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C I G A R E T T E

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BEFORE AND AFTER 1971


C I G A R E T T E

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C I G A R E T T E 1971 IS A LANDMARK YEAR IN THE HISTORY OF CIGARETTE ADVERTISING. CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT LEGISLATION MADE PROMOTING THE SMOKING OF CIGARETTES HARDER FOR ADVERTISERS. THIS BOOK HIGHLIGHTS THE RESTRICTIONS PLACED ON ADVERTISERS AND HOW THEY AFFECTED AMERICAN SOCIETY. FROM HOW THE RESTRICTIONS AFFECTED THE AMOUNT OF SMOKERS IN AMERICA, TO THE TOTAL EARNINGS OF TOBACCO COMPANIES.

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INTRODUCTION

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C I G A R E T T E 02 WHAT IS A CIGARETTE? 06 CIGARETTE ADVERTISING 20 ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS 40 HEALTH WARNINGS 62 SMOKING IN PUBLIC 76 THE HUMAN IMPACT 94 HOW TO QUIT 122 THE MONEY GAME 138 CONCLUSION 140 A CLOSING STATEMENT

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CIG路A路RETTE A thin cylinder of finely cut tobacco rolled in paper for smoking.

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WHAT IS A CIGARETTE?


C I G A R E T T E A lit cigarette is like a chemical factory, releasing poisonous fumes into your lungs and air. Only the tobacco companies know exactly what goes into each cigarette, and only some of this information is available.

This means research is still underway to determine exactly what goes into a cigarette. So far more than 4000 different substances have been identified in cigarette smoke. Around half of these substances are found in the tobacco itself, the rest are produced as the tobacco burns. Studies are ongoing to determine which additives and ingredients in tobacco smoke are harmful. For example, health authorities in Canada have produced a list of 44 substances they consider to be particularly harmful.

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INGREDIENTS

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MISC. ammonia carbon monoxide nicotine nitric oxide hydrogen cyanide mercury tar* benzo[a]pyrene*

TOXIC TRACE METALS nickel* lead cadmium* chromium* arsenic* selenium

AROMATIC AMINES 1-aminonapthalene 2-aminonapthalene, 3-aminobiphenyl 4-aminobiphenyl*

VOLATILE CARBONYLS formaldehyde* acetaldehyde* acetone acrolein propionaldehyde crotonaldehyde methyl ethyl ketone butyraidehyde

WHAT IS A CIGARETTE?


C I G A R E T T E NITROSAMINES Nnitrosonornicotine* nicotine-derived nitrosamino ketone (NNK)* N-nitrosoanatabine* N-nitrosoanabasine*

BASIC SEMI-VOLATILES pyridine quinoline

PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS hydroquinone resorcinol catechol phenol m+p-cresol o-cresol

SELECTED VOLATILES isoprene acrylonitrile* benzene* toluene styrene

CAR路CIN路O路GEN* A substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue.

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INGREDIENTS

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ad路ver路tis路ing The activity of attracting public attention to a product or business, as by paid announcements in the print, broadcast, or electronic media.

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ADVERTISING


C I G A R E T T E THE HISTORY OF CIGARETTE ADVERTISING IS CONTROVERSIAL. THE PROMOTION OF CIGARETTES HAS BEEN RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MOST EFFECTIVE AND CREATIVE ADVERTISING OF ALL TIME, BUT AT THE SAME TIME, RIDDLED WITH A HISTORY OF MISTRUTHS AND CHILD EXPLOITATION. THE TECHNIQUES USED BY ADVERTISERS, IN THE YEARS BEFORE RESTRICTIONS WERE PLACED ON ADVERTISING WERE DIRECT, AND BASED ON THE MANIPULATION OF INSECURITIES. THIS, IN ITSELF DOES NOT DIFFERENTIATE IT FROM THE ADVERTISING OF ALCOHOL, CARS OR EVEN CHOCOLATE BARS. THE PUBLIC REACTION TO CIGARETTE ADVERTISING BECAME ADVERSE ONCE THE DETRIMENTAL SIDE EFFECTS OF SMOKING WERE REVEALED. THE COMING PAGES WILL DISCUSS THE TECHNIQUES USED BY THE ADVERTISERS OF CIGARETTES, AND HOW THESE TECHNIQUES WERE INTENDED TO AFFECT THE TARGET AUDIENCE.

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CIGARETTE ADVERTISING

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CIGARETTE ADVERTISING


C I G A R E T T E By the mid-1920s smoking had become commonplace in the United States and cigarette tobacco was the most popular form of tobacco consumption. Women were only permitted to smoke in the privacy of their own homes. Public opinion and certain legislation at the time did not permit women to smoke in public, and in 1922 a woman from New York City was arrested for lighting a cigarette on the street.

George Washington Hill, president of the American Tobacco Company and an eccentric businessman, recogniSed that an important part of his market was not being tapped into. Hill believed that cigarette sales would soar if he could entice more women to smoke in public. n 1928 Hill hired Bernays to expand the sales of his Lucky Strike cigarettes. RecogniSing that women were still riding high on the suffrage movement, Bernays used this as the basis for his new campaign. He consulted Dr. A.A. Brill, a psychoanalyst, to find the psychological basis for womens smoking. Dr. Brill determined that cigarettes which were usually equated with men, represented torches of freedom for women. The event caused a national stir and stories appeared in newspapers throughout the country. Though not doing away with the taboo completely, Bernays’s efforts had a lasting effect on women smoking.

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TORCHES OF FREEDOM

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CIGARETTE ADVERTISING


C I G A R E T T E PHALLIC POWER

SMOKING CIGARETTES HAS BEEN LINKED TO THE SEXUAL ACT, BE IT AN INVITATION TO, A REPLACEMENT OF, OR A CASUAL POST-COITAL SMOKE. THIS LINK WAS TAKEN ADVANTAGE OF BY ADVERTISERS promoting cigarette brands to teenage boys. VARIOUS METHODS WERE USED TO ENFORCE THE LINK BETWEEN SMOKING AND MASCULINITY. ASSOCIATING BRANDS WITH MOVIE STARS, SYMBOLIC FIGURES IN THE HISTORY OF AMERICA (cowboys) and sports stars of the day.

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CIGARETTE AS SYMBOL

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HELLO HOLLA HEJ HALLO CIAO BONJOUR

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CIGARETTE ADVERTISING


C I G A R E T T E SOCIABILITY

Playing on the common feelings of lonliness experienced by teenagers, advertisers would promote CIGARETTES as a tool which can be used to improve social interaction.

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CIGARETTE AS SYMBOL

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CIGARETTE ADVERTISING


C I G A R E T T E INDEPENDENCE

CIGARETTES WERE COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH INDEPENDENCE AND FREEDOM BY ADVERTISERS. the most famous application of this being the marlboro man, BY CREATING A LINK BETWEEN A SYMBOLIC FIGURE IN AMERICAN HISTORY (COWBOY), AND A CIGARETTE TOOK MARLBORO FROM A FROM A FAILING BRAND, TO A SYMBOL OF AMERICAN FREEDOM.

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CIGARETTE AS SYMBOL

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CIGARETTE ADVERTISING


C I G A R E T T E NIPPLE SUBSTITUTE

PSYCHOANALYSTS HAVE LINKED THE SMOKING OF CIGARETTES TO YEARNING FOR A RETURN TO THE LACTATING BREAST OF THE MOTHER. THIS IMPLIED A COMFORTING AFFECT SMOKING CAN HAVE.

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CIGARETTE AS SYMBOL

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MARLBORO MAN CAMPAIGN POSTER FROM 1969.

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CIGARETTE ADVERTISING


C I G A R E T T E With the rise of filter cigarettes in response to the increasing health concerns tied to smoking, Philip Morris decided to reposition its Marlboro brand for the filter market. What was originally a cigarette marketed as “Mild as May” to attract a primarily female audience, all at once gained a filter and became a man’s cigarette. No longer would Marlboro advertise “Ivory Tips to protect the lips” or “red beauty tips to match your lips and fingertips,” as it had done since the 1920s; Instead, Marlboro underwent a complete sex change in 1954. The brand’s new mascot, the “Marlboro Man,” would exude rugged manliness in an effort to position Marlboro as a filter with flavoUr. Previously, most filter cigarettes were considered to be “sissy” or effeminate, lacking in flavoUr and meant for those who couldn’t handle stronger brands. With the Marlboro Man campaign, Philip Morris worked to reverse this sentiment. The original Marlboro Men were excessive in their masculine virility. The models ranged from rough cowboys and sailors to alluring businessmen and academics. Whether the Marlboro Man was pictured preparing his gun or playing chess, he always sported a military-inspired tattoo on the back of his hand. In 1960, the tattoo was discontinued, but its message - that of intrigue and masculinity - remained vibrant in the Marlboro Men of the decades to follow.

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MARLBORO MAN

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re路stric路tion The limitation or control of someone or something, or the state of being limited or restricted.

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ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS


C I G A R E T T E WITH THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE POINTING OUT THE DAMAGING EFFECTS CIGARETTES HAVE ON SMOKERS HEALTH. THESE FINDING WERE FIRST PUBLISHED TO THE AMERICAN PUBLIC BY READER’S DIGEST IN 1952, IN AN ARTICLE CALLED ‘CANCER BY THE CARTON’. the government received mounting pressure from the american public to restrict the promotion of CIGARETTES. RESTRICTIONS WERE PLACED ON THE ADVERTISING OF CIGARETTES WERE ENFORCED IN 1971, CHANGING THE ADVERTISING INDUSTRY FOREVER.

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ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS

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ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS


C I G A R E T T E THE MEDIA USED TO ADVERTISE CIGARETTES WAS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE RESTRICTIONS. FROM jANUARY 2ND 1971, TELEVISION AND RADIO WAS A THING OF THE PAST FOR ADVERTISERS OF CIGARETTES. THIS AFFECTED THE AUDIENCE THAT COULD BE REACHED. THIS WAS A PRE-INTERNET WORLD, WHERE THE MAIN HOME ENTERTAINMENT SOURCE WAS TELEVISION AND RADIO.

ALTHOUGH TELEVISION AND RADIO WERE NO LONGER AVAILABLE to advertisers, it was legal to advertise across; magazines, newspapers, billboards and direct mail. THERE WAS STILL AMPLE OPPORTUNITY FOR TOBACCO COMPANIES TO PROMOTE THEIR DEADLY PRODUCT.

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TELEVISION AND RADIO

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MARLBORO MAN CAMPAIGN POSTER APPEARING AFTER THE ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS. NOTICE THE HEALTH WARNING IN THE BOTTOM LEFT CORNER.

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ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS


C I G A R E T T E THE DISCOVERED NEGATIVE EFFECTS CIGARETTES HAD ON SMOKERS HEALTH WAS THE KEY COMPONENT ON THE CLAMPING DOWN OF ADVERTISING. AFTER THE TELEVISION AND RADIO ADVERTISING BAN THERE NEEDED TO BE MORE TRANSPARENCY IN THE PROMOTION OF CIGARETTES. ADVERTISING LEGISLATION REQUIRED TOBACCO COMPANIES TO PRINT A SURGEON GENERAL HEALTH WARNING ON EVERY PIECE OF PROMOTIONAL MATERIAL AND PACKAGING THAT WAS PRODCUED. THE WARNING READ, ‘WARNING: THE SURGEON GENERAL HAS DETERMINED THAT CIGARETTE SMOKING IS DANGEROUS TO YOUR HEALTH’, and was used to prevent people from smokING.

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TRANSPARENCY

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ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS


C I G A R E T T E Using examples from both styles, illustrate and contextualise the differences between PRE-1971 AND POST-1971 CIGARETTE ADVERTISING.

“Adverts persuade people to consume some commodity or other. They also have a social and cultural function; creating and reproducing social and cultural identities� (Barnard, 2005, p77). The central aim of cigarette advertising was to make the audience consider smoking to be an ordinary part of everyday life and it has been proven to play a far greater role than peer pressure in the recruitment of fresh smokers. Cigarette advertising in particular, offers a unique challenge in that strives to promote inherently useless, meaningless items with little to no value. Contributing considerably to this challenge, are the hazardous and detrimental health affects, cigarettes have been publicly known to possess since 1952 (when an article in Readers Digest called Cartons by the Dozen offered its readers the first conclusive evidence on the subject). This essay will examine two very different ways (traditional and surrealist) in which cigarettes were marketed and advertised in the 20th century. In order to both illustrate and contextualise the key differences between

AND CASE STUDY

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the two, it is advantageous to throughly examine each technique independently, before carrying out a comparison. This will be carried out via case studies of two specific cigarette advertisements. The essay will then establish which of the two was the most effective approach to advertising cigarettes. The first advert it will look at is the traditional Marlboro Man “The filter doesn’t get between you and the flavour” advert, produced by Leo Burnett in 1955. The second is the surrealist Tailor’s Dummy advert, produced by Collett Dickenson Pearce, for Benson & Hedges in 1989. There were four traditional advertising techniques by which cigarettes were both marketed and promoted to a predominately young male audience. The four ways were as follows; as a symbol of initiation through which independence is successfully attained, as a substitute for the female nipple, as irrefutable evidence of sociability and last but not least, as a hallmark of phallic power (Jobling and Crowley, 1996, p258). The Marlboro Man “The filter doesn’t get in the way of the flavour” advert takes advantage of the first of the aforementioned traditional advertising techniques. Marlboro was traditionally speaking, a brand of cigarettes aimed largely at female consumers. At the time, the section of paper concealing the cigarette filter was red. This particular

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ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS


C I G A R E T T E feature was marketed as beauty tip, the purpose of which was to conceal the traces of lipstick. Leo Burnett was faced with the undeniable challenge of converting Marlboro from a primarily female focused brand to principally male focussed brand. The first stage of this process saw the transformation from the old packaging to the widely recognised red, white and black flip-top packaging the brand still uses to this day. This was shortly followed by the arrival of the very first Marlboro Man advertisement in 1955, which abided by the Inherent Drama advertising theory devised by Burnett himself. This theory concerns itself with an intrinsic value that lies within the product or in other words “the thing about that product that keeps it in the market place‌capturing that, and then taking that thing - whatever it is - and making the thing itself arrestingâ€? (Sivulka, 2012, p233). The intrinsic quality that Burnett found hidden within the cigarette brand was both an association and link to a perceived golden era in North American history. In connecting the cigarette brand with the image of a cowboy, he created a range of positive associations for the brand in the mind of the consumer. The public perception of the historical cowboys lifestyle is one of freedom and excitement. Looking back at an era of history creates powerful nostalgia and a patriotic attachment to the brand. However, the most

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powerful association the brand created was with the symbolic masculinity of the cowboy. This is supported by the following extract from Soap, Sex and Cigarettes: A Cultural History of American Advertising; “Cowboys symbolised the most masculine type of man, and Burnett’s ads evoked memorable imagery of real men in a man’s world” (Sivulka, 2012, p235). The nature in which cigarettes are consumed, both publicly and privately means that associations with the brand are transferred across to the consumer of the product. In this way, the masculinity of the cowboy association with the brand of cigarettes, a product that means nothing on it’s own, has given both the cigarette and the person smoking it individual masculinity. The introduction of restrictions on advertising regarding the promotion of cigarettes, meant that newfangled, surrealist advertising techniques had to come into play. The restrictions meant health warnings needed to be placed on all promotional materials, including cigarette packaging and advertisements. The restrictions also meant that advertisers and marketers were unable to promote cigarettes in the four traditional methods discussed in the previous paragraph. The surrealist advertising techniques will be exemplified and explored through the Tailor’s Dummy, an advert produced by Collett Dickenson Pearce in 1989 as part of the

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ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS


C I G A R E T T E Pure Gold campaign for Benson & Hedges. This particular advert has been chosen because it benefits greatly from the use of surrealist image techniques. Andre Breton, a leading figure and pioneer in the surrealist movement has said the core idea at the heart of surrealist imagery is that, “beauty should be convulsive” (Jobling and Crowley, 1996, p258). The meaning of convulsive beauty is that the relationships between elements need to be subjective in order to create multiple connections and connotations in the mind of the audience. There are three main methods used in achieving convulsive beauty: the first technique is veiled erotic, fixed explosion or circumstantial magic. The first two of these methods do not concern the techniques used by Collett Dickenson Pearce in the production of the Tailor’s Dummy advert. The technique used in the advert is that of circumstantial magic, a subjective approach to image making, involving the juxtaposition of two disconnected images combine to create a unique meaning in the mind of the audience. This method of surrealist imagery is very powerful, as Judith Williamson states, “In surrealist pictures, we assume a logic of connection between things simply because they are presented as connected” (Williamson, 2002, p134). The Tailor’s Dummy uses disconnected imagery and unsettling imagery to evoke powerful interpretations by the audience when linking the meanings of the

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elements within the advert. The imagery used within the advertisement has sexual undertones, with the advert not wanting to show the mere pleasure of smoking cigarettes, but rather the pleasure of sexual intercourse or sexual bliss. The very act of smoking a cigarette has been linked with seeking sexual desire, being seen as an invitation to, or a chaser of sex. At times smoking a cigarette can be seen as a replacement of the act of sexual intercourse entirely. With this in mind the imagery used within the Benson & Hedges advert contains imagery that is a much darker interpretation of sexual bliss. The advert depicts a room full of undressed female mannequin torsos. One of the mannequins is distorted to a cigarette packet, this, and the shadow of a breast cast upon the cigarette packet both act to feminise the cigarettes and thus sexualises the product. There is a darker side to the advert, with danger introduced via the tuxedo clad mannequin lurking in the background. The masculinised mannequin acts as a disruptive, dark force within the advert when placed behind the feminised mannequins. These elements, when combined with the stark lighting and claustrophobic, shallow space creates the tension, which gives the advert the sexual undertones. The gold fabric, embroidered with the Benson & Hedges logo placed in front of the mannequins associates the brand with luxury, thus as a luxurious,

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ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS


C I G A R E T T E aspirational product to own and consume. An important part of the adverts ability to keep the elements disconnected is the lack of body copy, it is claimed that the Tailor’s Dummy advert is the most open to interpretation of any of the Pure Gold campaigns produced by Benson & Hedges. However, there can be somewhat of a cynical styleraiding of surrealist imagery happening in this advert, this is different than creating images based on the true principles of the surrealist movement. Or, as Frederic Jameson refers to the Pure Gold campaign as, “Surrealism without the subconscious” (Jobling and Crowley, 1996, p264). There is one other way that the surrealist imagery of these adverts would appeal to the audience. The undeniable link between surrealist imagery and the high/ fine arts creates and additional connotation of intelligence with the cigarette and thus the consumer of the cigarette.

In order to establish which of the two is The most successful, a comparison of the traditional Marlboro Man “The filter doesn’t get in the way of the flavour” advert and the surrealist Benson & Hedges Tailor’s Dummy advert must take place. The specific focus will be on how the techniques compare when trying to communicate a defined brand message to the audience. Both adverts have one commonality between them, they target their brand message towards a primarily male

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audience. That is where the similarities between the adverts ends, the Benson & Hedges adverts sells the cigarettes by using highly sexualised and surreal imagery, whereas the Marlboro campaign implements an image of a traditional cowboy to sell the cigarettes through a link/association with masculinity. The Marlboro Man advert preceded the legislative restriction placed on the advertising and promotion of imposed on the cigarette industry during the 1970s. This allowed for the advertiser to devise a specific message aimed at a specific audience, created solid, objective relationships between the product, and the images used in the advertisers, in the example of Marlboro this relationship was achieved by associating the product with the image of a heroic, masculine cowboy. This direct connection between the image, copy which all work together to reinforce the masculine image the brand wants to communicate to their audience. This level of specificity of message was close to impossible to achieve with the surrealist technique used to subvert the advertising restrictions which were introduced during the 1970s. Within the Tailor’s Dummy advert the lack of body copy, and requirement for the imagery to be ambiguous and have subjective meaning reduces the ease in which a specific message can be marketed to a specific age audience. The image has plurality of meaning and in

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ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS


C I G A R E T T E this way, the perception of the brand by the public is harder to predict. and thus harder to engrain on the conscious of a society.

Looking at the adverts in such a way which acts to compare them purely on the advertising techniques used to promote the smoking of cigarettes would be to underestimate the effect a cultural climate has on how adverts are interpreted by the public. This paragraph will look toward realising the varying contexts these two adverts were released into and how this context dictated the audiences reaction to them. The two adverts being compared, the Marlboro Man “The filter doesn’t get between you and the flavour” and the Benson & Hedges Tailor’s Dummy advert were released in to very different cultural contexts. This is not only because one of the adverts featured in Britain, and the other in America, but also that the adverts came to life on each side of a cultural revolution. The first advert being looked at is the Marlboro Man advert, a campaign that found itself faced with a post war American audience, 10 years from World War 2 and 2 years removed from the Korean War. The Marlboro therefore, gave the American audience a figure who symbolises masculinity, calmness, courage, integrity. These are qualities that are positive at all times, but no more so than in the tumultuous society this advert was released in to. The

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connection between cowboys, and the warfare underwent with the Native Indians cannot be underestimated in these adverts, a link to victorious wars of the past and the strength of America as a country, as well as it’s men impart a deeply patriotic undertone to the advert. With this in mind it wouldn’t be too far a stretch to have the cowboy be a symbolic representation of a war hero when placed within the cultural context of the time. The link between the Marlboro Man and that of the American military does not only lie in the distant past. The tattoo seen on his right hand can be seen as a signifier to a military past. The tattoo being one of an anchor could realistically create a link between the Marlboro Man and a past in the Navy Seals, this solidifies the character of the Marlboro Man as the most masculine of men in the post-war America on the 1950’s, with this affiliation being past on to the consumer of the Marlboro cigarette. The Benson & Hedges Tailor’s Dummy advert was released in to a 1989 British culture extremely different to that of the American culture in 1955. One, when looked at more closely could explain the choice of imagery chosen by Collett Dickenson Pearce when producing the advert. The contrast in British culture at the time of extreme excesses in wealth, when combined with the fear of the AIDs virus can be seen in the Benson & Hedges advert. The sexualised mannequins and cigarette packet, being

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ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS


C I G A R E T T E stalked by the dark, sinister, threatening force of the tuxedo clad mannequin could be seen to represent the AIDs virus. A threatening disease lurking in the shadows and destroying the lives of many British people at that time. The excessive wealth of the time is represented in the depiction of the gold fabric, embroidered with the Benson & Hedges logo. Not only does this serve as a connector between the brand and that of gold, a luxury item, but that of a welcome distraction from the danger of AIDs, juxtaposing the two extreme aspects of society at the time, excess and fear. Overall, both methods of marketing and advertising cigarettes have their benefits and drawbacks, the traditional techniques of marketing cigarettes prove to be the most effective in engraining a brand message of the psyche of a nation and group of potential consumers. The reasons for this conclusion are as follows: Traditional advertising methods allows for a much more in depth, and targeted message. As shown with the Marlboro Man advert, the use of a cowboy has many positive associations which are transferred across to the consumer of the product. The lack of restrictions surrounding cigarette advertising at the time of Marlboro Man advert allowed for the advert imply increased masculinity through the smoking of Marlboro cigarettes. Something the Benson

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& Hedges campaign could not directly imply in their Pure Gold adverts which came after the advertising restrictions. The social context the adverts were placed in has a substantial affect how effective the message communicated to the audience was, however, the directness of imagery at the disposal of advertisers before restrictions were imposed allowed for the traditional means of advertising to plunge deeper into the subconscious mind of the potential consumer. No more obvious is this than with the Marlboro Man and the war hero connotations so shortly after America had left war themselves. The traditional methods used to advertise and promote the smoking of cigarettes was more advantageous way of targeting a specific target audience to communicate to. The Marlboro Man adverts are clearly targeted at a adolescent male audience, where the audience for the Tailor’s Dummy advert is harder to define. As a Pure marketing tool, being able to target a specific audience allows for the campaign to have a greater impact on sales of a product. The combined outcomes of being able to focus a campaign and brand message at a specific audience with a specific message allows for a campaign to be engrained in the subconscious of potential consumers, and in the case of Marlboro Man, on popular culture way beyond the advertising campaign is over. It is this overall increased impact targeted

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ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS


C I G A R E T T E cigarettes adverts have on the cultural landscape which make them more effective than those adverts produced after advertising restrictions were imposed on cigarettes. The Marlboro Man advert was able to have a long lasting, even permanent impact as, it not only aligned smoking Marlboro cigarettes with being more masculine, but with being more American as well. A message so powerful and meaningful to the audience, the advert by Benson & Hedges was incapable of matching the meaning using surrealist imagery.

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40

HEALTH WARNING


C I G A R E T T E HEALTH

a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

warn路ing A statement or event that indicates a possible or impending danger, problem, or other unpleasant situation.

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HEALTH WARNING

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HEALTH WARNING


C I G A R E T T E IN MODERN TIMES THE MAJORITY OF PEOPLE KNOW THAT SMOKING CIGARETTES IS BAD FOR YOU. THIS WAS NOT ALWAYS THE CASE, AS STATED EARLIER IN THE BOOK, THE 1952 ARTICLE ‘CANCER BY THE CARTON’, PUBLISHED BY READER’S DIGEST FIRST TOLD THE PUBLIC HOW DANGEROUS SMOKING IS.

IT SOON BECAME LEGISLATION FOR HEALTH WARNINGS TO APPEAR ON CIGARETTE PACKAGING. IN 1966, THE UNITED STATES BECAME THE FIRST COUNTRY TO FEATURE HEALTH WARNINGS ON CIGARETTE PACKAGING. THE NEXT PAGES WILL DISUCSS THE HEALTH CONCERNS, AND IMPLICATIONS THAT HAS HAD ON THE DESIGN OF CIGARETTE PACKAGING.

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HEALTH WARNING

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HEALTH WARNING


C I G A R E T T E QUANTITY

THE AMOUNT OF CIGARETTES A PERSON SMOKES IN THEIR LIFE WILL GREATLY AFFECT THE SIDE EFFECTS THEY SUFFER. SMOKING ONCE ISN’T LIKELY TO HAVE LONG TERM HEALTH AFFECTS, HOWEVER SMOKING 200 CIGARETTES A DAY WILL QUICKLY END IN ADVERSE HEALTH CONDITIONS.

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WHAT INFLUENCES DAMAGE

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HEALTH WARNING


C I G A R E T T E FILTER/NON-FILTER

FILTERS ARE USED ON THE CIGARETTES TO LIMIT THE AMOUNT HARMFUL TOXICS INHALED DURING THE ACT SMOKING. A FILTER WILL NEVER BE ABLE TO STOP ALL TOXICS ENTERING YOUR BODY, BUT IT IS PREFERABLE TO SMOKE A CIGARETTE WITH A FILTER.

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WHAT INFLUENCES DAMAGE

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HEALTH WARNING


C I G A R E T T E PREPARATION

WITH TOBACCO BEING A FARMED PRODUCT. THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS, FROM THE NATURAL GOOD TO END PRODUCT HAS A DRAMATIC AFFECT ON THE SAFETY OF THE CIGARETTE.

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WHAT INFLUENCES DAMAGE

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HEALTH WARNING


C I G A R E T T E Side effects of smoking that are an immediate effect of smoking, or after for smoking for a limited period of time. THE SHORT TERM SIDE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ARE NOT LIFE THREATENING, however, they can have adverse effects on a persons social life. BAD BREATH, HAND TREMORS, DIZZINESS, LOSS OF APPETITE TO COUGHS AND COLDS ETC. A SIDE EFFECT OF SMOKING THAT IS NOT RELATED TO HEALTH IS THE FINANCIAL COST, THIS WILL BE LOOKED AT LATER IN THE BOOK.

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SHORT TERM DAMAGE

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Circulatory Heart Rate. Blood Pressure. Dizziness. Skin Temperature of Fingers & Toes. Hand TremorS. Constriction of Blood Vessels. Flow of Blood Supply and Oxygen. Fat and Cholesterol Deposition.

RESPIRATORY Paralyses Cilia, reduces function Irritates Allergies. Cough AND Colds Irritates Eyes AND Throat.

URINARY NO EFFECT.

MUSCULAR Physical Endurance

HEALTH WARNING


C I G A R E T T E DIGESTIVE Acid in Stomach. Sensation of Appetite, Taste AND Smell. Bad Breath.

NERVOUS Stimulates, then Reduces Brain Activity.

REPRODUCTIVE NO EFFECT.

COSMETIC NO EFFECT.

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SHORT TERM DAMAGE

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HEALTH WARNING


C I G A R E T T E THE LONG TERM DAMAGE CAUSED BY SMOKING IS MUCH MORE SERIOUS THAN THE SHORT TERM. CANCER, HEART DISEASE AND YELLOW, WRINKLY SKIN ARE SOME OF THE PLEASENT TREATS AWAITING CIGARETTE ENTHUSIASTS.

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LONG TERM DAMAGE

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56

Circulatory Narrowing or hardening of blood vessels. Coronary heart disease. Peripheral vascular disease. Arteriosclerosis

RESPIRATORY Cancer of Lungs Emphysema Chronic bronchitis Shortness of breath infections Cancer of Larynx

URINARY BLADDER AND KIDNEY CANCER.

MUSCULAR MUSCLE TONE.

HEALTH WARNING


C I G A R E T T E DIGESTIVE Stomach ulcerS Bad Breath. mouth, oesophagus and pancreaTIC Cancer.

NERVOUS STROKE.

REPRODUCTIVE Reproductive fertility. Birth weight (200 grams lighter) Miscarriages, complications at birth and retarded foetal growth. Cancer of cervix.

COSMETIC Wrinkling and premature aging of the skin. Sallow, yellow-grey complexion. Stains fingers and nails. Stains teeth.

AND

NA T ION

LONG TERM DAMAGE

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

57


E

58

HEALTH WARNING


C I G A R E T T E WARNING LABELS, ABOUT THE ADVERSE HEALTH AFFECTS OF CIGARETTES HAVE APPEARED ON PACKAGING IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA SINCE 1966. PREDATING THE ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS BY 5 YEARS, BECOMING THE FIRST NATION TO FEATURE HEALTH WARNINGS.

ON A PERSONAL LEVEL I FEEL THE HEALTH WARNINGS WOULD ENCOURAGE YOUNG PEOPLE TO SMOKE, SHOWING A CERTAIN DARING, REBELIOUS PERSONALITY. SIMILAR TO THE EFFECT THE ‘PARENTAL ADVISORY’ LOGO HAD ON THE SALE OF MUSIC IN THE MID TO LATE 1980’S.

AND

WARNING LABELS

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

59


E

SMOKING KILLS

60

HEALTH WARNING


C I G A R E T T E 1966 - 1970

CAUTION: CIGARETTE SMOKING MAY BE HAZARDOUS TO YOUR HEALTH.

1970 - 1985

WARNING: THE SURGEON GENERAL HAS DETERMINED THAT CIGARETTE SMOKING IS DANGEROUS TO YOUR HEALTH.

1985 - PRESENT

SURGEON GENERAL’S WARNING: SMOKING CAUSES LUNG CANCER, HEART DISEASE, EMPHYSEMA AND MAY COMPLICATE PREGNANCY.

1985 - PRESENT

SURGEON GENERAL’S WARNING: QUITTING SMOKING NOW GREATLY REDUCES SERIOUS RISKS TO YOUR HEALTH.

1985 - PRESENT

SURGEON GENERAL’S WARNING: SMOKING BY PREGANT WOMEN MAY RESULT IN FETAL INJURY, PREMATURE BIRTH AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT.

1985 - PRESENT

SURGEON GENERAL’S WARNING: CIGARETTE SMOKE CONTAINS CARBON MONOXIDE.

AND

WARNING LABELS

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

61


E

62

SMOKING IN PUBLIC


C I G A R E T T E IN RECENT TIMES THE SOCIAL LANDSCAPE OF SMOKING HAS CHANGED SIGNIFICANTLY. SMOKING WAS ONCE LEGAL IN EVERY WALK OF LIFE, DOCTORS WOULD SMOKE IN THEIR SURGERIES. AFTER THE TRUTH ABOUT THE HEALTH IMPACT OF CIGARETTES WERE UNDERSTOOD, MOUNTING PRESSURE FROM ANTI-SMOKING GROUPS MADE SMOKING ILLEGAL IN SOME PLACES. THE THREE MOST AFFECTED PLACES WAS: THE WORKPLACE, BAR AND RESTAURANT. THESE CHANGES IMPACTED THE FREEDOM OF THE UNITED STATES CITIZENS.

AND

NA T ION

SMOKING in public

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

63


E

LEGAL TO SMOKE ILLEGAL TO SMOKE

64

SMOKING IN PUBLIC


C I G A R E T T E

AND

WORKPLACE 1970

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

65


E

LEGAL TO SMOKE ILLEGAL TO SMOKE

66

SMOKING IN PUBLIC


C I G A R E T T E

AND

WORKPLACE 2010

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

67


E

LEGAL TO SMOKE ILLEGAL TO SMOKE

68

SMOKING IN PUBLIC


C I G A R E T T E

AND BARS 1970

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

69


E

LEGAL TO SMOKE ILLEGAL TO SMOKE

70

SMOKING IN PUBLIC


C I G A R E T T E

AND BARS 2010

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

71


E

LEGAL TO SMOKE ILLEGAL TO SMOKE

72

SMOKING IN PUBLIC


C I G A R E T T E

AND

RESTAURANTS 1970

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

73


E

LEGAL TO SMOKE ILLEGAL TO SMOKE

74

SMOKING IN PUBLIC


C I G A R E T T E

AND

RESTAURANTS 2010

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

75


E

hu路man A member of the genus Homo and especially of the species H. sapiens.

im路pact The effect or one thing on another.

76

THE HUMAN IMPACT


C I G A R E T T E THE CHANGES DISCUSSED IN THIS BOOK SO FAR HAD ONE INTENTION, TO STOP PEOPLE SMOKING, AND ULTIMATELY REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF LIVES CUT SHORT BY THE EVIL CIGARETTE SMOKE. I WILL BE LOOKING AT THE AMOUNT OF SMOKERS IN THE USA IN 1970 AND 2010, THEIR LIFE EXPECTANCY AND THE MORTALITY RATES AMONGST SMOKERS.

AND

NA T ION

THE HUMAN IMPACT

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

77


E

SMOKERS NON-SMOKERS

78

THE HUMAN IMPACT


C I G A R E T T E IN 1970, 37.4% OF THE POPULATION SMOKED. OUT OF A TOTAL POPULATION OF 203,302,031 PEOPLE, 76,034,959 SMOKED.

AND

SMOKERS 1970

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

79


E

SMOKERS NON-SMOKERS

80

THE HUMAN IMPACT


C I G A R E T T E IN 2010, 19.4% OF THE POPULATION SMOKED. OUT OF A TOTAL POPULATION OF 307,745,358 PEOPLE, 59,702,599 SMOKED.

AND

SMOKERS 2010

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

81


E

LIFE The property or quality that distinguishes living organisms from dead organisms and inanimate matter, manifested in functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and response to stimuli or adaptation to the environment originating from within the organism.

ex路pec路tan路cy An expected amount calculated on the basis of actuarial data.

82

THE HUMAN IMPACT


C I G A R E T T E THE NEGATIVE SIDE EFFECTS OF SMOKING CAN COST PEOPLE THEIR LIVES, THIS SHOWS ITS AFFECT ON THE LIFE EXPECTANCY OF PEOPLE WHO SMOKE CIGARETTES FOR A SUSTAINED PERIOD OF TIME. PEOPLE CAN LOSE UP TO 10 YEARS OF THEIR LIFE THROUGH SMOKING.

AND

LIFE EXPECTANCY

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

83


E

SMOKERS NON-SMOKERS

84

THE HUMAN IMPACT


C I G A R E T T E The average life expectancy OF A SMOKER IN 1970’S AMERICA WAS 62 YEARS. AT THE SAME TIME, THE LIFE EXPECTANCY OF A NON-SMOKER WAS 70 YEARS. MEANING SMOKING COSTS MORE THAN 10% OF THE AVERAGE LIFETIME.

AND

NA T ION

LIFE EXPECTANCY 1970

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

85


E

SMOKERS NON-SMOKERS

86

THE HUMAN IMPACT


C I G A R E T T E The average life expectancy OF A SMOKER IN THE AMERICA OF 2010 WAS 70 YEARS. AT THE SAME TIME, THE LIFE EXPECTANCY OF A NON-SMOKER WAS 78 YEARS. MEANING SMOKING COSTS MORE THAN 10% OF THE AVERAGE LIFETIME.

AND

NA T ION

LIFE EXPECTANCY 2010

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

87


E

mor路tal路i路ty The state of being subject to death.

88

THE HUMAN IMPACT


C I G A R E T T E HOW MANY PEOPLE SUCCUMB TO THE HAZY AFTERLIFE AS A RESULT of smoking those nasty cigarette sticks? DID THE INTRODUCTION OF THE HEALTH WARNINGS HAVE ANY EFFECT ON THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE LAYING TO REST DUE TO SMOKING? THIS WILL BE BASED PROPORTIONATLY OFF THE TOTAL POPULATION, AND THE POPULATION OF SMOKERS, in an attempt to get an understanding of the mortality rates in the smoking community, and the nation at large.

AND MORTALITy

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

89


E

TOTAL POPULATION DEATHS CAUSED BY SMOKING RELATED ILLESSES.

90

THE HUMAN IMPACT


C I G A R E T T E 1970, THE YEAR BEFORE THE CRACK DOWN ON TOBACCO COMPANIES REALLY BEGAN, IS THE FIRST YEAR I WILL SAMPLE THE MORTALITY RATES ON. ALL MORTALITY RATES DUE TO SMOKING MUST BE COMPARED TO THE OVERALL POPULATION OF THE NATION. IN 1970, THE POPULATION OF AMERICA WAS 203,302,031, OF THIS 76,034,959 PEOPLE SMOKED. OF THOSE 386,273 DIED, EQUATING TO around 0.5% OF SMOKERS DYING AND 0.19% OF THE TOTAL POPULATION DYING DUE TO SMOKING RELATED ILLNESSES IN 1970.

AND

MORTALITy 1970

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

91


E

TOTAL POPULATION DEATHS CAUSED BY SMOKING RELATED ILLESSES.

92

THE HUMAN IMPACT


C I G A R E T T E 2010, FORTY YEARS AFTER THE CRACK DOWN ON TOBACCO COMPANIES REALLY BEGAN, IS THE SECOND YEAR I WILL SAMPLE THE MORTALITY RATES ON. ALL MORTALITY RATES DUE TO SMOKING MUST BE COMPARED TO THE OVERALL POPULATION OF THE NATION. IN 2010, THE POPULATION OF AMERICA WAS 307,745,358, OF THIS 59,702,599 PEOPLE SMOKED. OF THOSE 443,000 DIED, EQUATING TO Around 0.74% OF SMOKERS DYING AND 0.14% OF THE TOTAL POPULATION DYING DUE TO SMOKING RELATED ILLNESSES IN 2010.

AND

mortality 2010

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

93


E

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94

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HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E Whether you’re a teen smoker or a lifetime pack–a–day smoker, quitting can be tough. But the more you learn about your options and prepare for quitting, the easier the process will be. With the right game plan tailored to your needs, you can break the addiction, manage your cravings, and join the millions of people who have kicked the habit for good.

AND

HOW TO QUIT

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

95


E

quitting is hard Smoking tobacco is both a physical addiction and a psychological habit. The nicotine from cigarettes provides a temporary, and addictive, high. Eliminating that regular fix of nicotine will cause your body to experience physical withdrawal symptoms and cravings. Because of nicotine’s “feel good” effect on the brain, you may also have become accustomed to smoking as a way of coping with stress, depression, anxiety, or even boredom. At the same time, the act of smoking is ingrained as a daily ritual. It may be an automatic response for you to smoke a cigarette with your morning coffee, while taking a break from work or school, or during your commute home at the end of a long day. Perhaps friends, family members, and colleagues smoke, and it has become part of the way you relate with them. To successfully quit smoking, you’ll need to address both the addiction and the habits and routines that go along with it.

96

HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E Stop Smoking Plan

While some smokers successfully quit by going cold turkey, most people do better with a plan to keep themselves on track. A good plan addresses both the short–term challenge of quitting smoking and the long–term challenge of preventing relapse. It should also be tailored to your specific needs and smoking habits.

AND

HOW TO QUIT

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

97


E

98

HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E Questions to ask yourself

Take the time to think of what kind of smoker you are, which moments of your life call for a cigarette, and why. This will help you to identify which tips, techniques or therapies may be most beneficial for you. Do you feel the need to smoke at every meal? Are you more of a social smoker? Is it a very bad addiction (more than a pack a day)? Or would a simple nicotine patch do the job? Do you reach for cigarettes when you’re feeling stressed or down? Are there certain activities, places, or people you associate with smoking? Is your cigarette smoking linked to other addictions, such as alcohol or gambling? Are you interested in getting into a fitness REGIME/programME?

AND QUESTIONS

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

99


E

Start your stop smoking plan with START. Set a quit date. Choose a date within the next 2 weeks, so you have enough time to prepare without losing your motivation to quit. If you mainly smoke at work, quit on the weekend, so you have a few days to adjust to the change. Tell family, friends, and co-workers that you plan to quit. Let your friends and family in on your plan to quit smoking and tell them you need their support and encouragement to stop. Look for a quit buddy who wants to stop smoking as well. You can help each other get through the rough times. Anticipate and plan for the challenges you’ll face while quitting. Most people who begin smoking again do so within the first 3 months. You can help yourself make it through by preparing ahead for common challenges, such as nicotine withdrawal and cigarette cravings.

100

HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E Remove cigarettes and other tobacco products from your home, car, and work. Throw away all of your cigarettes (no emergency pack!), lighters, ashtrays, and matches. Wash your clothes and freshen up anything that smells like smoke. Shampoo your car, clean your drapes and carpet, and steam your furniture.

Talk to your doctor about getting help to quit. Your doctor can prescribe medication to help with withdrawal and suggest other alternatives. If you can’t see a doctor, you can get many products over the counter at your local pharmacy or grocery store, including the nicotine patch, nicotine lozenges, and nicotine gum.

AND

HOW TO START

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

101


E

Identify your smoking triggers One of the best things you can do to help yourself quit is to identify the things that make you want to smoke, including specific situations, activities, feelings, and people.

102

HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E Keep a craving journal

A craving journal can help you zero in on your patterns and triggers. For a week or so leading up to your quit date, keep a log of your smoking. Note the moments in each day when you crave a cigarette: What time was it?

How intense was the craving? (on a scale of 1-10)

What were you doing?

Who were you with?

How were you feeling?

How did you feel after smoking?

AND

NA T ION

SMOKING TRIGGERS

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

103


E

Managing unpleasant feelings such as stress, depression, loneliness, fear, and anxiety are some of the most common reasons why adults smoke. When you have a bad day, it can seem like cigarettes are your only friend. As much comfort as cigarettes provide, though, it’s important to remember that there are healthier (and more effective) ways to keep unpleasant feelings in check. These may include exercising, meditating, using sensory relaxation strategies, and practicing simple breathing exercises. For many people, an important aspect of quitting smoking is to find alternate ways to handle these difficult feelings without smoking. Even when cigarettes are no longer a part of your life, the painful and unpleasant feelings that may have prompted you to smoke in the past will still remain. So, it’s worth spending some time thinking about the different ways you intend to deal with stressful situations and the daily irritations that would normally have you reaching for a cigarette.

104

HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E Tips for avoiding common smoking triggerS

Alcohol Many people have a habit of smoking when they drink. TIP: switch to non-alcoholic drinks or drink only in places where smoking inside is prohibited. Alternatively, try snacking on nuts and chips, or chewing on a straw or cocktail stick. Other smokers When friends, family, and co-workers smoke around you, it is doubly difficult to quit or avoid relapse. TIP: Your social circles need to know that you are changing your habits so talk about your decision to quit. Let them know they won’t be able to smoke when you’re in the car with them or taking a coffee break together. In your workplace, don’t take all your coffee breaks with smokers only, do something else instead, or find non-smokers to have your breaks with. End of a meal For some smokers, ending a meal means lighting up, and the prospect of giving that up may appear daunting. TIP: replace that moment after a meal with something such as a piece of fruit, a (healthy) dessert, a square of chocolate, or a stick of gum.

AND

NA T ION

SMOKING TRIGGERS

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

105


E

withdrawal symptoms Once you stop smoking, you will experience a number of physical symptoms as your body withdraws from nicotine. Nicotine withdrawal begins quickly, usually starting within thirty minutes to an hour of the last cigarette and peaking about 2 to 3 days later. Withdrawal symptoms can last for a few days to several weeks and differ from person to person.

106

HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E Common withdrawal symptoms include: Cigarette cravings Irritability, frustration, or anger Anxiety or nervousness Difficulty concentrating Restlessness Increased appetite Headaches Insomnia Tremors Increased coughing Fatigue Constipation or upset stomach Depression Decreased heart rate

Unpleasant as these withdrawal symptoms may be, they are only temporary. They will get better in a few weeks as the toxins are flushed from your body. In the meantime, let your friends and family know that you won’t be your usual self and ask for their understanding.

AND

NA T ION

WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

107


E

108

Symptom Craving for A cigarette.

Symptom Irritability, impatience.

Duration Most intense during first week but can linger for months.

Duration 2/4 WEEKS

Relief Wait out the urge; distract yourself; take a brisk walk.

Relief Exercise; take hot baths; avoid caffeine.

Symptom INSOMNIA

Symptom FATIGUE

Duration 2/4 WEEKS

Duration 2/4 WEEKS

Relief Wait out the urge; distract yourself; take a brisk walk.

RelieF Take naps; do not push yourself.

HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E Symptom Lack of concentration.

Symptom Hunger.

Duration 2/4 WEEKS

Duration 1+ MONTHS

Relief Reduce workload; avoid stress.

Relief Drink water; eat low-calorie snacks.

Symptom Coughing, dry throat, nasal drip

Symptom Constipation

Duration 1+ MONTHS

Duration 1/2 weeks

Relief Drink plenty of fluids; use cough drops.

Relief Drink plenty of fluids; add fiber to diet; exercise.

AND

NA T ION

WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

109


E

ManagING cigarette cravings Avoiding smoking triggers will help reduce the urge to smoke, but you can’t avoid cravings entirely. But cigarette cravings don’t last long, so if you’re tempted to light up, remember that the craving will pass and try to wait it out. It also helps to be prepared in advance. Having a plan to cope with cravings will help keep you from giving in.

110

HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E Distract yourself Do the dishes, turn on the TV, take a shower, or call a friend. The activity doesn’t matter as long as it gets your mind off of smoking. Remind yourself why you quit Focus on your reasons for quitting, including the health benefits, improved appearance, money you’re saving, and enhanced self-esteem. Get out of a tempting situation Where you are or what you’re doing may be triggering the craving. If so, a change of scenery can make all the difference. Reward yourself Reinforce your victories. Whenever you triumph over a craving, give yourself a reward to keep yourself motivated.

AND

NA T ION

MANAGING CRAVINGS

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

111


E

112

oral substitutION Keep other things around to pop in your mouth when cravings hit. Good choices include mints, hard candy, carrot or celery sticks, gum, and sunflower seeds.

BUSY MIND Read a book or magazine, listen to some music you love, do a crossword or Sudoku puzzle, or play an online game.

Drink water Slowly drink a large, cold glass of water. Not only will it help the craving pass, but staying hydrated helps minimize the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.

Light something Instead of lighting a cigarette, light a candle.

HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E BUSY HANDS Squeeze balls, pencils, or paper clips are good substitutes to satisfy that need for tactile stimulation.

Brush your teeth The just–brushed, clean feeling can help get rid of cigarette cravings.

Get active Go for a walk, do some jumping jacks or pushups, try some yoga stretches, or run around the block.

Try to relax Do something that calms you down, such as taking a warm bath, reading a book, oR practicing deep breathing exercises.

AND

NA T ION

MANAGING CRAVINGS

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

113


E

Weight gain is a common concern when quitting smoking. Some people even use it as a reason not to quit. While it’s true that many smokers put on weight when they stop smoking, the gain is usually small—5 pounds on average. Furthermore, gaining weight is not inevitable. Smoking acts as an appetite suppressant. It also dampens your sense of smell and taste. So after you quit, your appetite will likely increase and food will seem more appealing. Weight gain can also happen if you replace the oral gratification of smoking with eating, especially if you turn to unhealthy comfort foods. It’s also important to find other, healthy ways to deal with stress and other unpleasant feelings rather than mindless, emotional eating.

114

HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E Nurture yourself Instead of turning to cigarettes or food when you feel stressed, anxious, or depressed, learn new ways to soothe yourself. Eat healthy, varied meals Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and limit your fat intake. Seek out low-fat options that look appetizing to you and you will actually eat. Avoid alcohol, sugary sodas, and other high-calorie drinks. Drink lots of water Drinking lots of water—at least six to eight 8–oz glasses— will help you feel full and keep you from eating when you’re not hungry. Water will also help flush toxins from your body. Take a walk Walking is a great form of exercise. Not only will it help you burn calories and keep the weight off, but it will also help alleviate feelings of stress and frustration that accompany smoking withdrawal. Snack on low-calorie or calorie-free foods Good choices include sugar-free gum, carrot and celery sticks, sliced bell peppers or jicama, or sugar-free hard candies.

AND

NA T ION

PREVENTING WEIGHT GAIN

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

115


E

There are many different methods that have successfully helped people to quit smoking, including: Quitting smoking cold turkey. Systematically decreasing the number of cigarettes you smoke. Reducing your intake of nicotine gradually over time. Using nicotine replacement therapy or non-nicotine medications to reduce withdrawal symptoms. UtiliSing nicotine support groups. Trying hypnosis, acupuncture, or counseling using cognitive behavioral techniques. You may be successful with the first method you try. More likely, you’ll have to try a number of different methods or a combination of treatments to find the ones that work best for you.

116

HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E Smoking cessation medications can ease withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings, and are most effective when used as part of a comprehensive stop smoking program monitored by your physician. Talk to your doctor about your options and whether an anti-smoking medication is right for you. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved options are:

Nicotine replacement therapy Nicotine replacement therapy involves “replacing� cigarettes with other nicotine substitutes, such as nicotine gum or a nicotine patch. It works by delivering small and steady doses of nicotine into the body to relieve some of the withdrawal symptoms without the tars and poisonous gases found in cigarettes. This type of treatment helps smokers focus on breaking their psychological addiction and makes it easier to concentrate on learning new behaviors and coping skills. Non-nicotine medication These medications help you stop smoking by reducing cravings and withdrawal symptoms without the use of nicotine. Medications such as bupropion (Zyban) and varenicline (Chantix) are intended for short-term use only.

AND

NA T ION

METHODS AND MEDICATION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

117


E

There are several things you can do to stop smoking that don’t involve nicotine replacement therapy or prescription medications: Ask your doctor for a referral or see Resources and References below for help finding qualified professionals in each area.

118

HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E Hypnosis A popular option that has produced good results. Forget anything you may have seen from stage hypnotists, hypnosis works by getting you into a deeply relaxed state where you are open to suggestions that strengthen your resolve to quit smoking and increase your negative feelings toward cigarettes.

Acupuncture One of the oldest known medical techniques, acupuncture is believed to work by triggering the release of endorphins (natural pain relievers) that allow the body to relax. As a smoking cessation aid, acupuncture can be helpful in managing smoking withdrawal symptoms. Behavioral Therapy Nicotine addiction is related to the habitual behaviors (the “rituals�) involved in smoking. Behavior therapy focuses on learning new coping skills and breaking those habits. Motivational Therapies Self-help books and websites can provide a number of ways to motivate yourself to quit smoking. One well known example is calculating the monetary savings. Some people have been able to find the motivation to quit just by calculating how much money they will save. It may be enough to pay for a summer vacation.

AND

NA T ION

ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

119


E

Most people try to quit smoking several times before they kick the habit for good, so don’t beat yourself up if you start smoking again. Turn the relapse into a rebound by learning from your mistake. AnalySe what happened right before you started smoking again, identify the triggers or trouble spots you ran into, and make a new stop-smoking plan that eliminates them. It’s also important to emphasize the difference between a slip and a relapse. If you slip up and smoke a cigarette, it doesn’t mean that you can’t get back on the wagon. You can choose to learn from the slip and let it motivate you to try harder or you can use it as an excuse to go back to your smoking habit. But the choice is yours. A slip doesn’t have to turn into a full-blown relapse.

120

HOW TO QUIT


C I G A R E T T E Having a small setback doesn’t mean you’re a smoker again. Most people try to quit smoking several times before they kick the habit for good. Identify the triggers or trouble spots you ran into and learn from your mistakes.

You’re not a failure if you slip up. It doesn’t mean you can’t quit for good. Don’t let a slip become a mudslide. Throw out the rest of the pack. It’s important to get back on the non-smoking track now. Look back at your quit log and feel good about the time you went without smoking. Find the trigger. Exactly what was it that made you smoke again? Decide how you will cope with that issue the next time it comes up. Learn from your experience. What has been most helpful? What didn’t work? Are you using a medicine to help you quit? Call your doctor if you start smoking again. Some medicines cannot be used if you are smoking at the same time.

AND RELAPSE

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

121


E

122

THE MONEY GAME


C I G A R E T T E THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY HAS ALWAYS BEEN BIG BUSINESS, LIKE OTHER DRUG TRADES, the large profit margins and addicted customer base make for high earnings. the question is, did the advertising restrictions and overall change in public attitude to smoking reduce the overall income of the cigarette companies. I will take the inflation rate into considerations, sourcing EXAMPLES OF THE PRICE OF CIGARETTES from 1970 and 2010.

AND

THE MONEY GAME

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

123


E

124

THE MONEY GAME


C I G A R E T T E THE PRICE OF A 20 PACK OF CIGARETTES IN 1970 WAS $0.35, TAKING INFLATION INTO ACCOUNT THE PRICE IN 2010 WOULD HAVE BEEN $0.97. THE PRICE OF A 20 PACK OF CIGARETTES IN 2010 WAS $5.51, TAKING INFLATION INTO ACCOUNT THE PRICE IN 1970 WOULD HAVE BEEN $1.97. SHOWING AN INCREASE IN PRICE OF NEARLY 300%. IF A SMOKER WAS TO BUY ONE PACK OF CIGARETTES A DAY FOR A YEAR, AT $5.51, TOTAL EXPENDITURE FOR THE YEAR WOULD TOTal $2,011.

AND

NA T ION

PRICE OF CIGARETTES

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

125


E

I’M REALISTIC. I ONLY SMOKE FACTS. I’D WALK A MILE FOR A CAMEL. IT’S TOASTED.

DO YOU INHALE?

BLOW IN HER FACE AND SHE’LL FOLLOW YOU ANYWHERE. MORE DOCTORS SMOKE CAMEL THAN ANY OTHER CIGARETTE.

126

THE MONEY GAME


C I G A R E T T E THE ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS PLACED ON CIGARETTES WERE DISCUSSED EARLIER, THE QUESTION IS, DOES THE MEDIA USED AFFECT THE OVERALL EXPENDITURE AND AUDIENCE REACHED THROUGH ADVERTISING. THE FOCUS WILL BE ON COST, HOW DID THE ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS AFFECT THE COMPANIES ON A PURELY BUSINESS LEVEL, HOW DID IT AFFECT REVENUE?

AND

NA T ION

ADVERTISING BUDGET

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

127


E

ADVERTISING BUDGET FOR FAST FOOD COMPANIES. ADVERTISING BUDGET FOR cigarette COMPANIES.

128

THE MONEY GAME


C I G A R E T T E IN 1970 THE ADVERTISING BUDGET FOR CIGARETTE ADVERTISING AMOUNTED FOR $1,700,000,000. AT THE SAME TIME THE ADVERTISING BUDGET FOR FAST FOOD COMPANIES AMOUNTED FOR £1,000,000,000.

AND

NA T ION

ADVERTISING BUDGET 1970

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

129


E

ADVERTISING BUDGET FOR FAST FOOD COMPANIES. ADVERTISING BUDGET FOR cigarette COMPANIES.

130

THE MONEY GAME


C I G A R E T T E IN 2010 THE ADVERTISING BUDGET FOR CIGARETTE ADVERTISING AMOUNTED FOR $15,300,000,000. AT THE SAME TIME THE ADVERTISING BUDGET FOR FAST FOOD COMPANIES AMOUNTED FOR £4,200,000,000.

AND

NA T ION

ADVERTISING BUDGET 2010

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

131


E

rev路e路nue IncomE of a company or organiSation.

132

THE MONEY GAME


C I G A R E T T E WITH THE RESTRICTIONS PLACED ON THE PROMOTION OF CIGARETTES YOU WOULD NATURALLY ASSUME THERE WOULD BE A REDUCTION IN PROFITS. THIS WOULD BE THE CASE WITH MANY OTHER PRODUCTS, SUCH AS MOBILE PHONES AND CHOCOLATE BARS. do these rules apply to THE TRADING OF TOBACCO? THE REVENUE IS BASED ON EACH SMOKER PURCHASING ONE PACK OF CIGARETTES EACH DAY OF THE YEAR.

AND REVENUE

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

133


E

TOTAL REVENUE FOR FAST FOOD COMPANIES. TOTAL REVENUE FOR cigarette COMPANIES.

134

THE MONEY GAME


C I G A R E T T E IN 1970 THE REVENUE FOR CIGARETTE COMPANIES AMOUNTED FOR $9,700,000,000. AT THE SAME TIME THE REVENUE FOR FAST FOOD COMPANIES AMOUNTED FOR £6,000,000,000.

AND

REVENUE 1970

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

135


E

TOTAL REVENUE FOR FAST FOOD COMPANIES. TOTAL REVENUE FOR cigarette COMPANIES.

136

THE MONEY GAME


C I G A R E T T E IN 2010 THE REVENUE FOR CIGARETTE COMPANIES AMOUNTED FOR $120,000,000,000. AT THE SAME TIME THE REVENUE FOR FAST FOOD COMPANIES AMOUNTED FOR £142,000,000,000.

AND

REVENUE 2010

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

137


E

138

CONCLUSION


C I G A R E T T E THE OUTCOME COMING FROM THE CHANGES MADE COULD BE SEEN AS LIMITED TO NONE. tHE PERCENTAGE OF SMOKERS IS DOWN, BUT THE DEATHS ARE UP. TOBACCO COMPANIES ARE MAKING RECORD PROFITS AND THE MONEY SPENT ON ADVERTISING HAS INCREASED. OVERALL I WOULD SAY THAT THE CLAMP DOWN ON CIGARETTES HAS BEEN NOTHING MORE THAN PUBLIC RELATIONS STUNT. THE REDUCED PERCENTAGE OF DEATHS CAUSED BY SMOKING IS IN PART DUE TO DEVELOPMENTS IN THE WAY HEALTH CARE IS PROVIDED, THIS CANNOT BE IGNORED, YET OFTEN IS BY ANTI-SMOKING INSTITUTES. THE TOBACCO COMPANIES ARE WINNING, AND WILL CONTINUE TO DO SO UNTIL CIGARETTES ARE DECLARED ILLEGAL. THE BEST BUSINESS TO BE IN IS THE ADDICTION BUSINESS.

AND

CONCLUSION

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971

139


E

140 00

A CLOSING STATEMENT


When I’m watching’ my TV And that man comes on to tell me How white my shirts can be Well he can’t be a man ‘cause he doesn’t smoke The same cigarettes as me SATISFACTION THE ROLLING STONES

A CLOSING STATEMENT

141


E


C I G A R E T T E THANK YOU FOR READING THIS BOOK. I HOPE IT HAS GIVEN SOME IMPRESSION AS TO THE AFFECT ADVERTISING RESTRICTIONS HAD ON AMERICAN SOCIETY. AT THE SAME TIME, ANY SMOKERS THAT HAVE READ THIS BOOK WILL BE ABLE TO USE THE ‘HOW TO QUIT’ SECTION AS A GUIDE OF EXCLUDING CIGARETTES FROM YOUR FUTURE. I HOPE THE MORTALITY GRAPHIC HAS PUT INTO PERSPECTIVE HOW MANY PEOPLE DIE DUE TO SMOKING IN SOCIETY AS A WHOLE. THIS BOOK HAS ATTEMPTED TO SHOW TO SOME EXTENT THE ADVERTISING OF CIGARETTES AFFECTED THE NATIONS HEALTH AND LIFESTYLE. IN THE PROCESS IT RAISED A QUESTION ABOUT FAST FOOD ADVERTISING. WHETHER THE FAST FOOD INDUSTRY HAS STIFF RESTRICTIONS PLACED UPON IT IS YET TO BE DECIDED. NEVERTHELESS, THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY CONTINUES TO GROW, AND WILL DO UNTIL THERE ARE LAWS DEEMING CIGARETTES ILLEGAL.

AND

NA T ION

BEFORE AND AFTER 1971


E

DesignED BY david m gaskell


E

1971 IS A LANDMARK YEAR IN THE HISTORY OF CIGARETTE ADVERTISING. CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT LEGISLATION MADE PROMOTING THE SMOKING OF CIGARETTES HARDER FOR ADVERTISERS. THIS BOOK HIGHLIGHTS THE RESTRICTIONS PLACED ON ADVERTISERS AND HOW THEY AFFECTED AMERICAN SOCIETY.

00

PAGE TITLE/SUBJECT HERE


71 cigarette and nation v80 hr