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the entity of the stadium in the fabric of the city Successful stadia and the importance of creating an icon

Graham Black s0831392 MA(Hons) Architectural Design Dissertation

The University of Edinburgh | April 2012


Abstract | This report aims to investigate the architectural elements that combine to produce a successful stadium in the current economic climate and how this translates into benefitting the city. The theme of iconicity is explored as a core component for the success of the stadium and I will explain how this status can be attained. The case studies of Wembley Stadium in London and Soldier Field in Chicago will be explored in order to understand the relationship with their respective cities and how they are recognised as iconic stadia. Aspects of Rod Sheard’s ‘Five Generations of Stadia’ will also be investigated to show how, as architects, we can maximise the practicality of the stadium while maintaining its use as a successful urban planning tool in order to create an icon.


1. The London 2012 Olympic Stadium, artist’s impression


Contents Acknowledgements List of Illustrations Introduction Chapter 1 - The stadium as an icon Relationship of the stadium to the city and what determines the ‘iconic’ status. What is the role of design in establishing an icon? Can multi-purpose stadia fulfil their expectations and be recognised as ‘icons’? Chapter 2 - Wembley Stadium, London The Wembley regeneration project Chapter 3 - Soldier Field, Chicago A Stadium at the Heart of the City Chapter 4 - The development of stadia and the future The Fifth Generation The Stadium of the Future Conclusion References Bibliography


Acknowledgements | Firstly I would like to thank my family for providing support whenever needed throughout this report and during my time at university. In addition Mum for the printer and Dad for the visit to the Reebok Stadium. Thanks also go to Murdo McDermid for his attention to detail and views on layouts (for which this report attempts to follow) and to Paul Kenny for the discussions we have had regarding the dissertation project as a whole. To Kerr Donaldson and Ryan Raeburn for the constant ‘encouragement’ they provided throughout the writing process and their company in travelling to Wembley. I would also like to thank Dr. Dimitris Theodossopoulos for his guidance over the course of writing this report and his valuable input at short notice.


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List of Illustrations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

London 2012 Olympic Stadium - http://data.map.london2012.com/points.php?id=254 Coliseum, Rome - http://digitalunion.osu.edu/r2/summer08/kdolan/Introduction.html Camp Nou, Barcelona - http://www.footballticketsbarcelona.com/FR/billets-fc-barcelone/tour-du-stade-musee.php Wembley Stadium, London - http://thesoccerwallpaper.com/wembley-stadium/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris - http://scherminator.com/france/paris/norteDame/norteDame8.jpg Allianz Arena, Munich - http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/50/Allianz_Arena_zu_verschiedenen_ Zeiten.jpg Cowboys Stadium, Arlington Texas - http://cantallbecowboys.blogspot.co.uk/2010/09/cowboys-stadium-vs-newmeadowlands.html Trenton Doyle Hancock, ‘From a Legend to a Choir’ (2009) - http://www.austin360.com/blogs/content/sharedgen/blogs/austin/seeingthings/entries/texas_biennial/ Gary Simmons, ‘Blue Field Explosions’ (2009) - http://stadium.dallascowboys.com/images/artBlueField_GS_700.jpg Franz Ackermann, ‘Coming Home’ and ‘(Meet Me) At The Waterfall’ (2009) - http://frontrow.dmagazine. com/2010/03/ka-pow-art-and-monument-collide-in-cowboys-stadium/ Annette Lawrence, ‘Coin Toss’ (2009) - http://artandseek.net/2011/01/12/cowboys-stadium-collection-connectingpeople-through-art/ Matthew Ritchies, ‘Line of Play’ (2009) - http://thebaresquare.com/2011/02/05/special-weekend-edition-video-artand-the-super-bowl/ Doug Aitken’s, ‘star’ (2008) - http://stadium.dallascowboys.com/images/artStar_DA_700.jpg Wembley Stadium Panorama at Night - http://joemahon89.deviantart.com/art/Wembley-Stadium-NightPanorama-58015326 Old Wembley Twin Towers - http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sport/football/article-2004487/Wembley-Stadium-towerstrength-last.html Wembley Stadium in the Evening - http://thesoccerwallpaper.com/wembley-stadium/ Original design of Soldier Field - http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=918916&page=2 Daniel H. Burnham’s 1909 Plan of Chicago - http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3424/5781550389_6210c62827_o.jpg Drawings for Soldier Field renovation - Stadium Design, daab, 2006, p Soldier Field Panorama - http://www.thorntontomasetti.com/projects/soldier_field Soldier Field promenade showing iconic colonnades - Stadium Design, daab, 2006, p Stadio Comunale, Florence - http://piccsy.com/2011/02/pier-luigi-nervi-stadio-comunale-giovanni-berta-todayartemio-franchi-firenze-wru0/ Garphalm Stadium, Huddersfield - http://www.guardian.co.uk/global/2009/may/06/huddersfield-town Proposal for a Los Angeles NFL Stadium - http://www.stadiumsofprofootball.com/future/FarmersField.htm Lord Foster’s Camp Nou renovation proposal, Barcelona - http://www.e-architect.co.uk/barcelona/camp_nou_ stadium.htm


introduction


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The modern stadium has cemented itself as an integral component of the city. In many cases it has reached the level of icon, representing its home club and surrounding community or even the city as a whole. It is one of the only buildings in a city that can host the entire population while at the same time mesmerizing many more from afar, holding their attention for days on end. It has been described as a ‘phenomenon of modern urban life’1 and is one of the few structures that can truly come to life when in use. The symbolic power of the stadium is not always confined to sporting events, as the architecture often becomes the background or setting that enables other things to happen.

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In the current economic climate it is important that buildings maximise their potential and when it comes to stadia, this is often through broadening their use to encompass as many events and forms of entertainment as possible. A common example of the last few decades is the use of sports stadia as music venues, with many of the world’s biggest artists performing to sell-out crowds. Improving the potential income of the stadium can also be achieved by opening up the stadium to multiple sports, the easiest combination being between football, rugby and American football. However with sports such as baseball or cricket it can be far more problematic. Can fully multifunctional stadiums also be recognised as iconic or is there

‘a phenomenon of modern urban life’ This report aims to investigate the architectural elements that combine to produce a successful stadium in the current climate. It will briefly look to historical examples in a somewhat comparative sense in order to show the advancements and progression of stadia, as well as realising the impressive feats of our past constructions. The social and cultural relationship between the city and the stadium will be examined and the report will also consider the individual components that generate the iconic status of a stadium. The technical and aesthetic design of the stadium are two of the more significant of these components that will be explored and how they perform in relation to the iconicity of the stadium. The continuous need for state of the art facilities and a better experience for larger and larger crowds is something that contributes greatly to the increasingly complex design brief. 2. The Coliseum in Rome

a limit to the functionality of the stadium? This report will look primarily at The Cowboys stadium in Arlington, Texas as one of the next generation stadiums that has already shown its value as a multi functional venue, while still serving as one of the best in the world for its primary use of American football. It will provide a prime example of the potential of the stadium as a venue for all kinds of entertainment. The report will also look to a few case studies in greater depth. The first of which is recognised as one of the most iconic in the world, Wembley Stadium in London. It was recently reconstructed this decade and has already rivalled the success and history of its predecessor. Originally built in the 1920’s the stadium was wildly out-dated and in desperate need of an upgrade. Its vast history and symbolic image resulted in a sensitive project for architect


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Lord Norman Foster, but the new design is already seen as an architectural icon and very much loved by the general public. “Wembley Stadium is considered hallowed ground for football fans – the ultimate destination for the ‘beautiful game’. The new stadium is the most advanced and best equipped in the world. However, it is also rooted in tradition, drawing on 80 years of history at Wembley to combine the spirit of old with the best of the new.” 2 With the old Wembley having such deep ties to the community, the new Wembley has had to preserve and re-kindle its relationship with the city, while at the same time acting as a catalyst for the massive regeneration of the area. In conjunction with HOK Sports, Foster has designed a stadium that is an incredible feat of engineering and has again established itself as one of the best stadia in the world. The second case study is somewhat similar to Wembley. Again built in the 1920’s, Soldier Field in Chicago has also seen substantial renovation projects, this time as upgrades instead of a complete reconstruction. Whereas Wembley got rid of its symbolic Twin Towers, Soldier Field managed to retain its iconic architectural element: the colonnades that flank the long sides of the stadium. Again

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in the comparison to Wembley Stadium, Soldier Field has developed strong ties to its city albeit for different reasons. In the context of this report, Soldier Field provides an example of a stadium introduced at the heart of the city’s fabric and how it has come to be such an iconic landmark. To the point where, ”Buildings like Soldier Field can become so much a part of a city that it’s hard to imagine their absence” 3 This quote provides an insight into the final chapter of the report. The entity of the stadium in the fabric of the city. On a global scale, the stadium has reached what could be conceived to be the fifth generation of its development (in some cases); broadening its use to encompass multiple sports and activities and making great strides in the advancements of technology and structural design. It has become a hub of entertainment suitable for the whole family and is recognised as an important tool in the planning of cities. This final chapter will look at the future of stadium design and the development of stadia in terms of the generations proposed by Rod Sheard. Furthermore, it will look at a potential ‘stadium guide’ that highlights the fundamental criteria in creating a successful stadium and determining an icon. The main component in this being the relationship with the city.


chapter 1 the stadium as an ‘icon’


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relationship of the stadium with the city is a unique one. ‘Stadia are complex entities’ and have a ‘strong visual presence’ in the fabric of the city.4

The multiple uses of the stadium enable the cultivation and communication of the identity of not just the home club but of the place as well. When considering the motto of the Barcelona football team for example, ‘més que un club’ (meaning ‘more than a club’), we can argue that the locals are very much thinking about the Camp Nou stadium as much as the team itself. Interestingly it is also partly to do with the fact that the fans rather than the typical millionaire businessman own the team. A similar concept to that of the National Football League’s (NFL) Green Bay Packers – interestingly, they are another team of deep sporting history and success like Barcelona F.C. There is no other building in the city that can draw crowds so large, binding the population together behind a single cause. They become a dominant symbol of the collective hopes, ambitions and fears of the population. The identity they carry is almost personified and can embody the emotions of its users. It provides a service to the

3. Camp Nou, Barcelona

the entity of the stadium in the fabric of the city

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wider community, enhancing the quality of the surrounding area and gives the opportunity of substantial economic benefits. Furthermore they have a considerable impact on the environment and traffic in their surrounding context, for good or for bad. Recently they have been referred to as ‘sleeping giants’ or ‘white elephants’ in terms of their financial potential. Although this is more commonly seen in the case of stadia for the Olympics, even the new Olympic Stadium in London built for the 2012 Games has been mentioned in this category.5 It is important at this stage to determine the meaning of icon in the context of this report. Typically the connotations of the word signify someone of fame, something recognisable. The iconicity of something constitutes a symbolic or aesthetic judgement. It is in this combination of fame with an element of symbolism that creates an icon. Specifically in terms of architecture as an icon, the symbolism and history of it has an added emotional, sometimes spiritual influence on those who visit it. For this report, I am using the term icon in this way. A stadium of iconic status is one that is recognisable visually and symbolically, while functioning successfully as a venue for performance. This definition follows a similar notion to that of Sklair.6 In the city of today the stadium is likely to be one of the largest single mass buildings, along with shopping centres and central transport hubs. This generous consumption of space is often criticised by those who, in case of the football stadium, simply do not see the appeal of the sport. A similar idea could be the integration of the railway station within the city in the nineteenth century.7 Today they are considered an integral component in the fabric of the city, even defining cities in some cases. Is this the direction for stadia in the future? It has been proven

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that stadia can help redevelop cities and provide a life source in the regeneration of decayed parts of the city (see Chapter 2, p35-7). It has reached the point where large sports complexes are being purpose built for events like the Olympics in order to help rebuild an area in the city (see Chapter 1, p19). The City of Manchester Stadium is a recent example of both. The city won the right to host the 2002 Commonwealth Games and worked closely with the Manchester City Football Club in developing a new stadium fit for both the Games and the future legacy of the football club. It was also part of a massive urban regeneration of the Eastlands area and has already shown it can increase property values and enhance the commercial sector in the surrounding community. It has also helped create a positive image change and generate a sense of pride and confidence in the area.8 We can argue that this influence on the stadium’s context must become a main component in the design brief, forcing the designer and owners to realise the potential of the stadium. A successful stadium provides the prospect of a social gathering space and will appear as a landmark in any future developments. However the responsibility of this success is not entirely up to the stadium and its respective design team, the context within (or next to) the city is a vital element in this topic. One of the major discussion points in the construction of new stadia is the out-of-town versus city centre debate. Treating the city more literally as a living thing, it could make sense to build closer to the heart of the city – if it was closer to the heart does it make it easier for it to become special in the heart of the citizens? Apart from the obvious advantage of more direct transport links, building in the heart of the city creates a much stronger sense of attachment or pride and could assist with its


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integration if designed well. In this sense it could possibly be considered a regression to build the stadium outside the city centre. Quite often the architecture resembles that of existing buildings outside the city, an industrial, warehouse-like appearance that goes against the core values of the stadium as a place to celebrate heroic human feats. It therefore should be a celebration itself, commending the work of the designers and construction workers. However in some historical cities it may well be impractical to disrupt the existing fabric and an out of town development is necessary. The Camp Nou in Barcelona is iconic because of the club and the atmosphere inside, yet is to some extent architecturally insignificant in its exterior form. There is no iconic element for that ‘postcard’ effect and many photos of the stadium are in fact taken from inside. As mentioned previously, the stadium has great potential as a social gathering space and presents itself as a landmark in future developments so there is no reason why it can’t regenerate an out of town area rather than conforming to the industrialisation of it. Building within the city can benefit from stronger ties and support from the community and often there is a wealth of tradition that can be used to help enrich the stadium. There are also disadvantages to building in a central location with one of the main factors being that you are then limited in terms of expansion and addition of more facilities. Safety also becomes more of a consideration in the somewhat constricted spaces of the city. A stadium set outside the city limits may also be more liberated in terms of its design, with no real sense of history or tradition in its near context. One of the most iconic stadia in human history was in fact built on the outskirts of the city, the Coliseum (although still within

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the city’s walls). In modern stadium design, there are fewer restrictions in terms of respecting nearby buildings or public areas and it therefore offers greater freedom in the design. In terms of whether or not a stadium can be successful, I don’t think there is a definite answer to this debate. Both sides post valid arguments and it is strongly dependant on the city in discussion. Ultimately a lot of the success of the stadium falls at the feet of the designer who must create a functional building that can integrate itself in the city’s fabric, be it out of town in a new development or as a core element of the existing city centre. The iconic status can then be achieved through its success as a device that enriches its surroundings and from performing well in its primary function as a venue for entertainment. However, building in the city centre does tend to produce more successful stadia than the out of town approach. Having the ease of access to the stadium with it being within walking distance of the city centre is one of the more attractive features of an inner city stadium. Examples of such are Newcastle’s St James Park, the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff and even the four main stadiums in Edinburgh are no more than a twenty minute walk from the city centre. It is also likely to have many more ‘attractions’ in its surroundings, more restaurants and bars for example. Places for the spectator to go before and after the event that help to increase spending in the area. When it comes to integrating a new stadium into the existing structure of the city it is important to design the outward facing facades as you would with any other building. Using the comparison to railway stations again, in which they were built as ‘cathedrals of the modern age’ in the nineteenth century and used their facades to express their importance, quickly becoming unmistakable.9


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‘social cathedrals of our time’ English football club Arsenal recently moved from their old stadium Highbury which was an excellent example of this. The facades were distinctive and unlike much of the rest of the area in terms of scale. They featured tall glazed elements that gave a sense of rhythm and helped break up the dominating frontage created by the scale and the team’s signage. In a similar way, modern stadiums should stand as proud, feature buildings within the city, being welcoming and inviting places for its spectators. It is the role of the designer to ensure that the stadium creates its own identity whilst maintaining a respect for its surroundings. It is this identity that helps generate the iconic status. It is likely to produce a stronger effect on the fans feelings towards it than a bland, monotonous box. One of the more successful unifications of the stadium with the city is the Olympic complex built for the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games. The addition revealed the potential of the sea front area, which was subsequently opened up and extensively renovated. The inclusion of the Olympic village to this region combined two previously disjointed areas and left the city with a beachfront area full of new leisure facilities. The Barcelona Games proved to be an effective example of how major sporting events can provide cities with the opportunity for redevelopment and long-term regeneration through the addition of successful leisure facilities. With the rising popularity of sports in the last century, none more so than football, stadiums are now being recognised as the ‘social cathedrals of our time’10 (in a metaphorical sense rather than literal). Treating football, or sport in general, as a religion means that the stadium takes on a somewhat spiritual and sacred atmosphere, 4|5. Wembley Stadium and Notre Dame: A comparison of ‘cathedrals’

often being labelled as ‘hallowed grounds’ (see Chapter 2, p30). The Brazilian footballing legend Pele claimed Wembley was ‘the church of football.’11 Physically they can welcome a ‘congregation’ of followers, emotionally they can mesmerise cities, countries and even the world for days on end. Friends and complete strangers are united as one community sharing a common bond. The analogy of the stadium as a cathedral can also be described as the almost religious approach modern society has to our sporting heroes. We can liken this celebration of greatness to the way we honour the Gods and religious figures around the world. Millions of people visit cathedrals, churches and other religious buildings in order to worship and reminisce about iconic moments and people in history and to experience a sense of what it must have been like during that time. We now have a ‘new religion’ that unites all of us in some way, be it through an area, a city or even a country.12 The modern religion of sport now requires its own form of cathedral to celebrate the stories and successes of our sporting heroes, an iconic structure that encapsulates our greatest imaginations. To quote the Dallas Cowboys owner Jerry Jones who said that “it takes on an almost religious experience”, when talking about the fans visiting his new stadium.13 It is only now that people are realising its value to the city and treating the stadium as this important ‘cathedral’ so to speak. However, unlike traditional cathedrals, the stadium is somewhat ignored and underappreciated by architectural historians and critics. Instead of realising them for the symbolic events they play host to, they are often best understood through the analysis of their technologies and structure.


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What is the role of design in creating an

iconic stadium? can multi-purpose stadia perform successfully and also be recognised as ‘iconic’?

6. Allianz Arena in Munich: Showing the different lighting conditions throughout the day.

With the potential economic benefits in hosting style that can create a sense of attachment with the fans. global sports events, such as the Olympics and FIFA World Given the monolithic appearance of most stadia, lighting Cup, there is a strong element of competition amongst has become an integral tool of the designer in order to cities and countries in order to win the right to host enhance the iconicity and develop a landmark. A unique such events. This competitive nature has a direct link to example is the Allianz Arena in Munich, home to F.C. Bayern the architecture of modern stadia, often resulting in high and 1860 München (see image opposite). The exterior profile architects being hired in order to increase the host’s of the stadium is lit up with the home teams colours on chances of securing the bid. The “The twenty- match day (red for F.C. Bayern and positive aura and powerful attraction blue for 1860) and glows white when these architects can personify in their first century […] the national team are playing. Lighting structures is a strong architectural has also been used to form pathways is a new ball game. trend in the current climate. They in order to guide spectators towards can attract more tourism, more Stadiums are not the stadium. Using the comparison developers and more money. The of the stadium as an adaption of the global examples are iconic, ‘postcard’ just about sports, cathedral, the spectators can almost buildings like the Sydney Opera but entertainment be seen as pilgrims making their House, the Guggenheim Museum way towards the holy temple or the grandest monument. While the stadium has in Bilbao and other similar buildings in from the ‘starchitects’.15 It is the the luxury of space in order to create 14 sense. ” chance for cities to put themselves this landscape and atmosphere, it is on the map so to speak. The stadium has the potential somewhat isolated from the tradition and culture of the to be recognised as one of these ‘postcard’ buildings, city; instead surrounded by a network of roads and waste incorporating such features as restaurants, museums, shops disposal facilities. This is a further example of the positive and conferencing facilities in order to attract even more and negative factors in the debate of inner city versus out attention and financial benefits. In order for this to happen of town stadium construction. though, the design needs to be successful. Things like sightlines and spectator comfort are As mentioned previously it is important that the also key factors that might be overlooked in order for stadium has its own identity, a key architectural element or the owner to make more money. They are incredibly


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important in the current climate and in relation to the generations of stadia, particularly the third generation(see chapter 4, p51), and can be detrimental to the overall and future success off the stadium. Given the state of the world’s finances, it is increasingly important that stadia are well managed throughout the design process and provide many options for further income once completed. Valencia’s plans for a new stadium hit financial problems in 2009 after 18 months of construction, however the Nou Mestalla has since restarted construction and is expected to be completed in the next year or so. In order to maintain a successful stadium in today’s economic climate, multi-purpose use is becoming a key factor in the design brief. Stadia cannot generate enough capital based on one or two events a week. Football stadiums have long been a venue for musicians and have been shown to be successful in combining their use with rugby. Manchester United’s Old Trafford being one of them. However it doesn’t even have to be events held on the field as things like conference suites and banqueting halls are just some of the options in providing the extra financial income. The new Dallas Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas, is one of the more recent stadiums to have embraced this factor. In a written piece about the stadium, Michael Auping (Chief Curator, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth) says that, “It would be an understatement to say that stadiums have changed physically over the course of history. Their essential role in culture, however, has not changed. Stadiums provide one of the greatest expressions of communal drama conceived by civilization.” 16

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“It would be an understatement to say that stadiums have changed physically over the course of history. Their essential role in culture, however, has not changed. Stadiums provide one of the greatest expressions of communal drama conceived by civilization.” Michael Auping It is interesting to note the final sentence of that quote, particularly ‘communal drama’, which suggests any type of performance or theatre. So even from its earliest stages with the ancients, the stadium could be seen as a multi-functional venue. In fact the stadia themselves were even based on the forms of theatres and amphitheatres at that time, the boundaries between the two somewhat blurred. It is easy to see that in recent years, even the twentieth century, this approach has been to some extent neglected, with the majority of stadiums simply appealing


7. Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas: View from the sideline showing the record-breaking high definition TV screen.


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to one use or purpose. Auping later wrote that, “The twenty-first century… is a new ball game. Stadiums are not just about sports, but entertainment in the grandest sense.” 17 Recognising that teams and owners are starting to realise the potential held within their stadia, many thanks to the Jones family and the new Dallas Cowboys Stadium. The new Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas, is an excellent example of a modern stadium maximising its use as a venue for entertainment, not just a sport. At a cost of $1.2bn one would expect such a structure to be as commercially viable as possible. The 80,000-seat stadium (total capacity over 100,000 including those standing) was primarily built to house the Dallas Cowboys of America’s National Football League (NFL). Since its opening in 2009, the stadium has hosted the NFL’s Super Bowl XLV, the 2010 National Basketball Association’s All-Star Game, U2 on their 360° Tour amongst many other concerts, soccer games, boxing fights, monster truck racing and even professional bull riding. “As a complete destination environment, Cowboys Stadium aspired to be much more than a boldly designed shell. The result is a venue that has changed the way fans experience entertainment, by making every aspect of the event more thrilling, gracious, and awe-inspiring than ever before.” 18

8-13. Clockwise from top right to top left: Trenton Doyle Hancock, ‘From a Legend to a Choir’ (2009), Gary Simmons, ‘Blue Field Explosions’ (2009), Franz Ackermann, ‘Coming Home’ and ‘(Meet Me) At The Waterfall’ (2009), Annette Lawrence, ‘Coin Toss’ (2009), Matthew Ritchies, ‘Line of Play’ (2009) and Doug Aitken’s, ‘star’ (2008).

This highlights the steps owner Jerry Jones is taking to create an all-encompassing centre for entertainment that is unlike anything we have seen before. There are

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iconic elements within the stadium such as the massive high definition television hanging above the field (the biggest in the world at the time of completion) and the expansive glass ‘doors’ at either end measuring 200ft wide by 180ft high. But I think the real iconicity of the stadium, or what other owners and teams can take from it, will be recognised in its success as a multi-functional venue for ‘anything that is exciting and entertaining’.19 Another unique factor in the stadium is its contemporary art collection. It is arguably the first stadium to ever commission ‘museum quality’ artists.20 It was a tradition of the Ancient Greek and Roman stadiums that has been somewhat lost in the modern stadium. The Coliseum and Circus Maximus were decorated with sculptures and friezes that complemented the various games and festivals, celebrating the heroic performances produced in the stadium. The art featured in the Cowboys’ Stadium is a modern take on this ancient idea and emphasises the owner’s vision to build the greatest stadium ever. Its sculptural qualities make it fitting that it houses these pieces of contemporary art and maybe a more artistic and sculptural approach to stadium design is a route we should explore. However, while it works in the case of the Cowboys Stadium, it is not guaranteed to work every time. Commissioning contemporary art instead of the standard ‘sporting photography depicting the teams history’ seems to include more of the public and exposes more people to the world of contemporary art outside of the museum setting. An iconic gesture based on the unique-ness of the project that adds to the already impressive portfolio of the stadium, cementing its place as one of the most iconic in recent history.


chapter 2 case study: wembley stadium, london


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replacing an icon and the wembley regeneration project.

“Wembley Stadium is considered hallowed ground for football fans – the ultimate destination for the ‘beautiful game’. The new stadium is the most advanced and best equipped in the world. However, it is also rooted in tradition, drawing on 80 years of history at Wembley to combine the spirit of old withthe best ofthe new.”21 Kenneth powell,

Wembley Stadium is commonly known as the home of English football and is the National Stadium of England. It was one of the world’s best-known stadiums; today it is recognized as one of the most spectacular. The final cost of construction was close to £800m and it was almost a year delayed in completion. However, the new 90,000 seat stadium is the largest in the world to provide roof cover for every spectator, each with completely unobstructed views and more legroom than was offered in the Royal Box of old Wembley. The roof is partly retractable in order to allow for maximum direct sunlight on the pitch and can be opened or closed in fifteen minutes. It was originally built for the Empire Exhibition of 1924 at a cost of £725,000 (around £250m in todays market) and was to be demolished after the event. It was ironically thanks to a Scotsman’s suggestion that the stadium was in fact kept and a young entrepreneur named Arthur Elvin managed to procure the stadium’s rights. It went on to host some of the most memorable moments in sporting and cultural history. There was the Olympics in 1948, the iconic FIFA World Cup in 1966, the historic Live Aid concert of 13 July 1985, there was even a Papal Mass, concerts by The Rolling Stones, Queen, Oasis, Madonna, Elton John and Michael Jackson to name a few. Already, the new Wembley is rivalling the success of its predecessor having hosted the UEFA Champions League Final, the NFL International Series games and its projected use as a 2012 Olympics venue, as well as sell-out concerts from Muse, U2, the Foo Fighters, Madonna and Take That. The arch, like the Twin Towers of Old Wembley, is the iconic element that defines the stadium acting as a landmark and even a logo. It will provide a symbol for


“Wembley’s arch is conceived as a triumphal gateway – a heroic symbol for the new stadium. Floodlit at night, it is the new London landmark. You can see it soaring on the skyline from the very heart of the city.” 22 Norman Foster

14. Wembley Stadium, London: Panorama at night showing the iconic arch lit up, rising from the stadium.


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the new Wembley whilst somewhat referencing the Twin Towers, creating a unique profile against the skyline visible for miles around. This was a necessity in order for the new Wembley to replace the old and retain a strong relationship with the population, an iconic feature that made it seem even better than the old stadium while maintaining some of the tradition. However the arch is not there purely for aesthetic reasons as it supports the whole north roof and 60% of the retractable south roof. It enables the columnfree interior that provides every viewer with excellent sightlines whether they are in the Royal Box or sat in the topmost row. Aside from supporting the majority of the roof, it would act as a ‘beacon’ for the stadium and was often referred to as a ‘tiara’ in Lord Foster’s sketches. It acts as a gateway (see quote on p33) drawing people towards the action and on event days it would illuminate the northwest London sky,

launch the regeneration of the surrounding area, one of the most ambitious projects in the London area.24 Using the stadium as a catalyst, the aim is to transform the current ‘drab industrial estate’25 into a multicultural hub that will attract new residents and visitors, not only for football, but also for the various leisure and cultural facilities that are being integrated around the area. For now, the stadium seems rather detached from its surroundings with the area not exactly known for its wealth, however this is most likely to change in the next 10-15 years with large developments scheduled across the entire area, much in part to the stadium. It seems appropriate to note that the present city was very much built up alongside the old Wembley, now it is being transformed in a partnership with the new stadium. These close ties to the community are part of what helps make the new stadium successful, although it is the sense of pride that truly binds it within the fabric of the city. It is visible from almost all parts of the surrounding town but just in case, many of the shops in the area feature pictures of it: from the early stages of construction right through to the finished design. This symbol of pride and the opportunities the stadium presents for the development of the community explain why there is such a high regard and appreciation of Wembley. Given its status as the countries national stadium, it obviously has a much stronger influence on the surrounding area than one of a smaller club. However this should not detract from the success of the new stadium, as the relationship with the community has to act both ways – if the stadium was considered unsuccessful then there would be a sense of detachment between it and the community. The triumph of the new Wembley has resulted in the redevelopment of its surrounding area, as previously

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“a tube of light that would hover over the stadium at night creating an iconic element” 23 I recently visited the stadium on a match day and being able to glimpse the arch as you approach the stadium heightens the level of anticipation and excitement. With such an iconic architectural element symbolising the stadium in all forms of media, it carries psychological connotations that affect the spectator on arrival. Given its sheer size and the dramatic walk towards the stadium, it remains a welcoming sight. The arch somewhat reminiscent of a gateway, although I can only presume that it would have some sort of intimidating effect on an opposing team arriving at the stadium, standing as a dominant structure and depicting a sense of power. The iconicity of the new Wembley has also helped 15. Old Wembley Stadium, London: View of the old Twin Towers


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mentioned. However one of the key design factors in the redevelopment is that none of the new structures will be taller than the arch, rather they will rise gradually as they approach the stadium. This creates a hierarchy that clearly defines the central core or hub of the area: the stadium is at the heart of the community. The transport links have also seen a renovation, making it much easier to reach the stadium and travel home. The improved rail service and expanded stations cater for the large crowds expected on event days, with the entrance to the station orientated so that the first thing you see is the stadium and its arch, just a short walk ahead. As discussed previously, the stadium can contribute more to the community than simply physical developments. On the event days for example, 5000 jobs have been provided for residents of the area with over 100 full-time positions created in the banqueting and hospitality facilities. Furthermore, it is projected that over 2.5 million people will visit the stadium every year, spending an estimated £229m in the community which will undoubtedly benefit local businesses.26 Giving back to the community and its neighbours again helps in establishing the stadiums roots deep in the area. The connection between the two is an integral component in the success of the stadium and the development of the city. There is currently a master plan in development from the Brent Council to add thousands of square metres

of both commercial and residential buildings with the hope that they can complement the stadium and complete the regeneration of the area. With new businesses moving to the area, the council has managed to secure £2.5m in funding in order to help train local residents in the new jobs and therefore counteract the risk of too great an influx of new residents to the area. The council is also taking care of the existing businesses established in the area with the ‘Enhance Wembley’ project. The process involves upgrading storefronts, increasing profitability and efficiency, and helping financially with these improvements. I can understand the need to bring the surrounding area up to a similar level of quality as the new stadium, especially one that is used to represent the country, as it helps tie the community and stadium together aesthetically. Maybe this is not the case for stadia on a smaller scale, or if it is then at least the renovations are much more restrained, but certainly in the case of Wembley it has required a substantial amount of money in order to carry out the redevelopment. I see this as an almost hidden cost in the construction of the stadium, there is an extra £Xm that needs to be spent redeveloping the area in order to reach a similar standard as the stadium. However it does ensure that the current residents and businesses are not left neglected or forced out of the area but is instead helped to integrate with the new developments.

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Chapter 3 Case study: Soldier field, chicago


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a stadium at the heart of the city.

Soldier Field in Chicago was originally constructed in the 1920’s and, unlike many of the iconic stadia in the current climate, has had time to form a deep relationship within the culture and history of the city. Many factors have influenced this relationship and helped create it; the political and social disputes that preceded the stadiums construction, the fact that the stadium was to double as a war memorial to those lost in the First World War, and Chicago’s desire to be recognised as one of the greatest cities in the world. The City Beautiful movement and Daniel H. Burnham’s 1909 Plan of Chicago were key factors in this and subsequently the original designs for Soldier Field. The stadium would eventually be designated as a National Historic Landmark, which is a list that is reserved for ‘places that have played a pivotal role in American history and that are still largely preserved in their original state.’ The addition of a stadium to the city of Chicago was seen as a necessary stage in the city’s development for recognition as one of the greatest in the world. The plans for a stadium in the Grant Park area on the lakefront of Lake Michigan began, in cooperation with the City Beautiful movement, teemed with great intentions and hopes. With the Chicago American stating that,

built, however Chicagoans seemed to have always felt a discontent towards the stadium, often looking to other cities as examples of better stadia. The design had been condemned by critics stating that it was too narrow in plan and had very poor sightlines. The original plan followed the style of the ancients, a u-shaped structure in the style of the Greek hippodrome, semi-circular at one end and straightened at the other. The image opposite shows the size of the stadium, the field area is big enough for one and a half football pitches end to end. The fact the stadium was

‘More than two thousand years ago a great stadium was erected on the hills of Olympia […] Chicago is now to have a great revival of the games which promises to outOlympia the Athenians.’ 27 From the beginning the stadium has always been upheld by the architects as beautifully designed and well 17. Old Soldier Field Chicago: Showing the original plan of the stadium, based on the hippodrome of the ancients.

18. Daniel H. Burnham’s 1909 Plan of Chicago


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longer than a standard football field (American football was the primary use of the stadium for much of its life), which resulted in the poor sightlines that plagued it later on. The poor quality of its construction could be seen even before it was finished in some areas although it was to be the largest concrete structure ever built at the time, even vying to be the largest stadium in the world at least in terms of its capacity. Considering the emphasis put on the stadium to be of such a grand stature and an iconic monument that could better the Athenians, you would think that every care would be taken to ensure the final design is immaculately finished and iconic for all the right reasons. Around the time of the Bears moving in the 1970’s it was discovered that the construction firm responsible for the original build had degraded the quality of the structure in order to enrich themselves. It was not until 1971 with the arrival of the Chicago Bears that a club could finally call the stadium home. This was a rather interesting situation as Chicagoans tended to have thought of Soldier Field and the lakefront as their own as opposed to the team. In most circumstances one would expect the city and the fans to have a stronger bond with the team. However with the stadium originally built as a war memorial it is clear to see why this is the case. With the success of the Bears franchise in the 1980’s the stadium became a dominating force in the team’s playoff games, especially in typical Chicago weather with the wind and snow. The stadium almost takes on the team’s personality, effusing the dominating play of the team’s defence (still touted as one of the best ever to have played in the NFL28) as an open-to-the-elements stadium that offered little or no protection. It wasn’t surprising that the talk of a new stadium 19. Drawings of the most recent renovation for Soldier Field

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in the 1990’s had its own political struggles, given the original stadium’s conflicted construction. Local architect Benjamin Wood then suggested renovating the existing structure, providing the Bears with a more practical facility while maintaining the iconicity and history from before. Ironically it was while Wood was measuring the internal width between the colonnades., in order to prove that a modern renovation was not possible, that he discovered it was in fact conceivable. His proposal suggested putting the expensive skyboxes on one side and the club seats on the other, allowing the bowl to fit into the narrow space between the colonnades. The page opposite shows the basic drawings for the proposal. The top plan illustrates the impact of separating the skyboxes and club seats (skyboxes are below the field, club seats are shaded and at the top of the field in the drawing). The initial political debates that preceded even the first attempt at a stadium were largely focused on the issue of the site as a park. Grant Park had an excellent location on the edge of Lake Michigan and so close to the city centre. Many argued that a stadium would ruin this public parkland and the proposed memorial. The initial design was viewed as the memorial itself and managed to save much of the green space surrounding it. However, with the increased use of automobiles through the decades, Soldier Field seemed to grow concrete car parks around its exterior. The initial design for the most recent renovation in 2003 saw the designers going back to this parkland setting, proposing to get rid of some of the ‘unsightly parking lots surrounding Soldier Field’. This recreation of green spaces was expected to appeal to park advocates and followers of the original plan for the area by Burnham and Ward. In contrast to Wembley, the design for Soldier Field to maintain its important traditional elements was a


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key factor in the renovation going ahead. Those behind the project had realised that given the history of the site, the Burnham Plan and trying to beautify the lakefront, upgrading the original stadium was far more appealing in terms of cost, planning and maintaining a strong relationship with the fans. The examples of Wrigley Field (the Chicago baseball stadium) and the baseball stadium in Baltimore appeared to help the Bears organisation with their decision. Richard M. Daley, the Chicagoan Mayor at the time, suggested that this was the case and went on to say that ‘there’s something magi about it in a relationship, as compared to a new stadium that has no character, no identity’. Soldier Field, similar to Wembley, has been largely reconstructed in recent years although has managed to maintain the iconic sweeping columns that line the long sides of the structure. When the stadium was first built the colonnades became recognised as the memorial feature, contrary to the architect’s vision of the whole structure as the memorial. When the Bears renovated the stadium in the early 1980’s the columns were considered to be an almost sacred monument in tribute to veterans and the war dead. One of the improvements was the re-casting of the concrete treads and risers of the stands, cleverly done by using the existing deteriorated form as a stay-in-place form. As construction began on the new structure, it was inevitable that Soldier Field would face controversy and strong criticism given its history and the political debates surrounding it. Chicagoan, Paul Knudtson called it, ‘[…] post-modern neoclassical junk. Metal and glass clash with cement pillars.’29 Another Chicagoan Robert Cassidy, the editor in

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chief of Building Design & Construction, wrote that, ‘just looking at it makes me sick […] If this were elsewhere, I might have less concern, although not undiluted concern. But it’s a real effrontery to the public and to our distinctive architecture here’.30 Many of his readers subsequently agreed, however project architect Dirk Lohan responded by commenting on the construction of the John Hancock Building in the 1970’s, another building much criticised by Chicagoans as it was being built. Now though, it is recognised as an icon of the city. Sarah Dunn of the Chicago firm Urban Lab was also supportive of the project saying that, ‘if they were able to tear it down, we would have gotten a typical retro thing […] the way it just squeezes in, there’s sort of a nice tension between the new and the old.’31 The Daily Herald’s Barry Rozner was far less kind in his view of the new stadium, ‘It remains inexcusable that the Bears and Mayor Daley conspired to desecrate a war memorial by dropping a spaceship inside the colonnades’.32 Personally, I disagree with the last comment and I find the image on the opposite page to be one of the better ways of communicating the relationship of the two eras. The old colonnades are celebrated as a key feature of the exterior and give the walkway a unique architectural feature. The new glazed ‘spaceship’, while materially contrasting them, reflects the colonnades and


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conveys a lightness and transparency that attempts to focus your attention on the columns. A similar approach as the Kunsthaus in Graz, often termed the ‘friendly alien’. However, without disrespecting the architects, could it be argued that had the stadium been rebuilt by one of the ‘starchitects’, as was the case with Wembley, it would have received a more positive public response? The National Park Service was also sceptical of the new stadium and consequently revoked Soldier Field’s status on the prestigious list of National Historic Landmarks. The plan ‘crossed the line in terms of too much renovation’ a Park Service spokesman said. Although Daley’s administration had fought to preserve the iconic

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colonnades and stuck to this throughout the design process, the stadium could no longer be considered the same Soldier Field, ‘reinvented for a new Chicago that the old stadium had helped create.’33 Nowadays the fans seem to be turning towards accepting the stadium and getting over the idea of it simply being a ‘UFO dropped in place’. It has an intimate atmosphere once inside and when you combine this with the scenic landscape and the history of the site, it can make for an excellent stadium experience. Proof then that you can still make an icon out of an old, dilapidated structure in the heart of the city.

“Stupendously elaborate memorial building that, in the end, was a stadium” 34 21. Soldier Field, Chicago: The walkway on the outside of the stadium showing colonnades

Charles Fox (of Marshall and fox)


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the five generations of stadia and the potential to regenerate the city.

As discussed previously, the stadium is fast becoming a multifunctional venue for all forms of entertainment with the potential income available a much sought after luxury. It is this multi-use factor that is leading stadium design into what is conceivably the fourth and fifth generation of its design. The initial stage of stadium design came as the popularity of sports gained momentum with its unification of the rules and a sense of organisation. This first generation was the introduction of ticketing with the shape and structure informed by the recent organisation of world sports. The common phrase at the time was very much ‘bums on seats’ as the more spectators they could squeeze in, the more money they could make. However there was no real architectural quality to these structures and they were quite often constructed in stages and became somewhat fragmented. Outside of the UK though, specifically in Italy and Germany, stadia were constructed more as part of a complex run by the council or municipality. Pier Luigi Nervi’s Stadio Comunale in Florence (1930-32) is a great example for

22. Stadio Comunale, Florence: Pier Luigi Nervi’s iconic cantilevered roof

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the potential of stadium deign at this time. It is fundamentally a concrete bowl although it featured elegant stands and curving cantilevered roof beams. A far more adventurous move that was nothing like the uninspiring monotony found throughout stadiums in the UK. Generally, the first generation of modern stadia were distinctly uncomfortable and lacking in facilities, although with the arrival of television this was soon to change. The second generation provided the spectator with improved seating and the provision of food and drink outlets within the stadium. Floodlights and under-soil heating were installed so that sports could be played at any time of the day in any condition. The approach of ‘bums on seats’ started to shift towards ‘spend per head’. The development of television, although detrimental to sport at first, helped drive the quality of stadia to new levels which then improved the quality of the televised product. The third generation then expanded on the theme of ‘spend per head’ with more services available to spectators and more avenues for them to spend at events. Themes that were apparent in Disneyland, the ultimate family centre for entertainment at the time. There was an entertainment revolution that would help entice people to come and spend money in order to rival the increased accessibility of sports coverage on

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television. Much of the third generation improvements also came about after concerns for public safety in the stadium and the subsequent Taylor Report from the Hillsborough disaster. Safety and comfort were prime factors in the design stage and the approach shifted completely from ‘bums on seats’ to ‘spend per head’. Arsenal Football Club were one of the teams ahead of the game in the UK, building an all-seater stand with a capacity of 12,500 people. ‘It featured an abundance of bars, food outlets and supporters’ shops’.35 However it is the stadium built for the small town of Huddersfield that is arguably the best example of stadium design in the third generation and even as precedent for the stadium of today. It should be noted at this point that these generations of stadia are not simply a chronological description of their development as it is not uncommon to still find second and third generation stadia being built around the world. Huddersfield’s all-seater stadium was a competition winning entry from architecture firm HOK Sport in response to the Taylor report of the nineties. It was part of a theoretical model that was unlike any of the other box-shaped entries. Described as ‘The Stadium of the Future’ 36, the Galpharm Stadium (formerly Sir Alfred McAlpine Stadium) provided a home for the local football and rugby teams whilst becoming a focal point for the surrounding area. Commercial activities were incorporated within the stadium and it was vitally important to the council that the local community had access to the facilities for as much of the year as

23. Galpharm Stadium, Huddersfield: ‘The Stadium of the Future’?


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possible. The integration with the town was seemingly easy with the prospect of year-round use for the public and the quality of the facilities provided; especially in relation to those paying to attend matches. The stadium was also built in a phased construction and allowed the teams to operate before the whole stadium was complete, another unique approach. The Galpharm stadium is one of the best examples of an iconic stadium for the smaller town or city. It is not an architectural marvel in comparison to its national counterpart but in terms of typical stadia found around the country, it is easily one of the more aesthetically pleasing, it is functional and was constructed at a reasonable cost. A further stadium to compare with is The Reebok in Bolton. A stadium that I have personally visited and found to be exactly what the sport needs – a comfortable and safe family environment that provides every spectator with a roof over their head and a clear view of the entertainment. It is slightly bigger than that of Huddersfield and more characteristic to an extent, but like the Galpharm Stadium its ‘bold and unrestrained structural expression gives the Reebok a presence which defines its relatively small size’.37

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The development of the fourth generation of stadium design was again linked directly to the television market and the potential economic benefits. With the stadium acting as a backdrop to any televised sport, there was an immense importance placed on the atmosphere created inside; to the point where it has become an integral component of the design brief. It was better to see a 40,000 capacity stadium full than a half filled 80,000 one. The fifth generation and future for stadiums is not so much the development of the stadium itself, but the way in which it can influence its surrounding community and shape cities. The proposal for the new Liverpool stadium has the potential to be a fifth generation stadium and is looking in great depth at the regeneration of the surrounding area as part of its design process. As mentioned previously, the stadium need not be a global symbol or an 80,000 seat capacity in order to be iconic, I believe the impact it can have on the regeneration of the city greatly increases its bond with its users, this in turn leading to a better atmosphere inside and out and eventually the status of ‘icon’.


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the future of stadium design. is there a definitive guide? In my research for this report I have been exposed to a large number of stadiums and performance centres ranging from the compact to global and national icons. I don’t think we can say there is a definitive guide on how to create the ‘perfect’ stadium, we can only propose guidelines and look to precedent in order to learn from the past. This helps maintain a richness about the subject and an atmosphere of competition to constantly out-do your rivals and raise the bar, only bettering the quality of the final product. In an ideal world though, designers must find the most practical shape that appeals to as many sports as possible and provides a suitable venue for other forms of entertainment, such as music concerts for example. Smoothing out the differences in sporting codes to fit as much in as possible is a key factor in managing this. This all aims to give the stadium an even greater functionality and purge the use of the phrases ‘sleeping giant’ and ‘white elephant’ that are often used to describe them today. In doing so it should be somewhat easier to integrate the stadium into the city and its community. Taking away any negative connotations when the public hear the words ‘stadium proposal’ for their city. The advancements and development of technology plays a key role in challenging the designer to create bigger and better structures that will naturally attract visitors all year-round. As I have discussed, it is not solely the image of the stadium that contributes to its iconicity. However it does play a crucial role and so creating an architecturally unique stadium can enhance this iconic status. In today’s world, we are starting to see more ‘futuristic’ designs that challenge the boundaries of current construction limits 24. Proposal for an LA NFL Stadium: The stadium as part of an entertainment centre


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and constantly update the definition of what we consider as state of the art. We are already seeing ‘smart’ stadiums that virtually run themselves, moveable playing surfaces and massive high-definition screens. It might not be too far-fetched in the future to see things like personal sound systems in each chair, or even a personal television for replays or highlights, bringing spectators the best of both worlds - television coverage and the live event. There are a few main points that must be approached well in order to create a successful stadium. Firstly, it is vitally important that the context and relationship to the city are taken into consideration throughout the life of the project. In conjunction with this, the transport links and movement to or around the stadium need to be carefully thought through. Stadiums located closer to the heart of the city and within walking distance tend to develop a stronger ‘iconic’ status. Having a body of water nearby or successful landscaping doesn’t seem to hurt the status of the stadium either.

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The iconicity of modern stadia is often determined by their use of innovative technologies and their apparently impractical yet often unique appearance. Initial plans and drawings are frequently criticised by the media and public when something unprecedented is proposed, but more often than not this gradually changes to a sense of pride and source of identity; especially when the stadium is intending to form a strong relationship with its community. In order to encourage more people to attend events at stadia and as part of the idea to make it a ‘onestop-shop’ for family entertainment, the safety and comfort of spectators is now another high priority. Creating an atmosphere that encourages people to spend money so they can see the event live. Trying to make it more enticing than the television coverage that can be experienced from the comfort of their own home. Technology and construction, technically sound, work as a building, aesthetically pleasing, visually iconic


25. Camp Nou, Barcelona: Lord Foster’s proposal for the renovation of the stadium


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In researching this report, I have found that the role of the stadium in the city is very often undervalued. Obviously we are in a time of economic difficulty but the integration of new stadia within the city provides a unique opportunity for redevelopment and regeneration. It can reshape the fabric of the city and enhance it possibly more than any other building in the city. As architects and designers, we need to realise this potential and produce a stadium that can create a ‘working relationship’ with its city. In this age, it is simply not acceptable for stadia to sit as white elephants and hinder the city’s development, especially in its visual presence. I think that the iconic status is generated from a number of sources. It comes from the relationship of the people to the stadium, the emotions it evokes, the memories and stories it provides and ingrains in our history. A metaphorical ‘character’ ingrained in the stadium helps people associate themselves with it. Any building can be visually iconic, for good or bad reasons, although it is more important in the case of the stadium as it has a strong visual presence. It is this unique bond we have with the stadium that takes the status of ‘icon’ to a new level beyond its visual appearance. It is an emotional attachment similar to that of the cathedral and religion that can solidify its place in the city and our hearts. The appearance of the stadium and architecture are also important factors in generating iconicity - Wembley wouldn’t be the same without its arch or the Twin Towers before that. A stand out element can have a multitude

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of benefits; it can act as a logo, something to recognise the stadium by and when designed well in its context, can help to build a sense of pride with the community. The architectural success can also improve tourism in the area and in some cases can act as a ‘postcard image’ for cities. In reality it is unlikely that every stadium we build is going to be as iconic as something like Wembley, but that doesn’t mean they can’t form as strong a relationship with their city and help to regenerate areas by considering the wider context. I think, outside of the economic values, the true success of the stadium is in its ability to make the person watching at home on the television wish they were there enjoying the atmosphere; even if it isn’t a team they support. Making the live event better than any televised coverage. Watching the pre-match build up of the rugby match between France and Wales at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff was one of these moments; the crowd were united as one, singing the Welsh anthem in a way that even speculated the demise of the roof, the atmosphere inside the stadium was unlike anything you would find in a cathedral, a cauldron of noise that brought together a nation for one moment in time. Outside the stadium, we view it as this iconic structure that provides the memories of games past. Inside it merely becomes the setting and backdrop for new memories to happen. The architecture should not detract from the events that happen within it. The external appearance of the stadium must be visually iconic, the inside must be functionally iconic.


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References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Bale, J., and Moen, O., The Stadium and the City, p11 Barclay, P., and Powell, K., Wembley Stadium: Venue of Legends, p28 Ford, L.T.A., Soldier Field: A stadium and its city, p17 Thompson, P., Tollczko, J.J.A., and Clarke, J.N., Stadia, Arenas and Grandstands: Design, Construction and Operation, p3 Lord Coe, Olympic stadium will not be white elephant after London 2012, The Guardian, Sport, Wednesday 19th October 2011, Online Article www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2011/oct/19/olympic-stadium-london-2012 [Accessed 13/04/12] Sklair, L., Iconic Architecture and Capitalist Globalisation, City, 2006, 10:01, p21-47 Thompson, P., Tollczko, J.J.A., and Clarke, J.N., Stadia, Arenas and Grandstands: Design, Construction and Operation, p17 Davies, L. E., Sport and the local economy: the role of stadia in regenerating commercial property, Local Economy, (2008) 23 (1), p31-46 Thompson, P., Tollczko, J.J.A., and Clarke, J.N., Stadia, Arenas and Grandstands: Design, Construction and Operation, p19 Sheard, R., Sports Architecture, p14 Barclay, P., and Powell, K., Wembley Stadium: Venue of Legends, p158 referencing Simon Hart, The Sunday Telegraph, 20th May 2007 Tomkins, S., Matches made in heaven, BBC, 22nd June 2004, Online Article http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/3828767.stm [Accessed 23/04/12] The Greatest Stadium Ever Built?, Associated Press, 2009, Online Video http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=LngERT9AmSk [Accessed 14/04/12] Dillon, D., and Pagel, D., Cowboys Stadium: Architecture, Art and Entertainment in the twenty-first century, Foreword, p9 Starchitect - a famous or high profile architect, Oxford English Dictionary See note 14 above. See note 14 above. Dillon, D., and Pagel, D., Cowboys Stadium: Architecture, Art and Entertainment in the twenty-first century, p139 Dillon, D., and Pagel, D., Cowboys Stadium: Architecture, Art and Entertainment in the twenty-first century, Foreword, p10 Gene Jones on the Art at Cowboys Stadium, Art and Seek, 13th January 2011, Online Article http:// artandseek.net/2011/01/13/video-gene-jones-on-the-art-at-cowboy-stadium/http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=QchMgTkDSsA [Accessed 23/04/12] See note 2 above. Barclay, P., and Powell, K., Wembley Stadium: Venue of Legends, p168 Wembley Stadium, London. Design Build Network, Online Article www.designbuild-network.com/projects/ wembley/ [Accessed 09/04/12] The Regeneration of Wembley (Stadium and City), Modern British Architecture, Online Article brst440.commons.yale. edu/2007/08/12/the-regeneration-of-wembley-stadium-and-city/ [Accessed 10/04/12] See note 24 above. See note 24 above. Ford, L.T.A., Soldier Field: A Stadium and its City, Chapter 1, p21 The List: Best NFL defense of all-time, Online Article http://espn.go.com/page2/s/list/bestNFLdefense.html [Accessed 23/04/12]


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29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

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Ford, L.T.A., Soldier Field: A Stadium and its City, Chapter 15, p301 Ford, L.T.A., Soldier Field: A Stadium and its City, Chapter 15, p308 Ford, L.T.A., Soldier Field: A Stadium and its City, Chapter 15, p309 See note 31 above. See note 31 above. Ford, L.T.A., Soldier Field: A Stadium and its CIty, Introduction, p11 Sheard, R., The Stadium: Architecture for the New Global Culture, p111 Sheard, R., The Stadium: Architecture for the New Global Culture, p112 Sheard, R., The Stadium: Architecture for the New Global Culture, p119

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Engineering Design of Roof and Arch at Wembley Stadium, UK. Bright Hub 12th October 2011, www.brighthub.com/engineering/civil/articles/62918.aspx [Accessed 11/04/12] Extreme Engineering: University of Phoenix Stadium http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=weE8LYSQNmo [Accessed 14/04/12] Gene Jones on the Art at Cowboys Stadium, Art and Seek 13th January 2011, Online Article http://artandseek.net/2011/01/13/video-gene-jones-on-the-art-at-cowboy-stadium/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QchMgTkDSsA [Accessed 23/04/12] Hammond, M., Let Play Commence www.worldarchitecturenews.com/index.php?fuseaction=wanappln.commentview&comment_id=48 [Accessed 09/04/12] Jerry Jones’ tour of Cowboys Stadium, NFL.com 31st January 2011, http://www.nfl.com/videos/nfl-super-bowl/09000d5d81e06746/Jerry-Jones-tour-of-Cowboys-Stadium [Accessed 11/04/12] Mclain, J., The Regeneration of Wembley (Stadium and City), Modern British Architecture Yale University, 2007, brst440.commons.yale.edu/2007/08/12/the-regeneration-of-wembley-stadium-and-city/ [Accessed 17/04/12] Richard Hammond’s Engineering Connections: Wembley Stadium, BBC, [Accessed 14/04/12] Part 1 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AgQQAymc-Ak Part 2 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aqOzcKdvFDI Part 3 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-OzCI_PcrGg Part 4 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bvZvCTDKPDE Part 5 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tntFt991RN4 Sustainability, Wembley Stadium www.wembleystadium.com/TheStadium/StadiumGuide/Sustainability [Accessed 09/04/12] The Greatest Stadium Ever Built? Associated Press 2009, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LngERT9AmSk [Accessed 14/04/12] The Next Generation of Stadiums, Commscope www.commscope.com [Accessed 18/04/12] Wembley Stadium, London. Design Build Network www.designbuild-network.com/projects/wembley/ [Accessed 10/04/12] Wembley Stadium, The Observer, Art and Design 2007, www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2011/jun/05/wembley-stadium-360-degree-panoramic [Accessed 10/04/12]



Dissertation