Page 1

Hello


What I will be talking about.

What I have learnt this year. The mistakes I have made. What I have enjoyed. What I didn’t enjoy. Summer Plans. What I want to achieve in third year. Third year and beyond. Thanks yous.


What I have learnt this year.


The miskates I have made.

The mistakse I have made.

The mistakes I have made.


What I have enjoyed.


TYPOGRAPHY

LETTER SPACING

Legibility

The ability to distinguish one letterform from another.

Leading

Typeface

A collection of characters, letters, numbers, symbols and punctuation which have the same distinct design.

Font

The physical means to create a typeface, be it computer code, lithographic film, metal or woodcut.

Leading is a hot-metal printing term that refers to the strips of lead that were inserted between text measures in order to space them correctly. Leading is specified in points and refers to the space between the lines in a block of text.

Apex

Arm

A horizontal stroke that is open at the end, as seen on the ‘T’, ‘F’ and ‘E’.

Ascender

Tracking

Tracking refers to the amount of space that exists between letters. This can be adjusted to make characters more or less distinguishable. Reducing the tracking lessens the space between letters, this condenses the text, if the tracking is too tight the letters will crash into one another which can affect legibility.

The part of the letter that extends above the x-height.

Bracket

The curved part of the serif that connects it to the stroke.

Chin

The angled terminal part of the ‘G’.

Counter

The empty space inside the body of a stroke.

Crossbar

A horizontal stroke on the ‘A’ or ‘H’. The crossbar joins to stems together.

Cross Stroke

A cross stroke intersects a singles stem.

Crotch

Where the leg and arm of the ‘K’ and ‘k’ meet.

Descender

The part of the letter that falls below the baseline.

Ear

The right side of the bowl of the ‘g’, also the end of the ‘r’ and ‘f’ .

Hairline

The thinnest stroke in a typeface that has varying widths.

Leg

The lower, downward sloping stroke of the ‘K’, ‘k’ and ‘R’.

Link

The part that joins the two bowls of the double-storey ‘g’.

Loop

The stroke that encloses, or partially closes a counter in a roman.

Serif

The small stroke at the end of a main vertical or horizontal stroke.

Shoulder

The arch formed on the ‘h’ or ‘n’.

Spine

The left-to-right curving stroke in the ‘S’ and ‘s’.

Stem

The main diagonal or vertical stroke of a letter.

Stress

The direction is which a curved stroke changes weight.

Stroke

The diagonal portion of letters such as ‘N’, ‘Y’ and ‘M’.

Tail

The descending stroke on the ‘Q’.

Terminal

The finish of a stroke.

Vertex

The angle that forms at the bottom of a letter where the left and right stroke meet.

TYPEFACE CLASSIFICATION

Block, Blackletter, Gothic, Old English, Black or Broken typefaces are based on the ornate writing style prevalent during the middle ages. They tend to be difficult to read in large text blocks and seem antiquated.

Roman type has proportionately spaced letters and serifs, it was derived from Roman inscriptions. It is the most readable type and is commonly used for body text.

Gothic, sans serif or lineal typefaces do not have the decorative touches that typify Roman typefaces. Their clean and simple design makes them ideal for display text, but make them more difficult to read in long passages.

Kerning

Kerning is the space between two letters. Certain letter combinations have too much or too little space between them, this can make some words difficult to read.

Two Rules of Kerning One

As the type gets bigger you will need to reduce the space to compensate.

Two

Do not kern type until the tracking values and typeface selections have been set. Kerning can be a time consuming practice and kerning values rarely transfer between typefaces.

TYPE ALIGNMENT Type can be set in a variety of horizontal alignments. When used effectively alignment can harmonise text with other elements in the design. Large blocks of text that are not left aligned may become tiring and confusing to read.

Left-Aligned

Type can be set in a variety of horizontal alignments. When used effectively alignment can harmonise text with other elements in the design. Large blocks of text that are not left aligned may become tiring and confusing to read.

Centre-Aligned

Type can be set in a variety of horizontal alignments. When used effectively alignment can harmonise text with other elements in the design. Large blocks of text that are not left aligned may become tiring and confusing to read.

Right-Aligned

Type can be set in a variety of horizontal alignments. When used effectively alignment can harmonise text with other elements in the design. Large blocks of text that are not left aligned may become tiring and confusing to read.

Justified

Type can be set in a variety of horizontal alignments. When used effectively alignment can harmonise text with other elements in the design. Large blocks of text that are not left aligned may become tiring and confusing to read.

TYPE HIERACHY Type hierachy is a logical and visual guide. It distinguishes headers from body text, and can highlight the importance of text through using varying; typefaces, type weights, point size or colour. Below I will show the hierachy used throughout this publication.

A-Head

The A-head is a primary heading usually reserved for the titles in the text. In this publication I use 16 point type for the main header.

B-Head

The B-head is a secondary heading, in this publication the B-Head is 8 point and bold. I am using this for sub-headers and pull quotes. C-Head The C-Head in this publication is used in the body text. The point size is point as with the B-Head, however, the type is set to regular rather than bold. This allows the headers and sub-headers to be distinguished.

IMAGE

TYPEFACE STYLES A typeface family contains the range character styles and weights which can be applied to the same basic typeface. The typeface I have used for examples below is Helvetica Neue.

Raster

A raster image is any that is composed of pixels within a grid, each pixel contains colour information for the reproduction of the image. Rasters have a fixed resolution, which means that an enlargement of the image results in a quality decrease. Raster images are usually saved as TIFF or JPEG files for print, and JPEG or GIF for use on the web.

A vector image contins many scalable objects that are defined by mathematical formulae (bezier curves) or paths rather than pixels. Vectors are scalable and not affected by resolution. Vectors can be enlarged indefinitly and remain crisp and clear. Vector files must be saved as EPS format to retain their scalability. They are used for corporate logos and other graphics as they are easily portable and cannot be altered within publishing programs.

PRINT & SCREEN IMAGES Originates from inscriptions found on Roman monuments.

A version of the Roman cut that slopes to the right. Most typefaces have an italic version.

A middle

Woven cotton that is coated in a starch and pigment mixture then subjected to live steam before being spread across the cloth. The granules of starch burst open and thicken , causing the material to thicken, giving the starched effect. Drying is usually done by a steam heated drum, cloth is wrapped around it during its journey through the spreading machine. The heat dries the starch the starch on to the cloth. When the material is glued, the process is reversed as water in the glue softens the starch granules, making the material pliable and easy to wrok with. The starch prevents the glue from penetrating through the cloth.

360 A10 37mm x 26mm

Sheets can fit on a B1 press sheet.

100 standard business cards 85mm x 55mm

CMYK Mode

CMYK images are made from Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black subtractive primaries and have 4 channels, one for each colour. An image stored as CMYK is larger than a RGB file as it has one extra channel. CMYK images are used for printing as each colour corresponds to one of the printing plates.

DPI

Dots per inch, a measure of the resolution of an image on screen or the printed page. Printed images typically require a setting of 300dpi.

RGB Mode

RGB images are made from red, green and blue additives, they have 3 channels, one for each colour. RGB images are smaller than CMYK images as they have one fewer channel. RGB files are used on screen because of their lower file size.

PPI

Pixels per inch, a measure of the resolution of an image on screen. Images to be used on screen typically have 72 pixels per inch.

Bitmap

A bitmap or raster is any image that is composed of pixels in a grid. The images are a fixed resolution so quality will be affected . Converting a greyscale image in to a bitmap will reduce the tonal palette to black and white only.

Greyscale

A greyscale is a tonal scale or series of achromatic tones that have varying levels of white and black to give a full range of greys. A greyscale is used to reproduce contious tone photographs. It does this by converting colours into the most approximate levels of grey. Up to 256 shades. The intensities of these greys are reproduced on the printing plate throught he use of a half-one screen.

Half-tone

A half tone image is created by reproducing a continuous tone image as a composition of dots. This can be seen in enlarged image above.

Line art

A line art image is one that is drawn with only lines and has no fill colour or shading. A line image has no tonal variation so rquires no screening for print.

LAYOUT & GRID Layout concerns the placement of text and image elements within a design. How these elements are positioned, both in relation to one another and within the overall design scheme will affect how the content is viewed and received. Layout can help or hinder the communication of information in a piece of design.

Intensity

Intensity refers to how crowded a layout is.

Verso

The left-hand page of an open book.

Recto

The right-hand page of an open book.

FIBONACCI NUMBERS Fibonacci number sequences are a series of numbers in which each number is the sum of the two proceeding numbers. Fibonacci numbers are linked to the 8:13 ratio in the golden section.

B2 (707mm x 500mm) is a common format used in commercial offsetlithography printing. This gives trim and bleed for most A series paper sizes. Below are examples of pagesper-view on a B2 sheet.

1 A2 594mm x 420mm

Sheet can fit on a B2 press sheet.

2 A3 420mm x 297mm

Sheets can fit on a B2 press sheet.

4 A4 297mm x 210mm

Sheets can fit on a B2 press sheet.

9 A5 210mm x 148mm

Sheets can fit on a B2 press sheet.

16 A6 148mm x 105mm

Sheets can fit on a B2 press sheet.

Felt

The largest palette tends to be supplied to a thickness of 1mm. It is rare to find thicker felt in colours other than black. This is partly because you cannot dye the felt consistently. A more limited palette of colours, but one with a far more interesting texture is provided by ‘industrial’ felts. Usually supplied in off-white, grey and brown, this industrail felt is used to polish and finish jewellery and metalwork and can be found encasing the strikers of church bells. Industrial felt could be seen as having a texture and finish aligned to materials such as grey board and corrugated cardboard. Printing methods tend to be restricted to screen printing, and it is difficult to achieve a fine print as the material is quite fibrous. Felt makes an interesting covering material and can be converted into book jackets as an alternative to book cloth. It cannot be used as a covering material in box making as it cannot be glued.

Flexible PVC

Flexible PVC (Polyvinyl chloride) is a variant of rigid PVC. The introduction of plasticesers to the substrate makes the material more pliable. Flexible PVC is now commonly used in the manufacture of stationary such as binders and holders for car-parking permits. There are unusually uses of flexible PVC. For instance, a thin, black, embossed flexible PVC is appropriate for coffin linings, where as it’s white counter part is used to line babies prams. There is a semi-translucent version that is used for blood bags, while thicknesses of up to 5mm are used for factory-door curtains.

High density foam has a 3-stage production process, commencing with polymer being blended in line and extruded into solid sheet or slab form. This sheet is then cross-linked to create a lattice-like structure at a molecular level within the material. This allows the material to be thermal moulded, as crosslinked foams can be stretched and compressed, and retain their shape when cooled. High density foam has a range of applications but can principally be employed by the designer as a packaging material to house a series of items securely and attractively without having to resort to overengineered cardboard executions.

Leather

There is an almost infinite choice of leather to use. It is an expensive material to use, and decisions based on expectation of how leather should feel and smell will lead you to higher-priced skins. Leather is mainly available at specialist merchants who normally supply skins to make handbags and belts and therefore are structured towards this market. The use of leather in a project generally denotes wealth, tradition and luxury. Leather can be screen printed, embossed and foil blocked. It should be noted that, as leather is animal skin the surface and texture of leather is a variable which could hamper the application of a design. Care should be taken when glueing as leather has a tendency to contract when mounted or bonded. More rigid leather will die-cut and trim far better than softer pig-skin or goat-skin leather. If cost is an issue there are a number of synthetic materials that mimic the grain of leather, and some have even been developed to smell like it too.

Metal

Metal could be regarded as a material that has very limited applications with the design process. It has a look, feel and density that will rarely be appropriate.Cost is an important factor when considering using metal for a project. A reason for this is the extra processes that metal has to go through prior to being ready to work with. The materials most commonly used by designers are aluminium and stainless steel, both of which are easily cut, creased and screen printed. Stainless steel is much harder than aluminium and can be supplied in very thin gauges. The thinner the gauge the sharper the edges become. Stainless steel is good for having designs etched in to or through it’s surface. Aluminium is a lightweigh popular substrate for binders. Its edges do need to be sealed or anodized by immersing the material in an anodizing solution and running an electric current through it, otherwise it is prone to oxidisation and marking from fingers. There are not many suppliers or manufacturers who can produce high quality finished goods from metal.

Mirri-board

Mirri-board is manufactured by laminating thin films of metalised polyester to different base papers and boards. It’s metallic and reflective surface lends itself principally to specialty packaging such as perfume cartons. The wide variety of colours and finishes should allow you to specify it’s use for other applications. There is also a range of holographic boards utilizing metalised polyester film that carriers a micro-embossed holographic pattern. There is no choice beyond those patterns already available. Despite their highly reflective and smooth surfaces, these materials can still be printed conventionally. With lithographic printing, inks must be selected that dry on non-absorbent substrates. UV curable inks are also preferred. Caution needs to be exercised when handling more reflective boards as they have a tendency to scratch and mark. This laminated surface is soft, with any minor blemish being obvious because of the reflective quality of the material. Inks must be selected that will dry on nonabsorbent surfaces. Certain inks needs to cure for up to 48 hours, or they will scratch. Foil blocking and blind embossing both produce amazing results , and it is worth exploring different foil combinations on this stock. Overprinting in translucent tints can produce interesting results on more iridescent versions of the material.

Polystyrene

Commonly referred to as expanded polystyrene (EPS), has many uses from ceiling tiles through to transportations packaging and use as a building material. It remains largely unexplored for design based applications. The mould of polystyrene is a three part process. In the first part tiny spherical EPS beads are expanded up to forty times their original size. In the second stage the boards are stored in huge canvas silos and are left to absorb air for 24 to 48 hours. In stage three the freshly expanded beads are poured into manufactured moulds where steam and pressure are applied, softening the beads and compressing them so that they bond together into the required shape and density. A black variant of EPS exists that is used in thermoinsulation. The colour comes from introducing carbon flakes into the beads to enhance its thermal performance. This is an more aesthetically pleasing variant of the standardised white EPS. Sheet polystyrene is moulded in large locks that are cut using hot wiring cutting machines. The cell structure of this material means that in appearance the material seems quite smooth but printing will achieve mixed results.

PVC (Polyvinyl Choride) is one of the most commonly used and widely available substrates. It is one of the most valuable products in the petrochemical industry. The majority of PVC is used in construction and heavy industry. It’s ease of manufacture and huge number of varieties make PVC a quick fix choice for numerous

Advantages

Very accurate colour proof produced from the colour separation film used to make printing plates.

Sheets can fit on a B2 press sheet.

182 A10 37mm x 26mm

Sheets can fit on a B2 press sheet.

49 standard business cards 85mm x 55mm Sheets can fit on a B2 press sheet.

A useful resource for imposition plans can be found at www.re-nourish.com.

SPECIAL PROCESS COLOURS The 4-colour printing process can produce a wide range of colours, however it is sometimes desirable to use a special process (spot) colour. The are specially made inks. A special colour is solid colour, rather than made a CMYK colour which is created by using a series of dots. As a result the colour is much more vibrant than CMYK mixed colours. Special colours are also used to produce metallic and flourescent colours. When using special colours an extra plate needs to be used in the production process. This means extra cost to a project. Such things must be taken into account when considering the use of special colours.

Flourescents

These are special colours that have a particular vibrancy and cannot be produced using the standard 4-colour process inks.

Metallics

Metallic inks are made with copper, zinc and aluminium pigments in order to produce copper, bronze, silver and gold colours which cannot be produced by standard process inks.

PANTONE PMS COLOURS The Pantone Colour Matching System (PMS) has developed to include a wide range of different colours, including special solid, hexachrome, metallic and pastel colours. The circled ‘C’ refers to the stock the colour will be printed on. There are four options available in the colour matching system;

Disadvantages

A very time-consuming process. Low print runs can be expected when using this process as each screen is pulled by hand.

WEB-OFFSET

Covers and pages are drilled and bound with a threaded post and screw. The cover then turns on itself to hide the fastening. Pages can added and subtracted. Books have to be hand assembled, screw and post bound books do not lie flat.

Advantages

Realistic impression of the final print. Can be produced on actual print stock.

Disadvantages

Costly as the plates have to be set up, particularly if another proof is required following changes.

Side stitch

Accurate representation of the final print job.

Web printing prints from a roll of paper rather than separate sheets. This allows for higher printing volume and speed with a lower production cost. Web can be used with litho but most commonly with relief printing methods such a rotogravure and flexography as the plates are more durable. Due to the scale and cost of this production method, it is not suitable for low volume printing.

Disadvantages

Advantages

Contract Proof

A colour proof used to form a contract between the printer and the client, final proof before going to press.

Advantages

N/A

PRODUCTION PROCESSES

PRINT FINISHING Finishing techniques are applied to a job after it has been printed. They create special effects which cannot be achieved with ink.

Cutting and Trimming

As most commercial printing jobs use paper that is slightly larger than the finished design will be, there will need to be cutting and trimming to achieve the final desired format.

Disadvantages

The digital file need to be available, unlike other print methods which can be produced from a physical plate.

FLEXOGRAPHY

Trim lines are identified by crop marks, these marks are also used to help with registration of the printed page. Trimming is paid for in the printing of a design, so no extra charge is incurred. This is different to other finishing techniques, such as folding, which cost extra.

Drilling and Punching

Designs that are ring or post bound require holes ranging between 1/8 inch and 1/4 inch. Commercial printers use a drill to make these holes according to size and placement specifications. Spiral and plastics comb binding require puching holes, a process that costs a bit more than drilling.

Perforating

Peforating involves punching a line of holes to make tearing easier. It can be done as part of the binding process to make signatures easier to fold before they are bound and trimmed. Peforation is used as a means to facilitate tear-offs on designs that require a response, such as business reply cards.

Scoring

To make folding more efficient a crease is applied using a metal rule or a wheel so that an embossed ridge is formed on the substrate. Heavy substrates that are to be folded should always be scored. Scoring is also important to avoid cracked ink on fold lines when using coated stocks with heavy ink coverage. Flexography (often abbreviated to flexo) is a form of printing process which utilises a flexible relief plate. It is essentially a modern version of letterpress which can be used for printing on almost any type of substrate, including plastic, metallic films, cellophane, and paper. It is widely used for printing on the non-porous substrates required for various types of food packaging (it is also well suited for printing large areas of solid colour).

FOLDING METHODS Folding is used for almost all multi-page print jobs in some form or another.

Mountain

One of the two basic folds that are the basis of all the other folds. In a mountain fold, you fold the paper towards yourself.

Advantages

The relief printing plate is suitable for printing on non-porous surfaces, such as metal. It is used to print drink cans, plastic bags and much more.

Valley

The second of the two basic folds that are the basis of all the other folds. In a valley fold, you fold the paper away from yourself.

Disadvantages

Large print runs are required using this process.

OFFSET-LITHOGRAPHY

Gatefold

A gatefold has extra panels that fold in to the central spine of the publication with parallel folds so that they meet in the middle of the page. The extended pages are folded and cut shorter that the standard publication pages so they can nest correctly.

Uncoated (U) Coated (C) Euro-Coated (EC) Matte (M)

Throw-outs/ Throw-ups

Solid

A range of solid metallic, pastel and process colours that can be used on different paper stocks and substrates. The flourescent opposite would be Pantone 806U, 806C or 806M depending on whether it is to print on uncoated, coated or matte stock.

Pastels

A range of flat, solid, but very pale colours. These are different to tints as they print as a solid colour without visible dots. They are available in both coated and uncoated swatches.

Hexachrome

A range of 6 colour process colours used for hexachrome printing. In addition to the CMYK process colours, the system adds green and orage process colours allowing it to reproduce 90% of the Pantone PMS colours.

Metallics

A range of over 300 special colours that give a metallic effect including copper, silver and gold colours. Metallics are available in both varnished and unvarnished coated swatches.

INKS Heat-Sensitive Inks

These inks are supplied in a limited range of colours. Black is the preferred colour as it creates dramatic results. Heat sensitive inks are suspended in a semi-clear base and works best when screen printed. The reactive temperature can be varied according to climactic conditions. As with scented inks, the system is water based and is supplied for printing on paper based substrates. It can be used on plastics but a number of layers of varnished will need to be applied for it to key in. This is time consuming and not very cost-effective. Heat-sensitive ink also has a tendency to scuff if not properly sealed.

Pearlescent and Iridescent Inks

These inks can be printed on all substrates and create a different shade of metallic colour depending on how close the viewer is to the print.

Rub-Removable Inks

Normally used on scratch cards or other promotional items, rubremovable ink is latex based. It is supplied as a metallic, as it’s function it to obliterate what it overprints. The ink is quite fragile and difficult to work with, but it can be effective when printed in solid areas. It gives a rubberised feel and communicates that the area should be handled with care.

Scented Inks

Scented inks can be supplied in a wide selection of smells and can also be synthesised to use a specific fragrance. As scented inks are water based they can only be printed on unsealed paper (paper not plastics). On other surfaces water-based ink does not adhere to it and will scratch off. The scent has will usually lose potency over time.

Soy-Based Inks

Inks derived from soy bean oil as opposed to petroleum.

Vegetable-Based Inks

Inks that are made with vegetable based oils (as opposed to mineral-based such as pertoleum) and that, as a result, are more environmentally friendly.

PROOFING METHODS

A printing process where an inked image from a printing plate is transfered or offset on to a rubber blanket roller, which is then pressed against the substrate. Litho uses a smooth printing plate and works on the basis that oil and water will repel each other. When the plate passes under the ink roller, non image areas that have a water film repel the oily inks that stick to the image area. Litho produces good photographic reproduction and fine linework on a veriety of stocks. The printing plates are easy to prepare and high speeds are available,. These reasons make it a cost effective way to print. Offset litho is available in sheet and roll fed form. Sheet fed is more appropriate for smaller print runs such as flyers, brochures and magazines while web printing is more appropriate for higher run jobs like newspapers, magazines and reports.

Advantages

Uses an engraved printing plate. Can print on a wide variety of substrates. One of the most cost-effective and commin methods in commercial print today.

Laser proof

A black and white computer print.

Shows photos, text and position. Cheaper than a blueline.

Disadvantages

Low resolution and may not reprduce at actual size.

Physical changes within the ink film both on the cliché and on the pad allow it to leave the etched image area in favor of adhering to the pad, and to subsequently release from the pad in favor of adhering to the substrate. The unique properties of the silicone pad enable it to pick the image up from a flat plane and transfer it to a variety of surfaces, such as flat, cylindrical, spherical, compound angles, textures, concave, or convex surfaces.

Disadvantages High start-up costs.

ROTOGRAVURE

Rotogravure (Roto or Gravure for short) is a type of intaglio printing process; that is, it involves engraving the image onto an image carrier. In gravure printing, the image is engraved onto a cylinder because, like offset printing and flexography, it uses a rotary printing press. Once a staple of newspaper photo features, the rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and corrugated (cardboard) product packaging.

Advantages

High start-up costs. Slightly pixelated lines and text. Very high print-runs are needed to make it profitable.

Disadvantages

SCREEN PRINTING

A contact print produced from film. Shows imposition, photos and text as will appear when printed, together with trim and binding edges.

Advantages

One colour and does not reflect paper stock or true colour. Proof has a blue colour and the image fades with time.

Scatter Proof

A proof of an individual photo or group of photos not included as part of the individual page layout.

Advantages

For checking colour before the final proof. Many photos can be proofed at once to save time and materials.

Disadvantages

Images not seen in the layout.

The same as a normal gatefold, but with an extra panel inside the front or back.

Half Cover from Behind

An accordion fold where the penultimate panels forms a back cover that the other panels fold in to to create a book. The other half size panel folds around the book from behind to cover the front with the first half size panel.

Harmonica Self-Cover Folder

An accordion fold where the first two panels form a cover that the other panels fold into. The first two panels need to be larger than the others to allow for creep.

Mock Book Fold

Essentially an accordion fold, where the penultimate two panels form a cover that the other panels then fold in to to create a book.

Triple Parallel

Binding is needed for multiple page documents. There is a wide variety of binding techiniques, ranging from simple to elaborate solutions.

Capacity

When a planning a publication, the capacity of a cover to contain its pages. The dimensions of the spine will vary depending upon the number of pages in the publication.

Bellyband

A plastic or paper substrate that wraps around the ‘belly’ of a publication.

Case

The pages form signatures that are sewn using thread and then glued to linen tape for flexibility and strength. Case-bound books lie flat and are extremely durable.

The cover and pages are sewn together with thread and then tied off. The knot and ends remain visible. This is a process done by hand and is typically used for publications with 36 pages or fewer. Pamphlets lie flat.

Blueline, Dylux or Salf Proof

Disadvantages

Front/Back Gatefold

Pamphlet stitch

Colour not as accurate as press proof as does not use actual printing inks.

Rapid as no processing is involved and pages can be folded, trimmed and stitched to approximate the finished job.

Three parallel folds, the two panel outer wings fold in to and out of the centre. The double panel centre serves as the cover.

BINDING TECHNIQUES

Advantages

Disadvantages

The double gatefold has three panels that fold in towards the centre of the publication.

Duelling Z-Fold

Parallel folds that create a section that nests within the cover panels, with a front opening. This type of fold is commonly used with maps.

Long lasting printing plates. Good image reproduction. Low cost per unit if using very high print runs.

Inexpensive, particularly digital proofs.

Double Gatefold

Advantages

The ability to print on 3 dimensional substrates, golf balls, tv controls, keypads and more.

Pre-Press Proof

An analogue or digital proof that gives an approximation of what the finished piece will look like.

Back/Front Folder

Wings either side of the central panel have a double parallel fold so that they can fold around and cover both sides of the central panel.

Z-Fold wings fold in to the centre panel and meet in the middle.

Advantages

Advantages

Concertina

Each fold runs opposite to the previous one to obtain a pleated result. The outer panel needs to be bigger than the inner panels, this hides the rough folding edges of the final piece.

Front/Back Accordion

A proof used to check layout and colour information and to check the screen structures of a print.

Screening must be erformed before a screen proof is printed and printing data contains no screen information.

A tip-in is a means to attach an insert into a book or magazine by gluing along the binding edge.

PAD PRINTING

Soft/Screen Proof

Intended to eliminate moire, rosette and other undesired effects.

Tip-in

Reasonably high start-up costs for low print-run jobs. The plates can wear out quickly compared to other print processes.

Proofing is one of the most important aspects in the artwork stage of the printing process.

Disadvantages

Throw-ups and throw-outs are sheets of paper folded into a publication. They allow for larger scale images than can be used in the original design size.

Disadvantages

Pad printing is a printing process that can transfer a 2-D image onto a 3-D object. This is accomplished using an indirect offset (gravure) printing process that involves an image being transferred from the cliché via a silicone pad onto a substrate. Pad printing is used for printing on otherwise impossible products in many industries including medical, automotive, promotional, apparel, and electronic objects, as well as appliances, sports equipment and toys. It can also be used to deposit functional materials such as conductive inks, adhesives, dyes and lubricants.

Screen printing offers a lot of versatility for the designer. It gives scope to experiment with a lot of different inks and materials. Screen printing can be an automated process, or hand done. The screen is made of a piece of porous and finely woven fabric stretched over a rectangular frame. Areas of the screen are blocked off allowing a stencil of the image to be printed through. The screen is placed on top of the substrate to be printed, a squeegee or rubber blade is used to press the ink through the stencil and on to the substrate. The screen can be used many times.The screen printing process has an immediacy that other print processes don’t.

Spiral

Hole are punched through the pages with a machine, and then a wire coil is spun up the spine of the book. Spiral bound books lie flat.

Disadvantages

Limited image reproduction quality. Very expensive if being used for small print runs.

DIGITAL

The printing set-up is quicker as no plates are needed. Print-runs that require limited quantities are best suited to digital printing.

Pages and covers are stapled through from front to back. As the binding runs on the edge of the book. This means that a lot of space is lost on the inner margins. Side stitched books do not lie flat.

Very high print runs can be achieved using this process, for a relatively low cost. Typically used for newspaper printing.

There are seven basic printing methods that are used to produce most of the printed material you see around you in the world today.

Digital printing refers to methods of printing from a digital based image directly to a variety of media. It usually refers to professional printing where small run jobs from desktop publishing and other digital sources are printed using large format and/or high volume laser or inkjet printers. Digital printing has a higher cost per page than more traditional offset printing methods but this price is usually offset by the cost saving in avoiding all the technical steps in between needed to make printing plates.

Saddle stitch

The cover and pages are folded and stapled. As the entire book is folded in half there is a maximum thickness of roughly half an inch for effective saddle stitch binding. Saddle stitched books lie flat and are a low cost binding technique.

Screw and post

Press or Machine Proofs

Advantages

Resource

High quality finish. Hand made feel.

A proof produced using the actual plates, inks and paper.

Sheets can fit on a 3B2 press sheet.

100 A9 52mm x 37mm

Advantages

Disadvantages

Time consuming and labour intensive as an additive proof takes about 30 minutes to produce.

Sheets can fit on a B2 press sheet.

Corrugated Cardboard

Felt is made from wool matted together into fabric by beating, rolling, suction and pressure. The most common wool used in felt manufacture is sheep wool. Some felts can be dyed in a veriety of colours. Felt is available direct from the manufacturer, brighter colours tend to be available at handicraft markets.

High quality proofs (such as match print of chromalin) produced using 4 sheets (one for each colour) laminated together in register.

49 A8 74mm x 52mm

Cork is the bark of the cork tree. Cork is extremely bouyant as more than 50% of the structure is air, yet it remains solid. This makes cork very compressible without breaking, making it flexible and resilient. As the surface is naturally uneven finish can be problematic,particularly when attempting to print fine text or complex logos. Cork can be die-cut and guillotines with relative ease.

Corrugated cardboard consists of flat outer sheets sandwiching a central core or filling of corrugated fluted paper (called a medium) that resists crushing under compression. When used in a box this gives cushioning to the boxes contents. The liner and medium are glued together along the outsides of the peaks and valleys of each flute, boxes are usually designed with the flutes running vertically for stacking strength.

Composite Integral Colour Proof

30 A7 105mm x 74mm

Cork

Rigid PVC

Three different page sizes are formed using sequential pairs of fibonacci numbers. 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597, 2584, 4181, 6765, 10,946…

Sheets can fit on a B1 press sheet.

B2 PAGES PER VIEW

It is more common to find paperbacked or tissue-lined book cloths on the market. These differ from cotton book cloths on the market. These differ from cotton book cloth as their material is predominantly from a synthetic source, such as rayon. Cotton book cloth has the disadvantage that adhesive will penetrate the cloth when glued. Rayon has a flexible backing or lining that prevents this, and is cheaper than cotton. A further disadvantage is the availability of much brighter colours and more variances of weave. Cotton book cloth tends to be associated with dry legal or medical tomes, whereas as rayon with art or design based projects. Cotton cloth is more durable than rayon.

High-Density Foam In modern design images tend to be supplied in an electronic format, even if they have been hand-rendered and later scanned in. The following section of the book will go through the setting required for an image that is to be printed.

Vector

Roman type has proportionately spaced letters and serifs, it was derived from Roman inscriptions. It is the most readable type and is commonly used for body text.

An extremely thin printing paper, and has been made from a variety of materials, from rags to wood pulp. It is exceptionally strong and retains a reasonable degree of opacity. Bible paper foil blocks very well but care needs to be taken because of it’s lightness. The strength of the paper allows it to be creased and folded many times without the print cracking.

Book Cloth

TYPEFACE ANATOMY

The point formed at the top of a letter, such as the ‘A’, where the left and right strokes meet.

glass, it is more rigid that extruded acrylic, easier to cut and glue and is available in a wider variety of colours and finishes. Extruded is made from granules of plastic and is the preferred material for thermoforming.

Bible Paper

Readability

The ability to understand a piece of type or design.

Perfect

Loose pages are adhered with glue along their bound edge. The cover is then wrapped around and glued. Perfect bound books do not lie flat.

Plastic comb

Probably the least aesthetically pleasing binding method of them all. The plastic comb looks cheap and the books do not lie flat.

Stab

Stab is also referred to as Japanese binding. Sheets are sewn together so that the thread is visible on the spine and sides of the book.

Tape

A cloth tape is treated with heatsenstive glue is wrapped around the assembled covers and pages. Heat is applied, causing the glue to adhere to the pages and cover. Tape bound books lie flat.

SPECIAL FINISHES Special finishes can range from diecuts to varnishes.

Die-Cut

A process that uses a steel die to cut away a section of a page. Die-cuts have many uses and are mainly used for decorative purposes to enhance the visual performance of a design. They may also serve a physical function, such as making unusual shapes or creating apertures that allow users to see inside a publication. Die-cuts produce a range of effects from the striking to the subtle.

Die-Stamp

The traditional way to emboss, using an engraving plate or die. The die is pressed into contact with the paper. Inks used in die-stamping have traditionally been oil based and slow drying. A die can be used without ink, this procedure is called blind embossing. Die stamping, like thermography offers an alternative to more conventional print processes, creating a tactile and luxurious finish.

Dip Moulding

Dip moulding lends itself to low-volume production runs and the development of projects. It is versatile enough to cope with high volume production when needed. It has cheaper tooling costs for both prototypes and production tooling. The preferred material for tooling is aluminium, with more complex shapes being made with a wooden pattern then cast in aluminium. The dip-moulding process does not lend itself to forming text out of the tooling as it is difficult to strip the finished mould without damaging the finished product. The surface can be printed, with silk-screen offering the greatest flexibility. Pad printing can be employed for more complex, 3 dimensional surfaces. The process offers a very specific finish and feel. Given it’s synthetic and tactile nature.ing a tactile and luxurious finish.

Embossing and Debossing

Paper is pressed between two moulds called dies. The moulding of paper between the dies results in a raised impression. If an impression is moulded so that it is lower than the paper’s surface it is called a deboss. Embossing can be combined with a printed image or foil stamping to enhance the three-dimensional appearance of an image. An embossed impression made independend of a printed or foil-stamped image is called a blind emboss. Soft, uncoated papers generally take a better embossed impression than hard or smooth coated papers.

Foil Blocking

Foil blocking operates as an addition to other printing methods, allowing metallic finishes to be applied to a surface. There is a huge range of foils including metallic, colour and clear and some holographic or decorative foils. There are strict rules to follow for foil block, this should ne be ignored. You cannot foil on top of foil; if you apply foil on the reverse side, the foil on the front will be removed. Foil blocking can be used on stationary and letterheads. A potential is that the foil reheats and peels away from the paper depending on the printer used. If planning to use this method for such purposes, it is important to check compatability with all office printers on-site beforehand. Foiling can sometimes be considered an overdecorative process.

HF Welding

HF (or high-frequency) welding is also known as RF (radio-frequency) welding or dielectric sealing. The principle behind the process is the use of high-frequency radio energy to produce a molecular agitation in the materials being processed to the point that they melt and weld together, typically forming a bond as strong as the original material. This approach could be considered as a packaging alternative, although 3D constructions do tend to stretch the capabilities of this process.

Injection Moulding

Used to make items such as shampoo bottle tops and CD cases.This process is a great deal more expensive than processes like thermoforming. As a process it can be sourced and used internationally and nationally. The outcomes are well worth the extra expense associated with the process.

Kiss-Cut

A method of die-cutting whereby the face material of a self-adhesive substrate is die cut but not all the way through to the backing sheet. This enables the face material to be easily removed from the backing sheet.

Laminates

Lamination provides the best protection of all methods. Lamination creates an exceptionally strong surface that repels moisture, this means the design can be washed wthout being damaged. The process involves applying a layer of polyester, polypropylene or nylon film to one or both sides of a printed sheet. Laminates are available in dull and glossy finishes.

Nylon Laminates

Nylon laminates are the most durable and expensive type of laminate available. Nylon laminates are recommended for lightweight substrates such as paperback covers and designs where metallic inks are involved.

Polyester Laminates

Polyester laminates have are hard surface and are reasonably priced makes polyester laminates appropriate for case-bound books and for designs where durability and longevity are important.

Polypropylene Laminates

Laminates made of this material are often used on dust jackets and packaging. They are more likely to be scratched and scuffed, polypropylene laminates are the least expensive. Polypropylene laminates can also be applied to lightweight substrates and surfaces printed with metallic inks with-out the risk of paper curling.

Rigid Box Making

Among the most luxurious and desirable forms of packaging. The boxes are often handmade. Versions of this packaging can be made by machine but the choice of material and construction is more limited. A rigid box consitst of a hard base material, which is cut to shape, fixed together to form a box and covered in cloth, paper or vinyl. The box can be lined, usually using a coloured, uncoated paper. Larger boxes are more difficult to cover and therefore more expensive. It is very difficult to make a rigid box any shallower than 15 to 25mm, for these cases it is better to use a cardboard carton.

Thermoforming

A method used in processing plasticbased substrates. The material is heated to its thermoforming temperature and then immediatly shaped. Pressure is maintained on the material until it has cooled. The tooling used in this process is cheaper than that used in injection moulding. The tooling is is generally made from aluminium. As the process is generally used for industrial applications it tends to be ignored for more aesthetic reasons. Thermoforming is a very precise process, the material has to be consistent and the sheet must be heated evenly to the correct processing temperature. The initial costs of this process can make it prohibitive. The process does offer alternative possibilites to a project.

Thermography

Thermography or relief printing, is used to raise a design off the paper and adds another dimension to the design. A potential problem with thermographic printing is thermographic ink can melt if put through the same temperature twice (i.e laser printing, as could be used with a letterhead paper).

Varnishes and Coatings

The three main types of varnishes and coatings that are used are;

Spot Varnish

A clear coating is applied on press or in line. Spot varnishes cost the same as applying an extra ink would cost. Spot varnishes come in glossy or dull finishes and can be lightly tinted with other inks. Spot gloss varnishes are usually used to enhance photographs and other types of image by giving them a high sheen and richness. Dull varnishes are often applied to areas of text on a glossy, coated paper to prevent glare. Spot varnishes offer little protection against scuffing.

Aqueous Coating

A gloss coating made from a mix of polymers and water that is often applied to magazine and brochure covers as a means of protection against scuffing, dirt and water. Aqueous coatings are applied as a flood varnish, meaning the entire

page is covered. Aqueous coatings require a special coating unit and cost roughly twice as much as spot varnishes.

UV Coating

A UV light-cured process that involves a platic liquid, ultraviolet coating offers more protection and a higher degree of gloss that aqueous coating. Some printers apply UV coating in the press line but often it is supplied separate from the printing process.

COMMERCIAL COSTINGS Everything discussed in this book up to now costs a price. If you want to add finishes such as folding, binding or specials to a job it will increase the cost. If you want your design printed on A2, rather than A4 paper it will cost extra. This section of the book will discuss basic costing considerations when deciding the print and finishes your design requires.

PRICING A PRINT JOB The six key areas that will affect the overall cost of a printed job are; format, colours, quantity, material, printing method and finishes.

Format

The final size of the printed document will affect the price of a print run. Most commercial printers print on B1 or B2 sheets or use a roll, such as web-offset, the larger the format of the final design the more press sheets will be needed to print the job, thus increasing costs.

Colours

In most commercial printing processes colours are added in separate layers. As this is the case the more colours used in a design will increase the number of plates that need preparing and inks being used. This will increase the cost. Where special (spot) colours are being used an extra plate is needed, this increases the cost even further. For this reason it is important that colour usage is managed closely.

Quantity

The quantity of a print-run, will affect the cost of a print run in a similar way the format will. The higher a print run, the more press sheets are needed, this increases the cost.

Material

The material a design is printed on will affect the cost. For example, it will cost more to print on gold than paper. The material used will affect the drying time of the ink, this again, will increase the cost of the print job. These are things that need to be considered before sending a job to print.

Printing Method

Choosing between offset-lithography, digital, roto and other printing methods can greatly affect the price of a print job. Some methods are best used for high print runs (roto) and other for small (digital). The printing method is one of the most important things to consider.

Finishes

From binding, folding and specials when finishes are used the cost of a printing job will increase.


10 mg Tar 0.9 mg Nicotine 10 mg Carbon Monoxide

UK DUTY PAID


Williams

0

Podiums

0

Podiums

0

46

Points

10

Points

0

Points

0

Points

0

Grand Prix Entered

40

Grand Prix Entered

32

Grand Prix Entered

1

Grand Prix Entered

1

Grand Prix Entered

1

World Championships

0

World Championships

0

World Championships

0

Mark Webber Adrian Sutil

Sergio Perez

World Championships

Jean-Eric Vergne

Highest race finish

Esteban Gutierrez

World Championships

1 (x1)

Highest race finish

1 (x1)

Highest grid position

Paul di Resta

Highest grid position Date of Birth

09/03/1985

Place of Birth

Maracay

2013 Season Drivers

Podiums

0

Jenson Button Romain Grosjean

Nationality

Pastor Maldonado

Australian

Nationality

0

0 9 (x4)

Highest race finish

6 (x1)

Highest grid position

Date of Birth

01/07/1989

Place of Birth

Perth

Daniel Ricciardo

British

Nationality

17 (x1)

Highest race finish

20 (x1)

Highest grid position

Date of Birth

21/04/1991

Place of Birth

Reigate

Max Chilton

Team

Sauber

Podiums

Points

1

Team

Marussia

Podiums

Felipe Massa

Venezuelan

Team

Marussia

Team Nationality

Sebastian Vettel Lewis Hamilton

Team

Toro Rosso

Kimi Raikkonen Fernando Alonso

French

Nationality

15 (x1)

Highest race finish

19 (x1)

Highest grid position

Date of Birth

03/08/1989

Place of Birth

Nice

Jules Bianchi

Mexican

13 (x1) 18 (x1)

Date of Birth

05/08/1991

Place of Birth

Monterrey

Esteban Gutierrez

Vaitteri Bottas Jules Bianchi Charles Pic Max Chilton Giedo van der Garde Daniel Ricciardo Nico Rosberg Pastor Maldonado Nico Hulkenberg

Nico Hulkenberg

Team Nationality Podiums

Team

McLaren

Team

Mexican

Nationality

3

Podiums

80

Points

Grand Prix Entered

39

Grand Prix Entered

World Championships

0

World Championships

Highest race finish

2 (x2)

Highest race finish

Highest grid position

4 (x1)

Highest grid position

Date of Birth

26/01/1990

Place of Birth

Guadalajara

Jean-Eric Vergne

Sergio Perez

Grand Prix Entered

Team Nationality Podiums

Toro Rosso French 0

0

Highest race finish

1 (x1)

Highest grid position

Giedo van der Garde

7 399.5 129 0

Team Nationality

Team Nationality

Williams Finnish

Podiums

0

0

Points

0

Grand Prix Entered

1

Grand Prix Entered

Grand Prix Entered

1

World Championships

0

World Championships

World Championships

0

1 (x1)

Highest race finish

1 (x1)

Highest grid position

18 (x1)

Highest race finish

21 (x1)

Highest grid position

21 0 12 (x1)

Highest race finish

19 (x2)

Highest grid position

14 (x1) 16 (x1)

27/06/1985

Date of Birth

25/04/1985

Date of Birth

15/02/1990

Date of Birth

28/08/1989

Place of Birth

Emmerich

Place of Birth

Wiesbaden

Place of Birth

Rhenen

Place of Birth

Montelimar

Place of Birth

Nastola

Team Nationality Podiums Points Grand Prix Entered

1

World Championships

1 (x15) 1 (x8)

Jenson Button

Team Nationality Podiums

Lotus French 3

Force India

Team

German

Nationality

0

Podiums

101 91 0

Mercedes

Team

British

Nationality

49

Podiums

Points

923

Points

Grand Prix Entered

111

Grand Prix Entered

World Championships

1

World Championships

Nationality

47

Podiums

1069 102 3

Lotus Finnish 70

Points

811

Grand Prix Entered

178

World Championships

1

Highest race finish

1 (x21)

Highest race finish

1 (x26)

Highest race finish

1 (x20)

Highest grid position

2 (x1)

Highest grid position

1 (x26)

Highest grid position

1 (x37)

Highest grid position

1 (x16)

Date of Birth

11/01/1983

Place of Birth

Starnberg

Paul di Resta

Adrian Sutil

Team Nationality Podiums

Force India British 0

Date of Birth

07/01/1985

Place of Birth

Stevenage

Mark Webber

Lewis Hamilton

Team Nationality Podiums

Grand Prix Entered

21

Grand Prix Entered

27

Grand Prix Entered

40

Grand Prix Entered

0

Team

German

4 (x1)

Points

World Championships

Red Bull Racing

Highest race finish

77

11 (x1)

Valtteri Bottas

0

Points

Highest grid position

French

Points

97

8 (x4)

Caterham

Podiums

0

Points

Highest race finish

Team Nationality

0

16 0

Dutch

Points

Points World Championships

Charles Pic

Caterham

Podiums

Date of Birth

231

Romain Grosjean

German

19/08/1987

1001

Frome, Somerset

Mercedes

Date of Birth

49

19/01/1980

World Championships

4 (x1)

British

Date of Birth

Podiums

40

McLaren

Place of Birth

Team Nationality

Grand Prix Entered

Highest grid position

Points

Nico Rosberg

0

Points

Highest race finish

Podiums

German 85

World Championships

Nationality

Sauber

Points

World Championships

0

World Championships

Highest race finish

2 (x1)

Highest race finish

4 (x1)

Highest race finish

Highest grid position

2 (x1)

Highest grid position

6 (x2)

Highest grid position

Red Bull Racing Australian 34 856.5 199 0 1 (x9) 1 (x11)

Date of Birth

03/07/1987

Place of Birth

Heppenheim

Felippe Massa

Sebastian Vettel

Team Nationality Podiums

Ferrari Brazilian 35

Date of Birth

17/10/1979

Place of Birth

Espoo

Kimi Raikkonen

Fernando Alonso

Nationality

Team Podiums

Points

716

Points

Grand Prix Entered

174

Grand Prix Entered

World Championships

0

World Championships

Ferrari Spanish 87 1382 199 2

Highest race finish

1 (x11)

Highest race finish

1 (x30)

Highest grid position

1 (x15)

Highest grid position

1 (x22)

Date of Birth

25/04/1990

Date of Birth

17/04/1986

Date of Birth

16/04/1986

Date of Birth

27/08/1976

Date of Birth

25/04/1981

Date of Birth

29/07/1981

Place of Birth

Pontoise

Place of Birth

Geneva, Switzerland

Place of Birth

Uphall, Scotland

Place of Birth

New South Wales

Place of Birth

Sao Paulo

Place of Birth

Oviedo


What I did not enjoy.

enter the domain name here.

Press the download button to access a desktop background in a variety of sizes, to fit any screen you may own.


Summer plans.


Self initiated briefs. Freelance. Vegetable seller. As many placements as possible.


What I want to achieve in third year.

Project management. Decisiveness. Enjoyment. Continued improvement. Professional presentation skills.


Thank you notes.

Presentation  

PPP Presentation

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you