Campus Accommodations: Energy & Waste Management Reduction and Recycling
Energy Consumption of Student Accommodation - Gas / Electricity use = refrigeration, heating of stoves & ovens & other appliances. However the data collected includes all energy used such as heating and lighting. - Catered Accommodation used more energy (kilowatt-hour) than SelfCatered
- However gas use is much higher in Self-catered accommodation (Rowe House / St Germans not using any gas) - Need further information regarding types of cooking appliances used in both catered / self-catered accommodation
- Only Birks Grange had separate data for Accommodation vs. Dining Halls -> Dining/kitchen area accounted for roughly 38% of total energy use.
Student Cooking and Its Impacts (Clear et al. 2013) Direct emissions/ Energy consumption also strongly influenced by method/technique: -
E.g. Preparing sausages of similar quantities...
- On average, fried sausages take 1.2 kWh/kg (12 sessions), whereas grilled sausages take 6.7 kWh/kg (7 sessions), the latter more energy intensive by a factor of 5.6. - Grills & Ovens are very energy intensive - Important to look at kitchen appliances to fully understand energy consumption
The university generates over 1000 tonnes of waste each year.
The university generates over 25 different waste streams and uses around 20 different companies to dispose of these.
The main principles behind the university’s waste and resource management strategy are based on the well established waste hierarchy.
Sustainability Policy Plan
5 Year Policy plan food waste goals: ● ● ● ●
Improve quality of waste data collected by July 2011 75% catered hall food waste composted by 2013 45% recycling/composting rate by 2015 95% biodegradable waste composted by 2015
Food Waste University’s commitment to prevention and environmentally friendly disposal of food waste: ●
Since September 2014 all University catering outlets measure food wasted in production daily, from plates & servery, to modify future orders to limit waste.
Leftovers from the servery are also frozen where possible, to be used as part of another menu.
Signed the WRAP Hospitality and Food Service agreement to reduce food waste by 5% and to increase food waste being composted or sent to anaerobic digestion to at least 70% by the end of 2015.
Distribution of food bins to all self catered residences (UPP and University).
Packaging Waste University Sustainable Food Policy (2011-2016) aims: ● Give preference to products and services that can be manufactured, used and disposed of in an environmentally and socially responsible way. ● Ensure that sustainability criteria are included in specifications to suppliers and used in the award of all contracts. ● Continue to reduce the amount of bottled water consumed at University business meetings and functions by promoting our freshly filtered tap water served in recyclable glass bottles. ● Cardboard from delivery packaging is all recycled and we actively encourage further work being done by suppliers to reduce packaging at source. ● All food packaging for sandwiches, salads and fruit pots prepared on site and by our nominated supplier is biodegradable.
Recycling initiatives ● ● ●
2011 Campus Wide Recycle Zone Scheme - in partnership with Coca-Cola to provide recycling collection points across campus. The ‘bin-to-bin’ approach (5 year policy plan initiative) Recycling glass/can/cardboard bins available to all self-catered accommodations.
Future Progress and Development ●
Increasing awareness and engaging students and staff to become an active part of the recycling initiative on campus.
Exeter Campuses’ Accommodation Sites Investigating Food Wastage Available Weight Measurements of Wastage Non-site-specific, from UPP-managed Sites ● sum of weights for 2090 residents in all sites ● data based on 5 out of 5 sites ● Sep. to Dec. 2015-2016 Site-specific, from University-managed Sites (Sustainability Team) ● catered: data based on 3 out of 4 sites ● Self-catered ○ 10 out of 16 sites ○ no data on food wastage shown
collection of food waste in non-UPP selfcatered sites needed
Site-specific Data Food Wastage in Catered Accommodations
general trend of food waste in catered dining halls for 2014-2015
Comparing Non-site-specific Results Catered and Self-catered Sites
Mean Food Wastage
Catered Sites (apart from Birks): 2.607 kg/year/person
Self-catered Sites: 0.463 kg/year/person
percentage differences 82% and 161% --> Significant Difference
Student practice ●
some self-catered food waste thrown into general waste bins
More Site-specific Data Needed ●
Nuances amongst sites of same catering option
Putting into Perspective... ● ● ● ●
3-D computational map of Food Sustainability for Exeter Campus data obtained for variables forming drawer-like data layers 1 variable per drawer
Putting into Perspective...
A Draft: Data Table for Current Variables
Putting into Perspective… One Site Example: Lopes Hall
Variable Selection Menu ● ●
choose sites of interest -> compare sites choose other variable(s) of interest --> compare other variables
Closer-to-complete Version ●
datum points representing residence units (flat/individual) ● in-built correlation finder/equation generator further connected to other regions to illustrate dynamics of food cycle by finding mathematical relations between variables
Sustainability in Bristol
2012/2013, the recycling rate of catered halls is generally around 50%, whereas the recycling rate of self-catering halls does vary between different halls. Eight self-catering halls recycled more than 50% waste while the rest recycled only around 30% to 40%.
LSE environmental sustainability report (2014-2015) ●LSE
disposed of 1,535 tonnes of waste from campus and residences in 2014/15. This is a 14 per cent reduction from 2013-2014. ●Zero
waste is sent to landfill, excluding construction waste. ●All
non-recyclable waste is now sent to a plant that converts it into fuel pellets (as opposed to previous approach, when it was sent to an energy-from-waste plant).
Interventions taken to improve energy efficiency ●Immediate
energy feedback from smart meters or display devices can provide savings of 5%–15% (Bekker et al., 2010; Brewer, Lee & Johnson, 2011; Marans & Edelstein, 2010) ●Emeakaroha, Ang and Yan (2012): Ødedicated
visual web interface (real-time electricity feedback display) Øappointed energy delegate in each hall (motivator) Øsmart sensors (real-time electricity data capture)
time energy feedback from a visual interface, when combined with energy delegate can provide significant energy savings. ●The combination of real time feedback system with a human energy delegate ⇒ higher reduction of 37% in energy consumptions ●Being exposed to the real time feedback and weekly email alert ⇒ only 3.5% reduction in energy consumption (Emeakaroha, Ang, Yan & Hopthrow, 2014)
References http://shrinkthatfootprint.com/how-do-we-use-electricity http://geology.com/articles/natural-gas-uses/ ●Bekker, M. J., Cumming, T. D., Osborne, N. K., Bruining, A. M., McClean, J. I., & Leland, L. S. (2010). Encouraging electricity savings in a university residential hall through a combination of feedback, visual prompts, and incentives. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 43(2), 327-331. ●Brewer, R. S., Lee, G. E., & Johnson, P. M. (2011, January). The Kukui Cup: a dorm energy competition focused on sustainable behavior change and energy literacy. In System Sciences (HICSS), 2011 44th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 1-10). IEEE. ●Bristol (2012-2013) http://www.bristol.ac.uk/environment/waste/recycling/accommodation.html ●Clear, A., Hazas, M., Morley, J., Friday, A., Bates, O. (2013) Domestic Food and Sustainable Design: A study of Univeristy Student Cooking and Its Impacts, CHI’13, Pg: 2447-2456 ●Emeakaroha, A., Ang, C. S., & Yan, Y. (2012). Challenges in improving energy efficiency in a university campus through the application of persuasive technology and smart sensors. Challenges, 3(2), 290-318. ●Emeakaroha, A., Ang, C. S., Yan, Y., & Hopthrow, T. (2014). Integrating persuasive technology with energy delegates for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a university campus. Energy, 76, 357-374.
environmental sustainability annual report (2014-2015) http://www.lse.ac. uk/intranet/LSEServices/estatesDivision/sustainableLSE/About/AnnualSustainability-Report/Sustainability-Report-15.pdf â—?Marans, R. W., & Edelstein, J. Y. (2010). The human dimension of energy conservation and sustainability: A case study of the University of Michigan's energy conservation program. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 11(1), 6-18.