2018 Compassionate Living
About UsÂ Farm Sanctuary was founded in 1986 to combat the abuses of factory farming and encourage a new awareness and understanding about farm animals. Today, Farm Sanctuary is the nationâ€™s largest and most effective farm animal rescue and protection organization. We have rescued thousands of animals and cared for them at our sanctuaries in Watkins Glen, NY; Northern California (Orland); and the Los Angeles area. At Farm Sanctuary, these animals are our friends, not our food. We educate millions of people about their plight and the effects of factory farming on our health and environment. We advocate for laws and policies to prevent suffering and promote compassion, and we reach out to legislators and businesses to bring about institutional reforms. Farm Sanctuary remains committed to ending cruelty to farm animals and promoting compassionate living through rescue, education, and advocacy efforts. Please join us, in a compassionate world beginning with you.
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Contents 6 Letter From the CEO
8 The Someone Project
18 Factory Farming
28 Board of Directors
Harry P. Lynch, Executive Director & Chief Executive Officer Harry P. â€œHankâ€? Lynch brings more than 20 years of executive leadership experience in the nonprofit sector to Farm Sanctuary. As a nonprofit leader, Hank has successfully helped organizations fulfill their missions, increase their attendance and supporter bases, expand earned revenue, and make lasting contributions to the constituents they serve. Hank holds undergraduate and graduate degrees in horticulture and has served as CEO for leading public horticulture institutions, including more than 12 years with Stan Hywet Hall & Gardens in northeastern Ohio. Prior to joining Farm Sanctuary, Hank served as the executive director and CEO for The National Maritime Center in Norfolk, VA, where he led nearly 100 staff members, recruited and directed more than 1000 volunteers, managed and promoted a variety of programs related to public spaces, and oversaw annual operating and capital budgets exceeding $10 million dollars. Hankâ€™s personal and professional life has been deeply informed by his early experiences with farm animals and agriculture. As a young man, Hank grew up working on a variety of farms with and around farm animals and learned of their plight. This instilled in him a lifelong understanding and commitment to supporting change in behaviors and attitudes towards these emotional and intelligent beings. Working on these farms, Hank also developed an abiding love for agriculture and farmland, which inspired his long and successful career in horticulture. Personally, Hank has been committed to animal protection and compassionate living for more than 20 years. He and his wife, Paula Moran, practice a vegan lifestyle and have rescued or fostered more than 70 dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, chinchillas, and birds including countless songbirds, cockfighting roosters, injured crows, and one very moody macaw. Sincerely,
Harry P. Lynch Harry P. Lynch
Compassionate Living / Letter from the CEO
Positive human-animal connections and interactions are an effective means of education and transformation.
The Someone Project
Farm Animal Behavior, Emotion, & Intelligence
The animals with whom we share our homes, and everyone else. But other animals are not different in any way that matters morally from the dogs and cats with whom so many of us share our lives. At Farm Sanctuary, we share our lives with farm animals — chickens, turkeys, pigs, goats and sheep, ducks, geese, and cattle. And we can tell you from personal experience that farm animals have the same range of personalities and interests as cats and dogs.
long they remember, how they learn, etc.’ Time and time again, contrary to the assumptions of certain scientists, we learn that animals can anticipate the future, delay gratification, dream, play, use language and tools, and do everything else that some thought they couldn’t do. As Richard Dawkins rightly notes, evolution worked in other species just like it worked in us, so, of course, other species have emotion, cognition, and self-awareness, just like we do.
In her introduction to The Inner World of Farm Animals, Dr. Jane Goodall writes that “farm animals feel pleasure and sadness, excitement and resentment, depression, fear, and pain. They are far more aware and intelligent than we ever imagined…they are individuals in their own right.” Professor Joseph Stookey from the University of Saskatchewan explains: “Whenever scientists do projects on any animal species to better understand their cognitive abilities, emotions, memory, etc., almost inevitably, we are more awed by their abilities when the results finally come in. . . . [W]e are still a long way from understanding how animals think, how much and how
In this section, we’ll be talking about some of the recent science regarding farm animal emotion, cognition, and social behavior. Of course, this research is in its infancy, and the fact that something has not been shown in farm animals doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist.
Compassionate Living / The Someone Project
Farm Sanctuary was founded in 1986 when President and Co-Founder Gene Baur rescued Hilda from a stockyard dead pile. Since that time, we’ve met, loved, and provided refuge for thousands of animals. Many people see two classes of animals:
Cows interact with one another in complex ways, forming collaborative relationships (for example, they form “grooming partnerships,” just like chimpanzees), learning from one another, and making decisions based on altruism and compassion. Sunday Times science editor Jonathan Leake explains that “cows have a secret mental life in which they bear grudges, nurture friendships, and become excited over intellectual challenges…”
problem solvers. Professor Broom explains that when cows solve problems, “[t]heir brainwaves showed their excitement; their heart beat went up, and some even jumped into the air. We called it their Eureka moment.” Explains Guardian science reporter Laura Spinney, “The evidence that they are capable of learning associations suggests brains that are… aware of what has happened in the past and of acting on it in the future.”
As a researcher at Moulton College in the UK, Krista McLennan has documented the fact that cattle form deep friendships and strong family bonds. Like humans, when cattle “have their preferred partner with them, their stress levels in terms of their heart rates are reduced compared with if they are with a random individual.” Because of their complex social lives, they are also quite intelligent. Professor Donald Broom from Cambridge University explains: “Social animals such as cattle…need substantial intellectual ability in order to cope with their complex social life.” As another indication of their intelligence, cows have great memories. Professor Joe Stookey from the University of Saskatchewan explains that cattle “demonstrate good spatial memory (they remember where things are located). … They can remember migration routes, watering holes, shelter, and the location of their newborn calf.” Other researchers report that cows remember the best spots in a pasture for grazing. They are also good
Tim Sell, chair of the UK’s National Farmers Union explains: “They are all individuals and all have their own characteristics. They are tremendously curious. They have emotional storms. When it is a miserable, cold day, they will all be miserable, but when it is nice and sunny, you can almost see them smiling.”
“cows have a secret mental life in which they bear grudges, nurture friendships, and become excited over intellectual challenges…”
Cinci & Sonny
Well, except this one time. We were attempting to have her hooves trimmed with the other cattle. The trimmer came with his chute and set up. We got to Cinnci, and she slammed the trimmer to the ground, turned, and took out two gates and a slider door in a matter of about 30 seconds. Then she jumped the fence. When the trimmer drove away, she returned to the herd. From that point on, when she heard his truck she would jump the fences and stay far away until he
left, and then she would again return to the herd. Her death was also incredible — there was a huge respect for her in the herd and also an obvious awareness of her fear of people and their protectiveness of her during her final month or so. Sonny is a male calf who was born into the dairy industry. His owner brought him to the stockyard as a weak and injured newborn for a quick sale for veal or cheap beef. Today, Sonny is a rambunctious boy. He’s playful, confident, and maybe just a little bit spoiled from the round-the-clock care he received from Farm Sanctuary caregivers after his rescue. He was found just after his birth in a filthy stall, too weak to stand, his umbilical cord torn from his belly leaving a badly infected wound. Sonny never knew his mother or nursed from her, so he lacked the rich colostrum that was critical for his health and immunity. But with bottle-feeding, blood transfusions, and lots and lots of attention, the baby boy has grown into an irrepressible youngster.
Compassionate Living / The Someone Project
Farm Sanctuary’s Susie Coston reflects: “Cinci holds a special place in our hearts here at Farm Sanctuary. She leapt a six-foot fence at a slaughterhouse near Cincinnati (hence her name) and hid out in a park for 10 days before she was finally caught by the local SPCA. As you can imagine, she was incredible and very smart. Farmers said she was dangerous — that she was probably culled from a breeding herd because she was nuts, and she would likely kill someone, but she was nothing but respectful to us.
Sheep & Goats We could have told you that goats and sheep are social animals; at our shelters, they are almost notoriously friendly. They wag their tails like dogs, they know their names, and they form strong bonds with people (unless they come to us traumatized, as some do) and other goats and sheep. A study published in Animal Welfare showed that sheep experience emotion in ways similar to humans. The authors concluded that “sheep are able to experience emotions such as fear, anger, rage, despair, boredom, disgust, and happiness, because they use the same checks involved in such emotions as humans. For instance, despair is triggered by situations that are evaluated as sudden, unfamiliar, unpredictable, discrepant from expectations, and uncontrollable, whereas boredom results from an overly predictable environment, and all these checks have been found to affect emotional responses in sheep.” Obviously, this is exactly how humans experience these emotions — as Professor Dawkins and most other evolutionary biologists would have predicted. Researchers in the United Kingdom, writing for Nature, found that sheep have the same “specialized neural mechanisms for visual recognition” that humans do, which allows them to remember the faces of at least 50 individual humans and other sheep for more than two years, “and that the specialized neural circuits involved maintain selective encoding of individual sheep and human faces even after long periods of separation.”
Their ability to remember so many other animals for such a long period of time is impressive enough, but they can also learn how to solve puzzles, remember what they’ve learned, and adapt to changed circumstances — all much more quickly than monkeys. The researchers note what they call the “impressive cognitive abilities of sheep” and find that “sheep can perform ‘executive’ cognitive tasks that are an important part of the primate behavioral repertoire, but that have never been shown previously to exist in any other large animal” other than humans and some other primates.
Gabriel is the baby of Marjorie, born at our New York Shelter after his mother was rescued from a horrible starvation case. Because of his mother’s health issues, Gabriel was born tiny, weak, and immuno-compromised. As he grew, he seemed only to grow weaker. After multiple diagnostics, Gabriel was determined to be lactose-intolerant. His doctor felt that the only alternative was to separate mother and child during his weaning period in order to provide him with food his system would tolerate. But, Marjorie and Gabriel were inseparable — the two wailed if we moved him away from her for even a few minutes. Marjorie even injured herself attempting to get to him when he was removed. With the help of an udder bra, Gabriel stopped nursing, and Marjorie stopped producing milk, which allowed them to remain together as Gabriel gained strength and health. Marjorie was thrilled to have Gabriel close, and mother and child slept with their necks crossed around each other at night. Occasionally,
Gabriel will get out of his pen. Whenever this happens, mother Marjorie runs to the fence line and bellows to alert caregivers to the situation. The reunion is a picture of family love and joy. To this day, they sleep as they did whenGabriel was a baby tightly together with their necks crossed. Juniper’s story shows that goats like some individuals and not others, form friendships and deep bonds, and mourn just like we do. Juniper arrived at Farm Sanctuary having lost her back feet to frostbite, so she was extremely vulnerable. Zoop arrived at the same time, also having lost a limb and requiring a prosthetic. The two bonded immediately. When Pearl, a frightened and temporarily blind goat, arrived, the trio was complete — and the three girls spent all their days together.
Compassionate Living / The Someone Project
Gabriel & Juniper
Pigs On farm sanctuaries, pigs are playful and social; they enjoy running, socializing, relaxing, and playing in the mud. Like dogs, they recognize their names and come when called (if they like you). Indeed, pigs are the smartest of the barnyard animals. As just one example, pigs have been taught to play video games. Wired reports that “pigs could be as smart as chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates,” says Stanley Curtis, former professor of animal sciences at Pennsylvania State University. Curtis says that the pigs learned to play games every bit as quickly as [chimpanzees]. In fact, “Hamlet and Omelette exhibited more interest in the task at hand than their primate cousins…” Animal cognition researcher Dr. Sarah Boysen notes that “pigs are capable of focusing their attention with even more intensity than a chimp.” Similarly, pigs are also emotional beings, just like humans. For example, the UK daily The Independent writes that researchers “taught pigs to give one response when they felt normal and a different response when they were anxious (in this case, they were given a drug designed to induce temporary anxiety). Not only could the pigs discriminate between these two states but later they made the same ‘anxious’ response when exposed to novel events such as an unfamiliar pig or a new pig pen.” Finally, pigs are socially quite advanced, exhibiting methods of interaction with one another observed previously only in primates. A story from the Press Association titled
“Pigs ‘share brain skills’ with humans and primates” discusses research from the University of Bristol (UK) that found that “pigs use their brains to outwit each other in much the same way as humans and chimpanzees. For instance, they were able to learn to follow other animals to desired items such as food before stealing away the prize. Victims of such thefts responded by behaving in ways that lessened the chances of being followed.” As Dr. Mike Mendl explained, “Our results suggest that pigs can develop quite sophisticated social competitive behavior, similar to that seen in some primate species.”
“pigs could be as smart as chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates,” —Stanley Curtis
Nikki & Rose
Now, Nikki and her babies continue to have a relationship that any human mother or daughter would recognize: There is authority, and there is friendship. She remains a gregarious and happy pig who enjoys socializing — and who welcomes all guests to the barn with her loud voice. One thing that Farm Sanctuary guests learn right away is that Nikki remains extremely protective of her babies, as you might expect from someone who had such a traumatic early experience
with them. Caregivers must be especially careful even with otherwise routine tasks like health checks; if Nikki is worried, she will tear gates off walls to protect her young. Fortunately, after years of building up trust, Nikki can tell when caregivers have her piglets’ best interests at heart, and caregivers have learned how to give health checks calmly and with reassurances to Nikki. Rose’s story is sadder. When Farm Sanctuary found her, her babies were dead from the flood. She was depressed and refused to eat. When she arrived at Farm Sanctuary, caretakers introduced her to the other pigs, who refused to let her stay sad. They tried to play with her, and tried again, and tried some more. Graciously, Nikki allowed Rose to help raise her babies, and the little guys thus enjoyed the attention of two moms.
Compassionate Living / The Someone Project
Two pigs who exhibit all of these qualities are Nikki and Rose, who escaped from gestation crates during the Iowa floods of 2008 and are now living happily at Farm Sanctuary’s New York Shelter. Nikki was found on a levee during the floods, exhausted and emaciated, protectively nursing her newborn babies and letting out cries of alarm when approached by rescuers. Nikki and her babies were kept together at Farm Sanctuary, and every night she continued to build a nest for them to sleep in.
Chickens When people tour Farm Sanctuary, they are often most intrigued by the chickens and turkeys. Most are not surprised to look into the eyes of a cow or pig and bond with the animal, but many are surprised to learn that chickens and turkeys possess strong personalities, form friendships, and have a range of interests — which includes a deep fascination with many of the human visitors to our farm. Scientists who study chickens and turkeys are not surprised because, as ethologist Dr. Lesley Rogers explains, they know that “it is now clear that birds have cognitive capacities equivalent to those of mammals, even primates…” Indeed, chickens are intelligent animals, outperforming dogs and cats on many tests of advanced cognition. As just one example, in a study by the Silsoe Research Institute in England, researcers showed that chickens have the ability to make a conscious choice to delay gratification. In this study, the chickens figured out that if they refuse some food now, they will get more food later. Discovery Magazine explained the importance of the study this way: “Chickens do not just live in the present but can anticipate the future…something previously attributed only to humans and other primates…” Like humans and other primates, chickens are also socially complex, forming well-ordered communities and learning from one another in sophisticated ways. Scientists from Macquarie University in Australia won the Australian Museum
Eureka Prize for research in which they showed that chickens are “social, intelligent creatures complete with Machiavellian tendencies to adjust what they say according to who is listening…chickens can share remarkably precise information about the presence of predators and the discovery of food.” As Macquarie scientist Chris Evans explains, “As a trick at conferences, I sometimes list these attributes, without mentioning chickens, and people think I’m talking about monkeys.”
Chickens do not just live in the present but can anticipate the future…something previously attributed only to humans and other primates…
June & Symophony from under her wings or tail, she would scurry and tuck them beneath her — even when they were too big to hide — and then puff up her neck feathers and peck at anyone who tried to pick them up. She never forgotthe abuse of human beings and the pain of separation. Until she died, after years at Farm Sanctuary, she continued to keep her children close.
Compassionate Living / The Someone Project
Symphony is very old for a chicken — especially for a hen raised in a factory farm. She has lived a life of contentment at Farm Sanctuary since fall 2000 when she was pulled out of a cramped and mangled battery cage at Buckeye Egg Farm in Central Ohio when tornadoes shredded the warehouses. Symphony is a quiet girl and a little bit shy. But she’s no longer afraid. She has found a best friend in Amy, a red laying hen, who also found new life outside the horrors of the factory farm system. Symphony moves a little slowly these days. Like your aging aunt with her cane, she needs just a little extra time in the morning to get down from her perch. She makes her way to the yard to find Amy, and then the two of them can be found scratching in the dirt, picking their way through the blackberries, and resting catlike on a summer afternoon. For months after coming to Farm Sanctuary, whenever a caregiver entered the barn where she spent her nights, her chicks were not in sight. But when their heads would pop out
Factory Farming Factory farms dominate U.S. food production, employing abusive practices that maximize agribusiness profits at the expense of the environment, our communities, animal welfare, and even our health.
Far from the idyllic, spacious pastures that are shown in advertisments for meat, milk, and eggs, factory farms typically consist of large numbers of animals being raised in extreme confinement. Animals on factory farms are regarded as commodities to be exploited for profit. They undergo painful mutilations and are bred to grow unnaturally fast and large for the purpose of maximizing meat, egg, and milk production for the food industry. Their bodies cannot support this growth, which results in debilitating and painful conditions and deformities. The factory farming industry puts incredible strain on our natural resources. The extreme amount of waste created by raising so many animals in one place pollutes our land, air, and water. Residents of rural communities surrounding factory farms report high incidents of illness, and their property values are often lowered by their proximity to industrial farms. To counteract the health challenges presented by overcrowded, stressful, unsanitary living conditions, antibiotics are used extensively on factory farms, which can create drug-resistant bacteria and put human health at risk.
“Humane” Labels Many people wonder if buying meat, milk, and eggs with labels like “cage-free,” “grass-fed,” or “free-range” is a humane option. They’re concerned about where their food comes from and genuinely want to make better choices. Unfortunately, these labels can be misleading and are not a guarantee of humane treatment.
Cage-free hens are subject to many of the cruelties inherent to battery cage systems. For instance, cage-free producers typically purchase hens from hatcheries, where male egg-type chickens are considered useless and killed at birth because they will not lay eggs and will not grow as large as chickens bred for meat. Hatcheries kill 260 million male chicks each year. Just like caged hens, “cage-free” hens suffer de-beaking, in which a portion of the upper beak is amputated without pain relief. Also like caged hens, “cage-free” layers are kept only for a few years, until their productivity begins to decline. Then they are typically shipped to industrial slaughterhouses. Since poultry animals are excluded from the federal Humane Slaughter Act, packing plants are not required to render these animals unconscious before slaughter.
Organic dairy may be free of antibiotics and hormones, but it is not free of cruelty. Because cows produce milk only when pregnant or nursing, all dairy farms subject their cows to a relentless cycle of impregnation and birth. Their babies are taken away immediately, so that the milk can be collected for human use. When a cow’s milk production declines at an average of less than five years, she too is slaughtered for meat. Investigations have shown that some organic milk producers keep cows confined indoors much of the time. Because the requirements for the “organic” label prohibit the use of many medicines, producers frequently allow cows to languish with ailments that otherwise could easily be treated.
Compassionate Living / Factory Farming
“Grass-fed” labels indicate that animals receive a majority of their nutrients from grass throughout their life, but USDA grass-fed stipulations do not limit the use of antibiotics, hormones, or pesticides, all of which are harmful to the environment and human health.
Our Health The unnatural feeds, hormones, and excessive quantities of antibiotics used on factory farms put the human population at risk for chronic disease, obesity, and drug-resistant bacteria, and pose the threat of major zoonotic disease outbreaks. Investigations have shown that some organic milk producers keep cows confined indoors much of the time. Because the requirements for the “organic” label prohibit the use of many medicines, producers frequently allow cows to languish with ailments that otherwise could easily be treated. Cows in the dairy industry can be given growth hormones in order to increase their milk production. Once their productivity declines, these cows are slaughtered for beef. The six growth hormones commonly used by the U.S. dairy industry have been shown to significantly increase the risk of breast, prostate, and colon cancer in beef consumers. Producers are not required to list the use of hormones on product labels. Today, an estimated 70 percent of the antibiotics used in the U.S. are given to farm animals for non-therapeutic purposes. Using antibiotics in this way can lead to drug-resistant bacteria; as a result, certain bacterial infections have already become or are on their way to becoming untreatable in humans. Antibiotic resistant infections kill 90,000 Americans every year. Poor sanitation and waste management on factory farms and the poor management of animal waste can lead to the contamination of the food supply by bacteria like E.coli and salmonella. Each year 76 million Americans become ill from food borne illness, and thousands die. Some diseases, like H1N1 (Swine Flu) and Avian Flu, are communicable from animals to humans. These “zoonotic” diseases have the potential to become pandemics. Experts believe that the outbreak of H1N1 was likely caused by the overcrowding of pigs on factory farms and the storage of their waste in giant manure lagoons.
Compassionate Living / Factory Farming
The six growth hormones commonly used by the U.S. dairy industry have been shown to significantly increase the risk of breast, prostate, and colon cancer in beef consumers.
Factory farms typically store animal waste in huge, open-air lagoons, often as big as several football fields, which are prone to leaks and spills.
The Environment Factory farms yield a relatively small amount of meat, dairy, and eggs for this input, and in return produce staggering quantities of waste and greenhouse gases, polluting our land, air, and water and contributing to climate change. During digestion, ruminants like cattle, sheep, and goats emit methane, an infamous “greenhouse gas” and key contributor to global warming. The EPA has estimated that, between 1990 and 2005, methane emissions from pig and cow operations rose 37 percent and 50 percent respectively, largely due to the greater amount and concentration of manure in lagoons and related storage systems. Factory farms typically store animal waste in huge, openair lagoons, often as big as several football fields, which are prone to leaks and spills. In 2011, an Illinois hog farm spilled 200,000 gallons of manure into a creek, killing over 110,000 fish. When lagoons reach capacity, farmers will often opt to apply manure to surrounding areas rather than pay to have the waste transported off-site. According to the USDA, animal waste can contaminate water supplies and omit harmful gases into the atmosphere when over-applied to land. In the U.S. alone, animals raised on factory farms generate more than 1 million tons of manure per day — three times the amount generated by the country’s human population.
Between watering the crops that farm animals eat, providing drinking water for billions of animals each year, and cleaning away the filth in factory farms, transport trucks, and slaughterhouses, the animal agriculture industry has a huge impact on the water supply. Producing one pound of beef takes an estimated 1,581 gallons of water, which is roughly as much as the average American uses in 100 showers.
Compassionate Living / Factory Farming
In order to prevent the spread of disease in the crowded, filthy conditions of confinement operations, and to promote faster growth, producers feed farm animals a number of antibiotics. Upwards of 75 percent of the antibiotics fed to farm animals end up undigested in their urine and manure. Through this waste, the antibiotics may contaminate crops and waterways and ultimately be ingested by humans.
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Expenses Rescue, Shelter & Adoption
Management and General
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Captial Expenditures Shelter operations - property & improvements Shelter operations - equipment & farm vehicles
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General use property, equipment & vehicles Total
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72% Management $2.20 of your $20.00 donation goes to support the infrastructure of Farm Sanctuary for things like human resources, accounting, legal affairs, and other necessary functions that the organization depends upon to ensure that it is operating efficiently and effectively.
For every $20 membership...
Program $14.40 of your $20.00 donation can help Farm Sanctuary provide pain medication to a calf, like Valentino, for three months, help us purchase a virtual reality headset to bring the sanctuary experience to a schoolchild through our Humane Education program, or allow us to send an advocacy petition to 5,000 supporters.
11% Fundraising $3.40 is an investment in making sure Farm Sanctuary is raising needed funds to fulfill our mission, including dollars for rescue, shelter, education, and advocacy. We are proud of the diversity of our development efforts, as well as the educational way in which we structure our fundraising appeals.
Compassionate Living / Financials
How does Farm Sanctuary use your donation?
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Our Board of Directors Chris Allieri
Board Chair, Communications Committee Chair, & Executive Committee Member
Education Committee Chair & Development Committee Member
Board Vice Chair, Capital Campaign Committee Co-Chair, & Development Committee Member
Member of the Education & Communications Committees
Governance Committee Chair
Member of the Governance, Development, & Education Committees
Jane Hoffman Board Secretary, Audit Committee Chair, & Governance Committee Member
James Costa Development Committee Chair
Anthony Milazzo Board Treasurer, Finance Committee Chair, & Audit Committee Advisor
Dorr Begnal Capital Campaign Committee Co-Chair & Finance Committee Member
Tracey Stewart Member of the Education & Communications Committees
Megan Watkins Development Committee Member
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Compassionate Living / Board of Directors
m animals feel pleasure nd sadness, excitement, tment, depression, fear, pain. They are far more and intelligent than we ver imagined…they are duals in their own right.” —Jane Goodall
Farm Sanctuary National Headquarters 3100 Aikens Road (use P.O. Box 150 for mail service) Watkins Glen, NY 14891 607-583-2225 ex. 221 firstname.lastname@example.org