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SPRING 2011

Thinking Beyond the Box­—

Printed Electronics Complements Packaging

Innovative Technology: • Xenon Pulse Curing for Conductive Inks • Ultrasonic Wave Drying


SUSTAINABILITY Who cares about the environment ? We do. And we know you do too. In every step of the papermaking process, UPM is committed to responsible environmental stewardship. Our raw materials are harvested from only sustainably managed forests. Climate-neutral biofuels have helped us reduce fossil CO2 emissions by 40%.

UPM. Paper that makes a world of difference. Visit DoYouKnowUPM.com

www.upm.com


TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S

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Cover Feature Thinking Beyond the Box By Linda M. Casatelli Ten Ways to Green Your Paper By Phil Riebel

22 Printed Circuits from Light By Dr. Saad Ahmed 7 Innovative Drying Can Improve 2 Productivity By Gene Plavnik

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32 Printed Electronics, Intelligent Packaging and the “Internet of Things By Don Carli 36 GAA 2011 Person of the Year Awards 38 How Green is Your Paper By Donna Atkinson

Departments 4 Publisher’s Message - Spring’s Rebirth 6 Editor’s Desk - Changing Times 7 Industry News 35 GAA 2011 Calendar of Events

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P UB L I S HE R S C O R N E R

Spring’s Rebirth S

pring is one of my favorite times of the year as Mother Nature shows her brilliance with the rebirth of our forests, waterways, pastures and many varieties of shrubs and plants. I just can’t wait to get outdoors and enjoy the weather and spring activities with family and friends. There is a certain feeling in the air. Attitudes are more positive. Maybe that’s why history shows April is the best month of the calendar year for the stock market. This year, Spring also brings some fresh changes regarding GAA events and a rebirth of Gravure magazine under the leadership of our editor and associate publisher Linda M. Casatelli. Linda brings a new look to the magazine as well as experience in printing, packaging and manufacturing. Her knowledge of some of the emerging markets like printed electronics will provide added value for Gravure magazine, whose focus remains squarely on the gravure industry and your association. We are all pleased to have her expertise and support as we pull our way out of the recession and rebuild and/or grow our businesses. Linda joins a staff that is focused on our member’s needs and the growth of Gravure and your association. I cannot express how pleased I am to be working with this fine group of hard working and dedicated professionals. GAA has gone through some changes these past years and getting “the right people on the bus” to borrow a phrase

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from the best selling book, Good To Great, is not an easy task. I believe though that we have achieved our goal and are now ready to build an association that can provide the resources members require, particularly in these challenging times. We have already revamped the website so that information about GAA events and programs is just a mouse click away. It also offers a searchable resource library of technical articles—again right at your fingertips. It also features current and back issues of Gravure magazine to be read at your leisure. Gravure Magazine has always been a valued asset as well as important resource for GAA. We have had many discussions both internally and externally about the makeup of Gravure. Gravure magazine I think this issue proves we are listening. While continuing to provide information about GAA and GEF programs and events, it will have an additional focus on technology and innovation, which are so necessary to remain profitable in today’s challenging competitive environment. However, we hope the dialog that we have started about GAA and Gravure magazine will continue. It is your association and your magazine, and we are striving to provide what you want and need from both. Please continue to provide us with the feedback that we need to continue to meet your needs successfully. –Bill Martin

President & CEO Bill Martin, Publisher of Gravure Magazine

Director of Conference Planning & Administration Pamela W. Schenk

Business Manager/CPA Linda Pfingst

Association Manager Michelle Giuliano

Executive Director of GEF Bernadette Carlson

IT Webmaster Allen Krusenstjerna

Publisher: Bill Martin Editor and Associate Publisher: Linda M. Casatelli

Gravure Association of America, Inc. P.O. Box 25617 Rochester, NY 14625 Phone: (201) 523-6042 Fax: (201) 523-6048 E-mail: gaa@gaa.org. www.gaa.org Vol. 25, No. 1 ISSN 08944946 USPS 000-565 Gravure magazine is published online three times a year.


GAA 2011 Buyers Guide A diverse spectrum of companies helped us compile the 2011 Buyers’ Guide, the only gravure-specific directory of its kind. You’ll find information about companies in all segments of the gravure industry - including packaging product and publication printers. Equipment and materials suppliers also make a strong showing here, and we’ve included a section on gravure training programs and educational institutions. To access the buyers guide go to http://gaa.org.

Buyers Guide Categories include: • • • • • •

Industry Consultancies Digital Workflow Services & Supplies Gravure Related Services Machinery & Equipment Blades, Tools & Supplies Inks, Coatings & Pigments

• Paper & Fiber Substrates • Film, Foil & Plastic Substrates • Packaging Printers • Product/Decorative Printers • Publication Printers • Education & Training

For questions or suggestions regarding the Buyers’ Guide, or to be included in the 2011 Buyers’ Guide, please contact Bill Martin, GRAVURE Publisher, at 201-981-5901 or bmartin@gaa.org.


E D ITO R’ S D E S K

Changing Times T

he times they are a changing,” sang Bob Dylan back in my college days. That was many years ago indeed, but the times are changing still and at a faster pace than ever. While we may not welcome change, it definitely characterizes what is happening in the printing industry today. As gravure printers, keeping abreast of the latest technology and potential markets is crucial to surviving that change. While reading this first issue of Gravure for 2011, you may notice several changes. The design is more contemporary and the editorial focus is more directed towards new and innovative technologies, as well as potential markets like printed electronics that are indicative of the changes that gravure printers must contend with and capitalize on today. My initial feature (“Thinking Beyond the Box” on page 8) shows how an ordinary cookie box can become an interactive toy fire engine with lights and sound once the cookies are eaten. This is just one example of the enormous potential that printed electronics holds for the future—a future where gravure printers can play a significant role. GAA will be conducting a Printed Electronics and Intelligent Packaging Symposium on May 17-19, 2011 at Clemson University’s Sonoco Institute of Design. It will be an excellent opportunity to learn about the key materials, technologies and production methods for printed electronics and to become acquainted with applications that offer gravure printers immediate and future printed electronics opportunities. This issue goes on to explores some innovative technologies that you may not yet be familiar with, including photonic curing of conductive inks for printed electronics (“Printed Circuits from Light” on page 20) and acoustical wave drying for solvent-

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and water-based inks (“Innovative Drying Technology Can Improve Productivity” on page 25). On another front, sustainability issues and environmental regulations have become dominant factors in how printers and converters run their businesses, so we have the focused features covering: “Ten Ways to Green Your Paper” on page 14 and “How Green is Your Paper” on page 36) And to help its members learn more about new government regulations and what these will mean for you as printers and converters, experts in the field will be on hand at the GAA 2011 environmental workshop June 15-17, 2011 at the Hilton Washington Embassy Row in Washington, DC. Finally, if you’ve read closely you may have noticed a change in the masthead. I’m the new editor of Gravure magazine, but I’m definitely not new to the industry. I’ve logged over 20 years in the printing and packaging arena, first as the editor of Flexo magazine and more recently as the Editor of Ink Maker magazine. Over the years, I have also contributed feature articles to many industry publications including Flexo and Gravure International, Boxboard Container, Printing News, Paper and Packaging, What They Think, and CMM-online. As a freelance journalist for the past several years, I have produced technical and market research on printed electronics, eco-friendly inks, conductive inks and low-migration inks for food packaging. I certainly hope that you find the changes in the magazine to your liking, and that the features will provide you with valuable information to remain competitive and profitable in these tough—and changing—times. —Linda M. Casatelli

Publisher: Bill Martin Editor and Associate Publisher: Linda M. Casatelli

Magazine Advisory Board Betsy Barker Castillo, RR Donnelley & Sons Victor Basile, Jr., Publicis Miriam O. Frawley, e-Diner Design & Marketing, Inc. Terrence Frawley, e-Diner Design & Marketing, Inc. Thomas Meisel, Parade Publications, Inc. Cathy Merolle, Hearst Corporation Walter Vail, St. Marys Paper Limited/ St. Marys Sales Robert G. Whitton, Jr., Arellton Group, LLC Stephen F. Young, Mundet International

Subscriptions Gravure is available free of charge to employees of GAA-member companies. Subscriptions for nonmembers in the U.S. and Canada are $67/year or $145/two years.

Business, Advertising, & Editorial Offices Gravure Association of America, Inc. P.O. Box 25617 Rochester NY, 14625 Phone: (201) 523-6042 Fax: (201) 523-6048 E-mail: gaa@gaa.org www.gaa.org


NEWS

Quad Extends Successful Partnership with L.L.Bean Under a newly signed agreement, Quad/Graphics will print the majority of L.L.Bean’s catalogs through 2014. The agreement, which continues the partnership launched in 2008, takes effect in January 2012 and covers all of L.L.Bean’s Men’s, Women’s, Kids’, Signature, Direct to Business and core prospecting catalogs. Under separate agreements, Quad/Graphics continues to provide 100 percent of the legendary Maine marketer’s prepress work as well as 100 percent of its studio photography for all product lines in print and web/e-commerce.

RR Donnelley Secures Customer Communications Management Contract R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company has announced that it has secured a multi-million dollar, multi-year contract with Shop Direct Group, the UK’s largest online and home shopping retailer. SDG has a number of retail brands within its portfolio including Littlewoods, Very. co.uk, isme and Woolworths. Under the terms of the contract, RR Donnelley will provide a broad range of services to Shop Direct Group, including premedia, print management, transactional print, fulfillment and inbound document processing. The company will also employ a variety of technologies in support of Shop Direct Group’s integrated communications program. Its proprietary MediaCompass® digital asset management and workflow platform will be used by RR Donnelley in support of catalog preparation.

Sun Chemical Issues 2010 Sustainability Report Sun Chemical recently released its 2010 sustainability report. Similar to the previous report, performance measurement was provided for seven key sustainability metrics to help customers and consumers understand the company’s environmental impact. The report shows data collected every year since 2005 from approximately 170 Sun Chemical sites in over 25 countries. The key sustainability metrics measured in the data include: energy consumption/conservation at production and non-production sites, the energy carbon footprint at the production sites, process waste reduction, water consumption, materials safety, and employee safety. According to the company, providing a report that shows the ongoing management and monitoring of key sustainability metrics is an important part of Sun Chemical’s sustainability policy. Both the 2009 and 2010 sustainability reports, along with the “Carbon Footprint Report 2010,” which outlines the results from nine independent environmental analyses focused on quantifying the carbon footprint of its product lines, are available to customers and can be requested online at w.sunchemical. com/company/sustainability. Customers in the U.S. can also calculate the initial carbon footprint for their facility operations by visiting www.sunchemical.com/suncare.

Brad W. Bergey Joins NAPIM NAPIM is pleased to announce that Brad W. Bergey joined the NAPIM staff as Executive Director on February 7, 2011. Brad will be replacing Jim Coleman who is retiring on Spring 30, 2011. Most recently, Brad was National Accounts Manager for Oyster Jones & Company, a manufacturer of packaging machinery. Brad’s experience in the printing ink industry comes from 28 years at Sun Chemical culminating as President of Kohl & Madden Ink Division. In addition, Brad has having served as NAPIM’s Management Information Committee chairman and received the Printing Ink Pioneer Award in 2004. In addition to his printing ink industry activities Brad is a former Board Member of the Illinois Manufacturers Association and a member of the Greater North Michigan Ave. Business Association. Brad graduated from the University of Iowa with a BBA in Economics and with his wife, Randi, lives in Chicago, Illinois.

GRAVURE/Spring 2011

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NEWS Flint Group and Sun Chemical Announces Ink/Chemistry Price Increases Both companies cited consolidation in the supply base is expected in 2011 along with continued pressure for suppliers to alternatively sell key raw materials into other markets. The combination of these factors has led to elevated costs in almost every raw material category critical to the production of inks. Flint Group Latin America has announced price increases on certain printing inks and pressroom chemistry sold in all countries of the Latin American region. Prices increased on inks, overprint varnishes and pressroom chemistry as follows effective February 1, 2011. Liquid Packaging Inks: All Whites up to 10%, depending on technology Solvent Colors up to 8%. Sun Chemical also raised prices in Latin America on February 1, 2011 as follows: Liquid Packaging Inks: Solvent Based: Colors 12–18% Solvent Whites: 15–18% NC Base: 15–20% Water Based: 8–10% In early fall, Sun chemical also raised in the United States by: 4 percent for packaging solvent-based inks, 8 percent for packaging water-based inks, 6 percent for UV flexo inks, and 14 percent for commercial and packaging energy curable (EC) paste inks and EC coatings. Both companies stated the increasing raw material costs and supply chain issues for the increases. Sun Chemical to Increase Prices of Sheetfed and Energy Curable Inks in North America

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Constantia Hueck Folien Extends Film Flexibles production facility Constantia Hueck Folien has commissioned a new Film Flexibles production facility for the beginning of 2011 to allow further capacity increases in the area of film products for the food market sector. The centerpiece of the 10-million euro investment is a high-performance 12-color gravure printing press with in-line lamination (working width 1300 mm), which is incorporated into a manufacturing environment designed for the production of food-grade packaging. It is designed to enable further specialization by Constantia Hueck Folien as an established supplier to companies operating globally in the food sector.

Rudi Lenz Named Executive Officer of DIC Corporation Photo Rudi Lenz, the chief executive officer and president of Sun Chemical Corporation, has been given added responsibilities as an executive officer of DIC Corporation, Sun Chemical’s parent company, effective Spring 1, 2011. As an executive officer of DIC, Lenz’s responsibilities will include DIC Group’s overall operations in the United States and Europe. Lenz began his career in accounting and tax with the German Internal Revenue Service in 1976. In 1980, he joined Garrett Corporation as an accounting manager in Frankfurt, Germany. He was promoted to controller and then promoted through a series of financial and accounting positions, ultimately leading the financial and administrative functions as CFO of Garrett GmbH. Following the acquisitions that formed AlliedSignal Corporation, Mr. Lenz became the CFO for AlliedSignal Germany’s aerospace, automotive, specialty chemicals, plastics, and engineered materials businesses. He then was promoted to the position of Vice President, Finance – Aerospace Services, AlliedSignal, in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1997, Mr. Lenz joined Fairchild Dornier Corporation as Executive Vice President and CFO. There he improved the company’s financial management capabilities and was instrumental in the integration of Fairchild and Dornier. He was promoted to President and CEO of Fairchild Aircraft in January 2001 and resigned in February 2002 to join Sun Chemical. Under Mr. Lenz’s leadership, Fairchild Aircraft increased revenues, improved overall customer satisfaction, and significantly increased income. A native of Germany, Mr. Lenz earned a bachelor’s degree in finance & taxes from the University of Edenkoben. He earned a master’s degree in business & administration from the University of Wiesbaden.


NEWS

Raw Material Shortages Affect Ink Prices In order to help printers and converters understand why their ink prices may be on the rise, the National Association of Printing Ink Manufacturers, Inc. (NAPIM) issued a bulletin that provides insight into the current volatility facing the raw material printing ink market supply chain. The bulletin reviews the availability of critical raw materials likely used in the inks that printers’ purchase in all of the major printing processes – lithographic, gravure, flexographic and inkjet. Availability, driven by capacity and demand from competing regions and industries, remains the determinant on how much product any one manufacturer can obtain and at what cost. Some of the key raw materials causing price increases include: rosin, acrylic acid, carbon black, titanium dioxide, nitrocellulose, crude oil and natural gas, vegetable oils, and colored organic pigments.

Acrylic Acid

Numerous production problems around the world and increased demand from other industrial applications have created a taut market that has experienced sales control initiatives from major producers. The cost pressure and supply constraints are expected to continue through 2011. These dynamics cause significant and on-going challenges in the water-based and UV markets.

Carbon Black

Reduction in available capacity has been seen and lead times have increased significantly. Automotive demand is increasing as well as the demand in several other markets. Two major carbon black suppliers are for sale.

Rosin

Rosin is a major ingredient in resin production. Gum rosin has experienced a nearly threefold increase in price during 2010 and supply remains constrained with very low inventories. The resins produced from rosin are not only used in offset, flexographic and rotogravure printing inks but are also used in adhesives, road markings and rubber.

Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)

Suppliers are not taking on new business as supply remains tight and inventory levels are very low. Global capacity, during the economic downturn, was reduced by 15 percent over the past 18 months and there is no indication that investment will be made to accommodate future growth in the industry.

Nitrocellulose Growing demand coupled with wood pulp production issues and harvest disappointments with cotton linters have created a difficult situation for nitrocellulose in 2010 that is not expected to improve in 2011. China has reduced exports to meet internal requirements and some industrial product will be removed from the supply chain when Maxam closes a facility in 2011.

Crude Oil and Natural Gas

The refining of crude oil and the cracking of natural gas provide many of the precursor chemicals for printing ink raw materials and their intermediates. World oil consumption is expected to grow in China, Brazil and the Middle East which will sustain the regional competition for products and place the supplier in the advantageous position to sell where the profit is best.

Vegetable Oils:

Vegetable oils, primarily linseed and soybean oil are in a volatile and complex market. Prices are driven by several factors including: the acres planted, harvest yield per acre, weather, exports, value of the dollar, crude petroleum oil prices, bio-diesel production, and commodity prices. Based on these factors, it is expected that for the first half of 2011 prices will remain high versus last year.

Colored Organic Pigments:

Overall pigment capacity has decreased over the last several years and there is no indication that this will change. The pigment intermediate products derived from the refining of crude oil all continue to increase substantially in price and demand from other industries, which create a competitive situation for printing ink applications.

2011 Outlook In 2011, ink manufacturers expect feedstock inflation, tight markets and shortages to continue. Ink manufacturers will likely see an increase in issues related to nitrocellulose, titanium dioxide, and additives, as well as persistence of the issues in rosin resin and some pigments. Oil prices are expected to be higher in 2011 and subjected to high volatility with petrochemicals and oil derivatives following.

GRAVURE/Spring 2011

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PA C K A G I N G

Thinking Beyond the Box By Linda M. Casatelli

P

ackaging has traditionally played two roles: it has served as protection for the product contents and assisted in establishing brand identity and attracting consumer attention. In recent years, since so many buying decisions are made in the retail store itself, that second role has taken on increasing significance. Packaging companies have used bold colors, specialized inks and complex graphics to grab consumer attention for their product and away from the competition. Today, package designers have an additional tool-interactive printed media (IPM). According to Kate Stone, founder of Novalia, “Interactive printed media is a simple but very powerful and enabling concept; it means to add realtime interactivity to potentially any item that is printed.”

Package of the Future At PackExpo International 2010, one of the finalists in the “Package of the Future” competition was Graphic Packaging International (GPI), one of the world’s larg10

GRAVURE/Spring 2011

Demonstrator of a tissue carton with a piano within the print. The keyboard is color coded and lyrics to a nursery rhyme are also on the carton; anyone can play along, and go to a website for more tunes. Photo courtesy of Novalia

Printed Battery courtesy of Blue Sparks Technologies


PA C K A G I N G

Demonstrator of cookie box converted into a fire engine. Photo courtesy of Novalia.

est producers of folding cartons and a global leader in coated, recycled boxboard and specialty bag packaging. The entry was a box of cookies that transforms into an interactive toy fire truck after the cookies are consumed. The interactive toy contained a film-based flexible circuit with a programmable microchip; an eco-friendly flexible printed carbon-zinc battery; a piezoelectric speaker; and conductive inkbased printed graphics and connectors. The package was the result of a collaborative effort with Blue Spark Technologies, a leader in the printed battery field, and Novalia, a leading printed electronics designer. The design is compatible with high-speed automated packaging lines. First Comes the Concept The idea for the package was developed by Novalia, started by Dr. Kate Stone in 2006 to focus on perfecting traditional printing processes to print electronics on packaging, point-of-sales material and even game cards. Educated at Salford University, with a PhD in physics from Cambridge University, Stone joined Plastic Logic in 2003, as one of its first engineers. While Plastic Logic mainly used inkjet, Stone felt that traditional printing pro-

cesses were the key to cost savings and added value for printed electronics. “To date, much of printed electronics has focused on more expensive processes like inkjet, whereas I feel keenly that companies should be able to use more traditional processes instead of having to invest in new equipment.” Securing grant money from the U.K. government, she started Novalia. In terms of interactive packaging, to Stone it makes perfect sense to print the interactive elements at the same time as the box is printed. “It saves costs and differentiates the brand at the same time,” she said. Interactive Printed Media Novalia’s Interactive Printed Media vision is based on existing printed electronics technologies. Technologies include programmable chips (ICs) and conductive inks, used along with traditional graphic inks, and thin, flexible “green” batteries

as a primary power source. “It works by embedding a low cost silicon chip into/ onto the printed item and adding conductive inks to the palette of inks used for the print,” explains Stone. “The conductive inks add touch sensitive areas to the graphics such as capacitive touch used on many smart phones. By combining the printing of conductive ink-based touch points deposited by traditional print methods with low cost conventional electronics, ‘apps’ can be written for the printed item to allow a whole range of new user experiences,” she concludes. Putting the Pieces Together The key to success was putting the pieces of the puzzle together. During discussion with printers, Novalia realized that by combining existing electronics with conductive inks that were created for RFID it could already see ways to add value/functionality to the printed items the printers we manufacturing. “All we had to do was figure out is how to join it all together, noted Stone.

PRINTED ELECTRONICS Printed electronics is the term used for a relatively new market area that defines the printing of electronic circuits and components on common media such as paper, plastic, and textile, using standard graphic arts printing processes and press equipment. But instead of using standard inks, newly developed conductive inks are used to print active devices, such as thin film transistors and thin printed batteries. Although the concept of printed electronics has been around for some time, recent advances in conductive ink chemistry and flexible substrates promise to deliver a flood of new markets and applications. Leading-edge companies are currently using the technology to transform basic circuit elements, such as thin-film transistors, resistors, inductors, and capacitors into printed batteries, displays, sensors, RFID tags, interactive packaging, solar panels, and even speakers. GRAVURE/Spring 2011

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PA C K A G I N G PRINTED BATTERIES Printed Batteries are thin, flexible and ecofriendly. Made of carbon zinc, with no toxic chemicals or hazardous materials on food grade PET, they are disposable. While they are not competitive with current coil cells in terms of cost, there are applications where coin cell batteries will not work. For example, in smart cards and labels, the small flexible form factor is essential. Because of their compact size, flat profile and flexibility, printed batteries are finding application in several areas of the new printed electronics. These 1.5V cells can provide a reliable power source in products and solutions for: • Battery

- Assisted RFID – both active and passive, for EPC compliance, closed-loop asset tracking and tracing, RTLS and mobile asset tracking; These tags have read ranges similar to active tags (up to 150 feet), but only cost $2-5 each (maybe less in higher volumes) as compared to active tags that can be $25 each. Passive tags are much cheaper, but don’t have the read range. They are used in asset management applications, for example for vehicle tagging. RF-linked sensors and data logging systems to measure and record time/temperature, humidity, vibration and other ambient conditions. Memory storage is in the RFID tag, the sensor has a clock and a sensor to detect pressure or humidity. The RF portion of the tag provides a convenient way to pull out the data. •

Transdermal Patches – or drug delivery, wound care and cosmetic uses; •

Powered Cards – such as “smart cards,” printed display customer loyalty and gift cards. Expected to become more commercialized in two to three years. •

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Demonstrator of birthday greeting card which has candles that light up when it is touched and can then be blown out like real candles, because the ink is moisture sensitive. Photo courtesy of Novalia

Blue Spark Technologies, located in Westlake, Ohio, is a leading supplier of thin, flexible printed battery solutions with experience in engineering, battery-powered electronic design, prototyping and product testing. It was launched in 2002 as Thin Battery Technologies founded on the research and development efforts of Eveready Battery (now Energizer). In 2008, it became Blue Spark Technologies as it entered the next stage of growth and adoption of printed batteries. It had previously taken a collaborative approach with many of its partners. “A customer wants a total package and each partner had expertise in a different piece of the puzzle,” said Matt Ream, vice president of marketing at Blue Spark. Graphic Packaging was a logical choice as a package designer, printer, and producer because it had been working on interactive media for years. It had some projects for customers with light or sound—any means that can allow a package to get attention. The company had also found that interactive packaging was a differentiator for them, separating them from the competition and allowing them to stand out. Seeing is Believing With the players in place, the next step was a demonstrator. Novalia had been envisioning a cookie box that would convert into an interactive toy (fire truck) for some time, but they needed something to show potential customers. Stone explains: “Printed elec-


PA C K A G I N G

tronics is more about the joining of several industries (print, electronics, design etc) rather than any particular product, it was a challenge at first to help people understand our vision, our demonstrators are the way we communicate that vision.” Ream agrees: “Customers want to see something—then the customer decides if he wants to commercialize the product concept and to commit the funding.” Is such a cookie carton—which is also a toy fire truck with multiple sound effect touch points, a package or a toy? “It is actually a way to extend/enhance users experience of packaging and represent a chance to add value, says Stone. Other demonstrator examples include a tissue carton with a piano within the print, the keyboard is color coded and lyrics to a nursery rhyme are also on the carton; anyone can play along, and go to a website for more tunes. Another is a poster with touch sensitive areas for sound effects and a greeting card which has candles that light up when it is touched and can then be blown out like real candles, because the ink is moisture sensitive. Finally, Novalia has created a book with touch points on each page and a child’s story that always unfolds differently than the time before. Other potential applications would be novelty games, in-store merchandising displays and promotional brochures. One innovative project that Blue Sparks has collaborated on is a printed electronics cover for Canvas magazine (for print sales and marketing executives). It began at Cal Poly University and included multiple partners contributing their expertise. The cover was printed with electrochromic ink using a screen process, because it needed a thick ink film. However, the team is researching other print processes for the future. All of the details can be found at http://www.printedelectroniccover.com/ process/process.html.

“Printed electronics is more about the joining of several industries (print, electronics, design, etc) rather than any particular product... demonstrators are the way we communicate our vision.” —Kate Stone Gravure’s Role “Gravure is a viable process for printed electronics,” says Stone. All it takes is imagination and access to markets; printed electronics is more about creating concepts rather than developing new technologies.” Novalia is working on one gravure project at present, and indicates an interest in talking to any manufacturer who uses gravure to understand their product and to think together in what way we could help them to add value to their products or to create new products. Next Comes Commercialization From demonstrator to commercialized product is a significant step. “The main challenge is solving integration issues that may be specific to a particular product,” noted Stone. “Other challenges are coming up with a concept that is fit for purpose and is at an appropriate price point.” She notes that costs will fall significantly once volumes are high. So while cost poses a challenge early on, as the drive behind the manufacturing process is to eliminate any hand assembly the whole process is inherently scalable with cost reduction. “Using printed batteries for a power source enables a printed flexible circuit to be inserted using existing package

converting equipment, for a lower cost, scalable platform,” adds Ream. Down the road, the sky is the limit as is the potential for other “green” printed electronics products built on a thin, flexible form factor and easily manufactured using traditional printing methods. The long term vision is to print as many components as possible on a single surface. Right now, for all applications— flexible circuits, printed displays, printed batteries—the main challenge in printed electronics is the transistor/logic technology—finding something that works to replace traditional silicon interactive circuits. However, it is important to walk before you can run, so there are opportunities available today with some components printed. “The problem for some is letting the long term vision of printed transistors keep them from developing products with a mix of printed and traditional silicon that can be delivered now,” notes Ream. However, there are many companies who are collaborating together to create innovative products, who are contributing their expertise to put the pieces together and demonstrate that printed electronics is here to stay.

GRAVURE/Spring 2011

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Who really cares about the environment? We do.

As the frontrunner of the new forest industry, UPM leads the integration of bio and forest industries into a new, sustainable and innovation-driven future. UPM paper is not only quality crafted, it's created with the environment in mind. From our choice of fiber to the fuel that powers our mills, we are ever-conscious of our impact on the environment. UPM CARES ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT One of the key ways in which we protect our resources is through sustainable forestry. UPM is one of the world's largest forest owners and managers.

We recognize that one of the best ways to reduce waste and energy is to recycle.

• All of our wood raw materials are harvested from sustainably managed forests

• We reuse or recycled over 90% of our production waste, minimizing waste to landfill

• Harvesting plans consider the impact on the surrounding soil, water, biodiversity and landscape • Logging methods aim to mimic the forests natural lifecycle • All final felling sites are regenerated with new trees to maintain our resources for generations to come

• UPM is the world's largest user of recovered paper, using almost 3 million tons per year

Plus we carry our commitment to the environment into our production processes. • All chemical pulp used by UPM is bleached using either ECF (elemental chlorine-free) or TCF (totally chlorine-free) processing • We use biomass-based energy to reduce fossil CO2 emissions that contribute to climate change


UPM CARES ABOUT YOU TOO UPM's ongoing commitment to reducing our carbon footprint is matched only by our dedication to our customers’ needs. UPM works with you to ensure you have the paper, service and confidence to fulfill all your paper needs. Our extensive product range allows us to find just the right mix for all your projects. With a variety of basis weights, brightness levels and finishes we can accommodate every communication need. Our certified customer service, sales and technical teams are by your side every step of the way to ensure you receive world class service. From efficient order placement, through on time delivery, until the final printing process, we’ll work with you to develop a plan to meet your expectations.

OVER 60% OF UPM ENERGY IS CO2 NEUTRAL

To learn more about UPM’s commitment to sustainability and quality papermaking, visit www.doyouknowupm.com

Please contact: Jennifer Wilkerson Manager, Sales & Environmental Affairs jennifer.s.wilkerson@upm.com

UPM, Inc. 999 Oakmont Plaza Drive, Suite 200 Westmont, IL 60559-5563 1-630-850-3310 • 1-630-850-3322 (fax) www.doyouknowupm.com www.upmbiofore.com

Jon Vander Wal Director, Sales Steering jon.vanderwal@upm.com


F E AT U R E

Ten ways to “Green” Your Paper By Phil Riebel

E

very year, more organizations are evaluating the environmental performance and social responsibility of their paper suppliers. Large paper buyers such as Time Inc and JC Penney have policies for sustainable paper procurement; for other organizations, similar guidelines are available from multiple sources. Following are 10 tips to “green” your paper:

➊ Remind people of the sustainability features of paper The main raw material for papermaking, wood fiber, comes from a renewable and natural resource – trees. Sustainably managed forests that provide forest products like paper also have numerous social and environmental benefits including mitigating climate change by taking up carbon. Paper can be recycled and over 40% of paper fiber used globally comes from recovered paper. Furthermore, paper is often manufactured using a high percentage of renewable energy such as biomas

Figure 1: Ecosystem goods and services of sustainably managed forests.

➋ Reduce impacts over the life cycle of your products As do all products, paper has environmental impacts at all stages of its life cycle: raw material procurement including forest management, manufacturing of pulp and paper, paper distribution, transportation, recovery and disposal.

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F E AT U R E The goal of sustainable production should be to lower the environmental impact, or the overall environmental footprint, of paper products over their life cycle. Paper buyers are gradually becoming more systematic at integrating this life cycle environmental performance into purchasing decisions by using product scorecards or environmental product declarations (ex: Environmental Paper Assessment Tool or EPAT, the WWF Paper Scorecard, Paper Profile). Such reporting tools evaluate product performance across a wide range of indicators such as percentage of certified fiber from sustainable managed forests, recycled fiber use, water and energy use, emissions to air and water, solid waste to landfill, greenhouse gas emissions, social responsibility, certifications and reporting.

Sustainable Forest Management The simplest way for paper producers to prove sustainable forest management is to certify their forest land and their fiber tracing system using standards published by the following organizations: • The Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC), in most European countries as well as growing in other regions of the world. • The Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) and Canadian StandardAssociation (CSA), used in North America and also endorsed by PEFC. • The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Pulp and paper companies can also demonstrate sustainable forest management by implementing a biodiversity strategy (Fig. 3), or having policies against forest conversion or other environmental topics.

Figure 2: The life-cycle of paper. Courtesy: UPM-Kymmene Group.

➌ Show regulatory compliance Most customers expect full compliance with environmental regulations. It is best for paper suppliers to be open and clear about any regulatory problems as soon as possible rather than your customers hearing it via a news release or a competitor. When problems happen it is important to show how the issues were addressed and how a re-occurrence will be prevented. Openness and transparency maintains good business relationships. If environmental performance is good and there is a wide gap between emission levels and the regulatory requirements, then that is key message to send to customers.

➍ Promote sustainable fiber use and biodiversity Sustainably managed forest and recovered paper are expected to continue being the main sources of raw material for an increasing global need in paper products, especially in Asia, India and Eastern Europe. Alternative fibers (non-wood based) made up only 4% of the global fiber supply in 2008, and this is forecasted to decrease to 2.8% by 2025, although volumes used will increase. As a result, non-wood fibers are not readily available for most papermaking. More paper recovery is needed in many regions of the globe, as well as more sustainable forest management.

Figure 3: The abundance and diversity of bird species is a good indicator of sustainable forest management and attention to biodiversity. Pileated woodpecker building nest. (Photo courtesy of Phil Riebel).

GRAVURE/Spring 2011

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F E AT U R E Recycling and Use of Recovered Paper Recycling paper is a good practice, but sustainable use of recycled fiber means using it at the right locations and in the right paper grades, based on economic and environmental considerations. In 2007, most recovered paper (about 82%) was used as a raw material in packaging grades such as carton board and paper board because the manufacture of these grades does not typically involve de-inking and / or bleaching. Thus, the processing is generally less costly and may also have less environmental impact than when de-inking and bleaching are required. Other factors to consider are transportation distance of the recovered paper (i.e. long distances means higher costs) and paper quality needs. In many cases, wood fiber may be a more sustainable choice, i.e. a better balance between economic and environmental considerations. In the papermaking process, wood fiber can be recycled an estimated 4 to 7 times, after which the fiber breaks down and becomes waste, so recovered paper is not an infinite source of raw material. To ensure the success of a global fiber cycle, a continual input of 35 to 65% of fresh wood fiber is needed. If no wood fiber were used then degradation through recycling would result in the world running out of paper in within a period 6 to 18 months depending on the paper grade. A sustainable global fiber cycle depends on well managed forests and maximizing the recycling of paper products.

➎ Clean production will help

your score

Paper scorecards typically include the following environmental indicators that relate to the performance of pulp and paper mill sites: • Air emissions • Energy use • Wastewater emissions (e.g. COD, BOD5, TSS, nitrogen, phosphorus) • Solid waste to landfill • Greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. CO2 from use of fossil fuels, methane emissions from landfills)

Have a strategy to lower your carbon footprint

The carbon footprint of paper can be defined as green18

GRAVURE/Spring 2011

house gas emissions emitted to the atmosphere during the entire lifecycle of paper production and distribution. The most common methods used for greenhouse gas inventories in the pulp and paper industry are those of the World Resources Institute, the British Standards Institute, and Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI). Based on results of recent carbon footprint and life-cycle assessment studies, it is indicated that pulp and paper mill sites using a high percentage of renewable energy such as biomass and “green” electricity from the grid can significantly reduce the carbon footprint of their paper products, up to 80% in some cases. Reducing organic waste to landfill avoids methane production (a powerful greenhouse gas). Landfilling paper products can contribute up to 15% or more of the carbon footprint over the life cycle of the final product. In summary, a good climate change strategy can include: • Promoting sustainable forestry as s a good way of ensuring that forests continue taking up carbon to help mitigate climate change; • Making efficient use of wood raw material, for products and energy from biomass (a renewable and carbon-neutral fuel); • Improving energy efficiency of operations and logistics; and • Reducing landfill waste and recycling.

➐ Show social responsibility Social responsibility is also a key element of sustainability, and social indicators are included in some paper scorecards like the EPAT). Certain voluntary reporting initiatives like the Dow Jones Sustainability Index also rank companies based on their social, environmental and financial performance. A good standing on the DJSI can help companies demonstrate sustainability leadership. Given that health and safety issues are a top priority in the industry, many companies have certified their occupational health & safety management system under the OHSAS 18001 standard.

➑ Promote certification and eco-labels The use of third-party verified certification systems and eco-labels is a sign of environmental commitment and performance. The most wellknown of these labels is the Mobius Loop indicating recycled fiber content or recyclability of products. Although there are many standards and labels in use globally, the most common ones are included below. • Sustainable forest management based on standards from the Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) and its affiliate programs throughout the world (e.g., SFI in North America)) and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) • Chain-of-custody and use of eco-labels for fiber use (standards


F E AT U R E from same organizations as above). • Environmental management system (ISO 14001 standard, Ecomanagement Audit Scheme or EMAS). • Eco-labels for overall environmental performance (EU Eco-label, Ecologo – Canada, Green Seal USA). • Eco-labels for renewable energy use (Green-e – USA) • Reporting standard (Global Reporting Initiative).

➒ Be open and transparent in sustainability reporting

Open and transparent environmental reporting is a sign of sustainability leadership. Annual environmental or sustainability reports are produced by many

companies, either at the facility level, corporate level, or both. Guidelines of the GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) are often cited as a standard for sustainability and environmental reporting. Third party independent verification of reports can add credibility to reporting initiatives, as done under the EU Eco-management Scheme (EMAS) or GRI. In addition to annual reports, sustainability information can also be reported on a voluntary basis to outside organizations (e.g. DJSI, Carbon Disclosure Project) that will rank companies based on performance to key indicators.

ness relationships. Services offered can include: answering inquiries, training on key environmental topics, assistance in developing sustainable paper procurement policies, developing environmental partnership projects.

➓ Provide top environmental

Phil Riebel is President of P. Riebel Consulting (Sustainability & Environmental Services). A longer version of this article, complete with references is available at http://www.risiinfo.com.

service

Providing expert environmental support to customers can ad value to certain busi-

Finally, the above suggestions will only generate marketplace benefits if they are well communicated and visible. Ensuring that employees are knowledgeable and environmentally aware is a great way to demonstrate sustainability of your company and products.

The Gravure Association of America (ww.GAA.org) The recently revised website for The Gravure Association of America (ww.GAA.org) provides information about all the GAA activities at your fingertips, as well as updates on what is going on at the Gravure Education Foundation (GEF). Some of the highlights of this valuable resource include: • Gravure Magazine 2011 Buyers Guide, which contains comprehensive information about companies in all segments of the gravure industry—including packaging, product and publication printers. Equipment and materials suppliers are also listed, as well as gravure training programs and educational institutions. • Current and archived issues of Gravure Magazine, the only technical trade magazine that’s dedicated to the publication, packaging and product gravure process. • A comprehensive search engine with the complete library of all GAA’s whitepapers, and other pertinent technical information • An internal social networking feature that will enable you to connect with GAA members through forums, blogs and classified ads. You'll be able to share ideas, ask and answer questions, and exchange information.

These new online services and GAA social networking capabilities are available only to members. You can obtain information about becoming a member is on the website. GRAVURE/Spring 2011

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GAA

Environmental Workshop Sustainability & Public Policy

Legislation and Regulation Impacting our Industry

June 15-17, 2011 Hilton Washington Embassy Row Washington, D.C.


GAA

Environmental Workshop June 15-17, 2011 Hilton Washington Embassy Row Washington, DC

Environmental concerns have impacted the way printers and converters conduct business. The GAA will be holding an Environmental Workshop at the Hilton Washington Embassy Row in Washington, DC on June 15-17, 2011. Focusing on “Sustainability and & Public Policy: Solutions for our Industry,” the environmental workshop will be co-chaired by Dave Campi, Sears/Lands End, and Monica Garvey, Verso Paper Some of the highlight topics include: ✿ Forest Sustainability and Legislation in North America ✿ Recovery / Recycling / Extended Producer Responsibility Legislation/ Appropriate use of PCW & Why/Review of Recovered Fiber Trends and Supply & Demand Dynamics ✿ Promoting the Effectiveness and Sustainability of Paper and Print ✿ Renewable Energy Solutions in our Industry ✿ Carbon Footprint LCA / New Standard for Products & Scope 3 / Use in Industry ✿ DMA Sustainability Mission and Programs related to Sustainability and Industry Self-Regulation ✿ New FTC Green Guides: Changes & Regulation / Responsible Sustainability Marketing/ How applied to campaigns—why flawed and misleading ✿ Water Footprint and Global Concerns / What it should mean to the customer ✿ Sustainable Packaging ✿ Environmental Paper Assessment Tool – Application in Magazine Publishing Industry

Mark your calendar today so you don’t miss this excellent opportunity to hear the latest on environmental issues. For more information, contact Pam Schenk at pwschenk@gaa.org


TECHNOLOGY

Printed Circuits from Light By Dr. Saad Ahmed

M

ost of us have seen printed circuit boards (PCB) because they are prevalent in so many of the electronic products we use in our everyday lives. We are even more familiar with printed materials ranging from newspapers, magazines and decorative markings on packaging. Both these technologies are well established and have similarities as well as major differences. Printed circuits serve a function. On a PCB for example there are traces needed to conduct electricity form one point to the next. If there are electronic components then they too serve a function; a light emitting diode (LED) may be used for illumination, a switch may act as an interface to provide human control with the system.

Printing Electronics Versus Printing Graphics A key difference between PCBs and printed materials lies in their basic development process. Standard printing is an additive process where the ink is used only where ink needs to be placed, thus minimizing the use of ink. PCBs on the other hand are typically fabricated in a more complex manner.

On the other hand printed materials have no particular function apart from the requirement of creating an image based on the pattern that is formed. This image may be text or some graphics. Multiple pigmented inks can be used to provide color information to the viewer. They are typically not required to perform functions.

First a sheet of copper is bonded to a rigid material like fiberglass. Then the sheet is coated with a layer of photo sensitive material called etch-resist. This is then exposed to a light with a mask which allows selective regions to remain unexposed. Then the treated sheets are etched by immersion in an acid bath. The acid penetrates into the unexposed etch resist and removes the copper. The copper that remains form the traces on the PCB. This process is repeated for multiple layers of the PCB and these layers are bonded together. Holes are then drilled into PCB called vias which allow for connections between various layers. As we start from a complete sheet of copper, this technique is a subtractive process and is wasteful of chemicals and copper. Furthermore the process is

Figure 1: Resistance is important for functional inks and any defects are significant whereas regular printing is more forgiving

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quite complicated requiring many specialized steps. Another key difference is that typically PCBs are based on rigid materials to allow for components to be easily added. Printed material on the other hand enables the use of many different lower cost substrates like paper and plastics. A lot more options are available for printing, for example; ink jet printing, silk-screening or gravure printing. These are relatively simple processes requiring deposition of ink and drying.

Figure2: Comparison of Standard Printed Circuit Manufacture and Photonic Sintering

In most printing applications repeatability and accuracy is not critical. These defects are typically tolerable and at worst they may produce scrap prints. PCBs on the other hand are a lot less tolerant to defects. These defects can cause short circuits or open circuits and produce non-functioning equipment. Precision in PCB manufacturing is vital for defining the


TECHNOLOGY feature size (the minimum width of the traces and gaps between adjacent traces). A rigid substrate offers a clearer definition of these tolerances. As electronic systems become more prevalent and in some cases disposable, the desire to find low cost alternatives to current PCB manufacture has increased. Furthermore, as these systems find inroads into everyday products, requirements such as being foldable or flexible become a significant value for the product. As an example, RFID tags are used as electronic systems that can be applied to track or monitor goods for a short time after which they may be discarded. For these requirements, the use of large scale rollto-roll printing processes is a very attractive alternative and is often referred to as Printed Electronics (PE). Sintering Conductive Inks One of the key hurdles of using the standard printing process for PE is the deposition of conductive traces on a flexible substrate like paper or plastic. The main reason is that these traces need to have a low resistance value to be efficient. In the case of PCBs these are solid sheets of metal and so typically have very low resistance. In the case of PE they need to start in the form of a liquid ink that can be easily deposited on the substrate by the printing process and then converted to a solid uniform layer of conductive material. This requires the ink be sintered to go from its powdered form in the ink to a solid conductive trace. Additionally the liquid carrier medium has to be removed. A conventional sintering process requires heat above 150竅ーC and therefore does not lend itself to printed electronics because of the resultant damage to the substrate the ink is deposited on. Metals have a higher melting point than the flexible substrate and so it would seem that it would be impossible to achieve sintering without subsequent damage to the substrate.

One common type of conductive ink is silver flakes. These are microscopic flakes that are suspended in an emulsion. Once the ink is deposited on the substrate the emulsion is evaporated away to leave the flakes thus forming a conductive layer. The flakes are not bonded together and conduction occurs from contact between the flakes. Typically silver flakes are used because metals tend to oxidize and both silver and silver oxide is conductive so oxidation is less of an issue. Removal of the emulsion can be achieved either as a low temperature oven over time or by use of high energy pulsed light. Nanoparticle Conductive Inks More interesting is the use of nanotechnology for the formulation of inks. Nanotechnology is based on particles whose size is in the region of 1 to 100 nanometers. The basic properties of the nano-scale material changes. All materials have basic physical and chemical properties; these include melting point, color and reactive characteristics which are traditionally considered independent of volume. As an example the melting point of one kilogram copper is the same as the melting point of one ounce of copper. The color of gold is the same if it was seen through a microscope as when observed on the roof of a building. However, when materials are converted to nanoparticles these characteristics start to change. The first important change is the change in their melting point. This is termed melting point depression, and is a phenomenon that occurs when the surface area to volume ratio is increased as the particles becomes smaller. In metals, the attractive forces of the core of the clusters are too weak to keep the surface atoms from being mobile and so the melting point starts to drop significantly as the particle size is made smaller.

Figure 3: Melting point depression for Gold based on particle size

Where:

TMB=Bulk

Melting

temperature

マピl=solid liquid interface energy Hf=Bulk heat of fusion マ《=density of solid d=particle diameter

Because of the low temperature melting point of nano materials, low emperature ovens that do not damage the substrate can be used to sinter the nanoparticle into a homogenous conductive layer on the substrate. However, typically for these conductive inks the time required for sintering can be in the order of tens of minutes and therefore this technique is not preferred in high speed roll-to-roll applications. Another important change is the way that these nano-particles interact with light. Light has wavelength and frequency, and for visible light the wavelength is in the range of 400 to 650 nm. When particle sizes become smaller than the wavelength of light, the electromagnetic field of light can modulate the electrons of the atom. This changes the absorption characteristics of the material. This absorption characteristic is related to particle size. The energy absorbed from light is sufficient to cause increased mobility of the atoms and can cause sintering. The combination of melting point depression and absorption characteristics changes mean that ink composed of these nanoparticles can be sintered at a low temperature with light. Once the material GRAVURE/Spring 2011

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TECHNOLOGY has been sintered with light the nanoparticles form large metallic structures and lose their nanoparticle properties. Using nanotechnology, conductive traces can be deposited and then formed on the substrate in a simple two step process that is very similar to a standard printing process. One advantage of using high energy pulsed light is that the sintering process can take fractions of a second to completely sinter the material and this process lends itself to roll-to-roll application.

Figure 4: Absorbance characteristic change for Gold based on particle size

Silver and Copper Nanoparticle Inks A number of nanoparticle conductive inks exist but the two main categories are silver nano-inks and copper nano-inks. Although they seem similar, there are some significant differences between the two inks. As mentioned earlier the oxide of silver is conductive. However, copper oxide is non conductive and copper oxidizes more readily. For this reason, copper nanoparticles require some form of coating to prevent them from oxidizing. These coatings can be a protective polymeric or metallic shell which must be removed during the sintering process. Additionally agents can be applied to the emulsion to reduce copper oxide to copper. Though it is currently harder to manufacture suitable copper inks for sintering, the benefit of lower resistivity and lower cost of raw materials make it a viable alternative for PE. 24

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Figure 5: Graph showing how multiple pulses reduces resistance with silver nanoparticles

Another important difference between silver and copper is how they sinter with pulsed light. Though not all silver nanoinks are the same, typically, they do lend themselves to multiple flashes that bring the resistivity down. They also have a large operational window which means that there is a large range of pulse energies that can be applied without evaporation of the metal inks and still positively impact resistance. This reduces issues related to stitching as multiple pulses are required over the boundary between sintered areas as the roll passes under the flash lamp source.

Photonic sintering uses light to sinter material. Again not all copper inks are the same, and in some cases it is found that the operational window between when sintering takes place and when the material is destroyed is small. This means a tighter control of the optical energies is required and boundary conditions where stitching takes place can be a potential problem. Careful use of masking techniques and control of optical energies can generally mitigate these problems.

Figure 6: Copper nanoparticle on Kapton with different intensity of light showing regions that are unsintered, partially sintered, sintered and evaporated.

Photonic sintering uses light to sinter material. By using high energy flash lamps, high peak power pulses can be generated. They are capable of delivering significantly greater peak energies compared to continuous sources like mercury, fluorescent or halogen lamps by storing energy over time and delivering it as a short duration high intensity pulse. Xenon arc lamps generate light by using high voltage to breakdown the inert gas within the lamp envelope creating a conductive discharge path where the flash exists. These lamps are broadband incoherent sources with spectra ranging from the deep UV to the Infrared. Use of flash lamps includes sources for lasers, beacons, UV Curing, solar simulators and sterilization. Because typical flash lamp use is with a very short on-time compared with offtime, they are very effective at delivering high peak photonic power without significantly increasing the surface temperature of the object being illuminated. Typical on-times can be in the order of a few microseconds to milliseconds with duty cycle ranging from tens of hertz to a few hertz. In these very short durations, peak powers of a few Mega Watts can be generated. By adjusting the voltage and the current delivery through the lamp, they can be tailored for specific application


E CH HN NO OLLO OG GYY TTEC delivering repeatable and uniform intensities over a broad spectrum. These are ideal characteristics for sintering applications. High peak power means that there is a greater penetration depth and also sufficient energy for useful work particularly in the case for sintering. By delivering this energy over a short time means that substrate temperature rise can be very small in the range of a few degrees.

Figure 7: Spectra of Xenon Flash Lamp and image below shows how high energy can be delivered using short pulses

Lamp Construction Xenon Flash Lamps are manufactured with a low pressure xenon gas inside a transparent envelope. There are two electrodes typically made of different materials; the cathode is typically barium doped and designed to have a low work function for the generation of electrons whereas the anode is usually made of tungsten to sustain the bombardment of electrons during a flash. These lamps do have a polarity and improper connection of the lamp can cause lamp damage and early lamp failure. During normal use the electrodes are damaged, metal particles get deposited on the glass and other aging effects take place with the result the intensity falls off. This gradual fall off in intensity

defines the lamp life time and is usually reported in millions of pulses at typical use and is approximately the number of pulses for the lamp to remain within 20% of the initial intensity. This value would change based on the energy of the pulse and cooling. If the lamps are driven with lower energy, the lifetime of the lamp can be significantly increased. The lamp envelope defines the physical lamp profile. The material used for the envelope can define the output spectra from the lamp. If deep UV is required, Clear Fuse Quartz (CFQ) is used, but high energy flashes from this source can generate significant amounts of ozone which may not be desired. Alternates include Germisil which blocks UVC and therefore does not generate ozone. The envelope thickness, bore diameter, length and gas pressure are important parameters in defining the optical power that can be safely generated by the lamp. A theoretical limit called the explosion energy for the lamp is a function of some of these parameters and is the energy that can catastrophically destroy the lamp. Typical operation of the lamp is set at 10% of this explosion energy.

Figure 9: High Voltage Flash lamp circuit

As mentioned earlier lamp cooling is a very significant component of the optical system and sets the operational limits of the lamp and affects lamp life. Air cooled lamps use forced air for cooling, which offers the simplest solution for most applications. Water cooled Flash lamps also exist. They have the advantage of offering higher power solutions, but they tend to be more costly and complex. Maintenance of a water cooled system is also more complicated to mitigate risks associated with the close proximity of water and high voltage.

Figure 10: Transmission characteristics of different envelope types

Figure 8: Xenon Flash Lamp

Electronics to drive flash lamps can be quite simple comprising of a high voltage supply, a storage capacitor, a pulse forming inductor and a trigger circuit. However, due to the high power requirements of the system special design requirements need to be met in terms of safety, noise immunity and power management.

For roll-to-roll systems, simplicity is the key to successful deployment of the process. The solution offered by photonic sintering from this perspective looks very attractive. First we have an ink deposition phase which lends itself to standard printing processes. Then an ink drying phase—which is also standard—can take place. The only additional step is the photonic sintering phase which can be as easy as a retro fit of a Xenon flash lamp over the web. There are no additional process requirements like pressure, special gas or GRAVURE/Spring 2011

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TECHNOLOGY chemicals. Dwell time in the photonics sintering is not an issue as the reaction is instantaneous as opposed to thermal sintering which can take minutes. What does need to be considered however is the pulse rate, to control the overlap of the photosintered regions avoiding overexposure or banding if there is a gap between the two adjacent regions.

Figure 11: A Roll to roll sintering system with sensor to control intensity

Impact of Japan’s tsunami on print manufacturing By Sachin Shardul While the tragic impact of the Japanese earthquake and tsunami continues to dominate the headlines, commentators are already discussing the potential economic repercussions of the disaster in Japan and beyond. Key elements of Japanese manufacturing and transport infrastructure have been temporarily halted as the nation tackles widespread devastation and tries to avert a potential nuclear disaster at one of its reactor facilities. The damage to the country’s infrastructure has also threatened to disrupt manufacturing production in the country, with companies including print kit manufacturers hit by the events. BS Kampani, president and managing director at Toyo Ink India, who was in Tokyo at the time the earthquake struck, said: “The Toyo plants are safe. Just that the power supply is a bit staggered, which may result in delay or disruption in production. Even though the raw material for production of Toyo ink in India comes from Japan, the company in India is well buffered for inventory.” Mimaki HQ has confirmed the safety of its colleagues and their families as well as the factories and offices around Japan including Sendai sales office in the Tohoku area. Padmakar Ojale, country general manager at Fujifilm India, said: “The Fujifilm manufacturing plant and warehouse is safe. There has been no damage reported due to the earthquake. We don’t expect any problem in the supplies to India.” Komori has two factories in Japan, and they have suffered minor damage, but this is nothing serious considering the magnitude of what we are seeing being reported. Normal operations are intended to start again next week. Ajay Agarwal, director of Insight Communications who are the Indian distributors for Komori, said: “Komori has two factories in Japan and all the employees are safe. The factories are earthquake resistant hence there was no damage. Operation of the firm has already started and is running smooth. The segment that has suffered is the logistics both inland and overseas, but this should be under control by next week.” B S Satish director of sales at Indo European Machinery which represents Ryobi in India, said: “Ryobi has two facilities in Japan. The factory near Hiroshima wasn’t affected and the damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami is limited in Tokyo. The firm and the related companies along with their families are safe.” Karthik Iyer, director at Proteck Machinery which represents Mitsubishi and Screen in India, said: “All employees and relatives in Screen’s Kanto East facility are safe. Also all production procurement is under control and currently there is no impact on future shipments.” An official press release from Epson said no employee casualties had been reported, but he added that the company had been affected. He said: “At present, it is unclear as to the exact effect that these events will have on Epson’s operations, but every effort is being made to ensure that it is minimised.” Nippon Paper Group said in a statement its Ishinomaki mill operation had stopped, along with its Iwanuma mill, its Akita mill and its Nakoso mill. A few machines were also stopped at its Fuji mill. (Reprinted from Print News)

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Another consideration in photonic sintering in a roll-to-roll application is the monitoring of the process to ensure that the desired functional characteristics of the process are being met. If for example, regions are not sintered due to banding, then these regions can create non-conductive traces and non functional circuits. This can be achieved by rolling resistivity measuring devices and markers that can be used to control the process flow. Dynamic monitoring can quickly identify faults and stop the process from generating wasted material if desired. The flexibility of the technology can be illustrated by considering the range of different materials and substrates that have been successfully processed with low temperature photonic sintering. The successful adoption of photonic sintering depends on a structured development plan. First, the formulators of conductive inks require low cost tools for evaluation and testing of their formulations. The print process manufacturer needs tools for small scale testing of the process and the process manufacturer needs to have confidence that this technology will be robust enough for a wide range of current applications and that a suitable solution is available that can be tailored to their own process requirements. This synergy needs to be established without individual groups feeling that their proprietary contributions are being compromised. What ultimately will drive this technology are Figure 12: lower costs. Photonic Xenon Electronic tool sintering using Xenon for evaluating flash lamps realizes these Photonic Sintering challenges adequately. Dr. Saad Ahmed is Engineering Manager at Xenon Corporation.


D RY I N G T E C H N O L O G Y

Innovative Drying Technology

Can Improve Productivity

By Gene Plavnik

I

n today’s mercurial economy, it is increasingly difficult for any printer/converter to remain profitable. Pressures come from multiple sources: the fluctuating cost of utilities, the rising costs of raw materials and the continuous demand for better utilization of ecologically friendly resources from consumers and vendors. Therefore, it is important for the printers/converters of flexible materials—whether décor paper or aluminized film to keep abreas of available and innovative technologies, which can help them satisfy their customers while conducting a successful and profitable business.

Figure 1. Front View of booster section for 63” wide press (exhaust shroud removed)

The choice of press operation is driven by the demand for quality and the specific end use of the printed material. That translates into using solvent or water-based inks, which require some method of drying versus using ultraviolet or electron beam inks, which are cured using mercury lamps or an electron beam. Each ink technology has its own associated maintenance costs and environmental compliance requirements (including Regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO)/incinerator

for solvent-based inks—which have become even more complex as the world moves towards the use of “greener” materials. Comparing the Alternatives The utilization of water-based inks in general does not require RTO, and thus costs are lower than the operational cost of solvent-based printing equipment. Continuous improvements in the quality of water-based inks are noticeable, and they have broad-

ened its applications. However, to have successful transfer from one type of ink to another, one needs to have efficient drying technology at his disposal. It is well known, that drying water-based (or sometimes even solvent-based) ink is a challenge because of the increased residence time, when a heavy load of inks or coatings is applied. This really translates into slowing the web speed of a press to accommodate the drying. The reason for more residence (drying) time is the formation of a boundary layer on the material during the printing process. What is a boundary layer? Imagine for a minute, a large lake. In the summer, the sun comes up and begins evaporating moisture off the lake. After a few hours, a sunny day turns into a cloudy day because as the moisture rises from the lake, clouds are formed. These clouds then act as a barrier. So later in the day the sun is above the clouds delivering the same amount of energy but less of the sun hits the lake directly so less moisture is removed. Similarly, the boundary layer forms on the surface of the material as it moves through the production process and acts like a shield against hot air coming from the drying station. This invisGRAVURE/Spring 2011

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D RY I N G T E C H N O L O G Y ible shield does not allow air to penetrate the surface of the ink and start the evaporation process. Increasing heat and air increases the amount of moisture that is evaporated but at a lower efficiency until the process flat lines. OEMs of printing equipment used increased volume of air, increased temperature, even angle of attack, to tackle this problem, but it had rather limited effect. Using Sound Technology for Drying So how can sound technology benefit drying? First some background. Think of sound that you experience at a loud rock concert—sound that you feel as you walk closer and closer to a large speaker that is filling the concert hall with someone’s definition of music. That feeling is in fact a pressure wave brought about by the movement of air created by the speaker. Now, certainly, no manufacturing operation is looking to increase the amount of noise. However, that sound power can be harnessed in a very careful way, so it is harmless to human hearing and is safe in the workplace. In addition, you might notice that the pressure as you approach that speaker wasn’t constant. Rather, it fluctuated or varied. The oscillation of pressure is another important thing to consider. Think of things where pressure is not constant—a Jack hammer, hammer drill and impact wrench, for example. These devices make it possible to achieve a result that the same amount of constant pressure couldn’t achieve. It is the same with drying, the oscillation of ultrasound adds to the effect. Heat and air are more efficient at removing moisture in the presence of sound because the oscillating pressure wave affects the boundary layer. Some background The sound technology developed by 28

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Heat Technologies, Inc. had its beginnings with pulse combustion that accelerates heat and mass transfer by appropriate utilization of acoustic oscillations with mean flow of the combustion gases. This was successfully applied in water heating, boilers, drying of minerals, sand, sludge, and so on. However, the company’s original technology cannot be applied in flexible packaging, converting and coating because of oscillating flame directly impinging on the material. The reason is simple—it is a fire hazard. Figure 3. Control Panel, Blower on a movable cart with dryer section in background on right.

Figure 2. Side view of 63” booster section and exhaust shroud (top portion).

Driven by actual demand for accelerated drying of water and solvent based inks and adhesives, the company expanded its knowledge of combining hot air flow with strong acoustic oscillations and developed a product line of drying systems, Spectra HE ™ Ultra, for that specific application. The drying system is an advanced convective or hot-air based system. However, in this case, the hot air acts like a skilled massager, by providing the boundary layer formed on the material with micro massage to make it more pliable and as a result, it makes drying more efficient. These systems are energy independent, it can use hot air derived from indirect or direct heating process, as well


D RY I N G T E C H N O L O G Y as pre-heat the air by an in-line electric heater. Most important and a key element of accelerated drying is its ability to efficiently disrupt the boundary layer, formed on the material during the printing process, and thus, allow the process to be conducted with a lower operating temperature of the hot air at advanced web speeds. Sound Technology Benefits The benefits of the technology are not marginal (meaning 5 to10%). Rather, they are considerable, as follows: • Up to a 70% Increase in web speed —less residence time under the drying station means the press can operate at higher speeds. • Up to a 75% reduction in energy consumption • The same or lower process air temperature— even with increased speed, the process air temperature will be the same or less than your current operation. • Up to 50% less plant air for water-based applications. This means additional energy savings because plant air conditioning costs can be high. (Solvent-based solutions are limited by LFL considerations.)

• Up to a 67% smaller footprint—generally, the length of the new drying system will be significantly less than the current system. One converter found that this enabled placing inspection equipment closer to the print web and realized reduced waste due to fewer defects. The technology has application for both narrow and wide web operations as a replacement to existing between-colors drying sections (usually with heavy ink load or adhesive loads), or as a booster section, where physical space allowed an installation. In both situations, throughput increased from 50 to 85% with 17-20% of added energy. Accelerated speeds were registered on shrink film, thermally sensitive papers, with utilization of ecofriendly inks. It is important to note that other factors besides press speed must be taken into consideration. Improved drying is possible, but in most cases it was maxed out by limiting factors of maximum speed, wind and unwind, sufficient ink laying, etc. The Spectra HE Ultra drying systems can be adapted by any press, that utilizes water or solvent based inks or adhesives, where replacement of the drying section is possible, or be added as an extended range, and of course, where drying, coating, etc is a bottle neck.

Table 1. Summary of the major operating parameters when Spectra HE Ultra replaced original drying technology for wide web. Web Width Inch(m)

Dry % of Weight solids

Application

Type of Installation

Existing Technology

Spectra HE Ultra

lb/ream % (g/m2)

Adhesive, ink

Replacement, Max Speed, Energy b/c, add-on ft/min (m/ Used min) MMBtu/ hr (kW)

Max Speed, ft/min (m/ min

Energy Used MMBtu/hr (kW)

52 (1.32) 1.27 (2) 30

Water based adhesive Water based adhesive

Add-on

700 (217)

(145)

1350 (418)

(20)

Add-on

700 (217)

(200)

1400 (434)

(50)

71 (1.27) 1.27 (2) 30

It is important to note that the systems are very compact and they may be of assistance to the operators whose foot print could be improved. Additional savings may apply to the reduction of material cost, due to more compact dryer, cost of labor to produce more material, less capital expenditures, etc. It is important also to note, that maintenance managers become our best advocates, because out dryers are of advanced design, but low in maintenance, which is subtle, but noticeable contributor to the operational cost.

Conclusions: The innovative Spectra HE Ultra Drying systems can help printers increase their profit margins and meet production goals by improving drying as a bottle neck for increased speed operation of a rotogravure or flexo press due to the advanced nature of the design combined with low maintenance and high efficiency. Gene Plavnik is President of Heat Technologies Inc. (HTI). GRAVURE/Spring 2011

29


GAA 2011 Printed Electronics And Intelligent Packaging Symposium

May 17-19 , 2011 Clemson University Clemson, SC


GAA 2011 Printed Electronics and Intelligent Packaging Symposium May 17-19, 2011 Sonoco Institute of Design at Clemson University, Clemson, SC Gravure printed electronic packaging, point-of purchase, lighting and display products are a business opportunity TODAY… and it is projected that printed electronics applications will become a $300 billion market within 20 years. If you think market opportunities for printed electronics have been over-hyped or that they are not for you, take a few minutes to read what will be discussed and demonstrated at the GAA 2011 Printed Electronics and Intelligent Packaging Symposium at the Sonoco Institute of Design, Clemson University, May 17-19, 2011. In addition to technology tutorials and hands on sessions in Clemson’s printed electronics labs, this Symposium will bring together retail brand leaders, major consumer packaged goods companies and automotive products companies as well as leaders from the electronics industry, the printing industry and Clemson University research centers to present best practice case studies and address the confluence of two critically important industries, printing and electronics. Topics to be addressed include:

• Key materials, technologies and production methods for printed electronics • A hands-on session in a printed electronics pressroom • Toxicology and lifecycle environmental aspects and impacts of printed electronics materials • High value-applications and high-growth markets for printed electronics • Knowledge competencies and best practices required for success in printed electronics • Pharmaceutical, consumer packaged goods and automotive brand leaders sharing case studies and discussing the business case for high-value printed electronics applications in packaging, point of purchase and signage • Open Innovation and Printed Electronics: What Directors of Innovation, R&D and Sustainability from leading brands are seeking and investing in

In addition, we have an impressive list of speakers waiting to educate you in their fields of manufacturing, technology, consumer packaging, printing and retail as well as research. This is also a great networking experience.

For more information, contact Bill Martin via email, bmartin@gaa.org or Don Carli, Symposium Chair, at dcarli@sustaincom.org. Look forward to seeing you there.


PRINTED ELECTRONICS

Printed Electronics, Intelligent Packaging and the “Internet of Things.” By Don Carli

“I

n a few decades time, computers will be interwoven into almost every industrial product.” Karl Steinbuch, German computer science pioneer, 1966

Over the next 5-10 years printed electronics will present the printing and the electronics industries with multiple multi-billion dollar opportunities to address essential unmet needs related to healthcare, security, logistics, food safety, communication and sustainability. For example, there has never been a greater need to develop new ways to support the sustainable distribution and use of pharmaceuticals or consumer packaged goods. The world’s population is on a steady track to top 9 billion people by 2050, and as it grows, the nature and functions of packaging will need to expand and change dramatically. Smart/Interactive Packaging Printed electronics has the potential to provide packaging that is able to sense and respond to its environment, its contents and cloud computing resources to remind a patient when to take a medication, to indicate that a product is authentic or if a product has spoiled or is contaminated. In addition to being able to add inexpensive touch sensors to packaging the same technologies could be used to integrate brilliantly colored displays and sensors to the curved surfaces of an automotive interior, the interior of a handbag… or the surface of a cereal box. Example of smart packaging for pharmaceuticals. Source: http://www.cypak.com

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PRINTED ELECTRONICS At the 2011 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas one of the more popular attractions was a demonstration of printed electronics on the surface of cereal boxes powered wirelessly by inductive coupling technology from a subsidiary of Amway called Fulton Innovations.

BREE: Handbag with printed electronic interior lightsource. Source: BREE http://inventors.about.com/library/ media/lighted_handbag_288k.wmv

BMW, which has a major manufacturing facility located near Clemson University in South Carolina is introducing a new, alternative drive control system consisting of a free-form display embedded in a flat screen called “Vision ConnectedDrive.”

BMW Vision ConnectedDrive concept: the car as a fully integrated part of the networked world. Source: http:// www.gizmag.com/bmw-visionconnecteddrive-concept/17849/ picture/130121/

According to Robert Isele, Manager for Driver Information Concepts and Display Technologies for the BMW Group “Display and illumination, realized as freeform design is the core application of flexible plastic electronics. Flexible displays and sensors can easily functionalize the complicated geometries imposed by car designers. Plastic electronics introduces a significantly higher degree of freedom in system layout and space-saving integration. Not just in premium cars, but especially in smaller model series.”

edge competencies and best practices required to successfully develop innovative high-value applications for printed electronics in high-growth markets such as pharmaceutical packaging, consumer packaged goods, signage and illumination. In addition to presentations by leading material scientists, printed electronics researchers and best practice panel discussions with packaging professionals. Key topics to be addressed at the upcoming GAA Printed Electronics and Intelligent Packaging Symposium include:

Printed electronics on the surface of cereal boxes demonstrates it potential for the future. Source: Fulton Innovations, http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=BOwgtERQ00A&feature=pla yer_detailpage

To create solutions that are economically, environmentally and socially beneficial will require new approaches to innovation and new levels of collaboration among and between government, industry and academia. It will also require new approaches to communication and knowledge sharing between and among business strategists, product developers, packaging designers, sustainability professionals and professionals in the fields of electronics, electrical engineering material science engineering, printing chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, programming, computer science and design. Guttenberg Meets The Electron: Packaging Connects to the Cloud To help innovative packaging, printing and product development professionals put the technologies and possibilities in perspective, GAA will be holding a multi-stakeholder, multi-disciplinary symposium on Printed Electronics and Intelligent Packaging at Clemson University’s Sonoco Institute from May 17th to May19th, 2011. The symposium will explore the trends, technologies, knowl-

• Key materials, technologies and production methods for printed electronics • Toxicology and lifecycle environmental aspects and impacts of printed electronics materials • High value-applications and highgrowth markets for printed electronics • Knowledge competencies and best practices required for success in printed electronics • Pharmaceutical, CPG and automotive brand leaders sharing case studies and discussing the business case for high-value printed electronics applications in packaging, point of purchase and signage • What Directors of Innovation, R&D and Sustainability from leading brands are seeking and investing in. Printed electronics is a mash-up of old and new technologies based on the marriage of gravure, inkjet and screenprinting techniques with new “functional inks” and semi-conducting polymer materials that holds tremendous promise. However it would be wrong to assume that the production of printed electronics is the same as the production of a typical folding package. According to Dan Gamota, cofounder and president of the Printovate Technologies “A printed electronics operator is like a mechanic who knows how to work on a Ferrari, while a tradiGRAVURE/Spring 2011

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PRINTED ELECTRONICS

tional printer knows how to fix a Ford.” The nascent printed electronics industry is poised to change the meaning of what printing means and to enable the design of electronic devices and systems that would be impossible to create using silicon semiconductor technologies. Welcome to the printed electronic evolution. Over the past twenty years the silicon chip business grew from nothing to more that $200 billion in annual revenues. Some analysts project that revenues associated with printed-electronics will grow to more than $50 billion over the next ten years and that new low-cost applications in packaging, lighting, photovoltaics, batteries, sensors, RFID tags, smart cards, flexible circuitry and displays could fuel the growth of the printed electronics industry to a $300 billion market within 20 years. However, achieving such growth will require new skills and knowledge competencies as well as new tools for process control and quality assurance that neither the printing industry nor the electronics industry have a monopoly on today. More complex printed electronic logic circuitry may eventually replace ”peripheral” silicon chips in devices like displays, but in the near term printed electronics are not expected to replace the capabilities of silicon semiconductor technology. For the foreseeable future printed electronic circuits are likely to be larger and slower than their silicon counterparts, but they will be more flexible, capable of being large scale, as well as being far less expensive to produce and integrate into packaging. As a result, polymerbased printed electronics are likely to complement silicon-based electronics by making billions of everyday objects that are readable, recognizable, locatable, addressable, and/or controllable via the Internet an affordable reality in our lifetimes.

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Figure 1. Technology road: The Internet of Things.

Source: SRI Consulting Business Intelligence

Ubiquitous Computing and “The Internet of Things” An “Internet of Things” that makes computing truly ubiquitous was a concept initially put forward by Mark Weiser in the early 1990s and later popularized by the work of the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. According to Georgetown University Communication, Culture & Technology professor Michael Nelson, the former director of Internet Technology at IBM “Trying to determine the market size of the Internet of Things is like trying to calculate the market for plastics, circa 1940. At that time, it was difficult to imagine that plastics could be in everything . If you look at information processing in the same way, you begin to see the vast range of objects into which logic, processors, or actuators could be embedded.” Nelson expects that 100 billion devices will be connected to the net within the next 10 years. Author Bruce Sterling refers to these Internet connected things “spimes” because they’re tractable in space and time.

The nascent printed electronics industry is poised to change the meaning of what printing means and to enable the design of electronic devices and systems that would be impossible to create using silicon semiconductor technologies. According to a report by the US National Intelligence Council titled “Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World” the Internet of Things and ubiquitous computing are game changing technologies “that could radically accelerate a range of enhanced efficiencies, leading to integration of closed societies into the information age and security monitoring of almost all places. Supply chains would also be streamlined with savings in costs and efficiencies that would reduce dependence upon human labor.”


PRINTED ELECTRONICS

The report goes on to state that companies in the US as well as those in China, India, and other major developing countries have unique opportunities to develop the technologies and reap the advantages of early and significant adoption. In addition to their game-changing potential in packaging and illuminations, in their recent report titled “Sorting Hype from Reality in Printed, Organic and Flexible Display Technologies” the consulting firm Lux Research finds that “printed, organic, and flexible electronics technologies have the potential to disrupt the display industry, radically changing manufacturing processes and cost, while enabling new device concepts.” However, they maintain that many technologies in this area have been over-hyped, and it’s a challenge to spot and assess the real potential. The report states that “as flexible technologies come closer to practicality, it is likely only a matter of time before some clever designer finds a use that will capture the imagination of consumers and drive tremendous growth and innovation in the display value chain. Just as LCDs elbowed aside CRTs, which earlier displaced projectors, new display technologies are sure to make their presence felt in ways unpredictable today. For that reason it is more important than ever to make smart bets on the right technologies, and have reasonable expectations about their time to market and the impact they’ll have when they arrive.” With so much at stake and so many opportunities on the horizon there is every reason for business, government, academic and nonprofit organizations in the US to develop the knowledge competencies required to achieve a leadership position in the market for printed electronics and develop a sustainable strategy for addressing the advent of ubiquitous computing and The Internet of Things. If you have

not started, an effective way to begin will be to save the date and plan to attend GAA Printed Electronics and Intelligent Packaging Conference at the Clemson University Sonoco Institute on the May17-19, 2011. In the meantime I look

forward to your questions and comments.

Don Carli is a Senior Research Fellow at The Institute for Sustainable Communication.

2011 GAA Calendar of Events Spring 13-14

GAA Golden Cylinder Judging Strathallan Hotel Rochester, New York

May 15-16

GAA/GEF Spring Board Meetings The Inn & Conference Center at Clemson Clemson, SC

May 17-19

GAA Printed Electronics Seminar Clemson University Clemson, SC

June 15-17

GAA Environmental Workshop Hilton Washington Embasy Row Washington, DC

October

GAA Advanced Pressroom Seminar GAA Basic Gravure Seminar WMU Kalamazoo, MI

September 11-12 September 13

GAA/GEF Fall Board Meetings Persons of the Year Awards Luncheon TBD Chicago, IL

September 14-16

GAA Packaging & Products Technology Conference Golden Cylinder Awards Luncheon for Pkg & Product Oakbrook Marriott Hotel Chicago, IL

September 14 Categories

November 15-18 Categories

Gravure Publishing Council Conference (GPC) Golden Cylinder Awards Luncheon for Publication The Naples Beach Hotel and Golf Club Naples, FL GRAVURE/Spring 2011

35


PERSON OF THE YEAR

GAA 2011 Person of the Year Awards

Each year GAA and GEF present the Person of the Year Awards to two individuals at a fundraising luncheon that benefits GEF’s educational efforts. This year that luncheon will be in Chicago on September 13. This year’s awards go to Thomas Quinlan and Thomas Hammond who will be presented with commemorative plaques.

Thomas Quinlan

R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company Thomas Quinlan is the President and Chief Executive Officer of Chicagobased R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company, the largest provider of printing and print-related business services in the world, with more than 55,000 employees, annual revenues of nearly $10 billion, and more than 600 locations around the globe. Mr. Quinlan, 48, joined RR Donnelley in February, 2004, and in 2006 became Group President, Global Services (comprising approximately 40% of RR Donnelley’s revenues), and Chief Financial Officer. From 2004 to 2006, he served RR Donnelley as Executive Vice President, Operations, with primary responsibility for the integration of RR Donnelley and Moore Wallace. Previously, at Moore Wallace from 2000 to 2004, Mr. Quinlan served variously as Executive Vice President, Operations, Executive Vice President, Business Integration, Executive Vice President, Office of the Chief Executive and Treasurer. At Moore Wallace, he had primary responsibility for the integration of Moore Corporation Limited and Wallace Computer Services. He also had responsibility from time to time for all of Moore Wallace’s sales and manufacturing

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GRAVURE/Spring 2011

functions, and for all corporate staff functions, including, among others, human resources, information technology, benefits, legal, treasury, tax and credit and collections. From 1994 until 1999, at World Color Press, Inc., Mr. Quinlan served in various finance capacities, including as Senior Vice President and Treasurer. He has previous finance and treasury experience at Walter Industries, Marsh & McLennan and Kidder Peabody. Mr. Quinlan holds an MBA in finance from St. John’s University, which recognized him with its Outstanding Alumni Achievement Medal in 2010, and a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration from Pace University, which conferred upon him an honorary doctorate in Commercial Science and presented him with its 46th Leaders in Management Award in 2009. In 2011 he received American Jewish Committee’s National Human Relations Award.   Mr. Quinlan is a member of Business Roundtable. He is active in supporting organizations that focus on literacy, health and development and serves as a Director and a member of the Executive Committee for the National Merit Scholarship Corporation and on the Board of Trustees for Pace University. 


GAA 2011 Person of the Year Awards

Thomas L. Hammond

Southern Graphic Systems, Inc. Thomas L. Hammond (Tom) joined Southern Gravure (now Southern Graphic Systems, Inc.) in September of 1967 as Chief Engineer with responsibility for Engineering, capital allocation and some operations. Prior to that Tom held positions ranging from Industrial Engineer to Plant Superintendent with Colgate Palmolive.

Tom was named CEO of Southern Graphic Systems, Inc. in 2000 and retired from the company in 2002. He currently serves on the Boards of Southern Graphic Systems International and SCORE Chapter 522. He is also on the Louisville Cathedral of The Assumption Parish Life Committee and does other volunteer work.

Tom gained more responsibilities at Southern Gravure and became Vice President in 1976 with full responsibility for two operating divisions, Engineering, Accounting and Human Resources.

Tom’s leadership as President/CEO, provided the foundation for the transformation of SGS from a Gravure packaging cylinder engraver to one of the world’s leading pre-media companies. The principles and values Tom instilled at SGS are rooted in today’s culture and provides the ideology through which management continues to direct the daily activities of the company. During Tom’s tenure, the organization’s culture evolved from a internal focus to an external customer focus. SGS’s number one value today is “Obsessive Focus on the Client!”

In 1978, Tom was elected President of Southern Gravure and became a member of the Board of Directors. He also served on the Gravure Association of America (GAA) and Gravure Eductaion Foundation (GEF) Boards. During the 1980’s and 1990’s, Tom led a technology revolution within Southern Gravure Systems. The company changed from a film based, acid etched image carrier to a computer generated, electronically engraved cylinder. This significantly reduced the variation in the process and was accompanied by a “Value Proposition” that focused on continuous quality improvement, speed to market and lower cost.

He is married to the former Barbara Augustyn. Between them they have 7 children and 8 grandchildren. Tom holds a Mechanical Engineering degree from Purdue University and a Law Degree from the University of Louisville.

GRAVURE/Spring 2011

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E N V I R O N M E N TA L

How Green Is Your Paper? Being confident the paper you buy is environmentally sustainable

By Donna Atkinson

I

n this era of increasing electronic communications, it’s easy to overlook the fact that paper is still an important part of our daily lives and how we communicate at home and for business. As a product made from trees—a renewable resource—paper can play an important role in making your communications more environmentally friendly. And while many people think about recycled content when they want to go green, that’s only a small part of the sustainability equation. To be environmentally responsible, you need to buy paper from a source that is committed to using recycled content, practicing sustainable forest management, actively managing environmental impacts, and monitoring products throughout their entire lifecycle. As you will see, the profile of environmentally sustainable paper has become a lot greener over the past four decades. 38

GRAVURE/Spring 2011

Recycling is only the beginning Recycling has been in the public eye since the 1970’s, and for many people recycled content in paper products is the most important indicator that a product is environmentally friendly. For certain products that’s still true. In fact, every ton of recyclable paper removed from the waste stream extends the life of landfills, saves electricity, reduces water and air pollutants, and maximizes the use of the trees harvested to make new paper. Recycling is one way everyone can contribute to helping the environment. We’ve come a long way. Less than 20 years ago, under 40%1of discarded paper was captured for recycling. Today, thanks to market demand and subsequent purchasing policies, close to 64%2 enters the recycling system, including nearly three-quarters of all office papers3. This compares very favorably with recycling rates for other materials. For example, U.S. recycling rates for aluminum cans were only 51%, and only 31% of glass containers were recovered for recycling in 2009.4


E N V I R O N M E N TA L U.S. Paper And Paperboard Recovery ­1993 to 2010

ered fiber for our own paper mills and for the U.S. market. Paper Retriever® is a fund-raising recycling program that has generated close to $30 million for local non-profit organizations in 23 cities in North America over the past eight years.The EcoRewards® recycling program offers waste audits, desk-to-curb equipment and signage and detailed monthly reporting to businesses in thirteen key U.S. metropolitan areas. Pros and cons Moving recycled content over long distances is one of its potential environmental downsides, as transportation generates greenhouse gas emissions. The need to ship recovered paper from cities, where most of it is collected, to paper mills, which are usually quite far from metropolitan areas, can increase the carbon profile of the product.

But while recovery rates are increasing, the amount of paper fiber being recovered from the recycling stream has declined as more municipalities have moved towards ‘single-stream’ recycling where recyclable materials are collected in one bin and separated at a Materials Recycling Facility (MRF). Single stream recycling increases recovery rates, but more of the paper products collected are contaminated or unsuitable for recycling which reduces the quality of the fiber stock. For example, a bale of old newsprint purchased for re-pulping will usually contain 8-12% unusable materials—like glass, plastic and cans. With a shortage of recovered paper globally, an increasing amount of North America’s recovered fiber is being shipped to China where it can be processed at a lower cost.

AbitibiBowater is a leading recycler of old newspapers and old magazines in North America—diverting 1.5 million metric tonnes of paper from landfill last year – with a paper portfolio that includes over 30 grades of paper with recycled content. AbitibiBowater’s two recycling programs, Paper Retriever® and EcoRewards������������������������������������������������������� ®, ���������������������������������������������������� help generate a clean, high-quality supply of recov-

Another consideration is the grade of paper being made with recycled content. Using recycled content in some high brightness products, like office paper, requires more energy and chemicals than using it in lower-grade products, like newsprint or containerboard. And because fibers break down each time they are recycled, the more intense process for printing and writing grades also means more recycled fiber is lost, making it a less efficient use compared to lower brightness grades. The fact that wood fiber cannot be recycled indefinitely means that recycling is not a closed loop. Fresh fiber must be added to the cycle, or else we would run out of paper products in a matter of months5. It all starts in the forest With that in mind, the forest is the next step in our green journey. It’s important to know that the trees being harvested come from a well-managed forest, by companies that are committed to being as ethically and environmentally responsible as possible. Paper made from trees harvested in North America comes from some of the best managed working forests in the world. The forests managed by AbitibiBowater are sustainably managed to reduce environmental harm and to protect key watersheds and wildlife habitat. Not every country is so careful. International tracking of legal and illegal forest activity shows that forest products coming from some countries includes significant amounts of illegally harvested trees6 . Paper from these countries directly contribute to important environmental issues such as deforestation, soil erosion, loss of habitat and ultimately to global warming. In North America, illegal logging is not a significant issue. In fact, through responsible forest management practices, harvested areas are regenerated to ensure there is no net loss of forest cover due to harvesting. In Canada, this policy has helped the country retain close to 90%7 of its original forest cover8. GRAVURE/Spring 2011

39


E N V I R O N M E N TA L Corruption and Illegal Forest Activity

Sustainable forest management certification Fortunately, there is one simple and reliable way for paper buyers and consumers to know with certainty that they are using paper from sustainably managed forests: by looking for Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) certification. SFM certification provides impartial, third-party verification that forests are well managed according to a defined standard that integrates and balances the social, economic, and ecological needs of forest resources for present and future generations. Only 10% of the world’s forests are certified to any sustainable forest management standard. Globally, there are two leading certification systems: Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) International, and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes (PEFC), each of which recognize standards that guarantee that a forest is being managed legally and sustainably. AbitibiBowater recognizes certification standards set by the Canadian Standards Association, the Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) and the American Tree Farm System (ATFS)— all of which are endorsed by PEFC—as well as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Canada and the United States are the world leaders in SFM certification. The two countries are number one and two in the world in terms of their area of forest certified, respectively. Canada has a greater area of sustainably managed forest lands than the rest of the world combined. AbitibiBowater has been committed to SFM since 2004, when we certified our first forest area, and is currently among the largest certificate holders in North America, with third-party audited SFM certification complete for all managed woodlands under our care. Throughout North America, AbitibiBowater owns or manages approximately 16.8 million hectares (41.6 million acres) of forestland (as of Decem40

GRAVURE/Spring 2011

World-leading Countries in SFM Certification ­— 2010 Year-end

ber 31, 2010)—an area slightly smaller than the state of Florida. A landmark agreement with environmentalists Along with the 20 other Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC) member companies, AbitibiBowater is a signatory to the Canadian Boreal Forest Agreement (CBFA), a joint agreement with nine environmental organizations, including Greenpeace, ForestEthics, the Nature Conservancy and others. Under the CBFA FPAC companies, who manage two-thirds of all certified forest land in Canada, commit to the highest environmental standards of forest management within an area twice the size of Germany, and conservation groups commit to global recognition and support for FPAC member efforts9. This landmark agreement provides paper buyers with additional assurance that their paper purchases are having a positive impact on forest conservation and health. Chain of custody certification In addition to knowing that forests are being properly managed, it is equally important to know that the fiber which ends up in your paper product is actually coming from these sources. Chain of custody (CoC) certification provides paper buyers with a third-party-audited, documentation trail that traces a mill’s fiber from its origin—whether it is the forest or a recycling facility – through the manufacturing process, to a customer and/or end user. AbitibiBowater has fiber tracking systems at all of our mills, most of which are CoC certified, so that we can confirm our products are legally and sustainably sourced. Energy and greenhouse gas emissions Of course, environmental concerns aren’t limited to fiber sourcing, since manufacturing is a significant step along the path to a final product. In 2010, one quarter of the questions AbitibiBowa-


E N V I R O N M E N TA L ter received from customers related to energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We are working hard to measure, analyze and reduce our impact in this area. From 2000 to 2010, we reduced total GHG emissions by 53%, and we continue to work with consultants and non-governmental organizations to find more opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as improved processes, energy efficiencies and green energy projects. While it takes energy to transform raw fiber into paper, paper manufacturers have some advantages compared to others. Paper manufacturing produces waste-based biomass as a by-product, things like bark, sludge and ‘black liquor’ all of which can be used to replace fossil fuel. Considering the entire paper life cycle A carbon footprint is more than just the GHG emissions produced at the manufacturing site; a full carbon profile assesses all of the GHG emissions associated with paper from the forest to manufacturing to landfill. Carefully looking at this big picture provides a more accurate perspective of the carbon profile of a product or process. This holistic approach, known as life cycle thinking, brings more scientific rigor to the evaluation of environmental impacts. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies are used to measure and compare the ecoperformance of products across a range of indicators, and are an indication of growing market interest in looking at the cumulative environmental impact of products. In ���������������������������� 2009, AbitibiBowater commissioned a third-party life cycle assessment (LCA) for our Equal Offset paper, an uncoated freesheet substitute, comparing its environmental impacts to those of uncoated freesheet paper (UFS). The research found Equal Offset outperformed UFS in 14 of the 15 environmental impact categories tested, such as global warming and land use10.

Image courtesy of FPAC, AF & PA - Printing and Writing Papers Cycle Assessment, 2010

Life Cycle Assessments A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a paper product accounts for a range of environmental impacts generated through any activity associated with the production of the paper from the moment the tree is harvested to the time it is disposed of, including manufacturing, transportation, packaging and many other factors. LCAs can have different goals, such as indentifying which lifecycle stages have the greatest impacts, or comparing the eco-performance of different products. Although LCAs aim to be complete in their analysis, there are still variables. LCAs require large amounts of data to calculate all the inputs and outputs for every step, and many ‘assumptions’ must be made during the assessment and analysis. This means that two LCAs on the same subject could return different results depending on the objectives, data quality, assumptions and assessment methods used.13 LCA results must be interpreted carefully, and an understanding of the assumptions used in the process is essential when comparing results of different LCAs. Guidelines developed by the International Standards Association (ISO 14040), outlines recognized standards and methods for conducting an LCA.

For further reading An industry-average LCA was recently jointly published by the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) and the Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC) on the environmental impact of products made from four grades of printing and writing papers (office paper, telephone directory, catalogue, and magazines), using North American data. A summary report can be downloaded from the FPAC and AF&PA websites14.

GRAVURE/Spring 2011

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E N V I R O N M E N TA L

Finding information to help you make choices In order to help paper buyers assess their suppliers’ paper products, some web-based tools have been created based on life cycle thinking. One of the most practical is the Environmental Paper Assessment Tool11 (EPAT), developed by GreenBlue, a sustainability non-profit. EPAT is a membership-based on-line comparison tool that allows paper buyers to compare the performance of their suppliers based on a range of criteria, including forest management, resource use and stakeholder engagement. The recently launched Environmental Footprint Comparison Tool12 (EFCT), developed by the National Council of Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI) has a wealth of information for those dealing with the challenges of meeting a range of environmental objectives. The EFCT examines tradeoffs and benefits associated with a range of paper manufacturing process inputs, such as fiber sourcing, water use and energy use.

References 1. Paper Industry Association Council www.paperrecycles.org 2. American Forest & Paper Association, 2010 data 3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2009 http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw2009-fs.pdf 4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2009 http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw2009-fs.pdf

In the end, it’s all about responsibility As we have seen, a paper grade can’t be called “green” just because it has recycled content or any single environmental attribute. You need to examine a product’s full environmental profile. Just as importantly, you also should consider the company’s broader commitment to corporate social responsibility, which tells you about how they treat their employees, neighboring communities and stakeholders, and how accountable the leadership is for the decisions they make.

5. Metafore – Paper Fiber Life Cycle Research http://metafore.org/index. php?p=Metafore_Paper_Fiber_Life_Cycle&s=570

Suffice it to say that buying green is not a black and white decision.

11. Environmental Paper Assessment Tool www.epat.org

Donna Atkinson works in Sustainability and Communications at AbitibiBowater.

42

GRAVURE/Spring 2011

6. Seneca Creek Associates and Wood Resources International 2004 7. World Resource Institute. 2007. Forest Extent: Forest area (current) as a percent of original forest area; World 1996. Earth Trends. Searchable Database. Forests, Grasslands and Drylands. http://earthtrends.wri.org/ searchable_db/index.php?theme=9&variable_ID=313&action=select_coun tries; Canadian Council of Forest Ministers (CCFM). 2006b. Sustainable Forest Management in Canada. 20p. http://sfmcanada.org/english/pdf/ SFMBooklet_E_US.pdf (accessed September 24, 2008). 8. Original forest is that estimated to have covered the planet about 8,000 years ago, before large-scale disturbance by modern society began 9. www.canadianborealforestagreement.com 10. www.abitibibowater.com/lca 12. Environmental Footprint Comparison Tool: www.paperenvironment.org 13. FPAC - Life Cycle Assessment and Forest Products: A White Paper, Sept. 2010, available at http://www.fpac.ca/index.php/en/publications/ 14. http://www.fpac.ca/index.php/en/publications/ and http://www.afandpa. org/PWLCAMaterials/


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GAA PRESS OPERATOR CERTIFICATION PROGRAM F E AT U R E

GAA Press Operator Certification Program is the first nationally recognized gravure press operator skill certification training course. Having certified press operators in your organization demonstrates to your customers and employees the level of commitment your company places on insuring excellent manufacturing practices to produce the highest quality printing. The significance you attach to guarantee these manufacturing and quality practices exist in the operation is a definite employee morale booster and it is an excellent method to evaluate, recognize, retain, reward, and advance talent. Certified press operators will help increase quality, reduce press downtime, increase productivity and factor heavily in your efforts to reduce total systems cost in the operation. We believe that is a very powerful sales tool.

There are currently eight modules completed. These initial courses cover:

➊ Pressroom Safety ➋ The Impression Roll ➌ Doctor Blades ➍ Cylinders ➎ Inks ➏ Color Theory for Press Operators ➐ Pressroom Troubleshooting ➑ Gravure Press Fingerprinting

We anticipate that certification will provide a distinct competitive advantage to those companies that participate, and we want everyone to have an opportunity to get involved at its inception. Go to http://gaa.org/operator-certification for more information and a link to a program presentation that summarizes the Operator Certification Program content, training options, and the economics. 44 GRAVURE/April 2011

GRAVURE April 2011  

GRAVURE April 2011

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