help to support his research work and complete his education. After graduating in May 2012, he wishes to build a successful career in printing industry. 36

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Lin Wang grew up in China and earned her Bachelor’s degree in architecture there. She has always been interested in printing and graphics, so after she moved to America she decided to pursue a Master’s in Graphic Communications at Clemson University. She plans to graduate in August of 2012. She has said that the creative aspect of this field speaks to her, and she appreciates the practicality of it as well. She is part of the Student Affairs Graduate Student Advisory Board at Clemson University, and a graduate assistant working in labs to assist professors and students. She is also joining TAGA in Fall 2011. Lin has been involved in a lot of volunteer work since moving to America. In her free time, she enjoys photography, especially food photography for websites and she is also a free-lance interpreter. She notes that it is always a challenge to start a new life in a new country, and the GEF scholarship will greatly help her in achieving her goals. She is honored to receive it, and says she is sure that she will become more and more confident in pursuing her career in this industry. Nick Gawreluk is a student at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) currently pursuing a New Media Publishing major, with a concentration in print production. At RIT, Nick is heavily involved in the School of Print Media with numerous production manager roles and is always searching for new experiences within the printing industry. He most recently completed an internship with Heidelberg in Germany. With the support of a GEF scholarship he will be able to continue working hard in school and pursue his dream of one day becoming a leader in the printing industry. Expected graduation is spring 2013.

EDUCATION FEATURE Josh Stolz is a senior at Clemson University. He came into Clemson majoring in architecture, but switched and found a great major in Graphic Communications. At Clemson, he fulfills his passion for design and building by participating in Habitat for Humanity and other Graphics Communications activities like going to Chicago for GraphExpo. He feels that receiving the K. Walter Services Corporation Scholarship will help him receive one of the best educations possible in the field. In addition, he can have a little bit of money to invest in starting his own company—something he’s been wanting to do for quite sometime. Jaclyn Burge will be a senior at Murray State University this fall. She will graduate May 2012 with a bachelor’s degree in Graphic Communications Management. Jaclyn grew up in Normal, Illinois. Jaclyn is the Vice President of Gamma Epsilon Tau – Mu Chapter 2011. In the spring of 2011 she was co-coordinator of the Gravure Day hosted at MSU. Jaclyn worked an internship at a smaller clothing company the summer of 2011, and within her first week she was asked to run departments when people were gone. Jaclyn aspires to own and operate a print company and employ future graduates of the GCM department at MSU. Kristen Zeleznik is currently a senior in the Graphic Communications program at Clemson University with a minor in Packaging Science, graduating in December of 2011. Throughout the past four years, Kristen has been highly involved within the industry. She completed her first internship at Mailing Services of Pittsburgh and her second and third internships at HAVI Global Solutions. During her junior year, she conducted extensive research on developing ISO CMYK specifications for Expanded Color Gamut Printing; it was published in the April issue of Flexo Magazine. She was a contributing member of Gamma Epsilon Tau and the Technical Association of Graphic Arts. While in school, she worked for The Tiger Newspaper and The Sonoco Institute of Packaging Design and Graphics. However, due to the increased cost of education, working and saving did not

make ends meet; receiving the NewPage Corporation scholarship has undoubtedly helped make her education possible. Joshua Boland grew up in Lexington, South Carolina and is currently a junior in Graphic Communications at Clemson University. He has always had a creative inclination and decided to investigate Clemson’s graphics program after a recommendation from a high school teacher. He has been involved in TAGA (Technical Association of the Graphic Arts) for his first two years at Clemson and plans to stay thoroughly involved with that group. He says he is both honored and excited to be the recipient of the UPM Corporate Scholarship this year; the support will be of incredible assistance in furthering his graphics education! Greg DeGross is from Grayslake, IL. After Carmel High School, he chose Western Michigan University (WMU) to pursue a career in the graphic and imaging industry. The Toyo Ink GEF Corporate Leadership Scholarship is a huge honor for a major in Graphic and Printing Science, with a Business minor. Greg said that for an international ink, packagingmaterials, and coatings company to recognize him is doubly exciting since his summer internship is in those areas (Nosco, Inc., Gurnee, IL). This scholarship allows him to concentrate on classes and work in WMU’s Pilot printing-testing plants. He is active in WMU’s Graphic Arts Society, and for eight years has been volunteering in his community. Lexie Conat is a fourth year student at California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo, CA. She is originally from Whitefish, Montana and moved to California for college with a passion for art and printing. She is majoring in Graphic Communication and has also been involved with the dance program at Cal Poly. It is difficult to fund out-of-state tuition, so this scholarship will help her finish her last year in the Graphic Communications program so she can graduate in the Spring of 2012.

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DRUPA 2012 Will Focus on Print Applications

By Linda M. Casatelli


rupa, staged by Messe Dusseldorf, has traditionally been known as the printing industry’s leading global event. The last staging of Drupa in 2008 touted approximately 391,000 visitors from 138 countries attending the show, enabling the show to retain its prestigious reputation. Similar to past events, DRUPA 2012—One World One Drupa—to be held on May 3 - 16, 2012 in Düsseldorf, Germany, promises to showcase the latest technological developments, including both traditional and innovative technologies for prepress and premedia, printing (machinery, appliances and accessories), book binding and print finishing as well as paper converting services including packaging production, materials and consumables Furthermore, the show promises to continue its role as a confidence barometer for the print media industry. . DrupaCube Because of its success, the show will continue the concept (drupacube) launched at DRUPA 2008, where pure technology moves into the background in favor of ap38

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plications. However, where the cube was previously located in the outside area, at this DRUPA 2012, it will move into hall 7A, next to the Drupa Innovation Park Hall. Similar to all the trade fair halls, the focus of drupacube will be on the printed product, but here everything will revolve around printed products for communication, driven by marketing. In addition, there will be daily conferences focusing on diverse topics such as magazines, book, packaging and corporate communications. There will also be activities aimed at green printing, functional printing and social media.    Another highlight at the show will be the Drupa Innovation Park 2012, presented by digi:media (dip), targeting digital printing

and media. It will feature young companies, start-up companies and key sector players offering solutions and applications for tomorrow’s markets. Rather than focusing on technology itself, it will relate technology to content and business models.   Drupa Song As of May, the current Drupa song is mixed and available online. The three-minute song—Get Ready to Succeed—features a modern dance-floor sound and could easily become a real Drupa anthem for the international community. The Drupa song was composed, written and produced by a Messe Düsseldorf staff member, Dirk Zeisler. You can access the song online at

Gravure Magazine Highlights DRUPA 2012 GAA magazine is planning pre-show coverage of DRUPA 2012 for the Fall issue of Gravure magazine. In addition, there will be a special advertorial section. If your company is planning to exhibit at DRUPA, this is an excellent opportunity to highlight your exhibit for Gravure readers. For more information, contact Bill Martin (President/CEO of GAA and Publisher of Gravure magazine) at bmartin or Linda Casatelli (Editor/Associate Publisher) at lcasatelli


Thinking Beyond

the Box—

Printed Electron ics Complements Packaging

Innovative Techn ology: • Xenon Pulse Curing for • Ultrasonic WaveConductive Inks Drying


UPM Shotton’s Materials Recovery Facility Inaugurated UPM CEO Jussi Pesonen and the Ambassador of Finland to the United Kingdom officially opened the £17m Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) at UPM’s Shotton paper mill. Supported by a £1.7m investment by the Welsh Government, the state-of-the-art facility, has the capacity to sort 270,000 of comingled material and has been designed to achieve the highest recovery rates in the UK of 99 percent. In addition to a unique design, the facility has the latest sorting and screening equipment in the market. Using UPM’s technical knowledge combined with world-class installers and technology providers, the UPM MRF will output high quality materials for further reprocessing off site. At the North Wales site, 120,000 tonnes of high quality paper will be recovered for paper making. The facility was opened in front of 180 key suppliers and partners at a short opening ceremony on Friday 8 July. It is capable of sorting six types of plastic as well as metals, paper and glass. The building is rated BREEAM excellent using abundant levels of natural light and recycled water. At full operation the facility will employ 160 persons in addition to the 405 staff working for UPM Shotton site which produces 100% recycled fiber newsprint. UPM is the largest manufacturer of 100% recycled newsprint in the UK, recycling 640,000 tonnes.

Sun Chemical Appoints Greg Hayes as Group Managing Director for Northern Europe Sun Chemical has appointed Greg Hayes

as the Group Managing Director for the Northern European region. Based in the UK, Hayes will lead Sun Chemical’s businesses in the UK, Ireland and the Nordic countries, its global digital inks business, and the Sun Branding Solutions packaging design services business. He will also coordinate the screen, circuits and industrial inks business across Europe. Bringing 25 years of relevant industry knowledge and experience to the position, Hayes joins Sun Chemical from PPG Industries Europe Sàrl where he held the post of General Manager, EMEA for PPG Packaging Coatings. A graduate in chemical engineering at Nottingham University in the UK, Hayes started his career in production management with ICI and subsequently with Courtaulds. At Courtaulds, his responsibilities increased as he became a markets manager in Europe and later the global sales and marketing director at Courtaulds Packaging Coatings. When Courtaulds Packaging became a part of PPG in 1999, he was appointed as general manager of the amalgamated business, which he led to achieve growth in mature markets. He also served as chairman of CEPE Can Coatings Group and was a board member of PPG Industries Europe Sàrl. He holds an MBA from the Cranfield School of Management.

RR Donnelley Takes Equity Investment in Solicore R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company and Solicore Inc. announced that RR Donnelley has taken an equity position in Solicore. Headquartered in Lakeland, FL, Solicore is a worldwide leader in embedded power solutions, providing patented products to manufacturers of smart cards, RFID devices, medical products, and electronic sensors. In addition to this equity investment RR Donnelley and Solicore have entered into a commercial agreement to develop the next generation of integrated power solution products. The joint development agreement will leverage RR Donnelley’s proprietary imaging technologies and Solicore’s patented embedded power solutions to deliver products using a combination of gravure, offset, flexographic, and digital printing processes.

C L A S S I F I E D A D V E RT I S I N G Accounts Receivable/Payroll/Bookkeeper

Print Production Professional

No experience necessary. Salary commenserate and takes little of your time. Requirements: Should be computer literate, must be efficient and dedicated. Please send resume to: distributionspcompany

Recognized as an expert in all aspects of color quality control for catalog/retail including digital prepress. Successfully reduced costs and increased efficiency through improvements to workflow for prepress and for in-house production. Additional experience in Print buying, Paper Procurement, Trafficking, Web liaison. Effective collaboration with Marketing and Merchandising with all levels. Call 617-974-6060

Do you have a Business Classified Ad that you would like to advertise in the Apex Award winning Gravure Magazine? If so, please fill out the “Insertion Form” from the GAA Media Kit found at this link: and email it to Michelle Giuliano at

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GAA 2011 Basic and Advanced Gravure Seminars New to the Gravur!e Industry

OCT. 10-14, 2011 BASIC GRAVURE SEMINAR Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, Michigan

Looking to Hone Your Skills?

The Basic Gravure Seminar teaches state of the art technologies and the latest industry challenges on 26 topics covering the entire gravure printing process. It gives you a solid foundation in all areas of the gravure process, as well as filling knowledge gaps for experienced practitioners who have not been formally trained. The seminar also includes a tour of the Southern Graphic Systems facility.

OCT. 11-14, 2011 GAA ADVANCED PRESSROOM SEMINAR Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, Michigan

Want to Improve You r Knowlege of t he Process?

The GAA Advanced Pressroom Seminar takes the gravure process to the next level in pressroom training. This course will provide in-depth discussion and hands-on training in areas pertinent to today’s gravure pressroom. Focusing on the gravure press fingerprinting process, you will learn to identify and isolate variables that feed the press including substrate, ink, press, pre-press and cylinder parameters. Both seminars are valuable to pressroom supervisors, press operators, print buyers, designers, ink suppliers, paper suppliers, engravers, and management. For more information, log onto the GAA website at or contact Bill Martin at

New Technology Introductions Practical Advice, Actionable Solutions Live Demonstrations September 11-14, 2011 Education Opportunities McCormick Place South | Chicago, IL USA Networking


Flexible Packaging | Labels: Tape, Tags, Film & Foil | Converting Folding Cartons | Digital Printing | Flexographic Printing | Printed Electronics

1899 Preston White Drive, Reston, VA 20191 USA T 703.264.7200 | F 703.620.9187 |

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