Page 1


THE CALIFORNIAN BUNGALOW IN AUSTRALIA


* Ori ins Revival

f

Source I e mfor Restoration


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My thanks to Richard Aitken for access to his State Bank bungalow, vast book collection and bungalow photographs; Fiona Whittle for access to her collection of Australian Home Beautiful; Richard Beck and John Best for their photographs; John Clare for his definitive bungalow treatise, part of which was published in Historic Environment No. 1, 1986; the Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales for access to their wallpaper collection; and, of course, my family.

Originally a Lothian Book published by Thomas C. Lothian Pty Ltd 11 Munro Street, Port Melbourne, Victoria 3207 First published 1992 Copyright © Graeme Butler 1992, 1995 Reprinted 1995. Reprint and facsimile of the 1995 edition on compact disk 2010 by Graeme Butler & Associates All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any process without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Enquiries should be made to the publisher. National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-publication data: Butler, Graeme. The Californian bungalow in Australia. Includes index. Original ISBN 0 85091 355 1 New ISBN 978-0-85091-355-2 1. Bungalows – Australia. 2. Architecture, Domestic – Australia. I. Title. 728.3730994 Original Cover design by Tom Kurema Original Text designed by Tom Kurema Original Typeset in Garamond and Helvetica by Bookset Pty Ltd, Melbourne Originally Printed by SNP Printing Pte Ltd


CONTENTS

Planters' Bungalows: the Beginning of a Dream British Bungalows Japanese Bungalows in California Californian Origins and the Weather American Bungalows Catalogued Open Living Sleeping Out Australian Beginnings Australian Bungalows — Home Product? Servantless Homes Some Distinguished Australian Bungalows

Dacey Gardens Bungalow Suburb Bungalow Courts Miller Memorial Homes Bungalow Town Planning New Motor Suburbs Housing Standards War's End: Bungalow Triumph


Timber Walls Timber Finishing Bricks Stucco Stone Cement Sheet Concrete Walls Bungalow Roofing External Bungalow Joinery The Fence Gates The Pergola Exterior Colours

Introduction Typical Australian Interiors The Bungalow Interior — Dark, Sombre Clutter Bungalow Kitchens and Appliances Bathrooms The Laundry Bungalow Parts Floors and Floor Finishes Fireplaces Lighting Window Dressing Wall Papers Interior Colours and Finishes Bungalow Furniture

American Prototypes Order in the Garden Paving Pergolas Flowers in the Bungalow Garden Trees Native Plants RESTORATION MATERIALS & SUPPLIERS

144

NOTES

150

INDEX

154


INTRODUCTION

During the dark times of the financially fickle 1890s, when many Australian entrepreneurs had met their economic end, the cycle of taste turned away from the lush and detailed decor of the High Victorian era. Austerity was the thing and for good reason. At the zenith of this austerity cycle was the bungalow home and all it stood for: simplicity, economy and restraint. In Britain, as in Australia, the industrial revolution had created a new middle class with desires for inexpensive and simple seaside retreats. The model they used was the colonialist's bungalow, developed in India and other British colonies as a civilized refuge from the impenetrable jungle. Though British, it was, of necessity built with many of the simple methods and natural materials of native housing. Back in England, the British yielded to the seaside mystique of summer bungalows at Westgate-on-sea and other similar places. Beyond the haze of sea spray, there was also the continuing colonial experience of the bungalow's original setting: in India, on a hillside, behind lattice screens and next to the mysterious jungle. The bungalow eventually became the house choice of those on modest incomes and proliferated this century as an anti-class symbol. This was after a half-century of satire from the middle and upper classes because of its informal associations. Being wholly detached, set in its grounds, and owned not leased, the bungalow was seen by some, in its infancy, as the miniature equivalent of an English gentleman's manor house on his estate. I never had any other desire so strong, and so like to covetousness, as that which I have had always, that I might be master at least of a small house.1

The same bungalow model from Britain's Westgate-on-sea was adopted for early colonial life in the Australian bush, though it was to live on in another form to eventually replace its bush setting by sheer weight of numbers.

1


American architectural influence grew more quickly after Australia's monetary ties with England faltered in the late 1880s, leading up to the economic depression of the 1890s. American Queen Anne and Romanesque revival styles created new waves here in the late 1880s, and increasingly America (not England) was shaping our architectural taste. With its origins in North America, the reworked British colonial-inspired bungalow made its debut in Australia as first the quaint holiday house of those with means and later the cheap option for suburban housing on a massive scale. Some would argue that the bungalow may have been eventually hybridized sufficiently to become the common Australian many-fronted brick veneer. Certainly it was the housing medium which had most effect on the form of our suburbs. As Australian towns grew into their rural edges, the concept of simple living promoted the construction of small dwellings on the forest fringe. As suburban houses outnumbered the 19th century urban houses, so did the romantic notion of a bush home appeal to the increasingly city-bound populace. The simple charm and low cost of bungalows combined with the need to satisfy dire housing shortages incurred by the 1890s depression and the First War. This combination of circumstances meant that bungalows were handed down from the middle classes to the working folk, and created thousands of bungalows in this country alone. Furthermore, there was a strong association between bungalows and holidays in the Australian bush in an era when nationalism (via Federation) was rampant. The bush represented everything that was Australian, and the bungalow was closely associated with the bush. Once established, this image sold many thousands of bungalows for places anywhere but in the bush. In parallel with the development of the American bungalow as it would emerge en masse in the 1920s were the still ornate but simpler Queen Anne and 'Federation bungalow' house styles. But lurking in the background, there was also the puzzling and new European Modernistic house style, often in the form of a pristine white box. Modernism's extreme austerity was to remain a mystery to most Australians until after World War Two and beyond. Some academics would point at the austere under-clothed Modernistic boxes of Adolf Loos and others as the subtle influences behind this gradual shift from decorative dazzle to simple house forms and finishes. Indeed, Loos wrote in 1892: It would be greatly for our aesthetic good if we should refrain entirely from the use of ornament for a period of years, in order that our thought might concentrate acutely upon the production of buildings well formed and comely in the nude.2

Others will point at the international influence of Japanese art and architecture (on architects such as Lloyd Wright and Burley Griffin), repackaged in America and exported to Australia (as always). There is more to the bungalow and its ways, however, than the development of a house style. It accompanied a whole way of life. This was a life-style which embraced the holy 1 /4-acre block, the nature strip, the motor car and its garage, easy bank home-buyer finance, lower building costs, 'sleeping out under the stars' and recognition of the Australian native planting for urban gardens. In short, everything Australians hold dear today. For an imported, essentially American, style it seemed to include many Australian things. Or


maybe it wass the underlyying philoso phy of the bungalow, m b a philosophy which p promoted reccognition of ' place', and reespect for thee native and natural elemeents in w whichever envvironment the bungalow b foun nd itself? Regardless of its origin, the bungalo ow was well promoted p in Australia in an era w when internaational magazzines (now il lustrated witth photograp phs) were gai ning a s stronger holdd. So, too, w as internatio onal culture, due to oversseas service by b our a armed force s in World War One. In addition , there was the escalatiion of A American cinema from aro ound World War W One wheen the first biig cinemas opeened in A Australia. In Britain,, as in Austrralia, the glaamour emanaating from H Hollywood, via v the c cinematic sccreen was s een as the cause of in ncreased Am merican bun galow p popularity th ere after Wo orld War Onee. Entire bun ngalow subur bs evolved. As A the p popular houssing form ad opted by thee nation's fir st potentiallyy classless ho ousing t tracts, the buungalow's rep putation also took on a risque r tone in n Britain. Infformal l living, it was said, inspireed informal morals. m So it seemed bunggalow dwellerrs were f fated to amoraality. The following are the bun ngalow styles th hat developedd in Australia. Colonial bungalow Right: Ri The beginning b of th e bunga alow in Australia was the Englis sh verandahed and a hipped d-roof house, built b here from first f permanentt settle ment late in the 18th centurry. Nationalistic revivals of past styles s during F e d e r a t i o n r e k i n d l e d t h e colonial experience in a Fede eration form. (Herman, The Early E

Austra alian Architects and a Their Work, k, Angus & Robe ertson, 1954)

Below w: An American 'Colonial

bunga alow' illustrated in the Crafts sman magazine e, showiing a similar roo of form to that off Australian exa amples.


Federation bungalow Inspired by a new nationalism, architectural form borrowed from some of the early colonial era products (ie. high, simply hipped roofs) which, in turn, looked back at colonial precedents in other British dominions. These differ from the contemporary Queen Anne revival by their much simpler approach to form and detail, although both styles had a main hipped roof and gabled room bays set against it. Often verandah details are of timber and use Far Eastern motifs, whether brackets or friezes.

Craftsman bungalow This form evolved from simply gabled (the ridge was usually parallel to frontage) American east coast farmhouses and mountain hunting lodges. Following the true meaning of the term, the interior fittings were often hand-made or hand-carved, illustrating a strong interest in all handicrafts, weaving, painting or wood carving. (Craftsman magazine, 1909)

Californian or Pasadena bungalow The type was influenced by Spanish, Swiss, Indian and Japanese prototypes, each type suggesting a different form. While the Japanese influence dominates, others such as the Swiss chalet style had their uses for attic or two-storey bungalows. (Craftsman magazine, 1909)


Above e: Arts & Crafts bungalow b British by inspiration, this

bunga alow often had a deeply d arched porch (masonry) ratther than a pergola on heavy piers as seen in the Californian bungalo ow. Othe erwise it resemble es a Federa ation or Craftsman bunga alow but without the Easterrn overtones. Tape ered chimneys and arched porches p sprang g from English Ve ernacular Reviva al styles, pursued by Arts & Crafts architects such as a Voysey and Ba aillie Scott. It was a blend of existing g bungalow styles but also had a pure form which was more Tudor T revival. (Au ustralian Home e Beautiful, May 19 928)

Top rig ight: Swiss chalett

bunga alow This is the style s which allowed bungalo ows to rise ou ut of their traditional definition to be more th han one floor. They T were broad gabled houses s on two levels, often o with de eep eaves, brackets and orrnate fret-sawn ornam ment in friezes to verand dahs or gable end ds.

Above and left: Indian bungalow w

Bungalows with a high hipped ro oof and a central entry porrch, often with Tuscan order columns, resembled closely the English E tea planters' bungalo ows of the early 19th 1 century in India and Ceylon n. Pictured left is the t mass-produced d 1920s version off this style, with its hipped roof fo orm and centred porch. p The use of Greek revival detail, d inside and outside, parallels with botth the Greek reviv val, seen mainly in Australia comm mercial buildings of o the 1920s, and the same motifs m used in Reg gency England. There is also a sllender link with the simple hipped-roof form m of the Federatio on bungalow.


O GIN ORIG NS

P Planters' Bungalow ws: the Beeginning of a Dreaam The characteristic Indian hippe ed-roof form is s well port rayed by this bungalow of the 1860s 1 on a coffe ee estate in Ceylo on. A hedge con ntains the plantter's bungalow, with creepers appe earing to have a l m o s t c o v e r e d i t s o p e n verandah. To th he right, separate e to the hous se, are the serva ants' quarters in a fenced f yard. Ne ew coffee plantts cover all of the e remaining terrain. (VVeatherston ne The Early

Britis sh Tea and Coffe ee Planters and Their Way of Liife, 1986)

Between 18825 and 1900 , the British cleared nearrly a million aacres of Indiian and Ceylonese juungle for tea and a coffee plaanting. In thaat time a form m of British ressidence developed which w suited th he region's vaastly differentt tropical clim mate. This forrm also emerged in Australia, ass the charactteristic high--hipped and verandahed houses we associatee with Colon nial Georgian architecturee of the late 118th and earlly 19th centuries, particularly p i New Soutth Wales 1 and Tasmania.2 in Photograaphs taken in India du ring that erra show pla ntation man nagers' bungalows. One at Assam m, has a high-hipped and th hatched roof and a verandaah with lightly trelli sed balustradding. Further photographss show the saame basic hipp ped and verandahed form, f sometim mes with a veraandah supporteed on stout

6


Abov ve: This 'bungalo ow' in New

South h Wales was so o cited by the

Buildi ding and Engineer ering Journal

(Dec ember 1892). It I resembles the In ndian planters ' bungalows — particularly in its lookout tower — and preced des the emerrgence of the co olonial revival Fede eration bungalow w in the Edwa ardian era.

pillars with a central gab bled porch. 3 Others raisedd on stilts ovver a basemeent, had more p recise detailiing and moree formal veraandah balust rading. 4 For all planters' bunggalows, howevver, symmetry was always the keynote. In Australlia, the distin nctive pyramid d roof of these colonial buungalows is also a recognizablle from the Federation F era e (Federati on bungalow w), through the t 1920s, as the direct descenddant of the Ind dian or coloniaal bungalow.

Colonial In ndian bungaalows Above right: An Australian

colon nial bungalow at Busselton, Western Australia. Like the Indian and Ceylones se planters' bung galows, Wonne erup House has a shingled (not thatched) t hippe ed roof, encirc cling veran ndah and Frenc ch windows which h allowed most rooms in the h o u s e a c c e s s o n t o t h e veranda ah.

The bungalo ow, from the Hindi banglaa, meaning (h house) in the style of Benggal, changed ma ny times from m its initial peasantine p forrm when it w was described d as resembling an upturned boat made from f bamboo o and straw. 5 From the 166th century Eu ropean adap ptation of th his, or its la rger equivallent, came tw wo bungalow forms: f the double-roofe d ed bungalow w, an elevateed hipped-ro oof pavilion seaated on anoth her with enccircling veran ndah, and th e less comm mon gabled form m. The hippeed form proggressed throuugh the 19th century c know wn as a Colon nial Bungalow, a simple pyrramid-hippe d roof form m plus veranddah. It was the t typical earlly dwelling form in Au stralia — Elizabeth E Fa rm Cottage at Parramatta is a good exxample — a nd it eventuually becamee the Indian or Federation bungalow of o the early 20th centurry. The otheer gabled fo rm developed in n America, with w strong Jaapanese influuences, into tthe Pasadena or Californian bungalow. b Rudyard Kipling's K fatherr wrote in 19111 of the early colonial c days in n India: Our early ressidents there [B Bengal] engage ed in military, administrative or trading dutiies, lived a nomad dic life for the greater g part off the year in ten nts ... their firs t dwelling-hous ses . . . built of ma aterials at site, were w naturally planned p on the model of the In ndian service te ents to which they were accustom med, i.e. a large e and lofty room m surrounded b by double walls s of canvas, encl osi o ng spac e between b them m, with parti ti ons o at two or m more corners for bath or store erooms ...

Kipling's theory was th hat the form of the bangla (of Bengal) rroof thatch gaave the house it s name. The bungalow co oncept and naame firmed b y the early 199th century. Theeir location was w always rem mote from th he urban coasstal settlemen nts; their form was w easily con nstructed by native n labourr, using materrials taken fro om the site. The rural myth surrrounding the 20th century urban u bungalow w had


'Roslyndale', New South Wales, was designed in the 1920s by Hardy Wilson and, although without a verandah, is remarkably similar to both Indian and Australian colonial bungalows. (The Home)

begun. A traditional Indian tea-planter's bungalow could be central to a 'hill-station', a complex located high in the Himalayan foothills to allow the British to escape the summer's heat on the plains. It could also be in rural seaside surroundings, again a summer escape for the European.6 It is difficult to imagine anything more agreeable than a late evening dinner in an esplanade bungalow ... the sweet perfume of the surrounding plants, and the fresh sea breeze, blowing through the trellis-worked verandahs, render them [bungalows] delightful retreats after the heat and lassitude throughout the day . . . A fine-toned piano, and a good billiards table, are the usual additions to the varied articles of luxury and convenience . . . (1838).7

In colonial administrative centres such as Bombay, the revival of classical stylism 8 popular with the permanent European abodes of the time, was superimposed on the native bungalow by the addition of Ionic or Doric order columns around the entry. The very same device, a Doric or Tuscan order porch, was revived in Australia by the architect Hardy Wilson and in thousands of more mundane bungalows in the new suburban morass of the 1920s.9 Nevertheless, in rural India, classicism could only reach so far, being limited to plastered Doric order columns along the verandah in place of the round jungle timber or bamboo. The advent of British-built masonry walls and tiled roofs further modified the native content of colonial bungalow building with consolidation of the settlement.

British bungalows These two British bungalow types of 1909 show the gabled form typical of the mid-19th century summer houses at Westgate-on-Sea (England), and the hipped type resembling Asian and Australian bungalows. Both types continued to be marketed into the 1920s as prefabricated homes.

In England, with increasing industrialization and the consequent rapid urbanization, the rural fringe was becoming that much further from the city's centre. The city environs were increasingly more polluted because of new-found industry. A rural retreat by the sea, perhaps in Westgate-on-sea, was the new middle class's remedy 10 and the Indian summerhouse became more popular as its inspiration.


The English bungalow prototype is said to have been erected in Westgate-on-sea in as early as 1869. Another was erected in Birchington the following year, taking on that familiar broad-gabled bungalow roof style (with long, shaped eaves brackets) and the flared wall-base. This was the emergence of the gabled bungalow type (later developed in California), as distinct from the typical Indian bungalow, with its square plan and and pyramid roof. In the words of 1870, each Westgate-on-sea bungalow was 'a bijou cottage by the sea' 11 with 'real comfort' and 'pleasing rusticity …’. All ornament was omitted. Official prohibition of the old form of row-house or attached housing development at Westgate, reinforced this new house style, just as the same taboos reinforced the bungalow suburbs in Australia after the First War.12 ... People of moderate means in a city like ours where grime and smoke, bustle and hurry make us long for the country and its freshness, where at a small expense we may pass a quiet weekend 'far from the madding crowd' to strengthen us for the next week's toil. A house in the country with its attendant expenses would be beyond our means but a bungalow can be built and maintained at a comparatively trifling cost (1838).13

Along with the concept of simpler living and fresh air, British bungalows of the 1880s were also sun conscious. Their verandahs faced the prevailing sun —north in the southern hemisphere and south in the northern. They were also principally on one level, matching today's common understanding of what a bungalow is, but often with provision for a servant or box room (or both) in the attic, or a cool room in the cellar. This was also the era of portable bungalows, made with timber pre-cut frames, match-board cladding and a felted roof 1 4 to allow rapid and easy relocation. Again, these were usually bound for the colonies. The only colonial bungalow characteristic dispensed with in Britain was the traditional encircling verandah. This was thought unnecessary in the cool climes of Britain and therein lay the parting of the ways between bungalows of the old country and those of her colonies, America and Australia.

Japanese Bungalows in California The other major influence on bungalow design was the traditional Japanese house. That is, as viewed by American architects in the 1890s. These house designs were gabled in form, surprisingly like the English seaside bungalows of 1870 (for instance, at Westgate-on-sea) and contrasted with the simple hipped form of the Indian bungalow. Unlike the English examples, the Japanese inspiration is carried through into details, both internal and external. Just how much influence the Japanese exhibits at the Philadelphia Centennial and Chicago Columbian Exhibitions (1876, 1883) had on American designers is unknown. However, decidedly Japanese house forms were appearing across America by the 1890s, designed by the renowned Frank Lloyd Wright among others. Wright's Chauncey Williams house in Illinois (1895) showed a general Eastern influence at work, but the Warren Hickox house in Kankakee, Illinois (1900) was decidedly Japanese in form and detail, 15 and was repeated next door in B. Harley Bradley's house. Wright had been impressed by Japanese prints in the 1893 Columbian Exposition and later wrote of commencing his own print collection in 1900.16


Gamble House e, Pasadena, California (1908 8-9), designed by b Greene & Gree ene. Brothers Charles and Henry H Greene lived and practtised in Pasadena for most m of their live es, designing hous ses which werre both part of and an inspiration to, the Californ nian bungalow style and its e. Japanese-influenced sub-style

On the American west w coast, thee California Midwinter M Inteernational Ex position (18894) repeatedd some of the earlier Colum mbian exhibitts. This coinccided with thee start of thee highly influeential architeectural partn ership, Gree ne & Greene in southern n California. The Greenee brothers, h however, did d not develop p their charaacteristic Jap panese bungaalow theme until the Arrturo Bandinii house of 19003. Although h designed aro ound a Spanissh Colonial patio, p the gab bled timber form f of this house defied any major Spanish Mission origins. Their later work w was unasshamedly Japan nese. The American A writter Henrietta Keith chroni cled the Japan nese influencce for the influuential Craftsm man periodicaal in 1907. Addmitting a Jap panese inspiration for bun galow design s, she also de tected a majo or American c ontribution i n the adaptatio on process: They kno ow that thatche d roofs and ligh ht sliding partittions are not prractical for Ame erican homes, nor n do they dessire to copy Jap panese ideas merely m because they are foreig n and strange . . . the sympath hetic student of architectural forms finds much h real beauty tha at can be used to t impart a fresh interest to jaded d ideas .. .

She poiinted to Charrles Greene'ss own house as a prime exxample of ho ow to 'naturalizze, in a new world w environ nment, usable and livable feeatures of Japanese Architeecture.' Exteending to th he 'natural' landscape, tthe whole e ffect was inteended to be piicturesque and d at one with nature: n Without employing e the queer q quirks and d angles of the Japanese J use o of lines, their gra aceful curves, so s difficult to ac chieve, . . . noth hing has been carried c to extre emes and the sllightly foreign accent a has bee en so modified by principles of o good domesttic design as to o give a wholly normal n and satissfying result . . .

Green ne's Theodoree Irwin Pasadena bungalow w was purposeely rugged, naatural yet so finely f jointedd (with morti se joints andd oak pins) th hat 'nails are used scarcelyy at all in thee constructio on.' Quarry tiiles, clinker b bricks set in dark mortar, mossy boulderrs from the neearby mountain ns along with tthe soft greys


and browns of the timber exterior concurred with the dark wainscoting and beamed ceilings of the interior living areas. But the interior was not considered Japanese, rather 'true Craftsman style' as was the furnishing. Coloured finishes included oil stains over plaster, with one room having pale blue walls and a blue-tinted polished cedar floor. There was also a pale green room, with walls matched against grey-brown hearth tiles and white 'opalescent' glass in the highlight windows. Another example of Far Eastern design, built by Petit & Green for Dean Alvord of New York (1902), was finished internally by three Japanese artisans, a decorator, a contractor and a gardener, brought to the city especially for the project. 17

California, not New York, remained the focus for the low-gabled Japanese bungalows and even their close cousin, the Swiss or Swiss Chalet style. For the Swiss bungalow only the detailing changed. Otherwise the low-gabled roof with exposed rafters, stained timber and the principles of simple fretted timber ornament were the same as the Japanese style. Arthur Kelly (C. L. Frost and John Allen houses) practised creatively in the Swiss style around 1910.18 Robin Boyd wrote about speculative builder Charles Greenhill's Japanese-inspired bungalows in his book Australia's Home and in magazine articles. This example was one of three built by Greenhill in Kew, Victoria, which Greenhill himself occupied for a time. It is Japanese down to the porch lantern and some of the shrubs growing in the garden.

Burley Griffin's bungalows Like Frank Lloyd Wright, Walter Burley Griffin admired Japanese art and architecture. 19 This is evident from Griffin's Carter House (1910) in Illinois, among many others. The gabled roof forms, cruciform plan, heavy porches, joinery patterns and overhanging eaves were also attributes of British colonial 19th century planters' bungalows, Greene and Greene's bungalows and early Japanese huts, shrines and palaces. In Australia, the Japanese influence on Griffin became more abstracted. His designs for municipal garbage incinerators throughout the country, particularly the Essendon example, have strong similarities to both Japanese prototypes and the by now plentiful suburban bungalows.


Edward Billson n (one of Burley Griffin's associates) and F. Keiith Cheetham's design d shown att the 1928 Royal Viictorian Institute of o Architects' Exhibition of Domestic Architecture. While not a typical Californ nian bungalow, the t house neve rtheless has some s of the style's attributes, a such as a a low gabled ro oof-line a n d h e a v y p o r c h p i e r s . (Australian Home Beautififul, May 1928)

Oth her incinerato ors, such as the Sydney Council C incin nerator (1935) draw from Mayan n sources, 20 as a did Griffin n's Capitol Ciinema and Leeonard Hous e, both built in 19224. His Salterr and Mary Williams W hou ses (1924, 19925) echo th e manner off his Illlinois housee designs of some twentty years befo ore, and hiss continuing preoc cupation witth the Japaneese style. Ev en his pyram mid-roof knittlock holiday house s, such as Ph holiota and Gumnuts G (bo oth in Victoriia), share thee simple form 21 1 of Bri tish planters'' bungalows and the sub burban Indian n bungalows, prevalent in n Austraalia in the 19220s. It is fitting that Griffin n should have died in the Lucknow districtt of Indiia, in 1937.22


Californiian Origin ns and thee Weatherr California, reputedly th e American state of origgin for the buungalow, wass already famo ous for its milld climate. Th he bungalow form f of hous e had, indeed d, developed as a a result off that state's more tempe rate environ nment, luringg successful gold-seekers from m Sierra Nevaada to settle in the south. The establlished eastern states of Am merica had alreeady evolved aan all-purposee, all-weather house consstruction, buut this had proved su perfluous to o California 'w where fierce storms, ice and snow are a unknown n.' Californiaa needed its own o housing style, s and at a better price. A forty per ccent reduction n in price follo owed a simil ar reduction in the bunggalow frame w weight, when n compared with w east co oast housingg. Light ex ternal claddding such a s clapboards or shingles, four-inch ( 100 mm) raather than s ix-inch (1500 mm) thick walls and sh hallower foo otings furtherred this weigght advantagee. Meanwhile, a surge in th he number of building so ocieties and h home financee companies allowed a up to o one-third do own-paymentss on a $600 ho ome. Despite t he diversity of the new Californian C po opulation off the time, thee house style which evolvved was remaarkably unifo orm. The Briitish colonia l Himalayan bungalow, b fussed with the Japanese J influuence, inspireed the design s of thousands of Californian n houses with 'picturesque ' ro oof-lines' and ssimple

A se election of genuiine Californian bungalo ows which utilis sed split 'field stone', s built just after 1900 and d published in the in nfluential Crafts sman mag gazine. The link with the Austtralian equivale ent of the 1920 0s is evident.


interiors. In contrast was the parallel emergence of the indigenous Spanish Mission revival, with its arches and blank stuccoed walls. Neither house style was to reach the mainstream Australian market until 20 years later. In turn-of-the-century California, the bungalow had hybridized again, this time with the Swiss Chalet as a model for two-storey or attic-storey houses. Fancy fret-saw detail, applied around windows or at gable fascias, was a feature of this style of house. English and Mediterranean adaptations followed, but always with the stated aim `‌that no useless ornamentation shall enter the structure, that every part shall be made to serve some necessary purpose', sounding very much like the philosophies of both the European Modernists and the British Arts and Crafts movement. Also in line with the contemporary British Arts and Crafts movement was another axiom for Californian house designers: use the 'simple materials' available from the neighbourhood. Foundations, pillars, porches and outside chimneys of cobblestones, natural rock or clinker brick, solid square timbers instead of the fanciful excretions of the scroll saw and wood turning machine, poetry expressed in strong lines instead of cheap gingerbread...

The Californian home had cobblestone piers at the front and back porches, a light-grey brick external cladding, rough-cast or pebble-dash gable walls with strapping, and often red-stained shingling or Malthoid brand asphalt sheeting to the low gabled roof. A basically monotone external colour scheme often included varying shades of brown, the grey cement and bricks, and white-painted window joinery. Inside, oak floors and dark beamed ceilings lent a medieval character to the living and dining rooms. A built-in buffet, dark-stained and dull-lacquered, gave the diningroom added richness, as did panelled wainscoting and its accompanying plate rail or shelf. Walls were 'tinted' plaster, rather than painted, and hay windows with built-in seats were common. So, too, were built-in linen cupboards and closets to the bedrooms. Outside, a creeper-covered pergola could make even a 'plain bungalow' look desirable. American Bungalows Catalogued The writer Henry H. Saylor divided American bungalows into nine types, recognizing that at that early stage of bungalow development there were probably as many types as examples. 23 His categories are related to use and size as well as style, but one test used was whether the sleeping quarters were on the same level as the living or dining rooms: if so it was a bungalow. If not, it was a house. Another factor to keep in mind when reading his definitions was that Saylor was not from the west coast. Despite the early publication date (1911), Saylor's book did not reach Australian Home Beautiful for review until c1926. Home Beautiful was grateful for Saylor's informative text but wondered at the 'elasticity' of the hook's definition of bungalow. They published one of Saylor's examples, racily captioned 'A country cottage with some suggestive features'. The book sold for 18s and contained over 200 pages. However, it appears to have arrived too late, for the period of major construction of Australian bungalows had already passed. Though it may well have indicated the persisting use of the style in this country.


Type 1 — South Pasadena bungalow. The walls are brown stained redwood, while chimney and pier brickwork is brown varied by the inclusion of small field stones. Architect: Lester S. Moore. (Saylor, Bungalows, 1911)

Type 1. The West Coast or Southern Californian bungalow (Pasadena, Los Angeles) It was lightly constructed using Californian Redwood 2 5 shingles or siding, stained dark brown, with piers, porches and chimneys. The base-walls were brick, usually clinker, but sometimes stone, though this was considered by some as mere affectation. They were constructed as permanent homes on the American west coast while in the east they would have been thought fit only for hunting lodges. Following the indigenous hispanic model, they were also built as bungalow courts with imposing gateways where, say, eleven houses would he grouped around a piazza equipped with pergola landscape elements thus achieving nearly three times the normal suburban density.' A word of wisdom from the east coast of America was that single-storey rambling houses such as these often were hard to heat. Those who lived on the west coast could not see the need.

Type 2. Californian patio bungalow Rather than several bungalows around a court, one house would be built around a central patio 2 6 after the Spanish Mission manner, either completely surrounding it or at least on three sides with a high wall on the fourth. A fountain would typically be the focus in the patio.27

Type 3. Swiss chalet bungalow Generally found in the mountains or foothills, this type escaped the single-storey definition of the bungalow due to its picturesque attic roofline. It also contradicted the severe Japanese simplicity by its carved timberwork, fret-sawn barge boards and balustrading.

Type 2 — This patio bungalow draws from Hispanic precedents yet shows distinct classical characteristics. Flamingos appear to be about to drink at the lily pond with its music-giving fountain.

Above: Type 3 — Swiss chalet bungalows were often an ornate timber variation on the bungalow theme, allowing two storeys from the typically one-storey style. (Saylor, Bungalows, 1911)

15


Right: Type 4 — A temporary bungalow or tent house hardly temporary in Australian eyes but nevertheless described as such, costing $800.

Below: Type 5 — A summer

home built in the mountains of America's east coast in the mann er of th e co lon ialist s in India. It allowed escape from the summer's heat. Far removed from the Californian bungalow stylistically, it did share simple open planning and the use of natural materials, such as shingles and logs. (Saylor, Bungalows, 1911)

Below right: Type 6 — A summer bungalow was not so much a style as a type, by its association with a larger house. Wa ters i d e bung a lo ws su ch a s this were built on Victoria's Mornington Peninsula, on the cliff or water's edge perhaps only a short distance from the main h o u s e , a s a n e a r l y f o r m o f cabana. (Saylor, Bungalows, 1911)

Type 4. Temporary bungalow or tent house Defined by its small scale, stretched canvas sides and often rural location a temporary bungalow did have a rigid timber frame, shingle roof and brick fireplace. It was sometimes used as a sleep-out. Type 5. Adirondack lodge bungalow (east coast) This was large and built usually of whole logs, and was the prototype for snow lodges. It consisted of a large central room with linked pavilions in a country lodge configuration, and was often used by the rich to entertain in the mountains as they would the city. The Adirondack mountains are in the north east of New York State and were much favoured by New Yorkers fig fishing, hunting and tourism. Type 6. Summer bungalow This bungalow type was often associated with a larger house, and would be small, picturesque and sited down next to the water, in contrast to the other dwelling's inland location.


Type 7 — A New England seacoast T bungalow showingg the linear plan and Tudor revival architectural manners. m

Type 7.. New Englaand seacoast bungalow (east coast)) This wass clad with shiingles or clapb boards as other bungalow ttypes but, in plan, p hugged the coasstline as a longg, narrow striing of rooms which all hadd sea views as a result. It had no Japanese J ten ndencies as did d those on n the west co oast; instead, it i was rooted firmly in the colonial American A east coast tradition n.

Type 8.. Chicago Scchool bungaalow

Below left: Type 8 — A Chicago School bungalow. Because iti was a 'permanent' home, this type waas well-finished insi de and out and took on strong Lloyd Wright stylistic characteristiics which were often a blend of Hispanic annd Asian influences. (Saylor, Bungalows, 1911)

Below right: Type 9 — A two-storey bungaalow could be considered a contradiction in term ms. Like the Swiss chalet, this type had dormeer windows, often grouped under a single skiillion mple shows, individual roof, or, as this exam gables. Detailing andd materials linked it with other bungalow types. (Saylor, Bungalows,, 1911)

Frank Lloyd L Wright and Burley Griffin's G desiigns fall into this categoryy with their location n squarely in the t mid west of America. No N ethnic atttributes were apparent to Saylor, neither n Japan nese nor Indiaan, though so ome observerss would disaggree. 28 This bungalo ow was simplly one storey , with Japaneese roof line, projecting eaaves, and an open sleeep-out porch h, but with a more m perman nent wall finish h than other tyypes, such as stucco. It was an urban n bungalow.

Type 9.. Two-storeyy bungalow This waas not considdered to be a true bungalo ow, but builtt 'on bungalo ow lines . . . striving to hold fast to t the low, earth-hugging mass m of the b ungalow' __ ________ it used an n attic roof line with do ormers ratheer than two--storey wallss. Like the Chicago o School bun ngalow, it wa s devoid of any a obvious ethnic roots and, hence, differed from the Swiss chalet type. All of o Saylor's typ pes responded d to their locaation, whetheer in the moun ntains or on the sea coast. c They blended b in forrm and colouur: logs wouldd look odd at the sea just as a wh hite-painted bungalow w ould look o btrusive in tthe forest. Throughout T bungalo ow lore, this axiom a was staated and restaated: suitabiliity to place waas paramount for all buungalows.


Open Living The Californian home was synonymous with household amenity, reflecting 'the broad general interests of women in its interior arrangement, as opposed to the narrow specialization of the housewife'. By 10 am, in a Californian home, the housewife had defeated all household drudgery (with 'reasonable diligence') where in older homes (in the eastern American states), a woman's work was never done. 'Japanese simplicity' in the interior decoration of Californian bungalows ensured this. So, too, did the abolition of halls and passages, the grand uniting of all the receiving rooms (living, library, drawing, den, music and dining rooms) and modern touches such as fold-away beds built into the wall panelling. 2 9 This was all before 1911 and a wonder, given that fold-away beds were still considered a modern marvel here when glimpsed in Marx Brothers movies on Australian screens in the 1930s. Open planning meant open living: In the conventional house we have a special room where visitors wait while they are (flounced to the head of the establishment. Even in a 'flat' there is a corridor which halts the invader on his way to the heart of things. Not so in the bungalow where all callers, be they friends or foes, telegraph boys or tax-collectors, enjoy the same hospitable opportunity to survey your domestic

The open plan also kept the lady of the house on her mettle: Madame is servantless, she is unabashed when caught in dusting-turban or cooking apron, for this imminent possibility spears her into being always dainty at least.

A pergola porch — perfect for summer evenings, reclining on a camp stretcher in the privacy afforded by the dado wall.

(Australian Home Builder, June 1924)

Open planning, another concept experienced en masse in Australia only in the 1960s, was already very much at large in California as far back as 80 years ago. Nevertheless, the Victorian architect Desbrowe Annear and others did much to promote open-planning early in the century, and by the 1920s many bungalow owners knew about the spaciousness of combined dining/living rooms which opened, with double glass doors, into each other and onto the entrance hall. At the heart of the early American bungalows, and hence their Australian relatives, was the large living-dining room combination. And at its heart of hearts was a large open fireplace with cosy built-in seats either side. Opening f ro m the d i ni n g r oom , somet im es t hro u g h a s e r ve r y hat c h or w a l k- t h r o u g h larder, was the sparkling well-equipped kitchen. The bedrooms distributed themselves around the back of the house, sometimes opening from other rooms in an effort to banish the wasteful passage.

Sleeping Out Along with the desire for fresh air, exposure to sunshine, and simple surroundings, a phenomenon synchronous with the early bungalow era was the penchant for 'sleeping out'. Though not yet a moral dilemma, one writer estimated that, in 1909, half of Australia's suburbanites willingly slept-out on balconies, even on roofs, during summer months. So widespread was this suburban somnia that municipal councils created by-laws to ensure that balconies could withstand the extra weight of the unexpected heaving bodies searching for summer sleep.


Some privvate individuaals urged thaat further law ws should resstrain the freequent public nudityy glimpsed on p o suburban porches, veerandahs or b balconies, ass their i inhabitants p repared for bed. b To the caasual observerr, enjoying th he evening airr there w the chan was nce of exposuure to . . all s tages of dresss and undresss that would d shock t most bareffaced surf-bath the her'. T irresistible blue skies and The d sparkling sunsshine of Australlia have accoun nted for a lighth hearted m mercurial race. We possess an n inherent love for the beautifu ul things of Natu ure; we cherish contact w the smiling natural elementss. It is a proud asssociation.30 with Often mistaken for a g a r d e n shed toda ay, this form of sle eep-out was s imple and inexp pensive to cons struct as well as be eing sited within n the privacy and dense d seclusion n of the subu urban backyard. (Australian Hom me Beautiful, Aug gust 1928)

This nattional temperament ensured that sleeping-o out was not juust a passing faad like peeroxide hairr and hobblle skirts'. As A with otheer aspects of o the b bungalow, s sleeping-out t had gained d momentu m in holidaay resorts where w d demand for co ontact with thee night air was so great that often: o . . . in desperation (the lodge proprietor) hass arranged bed ds in rows, with screens arrang ged, as f formal apology for the inexcussable absence of apartments.. This promiscu uous herding in n hours w which have alw ways been asso ociated with privvacy, means m oral retrogressiion . . . filled with w ugly s suggestiveness for the future . . .31

Writers on n the subject urged that arrchitects shouuld design fo or this craze, either by using the attached Am b merican sleep ping-porch (w with its wire insect screen ns) or p preferably in ncorporating the room in the house deesign from th he beginning to o allow i dual use as a play or sun room. its r I had my heart set on a sleep ing porch, so I incorporated it i in the plan. Itt consisted of a wood p platform, 12' x 14', with a perg gola roof, and was w to be accesssible from our bedroom by means of a double French h Window. I aske ed a dealer for an a estimate on th he canvas for th e walls of this slleeping p porch. The rooff was to be left open, o so I could d look up at the stars. His bid w was $16 for can nvas on r rollers. This priice seemed ra ther high. Afterr looking aboutt I decided to b buy material an nd sew i and hang it myself. it m I bough ht twenty-seven n yards of drillin ng at twelve and d one-half cents a yard, t whole comiing to a trifle ovver $3. I measurred off breadthss for each of th the he sides, sewed d them, a fastened th and hem to the timbe ers by means off rings sewed t o the cloth, and d hooks screw ed into t the wood. / did d this so the curtains c could be readily rem oved and laun dered. Just no w I am h having a strugg gle to prevent the vines whic ch have clamb bered up the ssides, and whiich are m most welcome there as sun screens, s from covering c the roo of. It is such a d delight to see th he stars t the last thing before b going to o sleep, and the e blue sky the firrst thing upon o opening my eyess in the 32 m morning.

A 'Lady Architect' A in the Australlian Building magazine deescribed her ideal ssleep-out des ign in 1911. Given G that heer cottage alreeady existed aand could nott easily a accommodate e a sleep-out within its are a, her idea waas to attach a sleep-out pavvilion, l linked to the house via a covered c pass ageway from m the dressingg room. Posittioned u under some leafy l 'high oaaks', it had a glass g roof to fend off leavves and unexp pected s showers, andd little else in n the way off walls. It waas like one off Saylor's tem mporary b bungalows. Four brickk piers held the pavilion n corners. Between B each h was frame d and b braced wain nscoting cladd with fibro ous cement sheets or, if desired, 'Lady A Architect' o ffered altern natives of h essian or evven galvaniz ed iron she et. In c contrast to the t built-in but often seemi-enclosedd sleep-out porches, shee pref ferred the to otal outdoor exposure offfered by her design. Whe re other bun ngalow o owners had to t erect shutters and screeens around th heir elevated ssleeping porcches to e exclude inclem ment weather, hers h was alwayys sheltered.33


Austraalian Begiinnings The earrly 1900s, paarticularly affter 1907, saaw many Auustralian ma gazine articles on bungalo ws. The nattional perioddical Buildingg (emanatingg from Sydney) was the main n vehicle for the t spread off the style from m that date. At A first called 'Q Quaint Amerrican Homess', 3 4 the rustiic attributes of bungalow ws had immediaate appeal to the urban d weller yearniing for the c ountry. One writer was moved to wistfullyy quote Keats: To thoose who have beenn long in city pennt. 'Tis veery sweet to look into the fair andd gracious face off Heaven 'Belle Vue' in Iva anhoe, Victoria, was built in 191 15 in the skillionroofed Craftsman b u n g a l o w forrm, closely resembling the Harry Martin bungalow des signed by Oakden & Balla antyne in 1908.

But in th hose early timees they were still thought off merely as ho oliday homes, log bungalow ws for summ mer retreats, r ather than th he highly tem porary shantties so favouured by Austraalians. The log bungalow ` ‌ should alw ways look as if i it had grow wn from the ground g and was w an integraal part of the b bush, equallyy as much as the trees and undergrowth.' u Despitee their outwaard rustic charrm, these holiiday bungalow ws possessed all of the internal i plan nning sophisstication lateer demandedd by bungal ow dwellers in the cities . A generouss front porch h supported on stout pill ars providedd shelter fro m the rain; a large livin ng room witth an entran nce porch o pening into it through gllazed door-paairs, and an aadjoining diniing room se parated by a buffet serveery from the kitchen (opeen planning!); a fireplace angled acrosss one cornerr, next to a r ubble-stone ffire-side seat or ingle-noo ok (rustic chaarm); and, up pstairs, one laarge attic room m (low-cost ro oof space witth a view). The cry of o 'Back to Native e and the simple e life' though to some s is a fad, ye et to many it is th he rebellion of the human spirrit against the he eaviness of much h modern cerem mony. 35

After yeaars of 19th cen ntury stiffnesss and starch, here now wass the simple liife. In their search for new-found n blliss, Americaans had alreaady suffered (or enjoyed) the bungalow craze within th he first years of o this century. As if to mark the


passsing of an eraa of housing t aste, Queen Victoria V had g one. So too h ad her verry influential summer s holidday habits. In her place, Quueen Alexand ra was 'settting the Fash ion' with her 'rustic seasidee bungalow.' To T some a bun ngalow migght have appe ared scarcely habitable 'butt let them onc e get inside, and a see thee elegance andd feel the com fort'. A bungaalow was, as a smoking-gow wn, for restt, in contrast to o the mansion, a fussy dress-suuit merely for exxhibition.

Au ustralian bush h bungalows Bu ngalows in Australian A rurral or seasidee locations co ontinued to in nspire arcchitectural wrriters well intto the Worldd War One peeriod. The ex ternal ma terials or col ours they sugggested deriveed from theirr subject's ideealized busshland backdr op. Colours c ould not be 'aassertive' or to oo numerous. White, W greeys, soft greeens and brow wn shadings from f the gum m and countryy rock sur rounds were preferred. p If reed was used, it was to be in the t minority an nd of a darrk or dull shadde. Weatherbo oards should be b stained or oiled (jarrah),, while shi ngles could b e left weatherred (silver greey Western Reed Cedar) or s tained greeen or brown. The T beauty off natural materrial such as sto one, brick con ncrete or ceme nt was thaat it complied automaticall y with rural l ocales. Howeever, the ubiq uitous cob bblestone of th he Californian n bungalow waas atypical to Australia and belied the bungalow preeference for materials m used from f the immeediate locality. It was sim mply not Austrralian. Hence, the Australia n bush also deetermined sub burban collour schemes, true to the buungalow creedd. If a bungal ow found itseelf in a sub burban settingg it should at tract a well-p planted shrub by environ, as a if to justtify its colour sccheme. Pur e white with gre een trimmings iss one of the pre ettiest colour sc hemes for a sub burban hou use set against a green g background. 'Kyalite e', John Elmore's s Craftsm man bungalow of o 1912, nestle ed in the rural fringes of the c i t y . ( H o m e a n d G a r d e n Beautiful, 19 914)

Th is was the be ginning of a passion p for white w walls wh hich lasted in nto the 19660s.

Joh hn Elmore's bush bungallows Fro om 1910, Algeernon John Elmore E (1882--1961) design ed many Austtralian bun ngalows in pree-suburban Bllackburn, Vic toria. His bun ngalows fittedd easily into o the bush. Th hey simply excchanged the American A mateerials for Austtralian; speecifically, the muuch neglected Australian A hardw woods. A carpenter att heart, Elmorre used his widde knowledge of native timb bers to ach hieve the bunggalow's essenttially primitivve character. Where W the imp ported disp play bungalow,, Redwood, ussed rough-saw wn Californian redwood as external e we ather-boards , Elmore usedd rough-sawn n jarrah soakeed with crude--grade 'Buunker Oil' as a finish. Mes smate framin ng, stringybar k or ash floo rs and inteerior joinery reflected r his nationalism n an nd his love off timber. The finish, varrious shades of o Creosote oi l, was second ary to the tim mber used. Thee grain would always be visible, runnin ng straight in general joiner y and fiddle-b back or figuured in the speccial pieces, such h as his furniturre. The T penalties of using air-drried, unstable hardwoods weere also eviden nt. His lath he-and-plasterr walls and cei lings were nott left natural, for fear of craacking. Insstead, Elmore stretched tin ted canvas ac ross them, co ncealing crac ks and creaating a 'natural' finish of its ow wn. Elsewhere, lapped and covvered wood pan nel


joints en nsured that t he volatile n ative timber s did not dis grace him th hrough shrinkagee. Takingg on the Japan nese pi-sign portal p form, th he top architrrave at window ws or doors sailed ovver the verti cal members to allow forr shrinkage w without emb arrassment. Artfully,, Elmore grassped the esse ntials of bun galow design n without plaggiarising it, unlike so o many otherr contempor ary bungalow w builders. H His planning also a adapted tradition nal Australian n elements, such s as the verandah, to o serve the bungalow's purpose . Ten-feet-w ide verandah hs stretched along a the enttire length of his designs, giving glazed g doublee-door accesss to many ro ooms. These verandahs allso provided generous wired-in sleep p-outs. At hiss own home, Kyalite, K Elmo ore made his main entrancce (into the liiving room) from an n open-air din ning-room c um verandah h. From therre, an internaal vestibule commun nicated with bedrooms, kitchen k and bathroom. b Bo ookshelves, cupboards, c pantry and a wardrob bes were alll built in. Furniture F w as simple, hand-made, h naturallyy finished an d generally in n harmony with w the interiior he had creeated around them. 36 Outsi de among th he gum tree s, his rustic garden piecces and canee verandah furnituree repeated p revious fashiions. But a broad timberr lattice, useed for both balustraading and garrden fencingg, hinted at t he Far Easteern origin off his designs.

The Alffred Deakin bungalow, Point P Lonsd dale One pro ominent persson who relaaxed bungalo ow-style in a to-be-prom minent bush holiday place was th he champion n of Federatiion, Alfred D Deakin. Thee place was Glaneusee Road, Point Lonsdale, L and the date about 1909. Deak in was the foremost activist a in the t long le ad-up to Federation, F attendin ng the Fedeeral Councills of 1889, 1895 and 11897. He trravelled to London n with Edm und Barton n and Charl es Kingston n to put th e case for Australiaan federation n before the British parliiament, priorr to the passing of the Constituution Bill, and becamee Prime Min nister (afterr Barton) o f the new federation n in 1903, prio or to his eventuual retirement in 1917.

'Ballara', Point Lonsdale, L Victoria: a true Federation bungalow in the e hipped-roof British colonial bungalow form commonly used in Asia and Australia.


The name of Deakin's seaside house, Ballara, 37 meant literally 'a place of rest'. However, as Deakin was one of the founders of Federation in Australia, the house could also be quite aptly termed a Federation bungalow, architecturally and in a true sense. Ballara came after many Deakin family excursions and holidays at the Point, then well served by the bay steamer service from Melbourne to Queenscliff. Set at the entrance to Port Phillip Bay, Point Lonsdale was unspoilt coastal bushland. It was very secluded though due to the nearby lighthouse the electric telegraph was always on hand for urgent matters of State. Deakin bought the seven-acre site, with a modest house, in 1903 and built the present Ballara five years later. Accompanied by a bag full of new books and periodicals, Deakin's existence at Ballara was a peaceful one. His speculative writing, family life and escape from political rigour all occurred in and around his Federation seaside bungalow. The beauty here by day and night — the latter part from the moving and suggestive spectacle of the Comet trailing now in distant fields of space further from us every evening. The ever changing Ocean seen here in bold relief against the rocky promontory as of an all but submerged dragon whose back curves as its side accepts indifferently the everlasting assault of the open ocean — whose colour scheme varying usually through many shades and hues within and without the far sweeping bay washing the feet of Arthur's Seat or far away assaulting the abrupt cliffs of Cape Schanck. The coast with its upcrowding hosts of orchids, its blue bells still in flower, its autumn reds and golds speckled beside the bracken or under the Tea Tree . . . (1910).38

Like the Indian tea planter's bungalow, Ballara had a high, pyramid-shaped hipped roof which sailed recklessly beyond its walls to form verandahs and shelter for the rough-cast stucco and stained boarding below. Attic dormers looked wistfully out to sea. 39

Australian Bungalows — Home Product? By 1912, Australians still viewed bungalows as seaside or mountain weekend homes only. Analogies persisted, comparing a bungalow with an unstarched shirt or a cap rather than a top hat. Nevertheless, trade journals demonstrated that skill and training was necessary for a successful bungalow design. Sensing the growing market, they insisted that architects and specialist builders still played a large part in the creation of this 'unstarched shirt'. Anyone could build a house, but only an 'artist' could create a home. Hence, the popular title 'artistic bungalow.' There was also the nagging question of foreign influence. One Australian article wrote of the 'Rest Houses' erected by the British along main roads in India. They had wide verandahs and long roof planes that nearly reached the ground, unbroken by any second storey or attic. In the writer's view, there was surely no need to emulate these. Critics of bungalow books (both English and American) distributed in Australia pointed to the unnecessarily steep roof lines, to cope with snow loads, or the unnecessary use of cobblestone, internally or externally, where good bricks were available almost anywhere in Australia. 40 Denying any 'artistic' effect achieved by cobblestones, their use (thought the writer) was simply a foolish waste of the client's money. What's more, they caught the dust and soot, particularly on fireplaces.


An Arts & Crafts bungalow b ere ected by W. A. Towler's T Home Building Service, complete c with ga rage and birdb bath. Twin stair urn ns had been use ed since the ltalianate style of the late Vic ctorian era, but appear a a little inc congruous here.. (Australian Ho ome Beautiful, March M 1929)

Americaan bungalow planning wa s also unsuitaable for Austtralian lifestyyles and, anyway, the flood of bookks which promoted them werre not selling. Australia hass been flooded d with Yankee bungalow b craftt and other ch heap books as welt/ as moving pict ure films . . . In the 'cour ting days' the e future home e buyers are constant c d make up theirr mind that . . . they t will erect a dovecote like 'The dear attendants at the movies and little bungalow w we saw in Ca alifornia' — (at the t pictures) . . . the suburban n regions are be ecoming bespattered with exampless of Yankee bun ngle-ohs [a de erisive term forr non-architect designed d bungalows] th hat are quite ou ut of place . . . Beams B and railss are projected in all direction s without meaning or u se. They are no o use in Australiia, but in Americ ca they must be e very handy forr Wontrow [sic] Wilkson'ss [sic] railsitting g disciples to rest on. [The Warr was on and Am merica had declin ned to join it.]

As if t o challenge this criticiism, Australlian Bungalow w and Cottagge Home ng 78 'W Well-considered and Designs waas publisheed in 19122, containin Artistically--prepared Designs' by Reginald A. Prevostt. It sold for 3//6d from the NSW N


Anotherr builder-design ned bungalo ow, though far from f a formula a design: the porch p piers are unusual as is s the extent of o pergola acros ss the front of the house. How wever, in the usual way, standa ard roses either side s of the curving pathwa ay await the luck ky home owner. (Australian Hom me Beautifu ful, May 1928)

(Australia an Home Builder er, March 1925)


Arts & Crafts bungalow. Speculative home designs for sale. (Australian Home Builder, April 1925)

Bookstall Co Ltd, George Street, Sydney. This was the beginning of the Australianising of the bungalow: 41 The advertisement for the book read: The old saw says that 'the man who is his own lawyer has a fool for a client', and those who build houses without expert advice often pay dearly for the privilege. As all the designs contained herein have been drawn by an experienced Architect, they may be relied upon as thoroughly practical … Below: Prevost's suggested bungalow design for Australia. It was not in the American style, appearing instead to be of English origin.

The modest week-end bungalow at £250 has been as thoughtfully planned as the comfortable home at £1250. All these designs have been made subservient to local climatic conditions, and are intended to foster a style of architecture in keeping with the hygienic open-air life that obtains in Australia.

Below right: Another Prevost bungalow design; again, unlike either American or Australian types.

The first example was termed 'A weekend crib', constructed of stud walling, lathed and roughcast walls, with stained weatherboards above tiled roof — cost about £250. Yes it was a bungalow, the sort of 'crib' that would become a


Peacock Hill coffee estate, Pussellawa, Ceylon, 1864. On the left is the manager's bungalow with high, hipped roof and encircling verandah, not unlike contemporary and earlier Australian colonial bungalows.

One of Reginald Prevost's Australian bungalows from his 1912 book on the subject. At first only the broad gabled roof-line is familiar, but a doser look reveals some typical bungalow features, such as the Marseilles-pattern terracotta roofing tiles, the rubble stone chimney, the window boxes and two porch seats which, in Australian bungalows, were more likely to be in the fireplace nook.


AnaVlerRevostcottageor bwlgalow sketch design (1912). More Indian bungalow than any otherbungalow~,itiSalso akin to the Spanish Mission revhral houses of the 19209. There is something very Asiatic abautthiSRevastbungalow (1912). The roof shape,the dark stakned tirnbmok (boards, m l g h , w3ndows)B wrSma roofing and red brickwork all reindorcethe use of natural maRerlals end the Far East


permanent home for many post-war Australians as part of the various State Savings Bank schemes. It had two bedrooms, a living room and connecting kitchen, a back porch and two generous verandahs, both connecting to the bedrooms for sleeping-out.42 The ÂŁ1250 design was termed a 'Large bungalow, suitable for the country or suburbs, with living rooms comfortably arranged. Exterior rough-casted, with the roof of Marseilles tiles.' In fact it resembled more a Spanish Mission bungalow than anything else, with a scrolled parapet sitting over a window bay and an arcade crossing the end of one wing. The L-plan, with the entry at the corner, was after the English Arts and Crafts manner. 4 3 Nevertheless, its Australian intentions were made clear by the long verandah strung aimlessly across the back of the house.44 Whether from its higher cost, due to its implied masonry construction, or its style, Spanish Mission style was not to emerge until the late 1920s in most Australian states. Earlier than that, it was confined to a few architect-designed buildings generally of a religious nature, with the first domestic example claimed to have been built in 1924 for a doctor in the Melbourne suburb of Canterbury. 45 One Australian writer described the stuccoed Mission houses as `Dago' buildings. Throughout Prevost's bungalow book were advertisements for new estates around Sydney, popular holiday places such as Middle Harbour, Woy Woy and Hawkesbury. Trade advertisements included innovative building schemes and products such as the Mack Slab method of reinforced modular wall construction, Crane's and Wunderlich's Art Metal ceilings, the American products of Amiwud (simulated hardwood veneers on a pulpwood core) and the asbestos-coated Malthoid sheet roofing. Then, at the start of 1913, Building magazine announced: The bungalow has jumped into popular favour in Australia. Climatic conditions and the natural inclinations of the people tend to its adoption for residential purposes. Bungalows are now springing up in many well-known weekend resorts of the greater cities, and are proving a good source of investment. The success of the Bungalow is dependent upon the details of its design, as everything has to be fashioned for effect and comfort. Just plain originality [artistic?] and . . . environmental appropriateness are all that is necessary for primary deservance in the design of this singular and quasi-primitive dwelling, [but ...] The inspiration for the Bungalow is distinctly of local extraction. It cannot be got from the average book of types. Rather must it be drawn from climatic influences, and .. . the traits of the people.

Part of the bungalow concept was simplicity, its cheapness and suitability for the ordinary person. Bungalow pattern-books took this one step further: some 'ordinary person' might build it, using such a book. Architects were beginning to seem superfluous to its creation. These trends were not only a threat to architect-designed housing but possibly even to the building periodicals which promoted it.

Servantless Homes In parallel with the search for tranquillity in bungalow living, there was also the 'Servant Girl difficulty.' Australian magazine articles spoke solemnly of this phenomenon. Without servants, new brides need not fear the dreadful


Marcu s Barlow's ow n bunga alow i n S u r r e y H i l l s , V i c t o r i a , described d extensively in the Austtralian Home Beautiful of Aug gust 1927.

threat of 'flaat living' (ye t another neew facet of Australian A po ost-depressio on housing) for the t bungalow and a its ilk offered an alternattive. The kitcheen could upggrade and inttegrate into the t house pllanning inste ad of being banish hed, along with w its servaant inhabitan nts, beyond the back staair or passage. Onee new bride ' . . . built herr house with a large porch h where she could entertain heer friends in n summer, a pretty screeened porch, opening offf the kitchen, wheere breakfast might be servved for two on o pleasant m mornings ‌' but b of course, with hout disturbin ng the neighb bours. 4 6 Info ormal yet praactical plannin ng was very much at the heart of th he bungalow id deology.


American kitchen design emphasized compactness in the new maidless age, while Australian authorities on the subject preferred a spacious airiness for their bungalow kitchens to combat the effects of heat and steam. Provision for the social activities of Australian women was also needed. 'I have known four or five women in a kitchen chatting and cheerfully working away with plenty of room for all,' said the designer Marcus Barlow. And so it should be, a table must remain in the kitchen as of old. Marcus Barlow, a Melbourne architect known now more for his commercial triumphs than his domestic work, wrote one of the few published bungalow ballads to be written by an architect. Titled 'A Servantless House' (1917), it encompassed a dream everyone (or at least every woman) has had, but few . . . have realized. Those long, dark passages that all can remember are things of the past; draughty dark rooms have disappeared and . . . every specialist now realizes that the kitchen and accessories must receive very careful attention, being roomy, bright, well-ventilated, and near the dining room.' Barlow's example possessed the now familiar attributes of a panelled entrance hall, with the Australian equivalent of the American fumed oak (Tasmanian oak) polished boards and rugs placed for traffic. Barlow's 'mission furniture' was inspired by the established American products designed, promoted and made by Gustav Stickley of the Craftsman magazine. Barlow's hall contained double doors opening into the dining and living rooms and capable of being folded back on the wall (with parliament hinges) to allow all three spaces to be 'thrown together.' His dining room had a fireplace set in a nook with the usual built-in seats, both having storage under their seats and one with a galvanised-iron lining for coal or wood. Fire-side seats such as these were much later sold in the more flexible configuration of freestanding metal boxes with upholstered seats, linked by a hearth border. The adjoining kitchen was painted with white enamel, had nickel taps, a porcelain sink and a gas stove with the indispensable little window above it. Blue and white linoleum on the floor seemed 'too good for a kitchen.' The bathroom had similar finishes, a shower screen, a nickel-plated gas heater, nickel brackets and glass shelves (for shaving). All rooms, including the verandahs, had electric light and the kitchen had power points for radiators, fans and the electric iron. Convenience at every turn, but no servants.

Bungalow prototype: 'Redwood', Roseberry Surprisingly late in the emergence of bungalows in Australia came the real thing: Redwood, a genuine Californian bungalow transported in a prefabricated form directly from the West Coast of America. Californian redwood (Nature's timber masterpiece) was heavily promoted in 1916 by the Redwood Export Company, Castlereagh Street, Sydney. With the Californian bungalow must come its basic material: genuine shingles, weatherboards, panelling, doors, mouldings, et al. were now available from a local distribution point. The company built a model bungalow, in Gardiner's Road, at the Roseberry Estate to illustrate their wares and, at the time of its opening, Building magazine devoted many pages to bungalows as a result. It was clad with rustic shingles and weather boards, oil-stained and all undressed. The lesser cost of undressed versus dressed timbers was obvious but here its use was more than a cost advantage. It represented the very essence of bungalow design — it was rough and informal. It was Californian.


(Building, October 1916)

The Roseberry R Es tate itself was w a displayy suburb pro omoted by the t Town Planning Company of o Australia as a the ideal spot for 'ar tistic' homess. 47 Inside Redwoodd, the 'beauttiful' grain of o the wood was to be seen behind d the dull golden oaak 'Lacklustr e' stain and a wax finish. It was not h highly polish ed; it was not highlly priced. Th he main recep ption rooms had tongue -and-groove red p i ne l i n i ng s with w b u i lt -u p beam s. T he h bes t bedrr oom lining s we r e left unstained, u with only a clear wax finish, f preservving the 'natu ral salmon piink' of the wo ood, while another bedroom b wass grey-stained d. Redwood was w even use d for the kittchen and bathroom m linings as tongue-and-g t groove boardds, painted w with a 'Calpaco o' washable finish. Amongg other comp panies markeeting bungalo ow shingle s tains was Caabot (still active), via v their sole agent, Jamees Hardie & Co., Melbouurne. Preservation and colouratio on were the stated beneffits of this crreosote stain which applied colour without co overing the graain in a similarr way to today's acrylic-basedd stains. Ameri can display homes, Am merican tim mber, Ameriican produccts, even American n architects (Burley ( Grifffin and his co ontroversial ddesigns). Wh here would it end?


BUNGALOW

SUBURBS

Walter Burley Griffin's nine-acre Trier Centre housing estate in Chicago foreshadowed the Australian town planner's approach to the new bungalow suburbs to come. Designed in 1911, the new estate had no front fences and its footpaths were separated from the grit-surfaced roadway by a three-feet-wide evergreen plantation. This was the nature-strip of the future. Griffin, whose architecture (like the bungalow) drew heavily on far-eastern prototypes, thought the only man-made intrusions needed in the street were perhaps garden light fittings, their design inspired by Japanese stone lanterns. This was the street-as-a-public-garden which, in Griffin's view, was a true 'democratic village' unfettered by 'aristocratic pillars or imposing entrances'. Griffin designed Canberra, a city later known for its many imposing entrances, in the same year. Of course, Griffin went further than the comparatively sterile Australian bungalow subdivisions of the 1920s. He provided for massive planting around and upon his Trier Centre houses, using roof gardens and window boxes, the latter becoming a fashionable feature of many a modest Australian bungalow. Griffin went on to design many Australian garden suburbs using the same principles but only by his house designs at Castlecrag, in Sydney, was he able to give them a three-dimensional form. He was by then influenced by Mayan architecture. At the Heidelberg Glenard Estate he developed a variation on the popular contemporary theme of good housing for the less wealthy. He used the Indian bungalow pyramid roof form as the outward expression of a modular Knitlock building system. His own Heidelberg house, Pholiota, and his other beach-side bungalows followed this simple form but never filled whole estates as other mass-produced housing schemes did. Like many visionary schemes, Griffin's town planning concepts were abstracted and used out of context for later suburban fashions. But the future held that every man and woman could have their own nature strip and, if they pleased, a window box or two on their bungalow cottage but with none of the

31


curvingg streets orr public par kland envis aged by Grriffin and h is contemporariees. 1 Instead there were the grid-iron n layouts off hastily bui lt post-war subdiviisions. Bungaalow after sim milar bungalo ow revealed its gabled faace onto the street.

Daceey Garden ns Bungalo ow Suburrb Visionaary suburbs did d materialisee in Australiaa, and Dacey Gardens, 8 km k south of Sydney , was probab ly the first. I t was also po opulated with h bungalow-fo orm houses. Namedd after John Dacey, D Coloniial Treasurer, Sydney's seccond garden estate e and a publiclly owned o ne at that, is perhaps the best kknown earlyy Australian bungalo ow subdivisio on, rising soo on after Worl d War One. IIn fact, it wass more than a subdiivision: in itss pictorial deebut, 2 vast h ousing tractss were shown n stretching almost to the horizzon. Several handsome b elts of habit ation encirclled a grand ceremo onial axis. It was w never co ompleted but the original dream is app parent in the tree-lin ned curving streets, s fence less fronts, common c houuse set-backs and mainly bungalo ow house dessigns. This waas 273 acres upon u which ' to erect worrking men's cottagees for moderrate rentals amid model garden suburb b conditions . . .3 Arch hitect John Suulman, with Hennessy H an d Fitzgerald,, laid out the estate after British garden city principles (with ( 'Parisiaan-style' aveenues). S. G. Thorpe (of architeccts Peddle Th horpe) won th he competitio on to design t he houses us ing brick or concrette walls, and tile or slate roofs. r By 19115, one thoussand people lived l in this model suburb. s All were w obliged to t maintain th heir model co ommunal gard dens and were given acccess to a moddel lawn-moweer pool. Typee Number On ne Detached Cottage, at Dacey, D had th he broad bun galow gable and a laarge side porcch which servved the best bedroom b andd living area. Passageways P were co onfined to a sm mall entrance and kitchen hallways. h `Ce ment roughccast', seated on a b ase of 'Cou rsed Rubblee Masonry' comprised c th he walls, wiith cement sheet for f balustra ding. It wass rustic, low w-cost and th hree-bedroom m.4

Banks Avenue e, Daceyville, NSW The arch hitecture was by y S. G. Thorpe, and in a decidedly bun ngalow form. The subdivisiion was designed by John Sulman with Hennessy y & Fitzgerald (1912).


Buungalow Courts C

Above:: A genuine Pasadena court bungalow with sh hared ays, garages an nd a drivewa central m e d i a n w i t h p e r g o l a — appearing very like a Japanese village e. Eleven ows were built on o the bungalo equivalent of four subu urban alows, blocks. (Saylor, Bunga 1911)

Above right: Two Austrralian

bungalows sharing ga arages and a garden, g designe ed by Arthur Plaisted. P New approa aches to house siting s and increas sed lot landscap ping echoed d the philosophy y of bungalo ow suburbs. Am mong the plant materials m introduced were the Jap panese plum an nd hollyhoc cks; among tho ose retained d was a grove of o ancient gums.

Beeyond the mere m provisio on of nature strips were more adven nturous conccepts kn nown as bu ngalow couurts. Some toyed t with the mysteriious 'cul-de -sac' pl anning encouuraged by Am merican exam ples and pub lished here in n the architecctural prress during the t early 19 00s. 5 In 19223, architect John Gawleer depicted eight addventurous buungalows clusstered in a cull-de-sac and guarded g by a stout set of gates g at the narrow escape routee to the outsiide world, ju st like the Am merican exam mples off the early 19 00s. 6 Near th he focus of Gawler's G bunggalow court w was a rockery (and prrobably a casst-concrete laamp standard d) and, beyo nd, a pergolaa flanked by four gaarages (half a car c for each ho ouse). Lempriere Avenue, East E St Kilda ((Victoria), was one exxample of thiss form of livin ng achieved by b the late 19920s. As in th he ideal case , the en nd of this strreet dissolvedd into publicc gardens.

'Ambitio ous, successful and charming ...' — all the work w of Dickso on & Yorston P ty Ltd, and a garden g suburb at that. House styles included nian bungalows, but by Californ 1928 th he new Spanish h look had also em merged. (Austra alian Home Beautifu ful, April 1928)

In the era of the new ly formed but b highly influential i town plann ning coommissions, this t type of development d was 'a goal for a more design consccious coommunity . .'. Gone were w the day ys of the mean m speculaative grid-iiron suubdivisions of the late 19th centur y boom-era , though unnfortunately the (ooften vacant) ill-appointeed allotmentss from thesee sad subdiviisions were still th ere. Some ennterprising deevelopers weent so far as to resubdividde the old 18 880s esstates which were w no longeer desirable liiving places and a difficult tto sell. Otherss did noot.


Lempriere Avenue, St Kilda, Victoria, showing standardised numbering and front fencing, the typical concrete driveway and footpath, and the ever-present privet hedge.

Bungalow courts provided a 'total look'. Often designed with the new and popular reinforced concrete road surface, the estate developer added concrete lamp standards, concrete paths and concrete kerb and channel. Sometimes, street names were imprisoned in the footpath, such as at the Golf Links Estate, Camberwell. Nature strips (svelte new lawn rather than Griffin's evergreens) stretched across house fronts, their green expanses dotted with exotic ornamentals (Pin Oak, Claret Ash) or natives (Lilly Pilly, Silky Oak, Queensland Brush Box or Red Flowering Gum). Avenues of Cotton or Date Palms set in medians were not uncommon. Torrington Place, Camberwell, Victoria: a circular median complete with cast cement lamp-post and the opal lamp sphere archetypical of the 1920s. ltalian cypress forms a suitable backdrop.

Miller Memorial Homes Superb examples of town planning philosophies applied to bungalow living are the Alex Miller Memorial Homes, built for the aged poor early this century in Victoria. Miller owned grocery stores in many rural cities or towns and his response to the patronage achieved in each centre was to build home units for the elderly. Hence, across Victoria, in unlikely places, are immaculate and often untouched bungalow court developments. Geelong architects Laird & Buchan were acclaimed for their efforts to launch 'Garden City' town planning principles in Geelong with the first bungalow court Miller Homes design at McKillop Street, Geelong, in 1919. A similar complex in Park Street, Geelong, took the concept further. In both examples, bungalow duplexes face a central garden court or patio around which they are grouped in strict symmetry, like a Far Eastern village. Each verandah provides a vantage point to the court and another verandah opposite. Most furniture was built-in and, miraculously for Geelong, the front fence was all but abandoned in the Park Street example. Omitting this first barrier to the street was innovative and announced as a first in town planning principles for Geelong.7


Another form f of bunga low court: the e Miller Memoria al Homes in Geelong, Victo oria, chan designed by Laird & Buc (1922). A low front fence, the detached bungalow form m, communa al open space and a a high resid dential density meant m this cluste er of b u n g a l o w s w a s a p p l a u d e d loudly for its innovatory y town planning g principles.

Bu ungalow Town T Plaanning So effective was w the new w town plan nning lobby that the p principles undderscoring th he American Bungalow esstates becamee institutionaalised and inccorporated in to building regulations r and a planningg codes on a national bassis. Planningg and surveyying professio onals formedd new town planning asssociations in n each Austtralian capitaal city betw een 1913 an nd 1916, parralleling the First F War yearrs. As would happen agaiin in the Sec ond War perriod, the ces sation of buuilding activi ty gave thosee professionaals on the ho me front tim me to think ab bout new wayys and mean ns. New Soutth Wales (19913), Tasmaania, Queen nsland and Victoria (19914), South Australia (19915) and Weestern Austr alia (1916) all had simiilar associatio ons each striiving to shapee future urban n and suburban developm e nt. T he ir c on cer ns w ere e sim i la r t o t ho se of th h e Br it is h g arde a n c ity movement m ofteen voiced herre. The indusstrial revolutiion had creatted a surge in n urban grow wth, and wh hile countryy living was on the waane, its new w city equivaalent was draawing criticis m with the in ncrease in thee distance som me lived from m the rural perrimeter. There was no green respite from urban u living. T workingg classes couuld not be exxpected to livve in the ill-p The planned, cro owded and naarrow residen ntial rows off the previou s century. Th hese very row w houses hadd been criticcised even in n the late 19tth century w hen they we re thriving. They were purely spe culative andd reduced th he living staandard to a minimum. m Th here must bee a new orde r, both in ho ouse and str eet design, to t prevent ouutright revoltt. The bungallow's associa tion with infformal rural liiving and its economy e mad de it ideal as a vehicle for neew garden sub burbs in city areas. a With i t went large r block size s, access to fresh air andd sunlight byy use of detacched housingg, larger priv ate planted aareas (the 'lun ngs of the ci ty') and publlic plantation n strips wherrever space p permitted — 'the town a bit of the coountry and thee country a bitt of the town . . .'8 T The Victoriian Town Planning P an d Parks Asssociation p published Noothing Gained by Overcrowding in i 1915 and cirrculated it to estate e agents. C Capital city


Hassetts Estate, Camberwell. V Victoria: once de eveloped it had m most of the attrib butes of the bungalow era, in ncluding co oncrete roads, cast c cement sttreet-light stand dards, an absence of throu ugh traffic, and plantations for be eautification.

populatio on, as a perc entage of th e state, increeased in Sydn ney from 37 % in 1901 to 48% 4 in 1933. In Melbour ne it went frrom 40% to 55%, the higghest in the couuntry.9 Even by b the 1890s, both cities eaach covered m more area than n any British or American citty, except Chiicago. 10 Detacched housing was to be a way w of he bungalow's spread. life and inccreased with th

New Motor M Sub burbs With the advances of the bungalow w suburbs ca me the moto or car. Somet imes the coinciidence was suuch that a garrage and drivveway could b be included in n the house desiign. Most lookked upon the new n motorised transport as a boon only for


Morley Avenue, Roseberry, NSW W: a bungalow-era precinct whiich retains much of its original hous sing, front fences s, street trees an nd paving. The timb ber-framed fenc ces shown here offer a variation from the mason nry type used with w brick bunga alows elsewhere e.

Perth bungalows b of the e 1920s illustra ate the differen nt forms taken by the style, and d three differen nt fence types: stone s and wire, capped c timber pickets p with pergolla gateway, and d timberr-framed wire pa anels. (Austra alian Home Bea autiful, June 1924)

t he well-to-do o, but new lo ocal assemblyy lines, such as Ford's Geeelong plant , c created cars forr the people an nd the roads were w soon full of o them. One of the phe O enomena of o ur changing t imes that inve estors may wa atch . . . is the e 'e elongation' of cities. c Motor hig ghways leading out of great ce entres of popula ation offer sitess fo or residences that t attract peo ople who like a view with som me life in it. The e swiftly moving g p procession of motor m vehicles n ear a city is fulll of interest to th he majority of fo olk and they are e g glad to live whe re they can con nstantly observe e it . . . Fortuna ately on highwayys where motorr trraffic is thick, th he local authoritties have devel oped the practiice of planting ttrees and grasss p plots. When the road is laid wi th asphalt or co oncrete, the du ust nuisance va anishes and the e p prospect is certtainly pleasing. Residential site es along such highways h tend tto raise in value e a and the qualityy of houses ere ected there im mproves . . . Pe eople no longe er walk around d s sequestered su uburbs on Sund day afternoonss in quest of do omestic archite ectural charms . T They move by motor m and, the e owner of a co ostly house, to o get his full ne eed of popularr a admiration, musst erect it facing some motor hiighway where th he motoring pop pulace will have e a chance to ob serve it . . . Th here [on 'the grreat city arterie es of traffic'] th hey will find the e m mansion sites of the future.

More moto oring meantt more moto orways and new n ways to build them.. R Reinforced co oncrete road s were synon nymous with the bungalow w courts and d D Depression erra housing esttates. Old meethods of con nstruction, su ch as watered d m macadam roaad surfaces crreated too m uch dust wit h the increasse in wheeled d traffic. Concrette or asphalt-p painted concrete was the modern answer.111 The Austraalian experien nce of this co onstruction began b in 19144 when South h M Melbourne C ity Council laid l two chai ns of experim mental roadw way, one halff r reinforced, th he other not. The 24-foot--wide road suurface was tarr-painted and d s sanded, with 3 feet of con ncrete kerb an nd channel ei ther side. Preedictably, thee r reinforced seection provedd superior in i resisting cracking c andd provided a 12 p prototype for future road buuilders, both puublic and privaate. Richmon nd City


Council (Victoria) pioneered large scale concrete road construction in the 1920s, but halted at the onset of the Depression.13 The stage was set for coexistence with the motorcar but, with the meteoric growth of car ownership in the 1920s, a new planning challenge evolved: how to protect mankind from his motor? Estate planning in the motor age reached its zenith in the 1934 Beaumont Estate at Ivanhoe, developed by Albert Victor Jennings (later, A. V. Jennings) and designed by Edgar Gurney. While not strictly a bungalow estate, it did however have cul-de-sacs, and even cul-de-sacs within cul-de-sacs, to protect the estate from through-traffic. Uniformity of house siting and fencing, street trees, kerb and channel, and nature strips was the essence of this estate. Invisible electricity poles served the back, not the front, of properties. This was a type of suburban heaven envisaged by Griffin but never repeated in any numbers until the 1960s and even then only sporadically. 14 The essence of bungalow era planning had gained influence, particularly after the First War. The front set-backs and nature strips developed in the bungalow era are still the status quo in middle and outer Australian suburbs.

Housing Standards

Burley Griffin's Mount Eagle estate (1914) illustrates the new suburban form influenced by garden city principles and the motor car. Its sale also introduced covenants onto titles, ensuring the minimum construction standard and guaranteeing the suburb's residential amenity would by maintained.

In Victoria, the Local Government Act amendment of 1921 was the culmination of previous legislation of 1903 and 1914 for locals councils. It added land-use zoning to a string of house siting controls which included site area, depth and frontage minimums. Space around houses, including front and side set-backs, building height, ventilation and natural light provision to rooms were all potentially regulated if municipalities desired, 15 and so they did. Local by-laws were created, challenged in court, disbanded and resurrected with the overall effect that the community and estate developers followed their general aims. Covenants were put on titles to ensure minimum housing standards and protect would-be buyers. Even the Burley Griffin-designed Eaglemont and Glenard Estates used this device. At Glenard (1916), no house could be built under ÂŁ500 and there were to be no iron roofs. 16 Griffin tried to avoid the covenant on his own lot in the estate by terming his Pholiota experimental Knitlock cottage a dolls' house. Property value, the absolute regulator, already pointed at the desirability of the new housing standards. Any lesser development for a site would not only lower its own investment potential, but also that of the street as a whole. Small lots and small houses were shunned as a result, where there was a choice. The siting ideals of Griffin, bungalow suburbs and the garden city proponents were reinforced by statute, and in the long term by the public will and rising prosperity. An example of the use of this power was in the Heidelberg Shire, in Victoria, where the Ivanhoe Riding was declared a 'brick area'. The shire's Bylaw 81 stated minimum site areas of 557 square metres and frontages of 15.2 metres (50 feet). Front set-backs were to be greater than 6.1 metres (20 feet).17 Given that approved State Bank and War Service housing designs of that time were mainly of timber, the by-laws brick areas effectively prohibited them from large areas of the municipality. 18 Local resident groups in the form of progress associations also often supported this type of class reinforcement by striving to keep out what they saw as inferior development.


Thesse are the dayss of great enterrprise in Australlia. In the past 5 or 6 years th he nation has been b lickiing its wounds,, repairing bus iness shaken by b the war, ave eraging out the vast burden off war debtt and patiently clearing c the ground for new devvelopment. Now w the people are e ready to estab blish indu ustry and socia al life on solid foundations ‌ Hand in hand d with a substtantial scheme e of emig gration on whiich £30,000,00 00 at least is t o be spent, va ast irrigation prrojects have b een laun nched with a view v to fertilizi ng all arable land. l Road co onstruction is tto keep step with w wate er conservatio on and the es tablishment of o large indust ries with masssed production n for hom me and foreign markets m is to be b woven into th he general fabric c of public and p private enterprise e... Every ry week large ve essels are bringiing in full comp lements of imm migrants, and in n every State, such s ente erprises as the Yallourn Y electric cal scheme and d the Hume rese ervoir construc ction in Victoria,, the Burrrenjuck reservo oir in New South h Wales, the Syd dney Harbor Briidge, new settle ement undertakings in alll the other Sta tes and new fa actories in indu ustrial areas, all a indicate thatt capital is inviiting labo our to build up prosperity on evvery hand. T These enterpris es promise pro ofit and securitty to the home builder in town n and country and a gold den opportuniti es for the prop erty investor. In n the past ten years y . . . valuess have doubled d.. . The e most pessimiistic people are e now admitting g that real estatte values canno ot recede from th heir new level . . .

19


The War's W end iron nically meant a victory for the bungalo ow. After fouur years of reduced home h constrruction, the housing h shorrtage was mo ore apparent than ever. Peace meeant that new w families would w start an nd existing ffamilies woulld expand. With exttended emigrration partic ularly from Britain, the housing shortage would become accute.20

(A (Australian Hom me Beautiful, Aprril 1928)

There was w also the matter of creedit. After th he 1890s finan ncial crash, building b society acctivity had waaged with onl y the State Saavings Bank i n Victoria an nd other states bridgging the financcial gap.22

War servvice bungalo ows Introducttion of War Service S Hom mes was one answer a to thee housing pr oblem. Initially th here were fift fty approved house design ns in Victoria, based on 'm modern developm ments of smalll house desi gn'. An appl icant could cchoose one, have it developedd further if needed n and build b it on hiis own land o or in a War Service S Home estaate. Brick housses cost around d £600. The deesigns were distinctly buungalow. Th hey abolishe d passages, united dining an d drawing ro ooms as 'one useful comp artment — th he living roo om' and placed th he bathroom centrally, eqquipping it with w a porcel ain bath, bassin and water closset. In the kittchen, small windows w provvided natural light over the stove and sink, there t was spaace for a table, a kitchen cabinet or lardeer, and both one-fire o and gas-fiired stoves, s et together in n an alcove with w a hood ovver. The laun ndry was separate frrom the kitcheen and had a co opper and cem ment troughs.


Therre was a sm mall hallway 'so that hatts and cloak s need not be taken intto aparrtments' and a roofed outdoor o spacce (verandah h, porch). Exxtras includeed stain ned and waxx-polished floors f througghout (to saave on the ccost of layin ng linolleum), archedd brick firepllaces in the living room, and power points in eacch bedroom to substittute radiators for fires. O Outside, the walls w could bee timber, fac e-brick or ro ough-cast com mbinations an nd all ro oofs were terraacotta tiles. In some cases, flo ower boxes weere provided. Th he bungalow had become official for returned r servvicemen. Britiish slogans likke 'Hom mes Fit for Heroes' H peneetrated the Australian A con nsciousness, exciting botth 2 3 privvate and pub blic patriotissm. The New N South Wales' W Volun ntary Workerrs' Asso ociation and the Voluntary Workers (Soldieer Holdings) Acct of 1917 creaated one 40-accre estatte at the Sydneyy suburb of Maatraville. Desiggned by the reddoubtable Jo hn Sulman, its i hou sing has sin nce been reb built but on nce was bun galow in fo orm. 2 4 Federral legisslation in 19918 recogniz ed the need for a nationaal remedy to w what could haave beco ome a national housing shorttage.25

Irriggation settlerr bungalowss Align ned with the war service home scheme were the reeturned soldieer and postw war migrrant settlemen nts created arround new irrrigation areas . In Victoria iit was the Staate Riveers and Waterr Supply Com mmission who o provided sttandard homees for far-flun ng irrig ation estates in the dry no orth-east. Deposits varyin ng from £10 w with repaymen nts over a 20-year periiod were attracctive to many.

A bungalo ow in a rural irrig gation district, bu uilt by returning soldier s Sam Mead dowcroft around d 1921. Simply des signed, it takes on the form of an n Indian colonial bungalow..

T he base moddel (Design No. 1) was one room 15 1 by 12 fee t, with a briick chim mney, an iron roof and pain nted weatherboard lining. The deluxe w was Design No. N 16 which w had fo our bedroom ms, living roo om with con nnecting kitcchen, luxurio ous woo d-strapped asbestos a cem ent outside walls w (colourss: green and white or brow wn and white) with the inside lin ned with the same materi al. The roof was corrugatted iron and painted red. 26 The cruushing depossit was aroundd £ 150 and th he total cost about £5000.


Bank bungalows As in other states, it was the government in Victoria who led the way in providing post-War cheap finance. The Victorian State Savings Bank (S.S.B.), already a source of finance for low-income earners via the Credit Foncier schemes, acted under the 1920 Housing and Reclamation Act to extend their lending activities to cater for an annual income of no more than £400 —although an eligible married woman could not apply unless her husband was also eligible. A loan of up to £800 could be given, with £50 deposit, but only for an approved design. Repayments could not be more than one-quarter of the borrower's income. Instead of the property title becoming security (as was the case with Credit Foncier loans), S.S.B. housing loans meant that the house stayed in the bank's name until the agreement terminated, some 26 years later. Credit Foncier and housing loans co-existed and approved house designs were interchangeable, subject to cost. A house block in what are today's middle suburban belt (outer suburbs then) would cost between £100 and £200. An S.S.B.-approved timber house ranged in price from £550-650. In other words, land could be purchased and a house built within the loan maximum with no further capital needed, except as an income. Architect A. Burridge Leith created around fifty S.S.B. designs in Victoria, initially mostly of timber and generally of five main rooms. A sleepout porch or third bedroom was optional.

A Bungalow design from the pattern book of the State Rivers & Water Supply Commission (Victoria).


The Miller Memorial Estate in Geelong was hailed in 1922 as a major new residential planning concept. Grouped around a central court, the houses echoed the bungalow courts of the American West Coast in the early 1900s and, before them, Asian villages or Chinese courtyard houses. The State Savings Bank of Victoria's 1929 catalogue of brick dwellings. Only one quarter were bungalow style, heralding the end of a decade of bank houses built chiefly in that style.

BRICK DWELLINGS

Housing and Reclamation Act Credit Foucicr Building Dept. War Service H o m c ~


Sump-oil or creosote might achieve the right stain colour for boarding and half-timbering.This bungalow in Ivanhoe, Victoria, has original (unpainted) rough-cast stucco and stained timberwork. Stone, preferably rough fieldstone, epitomised the early bungalow designs. This Japanese bungalow (in Footscray, Victoria) is aptly named 'Pebbles'. Where stone rubble is used in piers and chimneys, the stucco aggregate is exposed for good effect, and rounded river pebbles decorate the fireplaces.

I

l I

1 I . :

,i%@ ,W.

$97

,544


A South Australian State e Bank bungalo ow; offering connecting kitchen , dining and si tting rooms a s t h e p o p u l a r c h o i c e . (Australian Home H Builder, June 1924)

Below: A bungalow from m the State Ban nk of Victoria's 1929 1

Design Bo ook of Brick Dwe ellings. lts

form rese embles, in a mo odest way, both h Indian colonia al bungalow ws and the colonial revival de esigns of Hardy Wilson. Planning links kitchen, ha all, living and brea akfast rooms, alm most eliminatin ng the much-ha ated passagew way of the Victo orian era.

Above: The T timber version of the Victorian State Savin ngs Bank Typ pe No B10 (left).


Unlike the first War W Service homes, h early Bank Bunggalow roofs could be corrugatedd iron or terraacotta tiles. A one-fire stovve often camee first, with sp pace for a gas stove when finan nces or gas reticulation permitted. T The bathroo om water heater ran on solid fuel,, not gas, and d sat over the bath. Otherw wise, both ho use types were simillar, except fo or the S.S.B.''s external to oilet which w was located on n the rear boundary until u seweragge reticulation n reached thee estate. The earth close ts could become s eptic tanks soon after the t Second War, W if reticculated seweerage was still unavaailable. Mean nwhile the K .L.O. Patentt Sanitary Seeat Ltd proteected the sensibilitiies of all bank b home owners. A Melbourne iinvention, th he device automaticaally sprinkledd 'Odorless Sanitary Po owder' at evvery use, eliiminating completelyy any dubiouus aromas. A defence agaainst typhoid, it was installled in all unsewered State Bank houses h by thee late 1920s an nd cost under £ £2. 27 While these t Bank houses h may have h been sp artan, they w were well buiilt. Estate agents usedd the bank's name n freely to o boost sales and a many youung bank stafff members used them as a first houses. Despitee increasinglyy generous finance f (£9500 ceiling), m ore approved d designs (mainly briick) and a co onsequent ho ouse-building bonanza (up p to 120 per month in 1928), the world-wide economic depression d vi rtually stopp ped house buuilding in 1929. Som me weekly rep ayments reduuced or stopp ped during th hat period, wh hile other houses we re leased to those who could c not payy, with rents credited agaainst loan payments. Many remem mber the ban nk's charity d uring those yyears. Occupiied houses were better than empty on nes.

B u n g a lo w ' T y p e N o . B 8 ' f r o m the Sttate Bank of Vic ctoria's 1929 Design n Book, showing how perennial the Californian bungalow w was, although this example's ffloor plan possessed no connecting living areas.


By 1929, only about one-quarter of the new 28 standard S.S.B. brick dwellings were American Bungalows. Provincial Mediterranean villa designs were already making their presence felt, particularly in brick or stucco. However, prior to that date, and in the era of prolific house building, a great percentage of the designs were bungalow, building up whole streets in the Bank Bungalow style. 28

In Sydney, the number of houses built annually for the period c1900-1940, peaked in 1925, falling precipitously to less than 10% of that figure in 1931. The next peak was in 1937, though at only a little over 65% of the 1925 volume — the War was just around the corner. The riverside Sydney suburb of Concord received 12,000 new residents, housed in nearly 3100 dwellings, in the 12 years after 1921. Only 1205 more houses were built before 1947, the next equivalent period. In the 1920s, Concord residents considered the bungalow thoroughly modern and supreme among the two major styles (bungalow and 'cottage') remembered by long-term residents. 29 The bungalow became the urban face of Concord.

The State Bank of Victoria's 1936 design. The bungalow style persists, here showing off the patchwork effect of b l e n d e d roof tiles.

Recovery in home building was gradual and never reached the previous record levels. However, the Victorian State Savings Bank put out a new suite of designs in 1936, 30 but little had changed in the specification since their first design book. There was still the basic choices of painted Baltic weatherboards, the deluxe stained and oiled hardwood (Jarrah), or a combination of either with asbestos cement sheet. Inside, Red Pine joinery in the 'plain sanitary finish'


was still favoured. Doors were either three- or four-panelled Red Pine. Wire fabric fences could go at the front while five feet high paling was used at the side. Some extras included porcelain lavatory basins in the corner or the common flat backed types against the wall (the previous design books offered no basin at all) while the ceiling, once just fibrous plaster, was now in two types — plaster or timber strapped at the joints. As for the designs, they were still dominantly bungaloid, particularly in the timber range, and prices for timber models ranged from £575 (design T1) to £800 (T35).

Another State Bank of Victoria design from 1936 — a subtle update on the Indian bungalow design of 1929.

There were no further design revisions before the next war. Another halt in home building due to the war and the consequent shortages of materials and labour meant the bank's effect on the housing environment dwindled. They approved architects or builders of the borrower's choice rather than force adherence to their design books and, by 1966, even bank supervision had ceased. In summary, one war had created a housing shortage, countered by a minor building boom at its end. Hard times in the late 1920s curtailed -that enthusiasm, and just as the horizon began to clear another war extinguished the hope of any major recovery. New housing styles had little time to establish themselves, and so the already established bungalow manner prevailed well into the 1930s. Because of the effects of two world wars and one economic depression, bungalows dominated the new housing supply for some thirty years — on a national basis.


EXTERNAL FINISHES & FITTINGS All things on and around the outside of a bungalow, its colours, textures and landscape, suggest immediately its romantic beginnings. In the Californian or Pasadena bungalows, Japan is always evident. Dark stained timbers, geometric window divisions, rock pools and twisting shrubs or trees of Japanese origin, the Buddhist pi-sign portal over the gateway and the shaped rafter ends of roofing timbers and pergolas alike. Achieving this imagery is the ultimate success in the full expression of your bungalow's character.

The Harry Martin 'artistic bungalow' built in Toorak, Victoria, circa 1910.

47


Timber Walls

s square edge bo oards

Rusticated boards Ty ypical rusticated d and sq quare-edged we eatherboard profiles of t h e b u n g a l o w e r a , h e r e illusttrated in N Nangle's Australia ian Building

P Practice.

The hieraarchy of the bungalow's external maaterials has l ong been es tablished. Inexpenssive bungalo ows could have h corrugaated galvaniized iron ro oofing in tandem with w cheap weatherboard w d linings succh as Baltic or Kauri piine. More expensivee timbers like Western Red d Cedar, Jarra h or Red Mah hogany were used u w it h t he u b iq ui u tou s but m ore s ub st a nt i a l M ar se ille i s patter n u ng laze d t erracotta roof tiless. Even amon ng the most modest of homes h there was a hierarch hy of class. Baltic pine p 7-inch c hamfered bo oards cost aro ound 30s 6d p per square (flloor area), Australian n hardwood (7-inch, dressed and splaayed, probablly Jarrah) waas 42s 6d, rusticatedd pattern Cyp press 49s, ru sticated 9-in nch Mahogan ny 65s 6d, Orregon 52s 6d and, t he ultimate, Redwood 6 7s. 1 Even am mong timber wall-claddin ngs there was a suubstantial diifference in cost, Redw wood doubliing the clad ding cost comparedd to the much h-used Baltic pine. There was w also the o option of using shingling or paling as a used in North America. Melbouurne architeccts Oakden & Ballantyn ne stayed clo oser to the American A prototypees than mostt. One well-p publicized M elbourne exaample herald ed as 'An Artistic Bungalow' B u used stained Western Reed Cedar shiingles over the t walls, suppleme nted by rubb ble stone po orch piers an nd walls. 2 Sayylor's bungalo ow digest observed in 1911 that American A exaamples utilizeed nearly everry known walll material, particularrly for that muuch desired rustic r look 'ussually, howevver, the bungallow will be built of one o of the sevveral forms of o wood-batten ned boards, cclapboards, sidings s or shingles. 3 This was in n the era wh hen the bun ngalow was sscarcely con sidered a serious p lace of residdence, especi ally for east coast Ameri can writers li ke Saylor. It was a summer s housse or huntingg lodge at mo ost and semii-permanent in i nature. Saylor co onsidered ho orizontal or vertical rouggh Spruce o or hemlock' boarding suitable, with w battens nailed over board b joints. He preferredd vertical board ding. At abo ut the same time, but in Australia A (orr at least New w South Walees), James Nangle wrote w about wall w claddingg in terms off weatherboa rds (which c ould only be horizo ontal) as the 'ffeather edged d' or 'rusticat ed' profile. E Either profilee could be hardwoodd (tallow wo ood 5 or red mahogany 6 ) or importedd (Oregon, Redwood, R Baltic pin ne, New Zeaaland Kauri, Clear, Pitch , Spruce or Baltic Sprucce) or the lesser collonial pines (Hoop ( Pine). 7 Rusticated boards woulld almost cerrtainly be of Kauri pine or Callifornian Re dwood. Boaard profiles b broadened to include a bullnose edge e (perhapss the most common in the 1920s), as weell as the featthered and rusticatedd (or notched)) edges mentioned by Nanggle. Oregon n was more likely l to be used u for fram ming whereass Redwood was w highly suitable for f exposed conditions, although a nott as hard or strong as th he coarser grained Oregon. O Baltiic pine (from m Northern Europe) E was kknown tradittionally as either red or white deall: it was not go ood for expossed use and w was restricted to t window sashes, doo ors and architrraves in Sydneyy. In Melbourn ne, Nangle wro ote disapprovin ngly, it was used for allmost anythingg.8 As Or egon floori ng (4 X 1 inch i T&G) cost aroundd £4 15s peer square comparedd to colonial pine p at £5 18ss, there was r eally no comp petition. Ore gon floor framing did howeverr cost more than Austr alian hardw ood (£110s compared with 19s per p square).9


A cut-away isometric view of a bungalow-era house. (1) Sole plates; (2) Foundation blocks; (3) Bearers; (4) Bottom plates; (5) Vermin plates; (6) Top plate; (7) Floor joists; (8) Studs; (9) Corner studs; (10) Trimmer; (11) Trimmer beam; (12) Diagonal bracing; (13) Nogging; (14) Ceiling joists; (15) Hanging beams; (16) Lagging pieces; (17) Rafters; (18) Purlin; (19) Struts; (20) Collar ties; (21) Ridge; (22) Valleys; (23) Lear and valley boards; (24) Tilting batten; (25) Battens for tiles; (26) Eaves l i n i n g ; ( 2 7 ) B i r d b o a r d ; ( 2 8 ) Fascia; (29) Scotia mold; (30) Flooring; (31) Weatherboards; (32) Angle stop; (33) Plinth; (34) Box frame; (35) Box mullion; (36) Window head; (37) Cill; (38) Bed mold; (39) Under flashing; (40) Head flashing; (41) Sash; (42) Meeting rails; (43) Glass; (44) Architrave; (45) Terracotta tiles; (46) Tiles cut to valleys; (47) Eaves gutter; (48) Gutter lining to valley; (49) Lath and plaster; (50) Fibrous plaster ceiling; (51) Battens; (52) Ground level.

American writers preferred redwood for gable-wall shingling, stained with pigmented creosote or an equal mix of creosote and paint. 10 Being sawn the shingles did not have the natural weathering of the old split type where the surface had no exposed end-grain. Despite this, numerous rustic bungalows were built in America using split Redwood shakes, often left uneven at the ends as if just cut from the log. 11 Dipping rather than painting the shingles gained maximum creosote penetration. Sipes Paint Oil (the Painter's Friend) retailed in Australia, mixed with linseed oil and pigment to give a good waterproof shingle stain.12 The yardstick of all modest buildings and their components was the Australian 'bank house' specification. It was produced for bank-financed home buyers perhaps to ensure their assets were of sufficient quality for repossessing.


It specified that weatherboards were to be of painted Baltic pine or of stained and oiled hardwood (Jarrah), or a combination of either with asbestos cement sheet. 13 In Victoria, the specification remained unchanged into the late 1930s. Most of these wall cladding timbers are available today including the imported Baltic pine (flooring, round or square edge weatherboards), Oregon or Douglas Fir (general — cut to size, joinery), Redwood (joinery) and Western Red Cedar (round or square edge weatherboards). All resist attack by lyctid borer. Of the Australian timbers only Red Mahogany is generally available as weatherboards, while use of Jarrah is confined to flooring and some framing.

Timber Finishing

Stained gable shingling has become rare with people's propensity to paint. This example illustrates well the Asian influence on this period of architecture.

Modern acrylic-based wood stains can recolour formerly stained shingles or weatherboards of Jarrah or other Australian hardwood. However, authentic stain finishes vary from sump oil to creosote. One stain mix suggested for exposure to sea, air and sun could be made up to any colour, using burnt sienna, yellow ochre or burnt umber for shades which varied from red to dark brown or light oak. The pigments were ground into linseed oil in a paste form and were then added to one part of linseed oil and three parts turpentine to give a paint-like consistency. To this were added a small quantity of liquid dryers (i.e. terebine 1:15, 1:30) and the first coat brushed well into the boarding as the stain. Protective coats of two parts boiled to one of raw linseed oil were applied over this, to be reapplied once every two years in harsh conditions. 14 Although this recipe cites brown tones for the base stain, many American bungalows used shades of green, continuing the belief that the bungalow should blend into its forest setting. 15 To achieve the desired verdant shade, one bungalow owner used green paint mixed in equal quantities with distillate for his stain, applied in two coats by his eager tradesman. The owner's postscript revealed that one proved to be enough. 16 The same green was used as paint for the window joinery. An Australian example from 1913 was the Harmer Bungalow at Middle Harbour. There, external timber was stained with Jodelite, a wood preservative and white ant deterrent.17 The Australian bungalow designer John Elmore's wide knowledge of native timbers helped achieve his bush bungalow designs' essentially primitive character. For the weatherboards, Elmore used rough-sawn Jarrah soaked with crude-grade 'Bunker Oil' as a finish. Among the companies marketing bungalow shingle stains was Cabot, via their sole agent, James Hardie & Co., Melbourne. Preservation and colouration were the stated benefits of Cabot's creosote stain which applied colour without covering the grain in a similar way to today's acrylic-based stains. Cabot's stain was publicised at the display bungalow, Redwood, at Roseberry in NSW, and is still available today. If the old oil stains survive in the woodwork, modern acrylic stains may not be compatible, requiring reversion to either traditional or modern oil-based finish methods. Where paint has already been successfully applied over a stain, extra work or pure fakery will revive the original deep stain colour. Paint removal, using heat-guns and subsequent sanding, allows new stain application. The old oil stain under the paint will help removal of the paint, but uneven (undressed) timbers will still retain paint in the fissures. If all else fails, painting the shingles or boards with an acrylic stain colour will recapture some


of that rich bungalow character. Taubman's timbertop colour range includes many deep browns (Redwood, New Earth, Richness, Jarrah) and some deep greens (Scrubgum Green). Another 'natural' wood finish used in America was the Pyrographic method. This involved burning the surface of internal and external timbers with a blowtorch and then wire brushing the charred surface back to the grain. 18 Internal finishes using softwoods also utilized the wire brush to reveal the grain but without the excitement of burning wood. Tuck-pointed bungalow brickwork, achieved here with the aid of brick-coloured mortar and white cement pointing. Also present here are the stained gable shingling, the ever-present louvred roof vent and two subtly projecting brick courses. Some of the brick shapes available today. (Clifton Clay Bricks brochure)

Plinth (splay) stretcher

Plinth (splay) left-hand external return

Plinth (splay) right-hand external return

Single bull nose

Bricks The 1933 Census revealed that brick houses accounted for 30 per cent of the housing stock compared to around 10 per cent in 1900. 1 9 This was a trend which had been advancing since the gold rush days, particularly with the development of mechanization and the consequent economies in the brick industry. As part of their contrived rustic character, the original American bungalows had clinker or overburnt, unevenly coloured and surfaced bricks. In Australia, brick supply varied with location but, where the clinkers were unavailable, improvisation prospered. Clinkers were viewed with distaste by the Sydney writer James Nangle as misshapen and overburnt, `to be purchased at a low price.' He saw their use as foundation work or as rough paving, preceding clinkers' cost increases which followed with fashion's demands. 20 Because of the clinkers' deformed shape or poor repute, Sydney's distinctive liver-coloured bricks were used as a close approximation of the overall colour of clinkers or, with more imagination, the deep-stained colours used on timber walls. 21 Rock-faced Sydney sandstone usually supported the brickwork in the form of footings or as verandah piers, closely following American precedents. Clinkers were available in Melbourne but the cheaper timber cladding was more prevalent, although one outstanding clinker example was the Japanese inclined 330 Cotham Road, Kew. Despite the rustic philosophy demanding rustic brickwork, mass-builders preferred the red machine-made uniformity of the standard Hoffman kiln format brick (popularized in the previous Edwardian era), possibly with clinker or stucco trim at the front. A few, more authentic, usually architect-designed bungalows followed the straight and narrow. 22 Mortar joints were usually flush to the brick face or lightly struck in a natural mortar colour but the tuck-pointing of the Edwardian and Victorian eras stayed on as well, particularly in Sydney. Bull-nosed (55-60 mm radius to one corner) and squint (45° cut-off to one corner) bricks were the most common moulded bricks used for fireplace and window sills. However, one Sydney brick company, Strathfield & Enfield, could supply up to 57 moulded patterns if desired. 23 Most external walls were by this time laid in hollow or cavity wall construction while some bungalows pioneered brick veneer.24 Today's brick companies such as Clifton Bricks stock bullnose, double bullnose, chamfered squints and splayed stretchers for matching the shapes used in the traditional bungalow. The common pressed imperial-size red bricks and pinks provide matching body bricks. Clinker bricks are also still available, as is sandstone or limestone.


Stuccco

Finely-textured unpainted s stucco, contrasting with the p pressed red bric ck sills and m maroon-coloure ed joinery. The g glass pattern shows how the E Edwardian influe ence remained in 1920s leadlightin ng, yet the s symmetry, use of o colour and c choice of motif are a typical of the e b bungalow era.

Texturedd or rough-c ast stucco was w often useed for relief against the prevailing bungalow w brickwork . On reinforcced concretee houses, it w was the total wall w finish. Often lefft natural, with exposed agggregates, or pigmented w with a yellow sand-rich finish, th he stucco is rarely seen in this form m today, sub sequent pain nting being almost un niversal. Its composition c is i typically on ne part hydratted lime to teen parts of Portlandd cement, pl us two partss of clean saand, adding water to reacch a desired consistency. To maatch or patch h an old stuucco finish, itt is importan nt to try and d match its cement— —lime—sandd compositio on, especiallly if patchin ng is attemp pted. The roughcasst may be breeaking away in sections and a in need o of repair. Altthough the original ciinder aggregatees may not be commercially c a available, they can be manuffactured in wood firres for small quantities. They T providee the roundedd texture in the t stucco, but crush hed basalt, bl ack scoria or river-washedd pebble aggrregates are com mmercially available replacementss. To achievee that fluid fin nal finish forr the roughcaast and the self-colo ouring of cem ment, a cemeent slurry or pigmented ccementitious paint (ie. Fosroc Nitocote N Seaalcon) applie d with a bruush will achieeve both the finish and conceal patched areeas. The 'ligght grey' co olour is preeferable butt requires pigmentiing with, for example, a ' Portland Sto one'-coloured acrylic paint to achieve the warm m tones of olld stucco. An nother producct that producces a similar effect e is the German Keim K range off finishes. The fo ollowing meth hods were preescribed in th he 1920s to acchieve the dessired stucco texture.25 Smooth finnish: Steel troweel. Roughcast: Trowel covered with carpett, burlap or hesssian. Pebble-dassh: 'Wet' final coat with weet pebbles (incch grade) firm mly thrown on nto the wet stucco, using u a sweep ing motion starting from the top of th he wall as if caasting grain. Broom-daash: The typiccal cement—llime mix but with one paart of white s and added applied with and mixeed to cream consistency, c h a 'whisk' br oom in the afternoon, a left overrnight and sp prayed with water w the folllowing morn ning, keeping it damp for a week. Aggre gates such ass river-washeed or natural white quartzz were also used u as the wall finissh, more so in America than t Australiia. Some specctacular exam mples exist where th e pebbles giv e a rich self-m maintaining an nd natural waall coating. Yo ou can also tint the cement c itself using u white or o coloured saands and cem ent. Add min neral oxide pigmentss to get that precise p match h and, potenttially, you havve a finish wh hich needs little futuure maintenaance. The folllowing pigmeents were reccommended in 1927 to achieve desired colo ourings, with the weight (imperial poun nds) needed for f a bag of cement.26 Greys, bluue-blacks and bllacks: Carbon Black, B Black Manganese M Oxide (-1 lb.) Blue: B Ultramariine Blue (5-10 lb.) Red-brown or brick red: Reed Iron Oxide (5-10 lb.) Bright red: Mineral Turkeey Red (5-10 lb b.) Red sandsttone: Indian Red (5-10 lb.) Buff yellow w: Yellow ochree (5-10 lb.)


Stonee Although h the true Californian C Bun ngalows used rustic split or o pebble fieldd stone extensivvely (sandsto one, limeston ne from the site), the sam me was not true t of bungalo ows in Aust ralian capitaal cities, with h Sydney beeing the exceeption. Sandsto one suppliers were everywh here in Sydneyy, numbering at least nine in i 1911 comparred to three in n Victoria an nd just four th hroughout th e rest of Aus tralia. 27 After A merican modeels, sandstonee was used exteensively as rouugh rubble ba se walls and veraandah piers, a nd possibly in n chimneys. So ome dressed sttone was usedd in the same lo cations. The aim a of allowin ng the bungal ow to appear to t grow out of its i rocky base wass paramount.

Adelaide bungalows u t i l i s e d sttone more than those t in most other capital cities; but these exam mples all confine stone s to the front wall. (Australian Home Beau utiful, March 192 29)

Mt Gambier G limes tone was usedd in both its naative area, Ad elaide, and in at least one maajor city, Mel bourne. The Mt Gambier Limestone Quarrying Q & Building B Co. Ptyy Ltd set up offfices in Little Collins C Street, advertising heeavily in the latte 1920s. Build your home with limestone. Absolutely the best building stone in the Commo onwealth... as che eap as brick with a hundred advan ntages. ARCHIITECTS! L i m e s t o n e l e n d s i t s el f to U n i q u e A rt i st ic D e sig n s, ei t h e r w h e n u s e d exclusively or o with other build ding material.

Their 'Victorian ' diisplay home' in North R oad, Ormondd, was of a typical bungalo ow form, andd evoked the style's inhereent informali ty by the unddressed (quarry--face) stoneworrk chosen. Even n the front fencce was substanttially of stone. How w was it as cheap p as brick? 'The rate of building is fastt, as the blockss are large and require less m orta r work, while the lightt- weig ht p er c ub u ic foot ma ke es for ea se of handling... Mount Gamb ier i limestone, being b white, iss admirably suited to the re equirements of th his sunny land.'


Syd dney also had a good sup pply of freeston ne. The cou ursed stone r u b b l e o f t h i s C r e m o r n e bungalow (19 918) matched th he earthy cha aracter of woodwork stain and d faded green paintwork. lt reflects the Japan nese influence on the bungalow.

Cementt Sheet External fi nishes of thee basic bungaalow home co ould include, as the cheap est option, fibrrous cement sheet s with covver-strips at the t joints. Its makers claim med that it offe red more fir e resistance and a vermin proofing p than n the all-timb ber homes. Usee of plaster cement c on exxpanded metaal lathing wass a variation on this claddingg. 28 The firm m Wunderlic h is well kno own for thei r terracotta tiles and meetal ceilings, buut they also had h a good s hare of the cement c sheett market. Th eir product 'D Durabestos th e Durable' beegan to replaace their stam mped galvanizzed metal, simuulated 'Rougghcast sheetin ng' (made fro om 1907) forr gable wallin ng. The stampeed metal had already been successfully replacing gen nuine roughc ast stucco, partticularly in remote location ns where traddesmen were uunavailable. The T metal shee t could he naailed into po sition by inexxperienced laabour, to attaain that half-ttimbered loo ok. 29 Today Wunderlitee Reproducttion Panels in Woollahra, Sydney, marrket at least four f patternss of embosseed metal paneels, varying fro om 1212 mm m X 606 mm to 900 mm X 1800 mm m in size. No ne of the pat terns relates specifically to bungalows but custom patterns can be pressed if the t customer meets m the die costs c — which h can he considderable. But even n galvanizedd metal ruste d, while cem ment sheet diid not. Cemeent sheets and 'slates' were first importeed into Austraalia from Fraance in 1903. By the 1920s th Durabestos was he predicted survival of prroducts like Wunderlich's W w likened to the t longevity of the Sphinxx, and advertised as such. IIt was first maade in Australiaa at Cabarita , Sydney, fro om 1917. Thee raw materiaals for the sh eet came from asbestos min nes in both Viictoria and N ew South Waales. Its low c ost and durabiility suited th he new War Service S Loan n housing sch hemes, teamiing with the Wunderlich W F rench tiles on o the roof. Durabestos D aadvertisemen nts showed bo th products enveloping e a simple Wun derlich-desiggned bungalo ow, inside and out. The jo int cover-st rapping (eit her in asbes tos Oregon or Redwood) suited the half--timbered bunggalow look. Prricing per squaare of


cement sheet was around ÂŁ1 18s, versus ÂŁ1 10s 6d for Baltic pine weatherboards (one-sided cladding only).30 Wunderlich's metal products were at peak profit before 1920. After that time, they gradually declined in favour of Durabestos and tiles. 31 There was also plenty of competition from other cement sheet makers with products such as Asbestolite, Etemite, Fibrolite, Fibro-cement, Herculite, Poilite and Titanic (an unfortunate choice).32


James Hardie & Co. manufactured Fibrolite (3/16 inch cement sheet) in New South Wales, also from 1917. Ten years later they had set up a plant in Brooklyn, Victoria, and subsequently out-stripped other asbestos suppliers with branches in Sydney, Newcastle, Brisbane, Perth and Wellington, New Zealand.33 Fibrolite, in the words of the company, was: 'The Economical, Fire Retardant, White Ant proof, and Durable building material for Exterior and Interior Walls, Ceilings, Partitions, Gable-ends, etc.'

It was either flat sheet, corrugated or in the form of Tuskan (corrugated) or standard roofing tiles (flat shingles). Fibrolite mouldings came as jointing cover straps (also useful for ventilated eaves slatting), angle mouldings (external corners) or horizontal mouldings (a half-round cover strip at the junction of weatherboards and cement sheet. They were coloured grey hut were also available in russet at an extra cost). James Hardie & Co.'s Fibrolite Building Booklet perpetuated the use of asbestos sheet in the bungalow. Even in the 1937 edition bungalows feature prominently. Today, cement sheet cover-straps are also made out of extruded vinyl. The sheet looks the same, but is without the potentially harmful asbestos fibres. Today's cement building products include more than just sheeting. Hardie & Co.'s 'old style weatherboard' (square edge) and 'rusticated weatherboard' profiles in 205 mm widths and 7.5 mm thickness are for those who do not trust the durability or fire-retardant qualities of timber. These give the weatherboard look and take an acrylic or PVA based coating.

Concrete Walls The Harmer bungalow built in Middle Harbour in 1913 used two-inch-thick reinforced concrete walls. 34 Other houses had patented concrete hollow walls, developed from 1905 when Henry Goddard patented 'camerated concrete'. In the search for cheap building methods after World War One, in-situ concrete was pursued by many. It was usually finished off with a textured or broom-

Concrete blockwork, each bloc sized at 12 x 12 x 18 inches, was developed by Melbourne engineer A. C. Mathews and promised the time and cost s a v i n g s s o u g h t a f t e r W o r l d War l. (Australian Home Builder June 1924)


finish h stucco. Thee Melbourne architect Leslley M. Perrottt was a great promoter off in-situ concrete bun ngalows (see Chapter C 3). Peerhaps more prevalent, however, h weere the conccrete block h houses. Thesse often n imitated q uarry-faced stone in theeir external finish f and th hus suited th he bunggalow's rusticc character. The Americaan Hollow Concrete C Walll Co., amon ng othe rs, sold blo ock-making machines m eaarly this cen ntury at Porrt Melbournee. Con crete-block veneer wass promoted in Americaa during thee 1920s as a firep proof and in nexpensive bungalow b claadding, the blocks bein ng tied to th he timb ber frame wi th metal tiess. 35 Precastt concrete Mack M Slabs w were marketeed from m 1911 onwaards, and weere eventuallly used on bungalows b in n the 1920s. 36 Conccrete block or in-situ i concrette bungalows are a rare.

Bun ngalow Roofing R

Cement ro oofing tiles, old and new, show wing the problems will replacing the cement tiles s of the 1920s with the much larg ger types available today.

Roo of tiles Alth ough Americcan prototyp pes of the buungalow use d either shin ngled roofs or Maltthoid membranes to coveer the flatter Japanese pittched roofs, the Australiaan prefeerence was fo or the 16-incch X 9ž-inch h unglazed Frrench pattern n terracotta tiile whicch had alreadyy been adoptedd for the Queen Anne and Federation peeriod housing of the 1890s and earlyy 1900s. Th he Marseillees pattern ti le was in usse as early a s 1888 in M Melbourne an nd becaame more com mmon with tiime. It also d emanded a stteeper roof p pitch and hencce the Australian A v ersion of th e American bungalow to ook on its ow wn distinctivve shap pe. Tied with h copper wiree to typicallyy 50 mm X 255 mm roof b battens, the tiile offerred a sturdy roof, providiing every tilee was wired t o the frame. Sydney's thr ee Wun nderlich broth hers (Ernest, Alfred and, later, Dr Otto o Wunderlich h) thrived fro m theirr initial succ ess with the stamped zin nc decorativee ceilings useed in Sydneyy's Centtennial Hall, but it was th he bright Freench terracottta roof tiles wh hich made theem reallyy prosperous.


The Marseilles M p attern tile began b in th he 1850s at Alsace, Fraance, but developeed later from m the effortts of severall Marseilles manufactureers. Their product had h obvious advantages a ovver the therm mally transpareent corrugated iron and drab, friable roofingg slates then used in Auustralia. Prom moted in 1888 at the Melbourrne Centenniial Exhibitio on, the tile w on a medal. T The firm W. H. Rocke & Co. off Melbourne was w the sole importer du ring that deccade, 37 until insolvency i in the eaarly 1890s alllowed the Wunderlichs W to acquire t heir metal c eiling and terracottaa departmentts. By 1894, Wunderlich had becomee the sole im mporter of French tiiles until stop pped by the First F War. Byy this date (1 914), they had d imported 38 enough tilles to roof 40 000 houses, so o they claimed.

While not a com W mmon bungalow w c ceiling type, Wu underlich's meta al c ceilings neverth heless p persevered into o the post-war e using geom era metric rather than n t the curvilinear designs d of the E Edwardian era.


The archetypicalwire fabric fence set into a capped tirntrn ~rarne- in this case fronting an lndii bungalow in Alphington, Vioria.

Japanesebungalow and fence in Footscfay,Victoria. What appearsto be crisscrossed bamboo around lattice panels is a c h i i in duraMe metal. Brick, stone and stucco (all originally unpainted) once promoted the earthy imagery associated with the style.


Wundderlich's ter racotta man nufacture had d already st arted at Bruunswick in Victo oria (tiles, creestings and finials), f and later at Ros ehill in Sydn ney (1916). Terracotta tiles (an nd metal ceilin ngs) were to laast the distancce into the buungalow era, gainin ng new colourss and glazes in the late 1920ss. A cost comparrison shows clearly c why th he tile was so o popular: Baangor slates cost £8 is per sqquare (floor area — app prox. 10 squuare metres) , split oak shinggles £5 4s 6dd, sawn Redw wood shinglees £4 9s, andd red tiles a modest £3 10s. 399 Of course, screw-fixed or nailed corrrugated iron n cost less, b ut not that much h less — 2s fo or 26 gauge). To T cover a teen square houuse took nearlly 1300 tiles weigh hing 3 tons. Tiiles were also o cooler in the slimmer th an slate or ir on, a serious consideration in i Australia, yet y as one disstinguished observer o notedd that 'Its ap ppearance is where the co also satisfactory s in n suburban and a country architecture, a omplementary color c in the laandscape com mpensates fo r what in cityy architecturee remains a garish h red.' As iff to calm th he aesthetic ailments of these sensi tive souls, supplliers also pro ovided the 'daark chocolatee' colour. It was used mo ore in New South h Wales than elsewhere tho ough becausee it cost 20 peer cent more tthan the red tile, itss milder visuall qualities weree not often souught. 40 Teerracotta acc essories deveeloped into fantastic f and fearsome fo rms during the Edwardian E peeriod, matchiing the pictuuresque roof shapes. The bungalow, howeever, deman ded someth ing plainer, and it is raare to see th he popular Califo ornian bung alows adorn ned with the dragons an d gargoyles prolific in Edwaardian timess. Neverthel ess, the Wuunderlich 19 21 catalogu e shows a reaso nable selectio on of crested tappings, 'fin nials and scrollls', numbers 33, 102, 101, 86, an nd 49 being the t most ofteen seen on buungalows. 41 The T ridge cap pping was a simplle V-section , noted as 'p plain' in the catalogues, rather than the fancier 'crest ed'. When po ointing each capping piecce it was imp portant to maatch the red colourring by mixingg red oxide witth the cement mortar groutin ng. Reeproduction accessories available a todaay favour the Edwardian p period but, for example, e Gaargoyles & Dragons' c atalogue a illuustrates a h half-dozen bungaalow-era finialss. Another imp portant accesso ory available in n the 1920s waas

Typically, the Californian bungalow w did not posses ss ridge finia als — but this ex xample is an exce eption.


the glass tile which allowedd daylight to reeach through th he terracotta around a it; the cost c was 5s for eaach tile. 42 Todaay's equivalentt is Wunderlic h's acrylic tile , though it is larrger than the origin nal and will nott fit an old rooff. Maintenan nce of such a roof r involves cleaning, c replaacing cracked cappings or ti les. Over time, algae a and mos s can discolouur the terracottta but this ca n be removedd by hot-water sccrubbing or l ow to medium m-pressure water w blasting (1500-3000 kp), k with selectedd chemical staain removers for f residual st ains. 43 Tile rep placement is best b pursued thr ough establisshed roofing companies who w generally keep stocks of various tile patterns. p New w versions of the t unglazed French F patter n may not maatch your roof as they are generrally larger. Cuurrent supplie rs include Wuunderlich, Nub brik and Montoro o. Most makeers also supplyy the tile witth a clear or coloured glaaze: glazing is n ot applicablee to your bun ngalow.

Cement tilees

A massive Indian n-style bu ungalow in New wtown, Victoria. Th he extensive use e of cement se een here was no ot just due to fa ashion, its ownerr reputedly ha aving been linked d with the ce ement industry.

Burley Grifffin patented his h diaper-patttern Knitlockk cement rooffing tile in 19 19, achieving liittle effect o n the domes tic market buut predating the introducttion of cement-sh heet tiles of a similar s style in n the late 1920s. It was the teerracotta marrket which inspirred cement im mitations, in the French pattern. p Roclaa and the Fed eral Roofing Tile Co. were earlly to market ceement tiles in the t late 1920s . 44 Perhaps more m akin to the Mediterranean M styles of the late l 1920s, waas the advent of o coloured glaazes to cement ro oofing tiles. Green G was a popular p colourr but most o f this gaiety has washed awayy over the lasst few decade s, leaving the natural n cement grey.


M Matching th ese tiles todday is easier said than done. d As is tthe case witth terraacotta tiles, established e ro oofing compaanies stock diifferent patteerns within th he Fren nch family, an nd there wer e once many more varian nts. Today's ccement tiles or o greyy glazed terraacotta tiles ar e of a larger format f and a re often of a glossier finissh than n the old tilees. Another resort for frreshening up p a roof is tto contact roo of 'resto orers' who willl replace crackked tiles, rewire loose tiles and a then spra y-paint the lo ot with h a four-coat resin finish, the t last coat being b ultra-viiolet absorben nt. 45 Althouggh som me offer ten year guaranttees the effe ct is not alw ways attracti ve, appearin ng pain nted rather th han the natuural matt cem ment or glaze d finish.

Asb bestos tiles Top p of the ran nge was Harrdie's Fibrollite roofing tiles, which h were reallly 46 shin ngles, and provided th hat authenticc American shingle lookk without th he pracctical proble ms. Optionaally, they couuld look likee slate or fo or that matteer terraacotta shinglles. Diagonall slating wouuld cost arouund ÂŁ3 4s peer square witth 4 batteens compared to ÂŁ4 9s for sawn shingles.47 L Like the Fren nch pattern teerracotta and cement tiles,, Fibrolite tilees came in red d, bluee-black, and grey g or russeet which gavee an autumn leaf l variegatiion to the roo of. Theyy could also be b diagonally fixed (16 X 16 1 inches) cauusing many an n architectur al histo orian to beliieve they hadd seen a raree Burley Grifffin concretee Knitlock tille whicch was also laaid in the sam me fish-scale pattern. 48 Th hey were also 'immune to seea air.'

Mallthoid Harrdie's Tuskan n tiles were a cross betweeen a tile andd corrugated roofing sheeet (widdth 3' 5", len ngth 2' 6") an nd came in russet r and grrey, evidentlyy at a cheapeer pric e. 49 It was meant m to reseemble a vaguue Marseilles pattern wheen viewed at a distaance. T The Harmer Bungalow of o 1913 used d the 'hydraapult' asbest os reinforceed rooffing (white Mallthoid was a siimilar asbestoss-clad membraane roofing) wh hich

Ruberoid 'slates', most often seen in place of the sta ained shingles s normally place ed in bungalo ow gables. The colour ra ange of Venetia an red, sag ge green or blue e reflected d this.


was usually laid l on one-in nch or greaterr thickness bo oarding. 50 Mallthoid (suppli ed by the San Francisco Paarrafine Paintt Company), however, be came the mo ost advertised membrane m roo ofing material,, particularly for gently slo oping gables a nd flat pergola ro oofs. Adamax Asphaltum Ro oofing was ano other similar product. p Becauuse it eventually cracked and leeaked under th he harsh Austtralian dayligh ht, Malthoid an nd its ilk have all but disap peared and have h often beeen replaced by b steel deck or corrugated iron roofs. Onee rare examplee of a Pasaden na style bungaalow survives in Glen Iris, Vi ctoria, compleete with a Mallthoid-clad gab bled roof.

Corrugated iron Timeless in its applicatio on on Australlian roofs is corrugated irron, galvanizeed. Lysaght's Orrb brand rep presented 'thee standard off perfection i n roofing iro on' according to their 1925 ad vertising. Goo od Australian building prac tice in the 19220s used 24 gaugee roofing, although 26 gaugee was also available. Sheet sizzes were 2 fee t 2 inches wide by b 6 feet long and fixing wass properly don ne if screw-fix ed to 3 inch X 1 inch Oregon n battens. 51 Sccrew-fixing, ho owever, was seldom s done, the spring-heead galvanized naail being the norm n but Nanggle warned of its likelihood to t leak. Today, scrrew-fixing is allmost universaal, as is Zincaluume-coated steel sheet in 0. 66 mm or 0.86 mm thickne sses. Added to what is cllaimed as a more m long-livved protection th han galvanisin ng, Zincalume sheet can be supplied in a baked silico ne polyester fin nish, universaally known ass Colorbond. However, it is important to remember n ot to mix plaain Zincalum me with the olld galvanisedd sheet, roofin ng, gutters or do ownpipes. Th he resulting co orrosion can be retarded by b such appli ed coatings as Colorbond C wh hich prevents the two metaals from meetiing. Although likely to tran nsmit heat frreely in summ mer corrugate d iron was the t popular cho oice among many bunga low owners, simply for its low pricce. Painted 'rooffing red' it co ould be easily mistaken for terracotta. L ong lengths and a Colorbond co oatings have furrther increased this t material's already a long lifee


for today's home builder renovators. Minimal horizontal jointing of sheets, screw-fixing and continuous oven-baked coatings over the new long-life Zincalume replacement for galvanizing, has guaranteed this material's dominance of new roofing for old houses. Added roof insulation, sarking and mineral wool, can bring the material's thermal—cost performance above terracotta or cement tiles, and with none of the cracking or breaking inherent in the tiles.

External Bungalow Joinery A typical bungalow box window, complete with double-hung sashes, simple leadlight and bracketed sills.

Windows Like the Edwardian era, main front windows were sometimes casement groups but, in contrast with the previous era's intricate Art Nouveau and plant motif glazing patterns, the true bungalow window was much simpler. It was also often double-hung. Some feature windows with exotic scenes remained to light fire-side or hallway ingles but their effect was generally offset by plain window patterns, often in clear diamond-panes. The influential Craftsman magazine n o t e d o f a 1 9 10 b u n g a l o w d e s i g n : . b e a u t i f u l l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n s a n d harmonious coloring ... used with admirable effect above the piano and fireplace, and also in the glass doors of the buffet and bookcase .. However, as with all styles, leaded designs from the Edwardian period were sometimes re-used during the bungalow era, particularly on mass-built homes such as the Bank houses.

A typical bungalow bay window, using the geometric-patterned leadlighting which became popular in the late 1920s. The bay has its own roof, spouting and pop outlet, and two triangular brackets support it from underneath.

Typical "Crittall" Standard Metal Frame Window Seldom seen in bungalow designs, though not for want of trying, steel windows were displayed in bungalow advertisements but failed to thrive until the 1930s and 1940s.


Coloureed designs w ere achieved d with combin ned plain sheeet and figurred rolled glass (flat one side, figgured the oth her), set in leeading and/o or timber glazzing bars. 1 / inch figured gla ss in the 19 Commerciial tints of the t 920s were 'JJapanese', 8 'Muranese ', 'White Arctic', A 'Malllocene' and 'Flannel F lower'. 52 Faar-Eastern geometric designs (Chiinese, Japaneese) are the most m authenttic, but the prevailing p Greek revvival Adam-s tyle window ws of the 19220s were mo re common,, aligning with the British B colon nial bungalow ws of the Reggency periodd. Often in blue and white, th e design fe atures a Grreek urn ce ntred on a background swag or garland p attern. Rect angular, quaarry-pane orr diamond-p ane clear-glaass leaded patterns weere common, arising from the early bun ngalow periodd when Arts and a Crafts plant motiffs were the focus of mainly clear leaded window w desiggns. The smalll windows near fire places p or overr ingle-nookss often depic t simplified p pastoral scen nes, using strong satuurated colou rs and no cl ear glazing. Some S prized examples sho ow exotic scenes of the t Far East, pagodas p and rustic bridges. William Montgomerry, perhaps Australia's best known stained glaass artist, described 1920s trend s in an addreess to the M elbourne Un niversity Arch hitectural Atelier. H e contrastedd the lack of glass pictor ial or patter n painting in n modern leadlights, the effect beeing achieved instead by a mosaic of diffferent colourred glass or simply the lead l pattern itsself.

T h e l e a d l i g h t i n g h e r e i s ve r y much of the bungalo ow era. It combine es the classically-inspired pattern and th he pa ale blues and w h i t e s o f t h e 1920s with an A s i a n s a i l i n g s c e n e a s a refe erence to the bu ungalow's origins. Note also the po orch planter box which found its wa ay onto many bu ungalow porche s an nd even onto some e of Burley Griffin's 19 920s commercial designs, d such as White or sllightly tinted glass, g used in designs of a more or less conventional type or in Ca apital House, Melb bourne.

dinary dwellin geometric patterns, p seem ms to me, to be b most suita ble for the ord ng, but the colour used d must be of go od quality, rich h, not gaudy orr glaring but ha aving the appea arance of a jewel or a piece of beautifful enamel . . . (twenty or thirtyy years ago) sim mplicity was the e last thing thought of; over elabora tion and over crowding, tog ether with an excess of co lour, were among the sins committe d against good d taste . . . in recent years tthere has been n a marked improvement.

You can n restore or reeplace most bungalow b join nery with litttle expense, with w the possible excception of leadd-light window ws. Although leead-light desiggns

A nother window bay, b this time in a Ja apanese-style dessign. The pe ergola-like rafters and the shingling g in a 'skirt' profile made m this bay nusual. un


A four-light double-hung bow window of timber construction.

were simple compared with the swirling plant patterns of the Edwardian and Victorian periods, their maintenance or recreation is still a craft. Replacement or restoration may require renewal of the casement frame and part (or all) of the glazing. A wood joiner and a lead-light artist may be involved or, preferably, the two combined to avoid gaps in responsibility. Likely misalignment of the window frame will mean careful measurement of the opening, that is after all restumping or underpinning works are completed and settled. Alternatively, home craftspersons might obtain their lead cames (H-section


leading whch holds the glass) and insert their old or reproduction glass pieces with their latterkin (timber tool for opening the cames for glass insertion), laid out on their setting boards. Second-hand leaded lights are more likely to be of the Edwardian period than not, so the buyer must resist the florid swirls of green and red glass, seeking out instead the pale blues and whites of the bungalow era. Neither period is cheap. The form of the window frame divided between the casements, in the main windows, and the double-hung sashes in the minor, single lights. Often, double-hung sashes were used in both. In 1927, 1 3 / 4 inch Oregon glazed sashes, hung in pine frames with hardwood sills, pulleys, cast-iron weights and sash chords cost 6s per super foot, identical to the cost of casements hung with three steel butt-hinges in similar frames. Other timbers recommended for painted sashes were Baltic, Kauri, Sugar or Clear pine along with the all-purpose Redwood. If the sashes were to be polished or varnished (generally internal), Cedar, Rosewood, Blackwood or Kauri were among the suggested options. Oregon, Western Red Cedar, Redwood or Kauri are among those still being used today. The casement window groups could be the simple boxed window or set in a bowed or bayed plan, with their own roof and supporting brackets or shingled skirts underneath. Adapted to sleep-out verandahs, these casements might be glazed or fitted with insect screens. Alternatively, the sleep-out was open, with Japanese blinds (bamboo, match-stick) used for a more authentic finish.53 With the casements went casement stays, either in brass, or antiqued or bronzed iron (more typically the latter by the 1920s). Able to hold the casement open at any angle vertically or horizontally, it also proved to be a burglar deterrent when locked in the closed position. Sashes had sash-pulls and sash-locks in similar finishes but were simpler than the previous era's hardware which was still stocked by merchants. Today, either type can be further secured using keyed sash-locks, painted an appropriate bronze shade or in brass.

Doors Doors and their accompanying glazing and hardware were more diverse in design in the era of the bungalow than in preceding eras. Similar to but simpler than the Edwardian door, the bungalow door could be plain and two-, three-, four- or five-panelled, clad with V-jointed boarding, or a combination of the two. Clear Oregon was the usual choice but for 2s extra, Redwood was an option in the late 1920s. Glazing (in leaded or timber-bar patterns) was usually confined to the top panel but, with the acceptance of the front porch as a potential sleep-out verandah, fully glazed, multi-paned front doors became common. In New South Wales the Riverside brand of door offered up to 20 glazed lights for front doors, sold as pairs or singles with twin side lights. 54 Typically there was no top or fan-light, rather side-lights to one or both sides. Insect-screening doors were common by the 1920s, having evolved earlier in the century in a flurry of fretted designs. Again, the bungalow screen door was simple, being framed in two panels with perhaps a cross brace or some Far Eastern motif in one. Similar screen doors are made today, fortunately at the lower end of the price scale, given their relative simplicity.


Abovve: Double glass entry e doors were e a bungalow h allmark but this pair p is exceptiona al. lt retains its origin nal V-jointed stained timbering and delightful d kookabu urra motifs, but it is the e glazing form which adds the final distinction. Door furniture f is a flashed or antiqued bro onze finish.

Above: Bu ungalow porch, screen s and entry door, with panel led and boarded sid delight plus dog. Quarry Q tiles and bu ullnose brickwork serve s as paving, the e stucco has been painted to simulate its original (unpaiinted) finish and the wrought iron porch pendant is probably original.

Screen doo or in a distinctive (Asian?) ( pattern. The light is not origin nal, placing an opal po orcelain possibly rep sphere.


Locks The Yaale or cylindeer lock was in ntroduced in America in tthe late 1860ss but waited until th he bungalow era to beco me popular in Australia, replacing th he old lever locks. 555 Often incorrporated in th he front doorr plate, with llatch-knob atttached, the cylindeer lock provi ded greater security s than n the Edwarddian mortise or o rim-locks. Inside, the mortise-llock persisted d, again with the t oval or reectangular do oorplate and latch-k nob includedd in the samee furniture, doing d away e ntirely with the t separate finger-p plates of befo ore. For all door-sets, d thee antiqued orr bronze-flas hed pressed metal option o was thee most releva nt to the darkk timberworkk of the bungaalow. Where traditio onal mortise-llocks were sttill used, adddition of a diiscrete mortiise cylinder dead-lo ock will give modern secuurity, using thee old lock as bo oth a lock and latch for ease of use.

Housee name-platees

A moulded bra ass house nameplate.

Despitee the cement opposition to t ornamentaal metal claddding, metal prroducts still had a place p on the outside o of th he suburban bungalow. b W Wunderlich m ade fanciful house metal m name-p plates from the t early 190 0s, with onlyy the names changed, in later yeears, to prottect the fash ionable. Art -nouveau deesigns, in reppoussĂŠ metal, encasedd prosaic nam mes such as `B Bondi', or the more adventturous Maori or Hawaiian names. There were also timber-fframed glass-fronted housse-name sign ns with gold block leettering on a black backgground, or brrass nameplattes with engravved and filled (black) letters. l By th he late 1920s,, Wunderlich''s vitreous en namel name p plates (brough ht back from Britain) began to rep place their reppousse copper range, particuularly for houuse numbers W or streeet signs. Todday, supplier s such as Maanufacturer's Details in Willoughby, NSW, will custom m-make brasss or gold-leeaf letters in n timber fraames to your specificaations. 56

The Fence F

A glass-faced d nameplate, with gold lette ering on black.

Etched and black-filled b lettering on a brass plate screwed to re ed pine or western red ce edar mitred ti b d

Bungallow fences represented r a complete change of attitude to that of the Edwarddian era. In place of thee high ornam mental timbeer pickets, dipping d and waving between tall turned postss, was a more discreet barrrier to the outtside world. Low, e ven transpa rent, the fro ont fence no o longer had to keep outt wandering cattle, horses or th he vicious criiminal with quite q the reggularity of eaarlier times, while th he risk that some s wild be ast or errant equestrian w would leap th he fence and devour the flowers was minimaal. There wa s also the neew nature strrip or street plantatiion, now also safe from strray herds. Plaanted nature sstrips were meant m to be an ext ension of the t new exxpanded fro nt garden, combining to form a wonderrful landscaaped public thoroughfaare for everry suburban n street. In Australlian magazinees in the first decade of th is century, Am merican bunggalows were shown with no fro ont fences whatsoever. w O Only the porrch balustradee offered any protection from wouldd-be invaders. The bungalow fence f was eiither of the newfound wire fabric or netting, stretch ed between timber fram mes, or of a new simpleer interpreta tion of the timber pickets inherrited from thee earlier eras. For the brickk bungalow, a low capped panel an nd pier fence in n matching maaterials to the house's walls w was also appro opriate. Add to this the t privet or rose hedge, plus p the pergo ola-portal at tthe gate, and the t bungalow front yaard is completee.


Abov ove: Wire, steel tube t and

mas sonry are combined for this Artis stic bungalow fe ence.

(Aust stralian Home Be eautiful, Marc ch 1929)

Abov ove right: A trellis s fence, wit

capp ping, and wire e driveway gate es. Trellis was s common elsew where in the garden, g as arbo ors or side yard dividing fenc ces, but uncom mmon as a frontt fence. (Austra alian Home Beau autiful, August 19 928)

A cement-rendered bungalow fence, simulatin ng wide pickets s under a broad capping g. The fence piers emulate those on the vera andah and the e gate retains i ts slim splayed d-top pickets.

Pergola gateway g in a ca apped chain-wirre fence, ba acked by prive t hedging. The e wrought--iron gate has s some notabl e scrolling g along its top rail.


Timber picket fences Today, square-topped or capped picket fences suitable for bungalows are easily constructed, preferably using durable timbers such as Merbau, Cypress Pine (Queensland Cypress) and Western Red Cedar. Cheaper choices use pressure-treated pine for the pickets and posts or Red Gum or Jarrah for the posts. Framing could be Australian hardwood or the more expensive Oregon, depending on your budget. Some fencing companies construct their fences only from Jarrah.57 A Perth bungalow fence with a capped picket fence and pergola gateway.

Edwardian fences included the capped and square-top picket forms. Adapted to the bungalow era, these options are similar but simpler. Instead of the fretted cut-outs in the Edwardian pickets, the bungalow kind are plain; instead of the shaped post tops of the early 1900s, the post caps are a simple pyramid shape. Typical sizes would be a 95 X 20 mm picket spaced 52 mm, posts 120 mm square, capping 120 X 33 mm, rails 94 mm X 45 and the plinth, 1 4 5 X 3 8 m m ; t h e f e n c e h e i g h t w a s a r o u n d 1 2 0 0 m m a n d t h e p o s t s , 1370 mm. 5 8 The square-top pickets are broader (80-100 mm wide), have splayed corners and are shorter, sometimes alternating (as in Edwardian times) with slimmer picket pairs.

Wire-fabric fences Wire fencing on timber houses was the big break from the rippling pickets of old. It was transparent and shed light for the first time on the neat garden behind. In Australia people live out of doors more than they do in many other parts of the world, and the aspect from the verandah is one that should have full consideration. . . . It is aesthetically, if not morally, wrong to hide your beautiful garden from the gaze of the passer-by. Let him share to some extent the joy you yourself feel in a well-kept lawn and artistically arranged flower beds. You will lose nothing, he will gain much.59

So said the Cyclone sales pitch, heading for another fence transaction on high moral ground but adding as a final titillation that, unlike wooden picket fences, the Cyclone range cost practically nothing to keep in order and repair. The Cyclone Woven Wire & Gate Company produced fence and gate books in


An extravagant bungalow in Boort, Victoria, with an equally impressive masonry pier and panel fence. The panels a r e chain wire and the panel cresting is in wrought flat-iron. (Australian Home Builder, March 1925).

One of the more original bungalow fences — mounted atop a typical wire fabric fence are two stout chains suspended between ornamental wrought-iron standards.

the early 1900s, but the visible impact of their wire and tubing on suburban fences was slow. They had spring-coil and woven-wire fencing and four decorative post tops in 1910. In the pre-motor age, their double gate sets were still 'carriage entrance gates'. By the 1920s, the wire fabric was joined by Cyclone's Chain Wire Links and all the posts illustrated in their catalogues had pyramid tops for the gate posts and angled tops for the intermediate posts. Steel posts, with slim turned tops, and tube rails were also shown. 60 Another wire fencing manufacturer was D. W. Chandler Ltd whose Kangaroo Brand products were similar to Cyclone's products, with Edwardian-era turned and round top timber posts shown as options despite the catalogue's 1931 date. Others were T. W. Chuck Wire Fence & Gate Co., Leighton Simpson & Co., A. R. Thatcher wire works (all in Melbourne), and Buzzacott & Co. (Sydney). Buzzacott appears to have dominated the Sydney scene and offered fabric fences


The letterhead which launched thousands of suburban bungalow fences. (Melbourne City Council)

from 24 to 60 inches high for the plain mesh and from 36 to 60 inches high for the ornamental. Cost differences between the old dressed picket (a handcrafted job) and the new industrial age fencing was: 7s per foot run of 1.5 m high picket, as opposed to 10 s for wire. This was not an incentive to change fences. 61 Restoring a bungalow's wire-fabric fences today is no longer difficult. Currently, a white or green plastic-coated imported fabric is available here in one pattern although others are available on order. 62 The heights are 1200 mm (for fences), 400 mm and 250 mm (garden borders), in rolls of 25 m. There is also the second-hand market in which wreckers yards or the new breed of 'architectural antique' sellers may stock the discarded fabric on increasing demand. With the recent surge of Victorian and Edwardian restorations, many wire fabric fences have been torn out for new ornamental pickets. Many wire fences have simply been rolled up and taken to the tip. Despite this sort of ill treatment the wire normally stays in good condition. Wire fabric also requires a similar timber frame to the picket variety, either with or without a capping. Other options are galvanised welded mesh (capped), chain-wire (capped) or the lighter-gauge wire-netting (capped). Once contained within the painted timber frame of the bungalow era, these wire substitutes have all the qualities of Cyclone's early products. The addition of a hedge behind it makes any difference academic.

Brick fences Brick fences were commonly built for brick bungalows. Matching the brickwork or stucco finishes, the fence piers were usually capped and the inset panels either rendered or left as face brick. Sometimes they incorporated one of the above forms of metal mesh or fabric (rare) between brick piers, some Cyclone or other brand wrought-iron (often in Eastern patterns) or perhaps a splendid draped steel chain. Where fences also retained earth — as on a hillside site — they usually were at least partly in brick. Shaped bricks (squints, bullnosed) were often used.


Brick k pier and pane el fence with a head der-course brick capping, soldier course and r e n d e r e d panel and a a splayed plintth brick laid in stretcher s bond. (Aus stralian Home Builder, B June 1924 4)

Rig ght: Quarry-face ed freestone cap ppings add the rustic flav vour to this bungalow b in Cre emorne, NSW W. Sydney's liver-coloured bricks are used

Abo ove: Part rocke ery, part fenc ce, this unusua al front fence has vessiculated volcanic v field ston ne set at rakish angles in a finely textured rend dered plinth.

Verry oriental, this type t of fence was s rare. Its cast cement c posts resemble Japanes se stone lan terns, and its i ron panels k on exotic Far Eastern E tak pattterns. (Australia an Home Bea autiful, August 1928) 1


The neeed to restore a brick fencce is less likeely than the other types, given its relative lon ngevity. Becauuse of its use of readily avaailable materiaals (i.e. usuallyy pressed imperial-siized reds or Sydney's S liver--coloured briicks), only thee design and matching m the bricks are likely to cause c any diffficulty. Neighbouring fencees may be a guuide. Anotherr form of maasonry fence is the seldom seen yet ssometimes im mpressive all-stucco fence. Also, there were co oncrete blockk fences posin ng as rusticatted stone.

Gates Gates varried from th he wrought-iiron (often decorated w with the Japaanese or Chinese geeometric pattterns used in n timber slattted fences) to o the fabric, pipe and scrolled-st rap type (ofteen seen with new n or old fa bric fences ass part of the supplier's s package). Gates G made from f chain-wiire and pipe would w concurr with a brick-pier and chain-wiree fence. Gettin ng these gatees today depen nds on secon ndhand sourcees (a yard or demolittion site) andd even then rusting of th he pipe fram me is common n. Double driveway gaates are even more m difficult to t find secondd-hand. Fortun nately, gates can also be custom m-made, usingg imported wire-fabric w o standard chaain-wire. or A wrought-iron ga ate to a curving oncrete path. Such paths co we ere often flan nked by rose t d d

Distinctive gates for a distinct ive bungalow in Cremorne, NSW D N (1918). The T trellis motiff converted intto chunky timb ber se ections concurrs with the rugg ged stone-work on either side.


Transitional fence and house. The fence has Edwardian characteristics, such as the high posts and raised rail, but instead of the earlier period's Shepherd's Crook post tops there is a stepped, Japanese profile. The square picket heads and pergola entry are common to both the bungalow and Edwardian eras, yet the pergola has been restyled with a greater Asian influence.

More rough brick and stonework, each clinker-brickpier linked by a pipe-railand privet hedge. The pergola entry instillsthe ubiquitous Asian charecter to the fence, which is echoed by the Crepe Myttle in the garden.


The pergola entry is symbolic of many Far Eastemcultures, whether as entry to a Buddhist stupa or to its Japanese equivalent. This excellent example also includes an unusual picket and brick pier fence. complete with privet hedge.

A classic but modest bungalow in its proper setting. The broad lattice fence, green-stainedshingles and even the street trees are all of the 1920s.


(Natio onal Trust of Aus stralia (Vic.) Tec chnical Bulletin)


A selection of timber gates ngalows. suitable for bun

(Australian Hom me Builder, 192 25)


The Perg gola

The fanciful f pergola gateway of a Japa anese-style bung galow in Foots scray, Victoria, designed d by Schre eiber & Jorgens son in 1920.

Magnificentt in defence of o the front gate g stood th he pergola. A s the rear guard, it guided strolllers up the frront path covvered by rosees and, at the porch, it gavve that necessary suun-control (an nd sometimess rain controll) as a bridge between the motor driveway andd the entrance. It was an earlly form of carp port. Although an Italian term meaniing a vine-ccovered arb or, the bun ngalow pergola form m is based in n part on the Japanese Shiinto temple p portal (Torii).. 63 The carved raftter ends ofteen emulate th hose of the house. The supports, altthough generally recctangular-sec tion timber posts, p can takee on a classicaal air with Do oric or Tuscan Ordder cast conccrete column ns forming an a impressiv e colonnadee. This type of peergola is fo or large ho uses, poten ntially Out of the bun ngalow category, b ut it does re call the Indiian colonial phase of thee bungalow's im magery.

Exterior Colours

Rugg ged rubble stone e-work and stout, faded green pergola p beam ms invite entry to o this old guesthouse in Dayle esford. Victoria.

Bungalows in Australiian rural orr seaside lo cations con ntinued to i nspire architecturral writers well w into th e World W ar One periiod. The exxternal materials or o colours th hey suggesteed derived from their subject's ideealized bushland baackdrop, andd came with th he recommen ndation that colours shouuld not be 'assertivve' or too nu merous. Wh hite, greys, so oft greens an nd brown sh hadings drew from the t gum and country rockk surrounds. If red was ussed, it was to o be in the minori ty, and a daark or dull shade at thaat (i.e. maro oon or Indian red). Weatherboaards should be b stained or oiled, while shingles s coul d be left weaathered (silver grey Western Redd Cedar) or stained green n or brown. Knowledge of this contextual connection c fo or the bunga low can be a guide for colour choice today. The beautty of natural material m such h as stone, br ick concrete or cement w as that it complie d automaticcally with rural localees. Howeverr, the ubiqquitous cobblestonee of the Califfornian Bung alow was aty pical to Austtralia and bel ied the bungalow preference forr materials used from the immediate lo ocality. It was simply not Australiaan. Harry Dayy designed a Middle M Harbo our bungalow w for J. Barree-Johnston, in n 1912, which appeaared to satisffy basic bunggalow criteriaa. The style w was cited as Mission M Bungalow an nd externally it was 'a harmony of cho ocolate and w white' and partticularly appropriate to t its then 'virggin settlement' surroundings. Hence, th he Australian bush determ mined suburb ban colour scchemes, true to the bungalow crreed. If a bun ngalow found itself in a su burban settin ng it should atttract a well-plantedd shrubby envvirons, as if t o justify its colour c schemee: 'Pure whit e with green trimm mings is one of the pretttiest colour schemes s for a suburban ho ouse set against a greeen backgroundd.' 64 Similarly, 'a ' good colouur scheme is a warm buff with w white trim m . . . A housse with timber [shin ngled} upper storey . . . sh hould be pain nted on the lo ower storey a lighter shade than the t shingles, which may be b red, dark brown, b dark ggreen or som e olive shade. The body b should harmonize ass, for instancee, light or darrk olive with Indian red, cream with brown ns, the greys with dark green g or dulll red. 6 5 Also o, 'the window fraames are pain nted white, so s that they form high liights in the general g color schem me and repe at the whitee of the cem ment walk, steeps and floorr of the recessed porcch.' 66


INTERIORS: Planning, Design & Finishes

Introduction Like its outsides, the bungalow's insides evolved from the prevailing Edwardian interiors and mysterious tales from over the seas on the bungalow craft as retold by Australian magazines such as Building. Charlotte Dyer wrote an article titled 'How I Built My Bungalow' for the influential American magazine, The Craftsman describing her personal approach to the construction and internal finishing of a genuine Californian bungalow in 1912: In [the] living room and dining room the finish floor is of number one quarter-sawed oak, and in the other rooms the finish floor is of white maple. . . . If building again I would have an ordinary pine floor in my kitchen and give it three or four coats of paint, or better still, cover it with white and green checked linoleum, which always looks clean, even when it is dirty. Adhering throughout to the idea that a bungalow should be low my ceilings are only eight and one-half feet high. Doors are six feet six inches by thirty inches and are No. 1 grade. I gave a great deal of time and thought to the interior finish and furnishing of the bungalow. I firmly believe that domestic harmony applies to the things in a house as well as to the people who live in it. An execrable color combination in a room is bound to make one feel out of humor. Furnishings should be harmonious, so that when one comes in tired, one will feel rested and comforted. I struggled and planned and matched things and samples in an effort to bring about just such a restful result. My color scheme for the living room was brown, with here and there a dash of yellow, ruby and green. I selected two small art-glass windows to go above the mantelshelf on either side of the fireplace. In these were shades of yellow, green and ruby. I got small pieces of this glass from the factory where the windows were made, took them to a wallpaper store, and finally succeeded in finding a narrow frieze in which the colors exactly matched those of the glass. I studied out every little detail in just this same way, even to the


An American bungalow interior design published early this century, showing how different these early American bungalows were from their Australian bank bungalow derivatives. Extensive use of timber (oak), a spatial flow from one room to the next, Mission furniture, ceiling beams, a n d s u i t a b l y w o r n P e r s i a n pattern rugs on the floor were r eo ccurr in g el emen ts in their living areas.

glass in the copper and iron electric fixtures. In the living room, bookcases, desk, mantel shelf and buttresses are all four feet high while the square lattice windows are the same height from the door. Between the paneling and the picture molding, excepting a six-inch space that is given up to the frieze, is a gold-brown wall paper. Above the picture molding, walls and ceiling are covered with deep cream paper. Mantel and hearth are of eight-inch red brick tile, while the hood and twelve-inch facing under the mantelshelf are of hammered copper. . . . All the wood-work in this room I had stained in imitation of Flemish oak. One arrangement that I find most convenient is that of having a wide deep box seat on either side of the fireplace, one in which to keep the wood, and the kindling. They do not leak dirt like baskets, and they hold enough fuel to last a long time. Filling in one entire end of

Great Hall, Miegunyah, Orrong Rd, Toorak, designed by Harold Desbrowe Annear in the Jacobean manner, complete with furniture, chain-pendant electroliers, extensive timber panelling and enormous floor rugs

78


the living room under the lattice windows, is a built-in desk with a bookcase either side, and now that we are, living in the house, we make amusement for ourselves and friends by designating this end of the room as our 'library,' the central portion where the piano is, our music room,' and the other end as our 'living' or 'reception room.' . . . I selected a golden-brown bungalow net for the curtains in this room, a color matching exactly the wall-paper. For our bedroom I chose white paper with white dots — an imitation of dotted swiss, also a cut-out frieze showing garlands of blue roses and green leaves. For the other bedroom I selected a striped paper in white and palest pink-gray with a cut-out garland frieze of pink roses and green leaves. In both these rooms, as well as in the bath, I had the woodwork finished in white enamel. I planned a built-in arrangement for one side of my bedroom which proves a great blessing. Under the wide window is a roomy box seat with a lid. On either side of this, and fitting into the corners are buttresses thirty inches wide, two feet deep, and four feet high. These have shelves and doors. In one of them I keep my big hats, in the other my shirt-waist boxes as they come home from the laundry. I had my kitchen done in cream enamel, even to the furniture, which I bought in the shop unfinished, and had my painter finish it just as he finished the wood-work. For my sink casing, as well as for my drain board and molding board, I selected a cream wood stone. This is better looking and far more serviceable than the white pine usually used for such purposes. I had the dining-room woodwork finished to correspond with that of the living room. Under the high windows on the east side of the room is a built-in buffet with shelves and drawers. The color scheme in this room is Delft blue and cream. The furniture is all of white ash of special design. The chairs have woven reed seats. All the electric fixtures in living room and dining room were made to order from my designs, and while they were somewhat expensive I feel repaid because they are 'different'. Since my bungalow has been completed I feel more and more that the building of one's own house is the great step toward reducing this American tendency of moving practically every Spring.1

This was the type of article widely read in Australia and set the scene for antipodean fashion feats. However, among the mass of bungalows, Australian interiors fall into and between two categories: the Greek Revival, Adamesque all-plaster look and the Arts and Crafts or Craftsman brick and timber style. The latter follows the Craftsman lead and is more authentic to the Pasadena or Californian Bungalow, while the former reflects the influence of the Greek revival, popular in Britain of the early 1800s and transplanted in India during expansion of tea plantations. It arose again early this century in Britain and achieved prominence in Australia in the design of commercial and civic monuments such as the Port Authority Building in Market Street, Melbourne in the 1920s. In Australian housing, both approaches were used, side by side and with their opposite exteriors. The differences are potentially great, both in appearance and cost. Custom-designed bungalows have custom-designed interiors, with hand-crafted joinery, furniture and fittings to match, while lower cost bungalows (i.e., State Bank or War Service) have the plaster Greek Revival, off-the-shelf interiors. Greek Revival in the context of Californian bungalows means Robert Adam (1728-1752) decoration context, excluding furniture. This includes fibrous plaster ceiling centre-pieces (showing Greek urns and garlands), shaped door plates and moulded Greek-form glass light shades. The typical bungalow furnishings, Jacobean, Mission or simple Queen Anne style furnishings could be at home in Grecian environs while the Arts and


Aus stralian bungalo ow interiors: mo ore modest room m sizes, less tim mber panelling, some inte erflow of space e through the dou uble glazed doo ors, Persian rug gs on the floors, well stuffed florral-covered cou uches, exotic frin nged light shade es, floral pelmets, and diam mond-pattern azing shedding a glowing gla ligh ht on each room m. (Australian Ho ome Beautiful, March M 1929)

Crafts or Craftsman C in teriors have a dominancee of built-in, often hand--made stained tim mber joinery,, wainscotingg and cupbo ards. Craftedd fittings, suuch as hand-paintted light shaades, evoke the essence of the Amerrican or Art s and Crafts bun galow. Greekk revival plassterwork couuld combine just as easilyy with the wainsc oting or Greeek-style ligh ht shades an d preside ovver a clinker--brick fireplace with w beaten co opper hood. Mission M or Jaacobean furniishings would d also not clash with w such an interior. Furrniture influeenced by the Scottish dessigner Charles Maackintosh andd the English h Mackmurdo o, with their hand-carved plant motifs andd beaten metaal fittings, arre by far the most approp priate for thee Arts and Crafts bungalow, though t are eqqually at hom me in Federaation-era inteeriors. Japanese-insspired fitmentss and furnishin ngs from the period, p also suiit and align


This marvellous view of a roofless bungalow shows clearly t h e h i e r a r c h y o f r o o m s : a panelled entry hall with Mission-style seat; the living room on the right, also with panelled walls and fat furnishings; the dining room beyond with a generously-sized arched brick fireplace; a servantless kitchen opening brazenly into the dining room; and the laundry. The rest were bedrooms and a bathroom. Bedrooms were not panelled, but at least had picture rails. (Australian Home Builder, March 1925)

with the strong Japanese external character of the Californian bungalow; however, Chinese-styled furnishings, particularly the Chinoiserie of the 17th Century, may be too ornate.

Typical Australian Interiors Setting the stage for how Australia reacted to these influences, architect Marcus Barlow's 1917 Craftsman-like bungalow possessed the now familiar attributes of a panelled entrance hall with Tasmanian oak polished boards and rugs placed for traffic. The hall contained double doors opening into the dining and living rooms and capable of being folded back on the wall (with parliament hinges) to allow all three spaces to be 'thrown together.' Barlow's dining room had a


A more salubrious bungalow interior: a den with its ingle-nook, panelled walls and fitted floral carpet. (Australian Home Beautiful, April 1928)

fireplace set in a nook with the usual built-in seats, both having storage under their seats, one with galvanized-iron lining for coal or wood. Fireside seats such as these were much later sold in the more flexible configuration of free-standing metal boxes, with upholstered seats, linked by a hearth border. The adjoining kitchen was painted with white enamel, had nickel taps, a porcelain sink and a gas stove with the indispensable little window above it. The archetypical blue and white check linoleum on the floor seemed 'too good for a kitchen.' The bathroom had similar finishes, a shower screen, nickel-plated gas heater, nickel brackets and glass shelves (for shaving). All rooms,

An entrance hall, panelled (oak) with plate shelf, and with a beamed ceiling. Double doors open, right, to the sitting room which has wallpaper with a typical autumn frieze under the picture rail, and, to the left, into the panelled dining room with it more sombre Jacobean furniture. (Australian Home Beautiful, August 1928)


A plainly finishe ed sitting ro om, with fibrou us plaster walls an nd a p i c t u r e r a i l . T h e f i r e p l a c e i s typ pically spartan witth a boldly b r a c k e t e d s h e l f . N o t e t h a t pictures h a n g i n g o n t h e w a l l have slim m tim mber frames (po ossibly eb bonised) and wid de borders. lnc cidental orname ent is at a minimum. (Austra alian Home Be eautiful, April 19 928)

Mo ore simplicity — this time a be edroom with a frringed light sh hade, 'bungalow w net' and a Ho olland blind at the wi ndows, and pla ain centre ca arpet or linoleum m square.

(Au Australian Home e Beautiful, Ap pril 1928)

Be edrooms often had h wh hite-painted woodwork, unlike oth her rooms in the e house. Qu ueen Anne-style e furniture (drresser, stool) an nd Miission-style sit happily h alo ongside each other. The ca arpet is fitted, the e window pe elmet and drap pes are heavy an nd ornate, as are e the picture frames. This is a more pre etentious bedro oom than that sh hown above. (Au ustralian Home Be eautiful, April 19 928)


including the verandahs, had electric light and the kitchen had power points for radiators, fans and an electric iron. Convenience at every turn, but no servants.

The Barre-Johnston bungalow, Middle Harbour (1912) The planning of this early bungalow followed the American precedents with the sitting room connecting with the dining room and beyond, to the kitchen, via a built-in sideboard and pantry. At the far end of the kitchen was a gas stove, set in an alcove which was probably tiled. At the other end was the 'cook's sink', a rugged four-legged white-painted affair with inset china sink and timber drainer. Below it, open shelving took the pots and pans. Nearby was an 'outdoor safe'. Precursor to the refrigerator, it was internally accessible but sometimes projected out from the external wall, sensibly south. Both store and sink lay in an arched alcove with its own impervious floor finish. The remaining floor was a diamond pattern linoleum, with cement skirtings (to deter rats) with 'sanitary' rounded corners. While American kitchen design emphasized compactness in the new maid-less age, Australian authorities on the subject preferred a spacious airiness, to combat the effects of heat and steam. Provision for the social activities of Australian women was also needed. 'I have known four or five women in a kitchen chatting and cheerfully working away with plenty of room for all,' said the designer. And so it should be, a table must remain in the kitchen as of old. The laundry was not as yet connected to the kitchen and was entered from the 'trades entrance'. The copper was connected to the house waste pipes, rather than requiring hand-emptying. Its cement top was lead-covered to cope with the inevitable cracking, and a small window above it took away the steam, as did similar windows above the kitchen stove. Predictably, near this area of toil, but in a discreet and unobjectionable location, was the maid's room. Showing the many duties of a maid, her bedroom door was also close to the master or 'best' bedroom dressing-room, to help Madame with her attire. The only bathroom and toilet in the house was democratically available to all, but only via the best bedroom entrance alcove. The front bedroom was decorated in Louis 14th style, using blue and gold, and all bedrooms received morning sun. So did the bathroom. Here, the bath was conveniently set well away from the wall to allow broom access during cleaning. The towel rail was not out of place behind the 'little' door, the glass shelf served shaving requirements and there was a marble slab under the gas water heater. Tiling went to six feet high on all walls and Malthoid rubber flooring made for a 'well-designed and comfortable bathroom'.2 The dining room, not the sitting room, was the focus of this house. Courtesy of McCabe's Patent sliding door-track, the dining room was entered from the kitchen, via the pantry. Apart from the hall, the dining room was the only one to have a beamed ceiling. There, too, was the arched brick fireplace and its two ingle-nooks. One nook had a small leadlight window which afforded 'borrowed' but suitably 'dull' light from the passage. The other had built-in library shelves, but no window to read under. The walls were green 'olsina' with a cream frieze and ceiling. Last, was the sitting room. It had a brick open fireplace, though without ingles. It did have, however, a window bay alcove facing onto the verandah. It also had chintz paper to the walls, below the stained picture rail, and curtains


of Irish Poplin. In summary, it had 'character and charm.' In fact, the combination of 'comfort and artistic design' justified in at least one person's view the title of Australian.

The Guthrie Bowie bungalow, Sutherland (1912) Although large, this house design had faced the servant problem squarely and decided on no servants' quarters. In their place were built-in sideboards, a dinner wagon (or auto tray) and a china cabinet placed between the dining room and kitchen. For privacy, leadlight cabinet doors faced the dining area while clear-glass ones fronted the kitchen. Some of the colours used were terracotta for the drawing room walls, below the picture-rail, and pale yellow for the ceiling and frieze. One bedroom was cerise (bright cherry-red), while another was lilac. Typically (for bedrooms), one had flat white Ripolin painted woodwork. Elsewhere, woodwork was stained the archetypical dark brown.3

`Redwood', Roseberry (1916) Erected as a timber sales advertisement Redwood, not surprisingly, was finished inside and out with naturally finished timbers. Inside, the 'beautiful' redwood grain was there to be seen behind the dull golden oak Lacklustre stain and a wax finish. The wood was not highly polished, and neither was it highly priced. The main reception rooms had tongue and grooved red pine linings with built-up beams, while the 'best' bedroom linings were left unstained, with only a clear wax finish, to preserve the 'natural salmon pink' of the wood. Another bedroom was grey-stained. Redwood was even used as the kitchen and bathroom linings as tongue and groove boards, painted with a Calpaco washable finish.

The Bungalow Interior — Dark, Sombre Clutter Looking back over 40 years of delightful decorating in their 1965 birthday edition, Australian Home Beautiful identified the bungalow as their starting point. With the smugness of hindsight, they derided the bungalow, room by room, for its old ways, viewed from the stark brightly lit interiors of the 1960s. Without acknowledging the bungalow folklore, the writer easily saw confusion of intent behind the rich, woody interiors. Selling the new sixties fashions meant damning the old as the following photographs and accompanying captions reveal. Although hardly complimentary of the past, the following illustrations and descriptions provide some of the colours and detail of everyday bungalow life. Gone are the sombre, cluttered rooms where, too often, blinds were drawn to save the heavy dark furnishings and dreary colours from fading! Many 1925 rooms were a confusing mass of mixed patterns . . . wallpaper, a Persian carpet, upholstered furniture with various fabric designs, tapestries and prints — and plate and picture rails stacked with ornaments and as many mediocre pictures as could be strung up on the walls. Furniture was always dark — dark brown oak, nigger-brown walnut, near-black rosewood. It was French polished or wax-finished and it was periodically waxed and buffed to keep it in good condition.


Viewed by modern standards the striking feature of this 1925 drawing room [above] is its haphazard placing of unrelated furniture. Odd tables float about the room without apparent purpose, other than to hold a vase or a few flowers. [The] Overall effect is of disorganized pattern and confusion. Such a drawing room was not a 'lived-in' room. Its main function was for entertaining; everyday comfort was not an important consideration. Above the stone fireplace in this room is a stained glass 'overmantel', flanked by wide shelves for ornaments [more vases]. Set into the stonework below are cabinets displaying china, glass and silverware — the status symbols of the times.4

This picture's original caption drew attention to the 'beams in the ceiling and a brick fireplace of original and artistic design' .. Heavy plate and picture rails were strung around the walls, with pictures above and below.

Bungalow Kitchens and Appliances — Servants Surpassed With the newfound home for the family's mother and wife came the status of Housewife, a woman who no longer guided the servants but instead manipulated appliances, in the new kitchen, previously unknown to many women who now faced servantless society. This was the new artistry of the housewife, the rediscovered mysteries of maid culture. Labour saved was leisure won and clean linoleum was a pleasure to all.


A 1920s kitchen from f a large bu ungalow in Toorrak, Victoria, sh howing the usu ual wood-fire an nd gas stove co ombination, wh hite glazed wall tiles, a ch hequer-pattern lino floor co overing, and m a r b l e - t o p k i t c h e n t a b l e complete with h sh harpening stone hanging from on ne leg.

Ab bove: The pate ent kitchen

tab ble w i t h a p o r c e l a i n t o p a n d attached sto ool. Typical kitchen equipme nt atop the tab ble feature the new aluminium m co ookware range, including roaster, teapot, hot h water jug an nd double boilerr. (Grace Bros. ca atalogue)

Rig ight: The mistres ss of the house,, pa ausing by the kitchen k cabinett in her way across s an illustrator's kitchen dreamwo orld.

Servanttless houses meant a bo oom in the rise of kitch hen appliancces. The industrial revolution had h promoteed the powerr sources an d the manuffacturing means to provide p for an ny market. An nd what a new w and bountifful one it was,, the very servant sh ortage itself due d to the risse in factory workers. w Now w household machines were both fit f to behold and a convenientt for Madame's personal use.


An as new bungalow kitchen with white wall-tiling, white enamelled woodwork and very black fuel stove in the corner. (Australian Home Beautiful, April 1928)

Another white kitchen, this time with meat safe, gas range, extensive sink and benchtops, tiling, and the perennial kitchen table. (Australian Home Beautiful, August 1928)


Fuel stoves varied from those (like the I.X.L.) with fire boxes in the body of the stove to those with fire boxes across the stove face. (Australian Home Beautiful, December 1926)

The kitchen sink Sinks continued on their way from previous years, using pine drainer-hoards (scrubbed for cleanliness, just like the old kitchen table) and white porcelain sink bowls set into the timber. More modern options included 'Terazza' draining boards or the equivalent of later sinks, a one-piece aluminium drainer and sink or enamelled cast-iron. The costs were: 35s for the porcelain sink bowl; ÂŁ6 plus for the aluminium one-piece; and ÂŁ9 10s for the iron. The 4 feet long Terazza drainer, with an enamelled iron bowl, cost 47s 6d.6

Stoves Early Bungalow kitchens usually had 'one-fire' wood stoves, typically of blackened (Zebra brand stove-polish) cast-iron, with four removable hot plates, a firebox and an oven underneath. Which way the firebox faced was a matter of


Timber panelling was often finished to resemble oak, as in this 1924 example. The light fitting is also notable.

Although not well-lit, this photograph expresses well the dark richness of a special ingle-nook (now demolished). Here adapted to modern purposes, the nook has clinker brick in abundance (built-in seats). The polished copper hood counters the dark finishes surrounding it while overhead are the archetypical stained beams, set in a lowered plaster ceiling. Glass doors shield the library shelves from smoke and dust and, nearby, the small leadlight windows shed jewel-like light upon the avid readers below. The fireplace nook was the bungalow's glowing heart.


Left Chinese rugs were

Above Wool rugs advertised in the 1920s home journals. The brand 'Kuba' hinted at the exotic town in Asiatic Russia known for its silken goods and t

the last detail essential for that Oriental look, matching the interior decor with the Asiatic design aspects of the typical bungalow exterior.

i ARE AVAILABLE' .LL SHAPES AND ; IN NEW DELICATE 'EL SHADES, SUCH kMETHYST, BEIGE, PE, ROSE. LILAC, :Y, JADE. ETC., ETC.

THE WORKMANSHI SUPERB AND THE SIGNS AND COLOR ARE MOST FASCII INC, ADDING GRACE TO ANY HI


religion forr some. Slow burning, efficcient stoves had h fireboxes inserted into o the body of thee stove with the t end cappeed by a small hinged doorr. Others, succh as the 'Lux', had h the firebo ox parallel with the front of o the stove sso that the en ntire side of the wooden log was exposed to view. Alth hough the lat ter often allo owed flaming loggs to roll outt into the kitcchen unexpecctedly, they aalso afforded d the dangerous luxury l of warrming sock-cllad feet restin ng on its hingeed-down doo or, or cooking toasst against the red r coals. All stovees usually satt in a brick-b uilt, white tilled alcove wiith tastefully thin black or wh hite grouting between the tiles. Unlike most contem mporary wall tiles these had s quare rather than rounded d edges. Mos t stoves also provided thee hot water in the kitchen. This was laboriously carried to th he enamelled o or porcelain

A Mettters elevated ga as stove.

New appliance a trend ds: the fabulo ously expensive e refrige erator beside up pdated traditional items such h as the kitche en dresser. (The e Home, Febru uary 1926)


in a largee kettle. Additiion of a chip heater, h a Briar gas hot-waterr heater or a Hecla electrric hot-water heeater (starting at a £17!) saved th he effort. A populaar brand was the t Treasure One-Fire O Stovee, claimed to be b 'a long way ahead of o any stove of o its class, not n only for fuelf and labo our-saving qualities, buut also for sp peedier and more m satisfacttory service . Another was the Luxx brand, while still anotherr was the 'Ecllipse', a cast-iron stove which could burn either wood w or coal at a maximum efficiency e — it i cost O. However, the t gas stovve was not far behind, particularly given g the widespread reticulation r off gas in the lat e 19th centuryy. Contrastingg with the dark presencce of the woo d fire stove, the t often greeen and cream gas stove (enamelled cast-iron), c staanding stolidlyy on cabriole legs, l was the portent p of new technolo ogy (electricityy). With its Quueen Anne leggs, it blended well with the popular furniture stylle of the perio od. Top of thee Metters rangge in 1925 was the 'Syd ney' elevated gas g stove, with h enamelled casst-iron, a hot-plaate, and an oven and pott shelf underneaath. Electric stoves were similar in appearance, but b not perfformance. Advertised as a early as 19913, 8 the four--legged 'flameeless' cooker was w much slower than gas. It made little market headway even n in the mino r housing boom of thee 1920s 9 In 19 26 John Dankks & Son Pty Ltd L made it kn nown that electric cookking was 'corr ect cooking frrom a social h ouse point of view' and 'more advan ntageous'. Houuse traders werre tipped to 'keeep track' of th he electric art to ensuure a quicker sale. 1 0 Intrroduced in the 1930s, speedier hotplates stepped s up electric com mpetition, as had new go vernment initiatives in n electrical reeticulation, in at least onee State (Victtoria), by c1921. Mettters began making m the Canadian C 'Mo offat' three hot-plate h stove underr licence in c 1930, havingg previously imported i it. Typical of the time,, British bra nds were alw ways conside red best. Warburton Franki F Ltd distriibuted the mucch advertised Faalco electric stovve in many sink

C Casserole and en ntree dishes frrom a Dunkling gs 'C Christmas gifts' catalogue f 1925

T Traditional forms of food storage a advertised in 1915.


popular models. There was the 'Bungalow' (four legs, a griller, an oven and two hot-plates) and the 'Table', was a culinary tour-de-force also on four elegant cabriole legs. It had three hot-plates, a griller, an elevated oven and pl at e war mi ng c om par tment and ample spa ce for pot s on a long shelf underneath. 'All the spic and span cleanliness, the absence of fumes, the convenience, the safety, the perfect results that characterise electric cooking.' In 1925 these stoves were 'welcomed as something long-desired, something different, something altogether new to Australia'. They were sturdy and strong. There was also a convenient 'Breakfast Cooker' which resembled a piece of air-conditioning equipment. Baked enamel on cast-iron gave that cream and brown or green gleam to the kitchen. 11 Beside it, a 'Hecla gem' electric kettle was an added luxury to the increasingly crowded kitchen bench. However, gas reigned supreme, and of the 3454 new houses or flats built in 1936 in the Melbourne Metropolitan Gas Company's supply area, all but 38 chose gas for cooking. 12

Refrigeration Although first patented by Jacob Perkins in 1834, America saw the first domestic refrigerator as late as 1919 and, until well into the 1920s, the varnished timber ice-chest or Coolgardie Safe (an evaporative cooling device opening onto a verandah or southern aspect) served most Australian households. The ice-chest had adopted many forms since the 1880s, including such Australian examples as Charles Coombs' patented ice-box in Sydney and the products of the Victorian Atmospheric Refrigerator Company in Melbourne. 13 Meanwhile, block ice was delivered each day, except Sundays, gift-wrapped in a sugar bag. Export food trading from Australia to Britain hastened the development of refrigeration such that in 1880 a small consignment of refrigerated Australian meat reached London. 14 By 1900, fresh food exports and refrigeration were well developed and the servantless home inspired its adaptation to new horizons. The first Australian-made refrigerator was the Metters K.F.B. Servel. Like its contemporaries, it sat ice-chest like in a timber frame, the porcelain external panels contrasting with the stained and lacquered carcass. Brown wood against white, it was just like the rest of the bungalow interior. 1 5 Advertisements in Australian home magazines of the 1920s offered independence at last from the ice-man. 'You never need to worry about ice melting. over Sunday . . . you need not inconvenience yourself by waiting for the ice man before you go calling or shopping.16 The Kelvinator Automatic Electric Refrigerator was one popular brand: '… because of the beneficial atmosphere of crisp coldness it produces, keeps food perfectly, making it, if anything, even more delicious and desirable .. . KELVINATOR produces its own ice by electricity…. It sold as just the compressor and refrigeration coils which the distributor offered to fit into your old ice-box if desired or in its own timber cabinet. Like a four-door kitchen cabinet, with stained and lacquered timber on castors, the Kelvinator sold for an expensive £85 in 1925, which was about 10% of the construction cost of a standard brick bungalow. 1 7 Another brand, the 5 cubic feet Copeland, sold for £75 in 1929.18


Refrigerrators were very y expensive alternattives to ice boxe es, as recogniised by these tw wo advertis sements.

As the decade advanced, a thee refrigeratorr began to loo ok more like the stove andd less likke its predeceessor, the ice--box. It too was w eventuallyy enamelled and a encased in n steel to o fir the advaance in decor away from tiimber panellin ng and into painted p plaster wall suurfaces. Howeever, while eleectric refrigerators were stuurdy, they we re also noisyy. In co ontrast, gas- powered reffrigerators (available ( fr om 1928), such as thee 'Electrrolux', boasteed silent operration, no mo ving parts an nd lower running n costs. Theyy were also a cheaper. A gas 'Freezo olux' refrigerattor sold for ÂŁ ÂŁ45 in 1934. 1 9 In addition n, there was w the optio on of kerosen ne refrigeratio on, though th hese hardly keept conditions cold when w they occcasionally cauught fire if carre was not exerrcised when fiilling.


E Electric iron ns A common siight in the 19920s (and we ll after that i n rural areas)) was that off many b black flat-iro ns resting on n the one-firee stove. Each h iron, in turrn, poured itss heat o onto the wrin nkled clothingg before it, ir oning until itt cooled and w was then rep laced b one hotteer. 'Pot-holdders' wrappeed around th by he handles, shielded the ironer i f from sharin ng the heaavy iron's heat. Som me enlighten ned but ass yet e electrically-unc connected houuseholds used kerosene-fed irons. i With electtricity conneccted, 25s couuld buy an Australian A maade Hecht irron in g gleaming chrrome and wiith a painted d wooden haandle which at last spareed the i ironer's handd from the exxchange of h eat. Made in 1919, it was a dream for many, b still neededd care to avoidd over-heating and scorchingg the clothes. but

R Renovating the Bungalo ow Kitchen The bungalow T w kitchen todday is often th he first targett for destructtion. Openingg it to t the living arreas beyond is a logicall progression n of the bu ngalow theo ory of c connecting l large open spaces, s and is a modern n concept ass well. Often n still l located nextt to the din ning room, keeping thee kitchen in period with h the t traditional ro ooms may be an advantagee to some. To o that end, allthough the use u of s stained and l acquered tim mber finishes may suggest the dining/lliving room decor; d i fact, paintt finishes, wh in hite tiles and simply paneelled cupboarrd doors are more t traditional fo or a bungalow w kitchen. Liinoleum floo rs, vinyl che ck-pattern tiiles or s sheet vinyl will w also achiieve an auth entic look, along a with reetention of some h hard-to-mov ve original element e such h as the stovve and surrouunding chimney. For plumb bing and thee kitchen sin nk, clear fin nished timbe r draining-b boards e emulate tho ose used in early bunggalows, with h porcelain inset sinkss and s satin-chrome e 20 plated walll taps. For a more authen tic but less c onvenient drrainer, u unfinishedd selected pine which is scrub use bbed rather than wiped.

B Bathroom ms

An idyllic bathroom scene centrred around the marvellous gas h hot-water-heatter attached to on ne end of the cla aw-foot bath. (Aust stralian Home Bu uilder, June 1924 4)


The bath hroom was an nother new co oncept room for the 19200s. Brought in n from the back veraandah, it foun nd its way to a passageway location next to the master bedroom. With its gleaming p orcelain walll-tiles, hand--basin (optio onal in Bankk houses), roll-edge bath and ri pple-iron sh ower screen,, 21 it promiseed undreamtt of luxury, once the gas g water heateer was installed d.

Gas wateer heaters The nextt major gas appliance in the mid-19220s home affter the stov e was the bath-heaater. Adverti sements for these shou ted: 'Don't consider ligghting the copper fo or your bath . . .', thus de scribing the usual u course of events wh hereby the wash houuse copper would w be bro ought to boiil and its con ntents tappe d off into buckets fo or transportatio on to the bath hroom.22 First displayed d in the t late 18800s, by the 19 20s the bunggalow bath-h heater was 23 Mattching the ubiquitous rocket-likke in form and nickel--plated in finish. f u nickel-plaate and glass bathroom sh helves, the batth-heater per ched above one o end of the claw- footed enam el bath and s purted steam ming hot waterr from both a tap at its base and a shower ro se at its top. Somewhere within raged a rampant blue b flame, urged intto action by frequent f mattch striking. The T device allso needed a chimney, which waas claimed as a its only diisadvantage. For an extraa .0 10s, Ban nk House owners could c make do d with a 'Liittle Hero' ch hip heater iff gas reticulatio on was too remote.24 The luuxury of a 'r apid' gas ba th-heater co uld be posseessed on term ms at 20s deposit and a 20s mon nthly therea fter. An outtright sale w was £5 15s. From the electric opposition, o A Australia's Hecla Electric Water Heatters offered automatic continuo ous hot waterr at any desirred temperatuure, but at m much greater initial and running costs. A 10-galllon model con nsumed 120 watts w per hourr and cost £177 while the 30-gallon n model cost £25. £ Metters supplied autom matic electric hot-water heaaters, as did Malleys.25

T The model bat hroom: white t iled w a l l s , w h i t e enamelled woodwork, w e l l - r o u n d e d porcelain ba ath a and basins, and d linoleum on the flloor. (Australian n Home Beautifu ul, A April 1928)


The ensemble, e with its diamo ond pattern lino o floor, is shown n in a trade pub blication of 1927 as not d i s s i m i l a r t o m o d e r n bathroom ms, the waterr-closet being a low-level Symp phonic C l o s e t s u i t e , w i t h c e r a m i c ciste ern and maple e seat (white c e l l u l o i d o p t i o n a l , f o r o n e guinea extra). Woodwork, in ncluding the wainscoting and plate shelf, is painted light colours, the ho ot-water heater is remote (only the t taps show), and the ample e curves of the bath are encas sed from view. A comb bination basin/sh having cabin net, towel rack sits centre ed on the basin n. Ano other bathroom treatment was the all-tiled one e, possibly with mosaic m vitreous tiled floors, o f t e n i n b l a c k a n d white checks, with k e y - p a t t e r n bord ders and mould ded edging tile es as in Edwa ardian times. The gleam of nic ckel plating suitted the basica ally white decorr of this type of o bathroom.

(Austr tralian Home Beaut utiful, December 1926)

Nearby sqquatted the four-claw f ba th, with its ripple-metal r shower screeen wrapped aro und the plugg end. Baths in Bank hou ses were pain w nted galvanizzed i iron unless th he porcelain--enamelled caast-iron optio on was taken n for an extra £8 10s. Some of o the better baths were built against walls, with more expenssive chromium-fframed leadllight screen s which foldded away. In n this class of b bungalow batthroom, across the room would w be whaat appeared to o be a truncatted Grecian coluumn, concei ved in chun ky porcelain n — or was iit marble? The T b basin, on its Io onic pedestal, was w vast with a rounded outtline, contrastin ng to the


faceted basins of thee 1930s. Mor e modest bassins were of ccast-iron, po rcelain enamelleed and simply hung h on cast-iiron brackets.

Bathroo om renovatiion Many seee the new-ffound pleasurres of ceremo onial spa-batths as a good d reason to elimina te the often n modestly sized bungaalow bathro om. Still, ass with the kitchen,, some of thee ambience o f the period can he emulaated using reeproduction tile-worrk, free-standiing claw-bath hs or recycledd pedestal bassins. Introduccing leaded coloure d glazing, in n the shower screen or b athroom win ndows, is ano other way to suggest period p rather than t copy it.

The Laundry L Anotherr gas appliancce to achieve high-volume sales was thee wash 'copper', only just emergin ng from the ancient a timess when real c opper laundrry basins werre built into brick su rrounds, with h a fire box an nd chimney ass standard equuipment. Morre basic was the cast -iron portablle copper whiich might sit forlornly outt in the elements. Gas liines were ext ended to the back of the s uburban hou se and the lauundry itself had com me closer to o the kitchen n. It usually opened from m an open or o enclosed porch, shared with the kitchen n, and had a double cem ment trough perched p on stout co oncrete trestl e legs, with cold c water suupplied abovee each. A valluable extra was thee patent wrin nger which cllipped on beetween trough hs and exorccised soapy water frrom the wash hing, fed from m one trough h to another llike spaghetti. Mean nwhile, the copper, c posssibly now viitreous-enam mel finished, sat in the corner and, conven niently for so ome, had a drain d tap at its base. Th his was the bungalo ow washing machine, m and the turned timber t hand- powered 'po t stick' was the agitaator. Clothess were boiled , then lifted with w the pot sstick into the troughs and rinsed fo or hanging outt, perhaps on a pair of wires stretched

(Australian Hom me Beautiful, December 192 26)


between precariously propped timber frames, or perhaps on the new Revolving Clothes Line. Clothes lines One rotary line manufacturer (G. Toyne of Carnegie) stated the obvious superiority of revolving your linen: A hoist has many advantages over ordinary lines and no disadvantages. It is guaranteed to be a first-class article and soundly constructed to last a lifetime. It is well worthwhile to scrap existing posts, props, etc. and install a Rotary Clothes Hoist as then, and only then, will you have the very best clothes line appliance that money can buy and you will wonder how you have done without it for so long . . . Because it saves labour each washing day . . . you peg on the clothes from one position. The clothes dry more quickly than on ordinary lines. It enables one to limit drying ground and beautify the whole yard. 26

Toyne's revolving clothes hoist was the direct prototype of the more commonly known Hill's hoist. (Australian Home Builder, March 1925)

The days of billowing white sheets lifted skyward from stretched wires by the wind were gone. So, too, were the muddied clothes, forced earthward by a dislocated clothes line prop. Toyne claimed his patented revolving lines dated back to 1910. Hence his guarantee was generous and the cost for medium size (16 feet diameter, 120 feet of line) was ÂŁ5 17s 6d. The 'large' model was 20 feet across and offered an amazing 170 feet of hanging space. It cost ÂŁ6 12s 6d, not One per cent of the cost of an average brick bungalow, and boat or rail transport was free. A variation on this was the hydraulic powered model, its pipe shafts connected to mains pressure domestic water supply. A turn of the tap lifted the laden line into the air.


The Bu ungalow's Internal Parts Certain materials reeoccur insid e the bungaalow with ch harming reg ularity, whether following f eitheer the Greek orr the Craftsmaan styles.

Timber Timber was w and is an n important element e in th he bungalow interior. Re dwood, the modeel red pine buungalow set up in Sydneyy, had demon nstrated how far you could go o with imporrted timbers , while Elmo ore's Australlian bungalo ows had shown th he way with Australian A harrdwoods; how wever, not evveryone could d afford solid timb ber lining. Faced with the cho oice of the o ld lathe and plaster, solidd plaster or the t new strap-joi nted cementt sheet for in nternal walls, there was an n obvious ro ole for a timber fiinish, which was cheap a nd easy to asssemble, as a natural con ntrast to the flat painted p surfa ces above it. Solid timberr, usually Do ouglas Fir, Reed pine, fumed o ak or possib bly Blackwoo od, was expeensive comp ared with veeneered plywood.. Building Maagazine adverrtised three-p ply veneer in 1914 as 'The Perfect Panellingg for Walls and a Ceilings'', coming witth a choice o of nine Engllish and Americaan veneers. Douglas D Fir plywood, sttained to maatch adjacen nt solid timberw ork, was an economical alternative. There was aalso the woo od-fibre 'art boardds' such as B eaver Board,, Amiwud (Am m I wood?) aand the local Adamo Board, alll with simulaated wood-grrained surfacces and woodd-pulp constrruction, equivalen nt to today's particle boaard or custom m wood. Largge sheet sizess (up to 12 X 4 feet) f allowedd minimal jo oint strappin ng, usually w with 2 X I in nch or 3 X 1 inch stained s timber. As witth all other j oinery, wall lining was d edicatedly siimple in pro file and constructiion, followingg the Far Easstern inspiratio on of the bun ngalow's proto-types. Simple sp plays to a r c h i t r a v e s a n d s k i r t in g s w e r e f u n c t io n a l in avoidingg

The sort of artis stic interior achievable with h Amiwud: inexpensive pa anelling aided by ya retractable silk--shaded light, palms in jardinières and deep p beams to the ceiling. c (Australia ian Home Builder, 1925)


daamaged edgess and simple to make. Whether W for e ffect or for economy, a lap pped butt-joiint replaced the t mitre corrner joint, alllowing for tim mber movemeent and econ nomic constr uction. This extended to most extern nal wall and win ndow junctionss. Joinery J suppliiers today aree beginning to o supply bunggalow era mouuldings. One firrm, Porta of Fairfield F in Viictoria, have their t 'Lamb's Tongue' and 'War Service' ran nges in Red Balltic pine, Orego on or Radiata piine.

Fiibrous plaster

A pan nelled hallway witth matching s t a in e d and lacqu er e e d ( du l l finish) skirtings and architraves. Doublle doors and a screen door comb bine to provide a generous entran nce.

Th he penalties of o using air-ddried, unstablee hardwoods for internal framing and triimming weree evident for John Elmor e's Blackbur n bungalows . His lathean nd-plaster waalls and ceiliings were no ot left naturaal, for fear of o cracking. In stead, Elmorre stretched tinted t canvass across them m, concealingg cracks and creeating a 'naturral' finish of itts own. Elmorre's designs prreceded fibrouus plaster and hiss problems dem monstrate the neeed for a more forgiving plaster wall finish. James J Hardie & Co., betteer known for their cementt sheeting, alsso produced Haardico fibrouus plaster sheeets for intern nal use, usingg both mouldded and flat pr ofiles. The o ld lathe and plaster was both b outmodeed and dangerrous. Whole ce ilings could fall unexpec tedly, causin ng fatalities i n some case s, or so the ad dvertising wen nt. In contrast , fibrous plastter was made from the 'fineest plaster of Paaris with a surrface as smoo th and white as alabaster'. It was reinforrced by over 1000 strands of tough t Java hem mp and wouldd never fail or fall. It also co ost more than latthe and plaster. Its peculiar adapta ability for all classses of building g, its straight, sm mooth surface, the t beauty and varriety of designs; its wonderful fire-resistant qu ualities, and the e facility with wh hich it can be forw warded to any pa art of the Common nwealth have brought it into generral use. 28

Allready widely used in New w Zealand, fib brous plaster reached r Victo oria in 1912. Meelbourne becaame the natio onal manufactturing centre for what wer e nailed 29 or sc rewed-up 3 / 8 inch-thick ceiling sheeets, mouldinggs and corniices. By the a proved t hemselves as wall linings,, 30 replacing 19930s, ½-inch sheets had also ce ment sheet. Embosoid, Gypsboard G orr Socket bran nd ceiling pan nels came 1 ngths, in pla in, 'Arctic', fo ot 6 inches to 4 feet widdths and 8 t o 12 feet len ns. Cover stri ps used were 2 inch by 1 incch plaster or 'R occo' or 'Murranese' pattern drressed/undreessed Orego n of the saame section 3 1 Commonlly available co ornices were o volo or scotiaa and mouldin ngs included caapitals and pillasters of the Io nic or Corintthian orders, egg e and dart or o rope/cablee mouldings and a all of the ouldings of the previous eras.32 mo A major advvantage of fi brous over ordinary o pla ster was thee depth and inttricacy achievvable in lighttweight moul dings. This culminated c in n the plaster sp lendour of th he many cine mas built in the 1920s. Buungalows ma y have been m took on the contemp orary Greek inttended to havve simple int eriors, but many revvival plaster ceiiling detailing designed after th he manner of Robert R Adam. F ir ms suc h a s P i c t o n -H Ho p k i ns s t i lll h o ld t he cee il i n g pat t e r ns and f la t plaasterboard (100 mm, 13 mm m) or plastergglass are still major m compo nents of the intternal finishin ng trade. New w products succh as 'Fresco'' have been in ntroduced to Auustralia from America A to covver wall finish h needs of reviival interiors. Looking L like mo oulded wains coting or daddo panelling, the panels a re 160 X 12000 mm by 16 mm m thick and caater more for the t Georgian revival r than an ny other perio d, but could bee adapted to bungalow wall w panellingg. They are flush f or buttt-jointed with theemselves or staandard flat plastterboard sheet.


Typical moulded fibrou us plaster pattterns for ceilings, drawing on the Greek revival and Jazz J Moderne Art Deco) sources. (Picton ( Hopkins (or A Pty Ltd catalogue)

Floors an nd Floor Finishes The initial summer hou se form of t he bungalow w inspired thee image of th he tropics. Fin nishes like th e Oriental ruugs and grasss matting, fa voured for t he porches or sleep-outs off early Ameri can bungalow ws, had this imagery. i Sayllor wrote in 19111 that 'the caarpet probablyy will never fiind a place in n the bungalow w'. However, th he proliferatio on of the bunggalow as a sub burban ratherr than a summ mer house meant otherwise. o Alt hough Orient al or Eastern rugs were stilll very commo on, along with bordered b geo ometric 33 or floral-pattern f rugs, in the 1930s the oftten all-over patterrn floral fitted carpets c became popular. In the dining ro oom ... sober ric hness should be e the effect aime ed at, and for thiis purpose nothiing equals a Turkeyy, Persian, or oth her Oriental carp et ... The highesst quality of oriental carpets conta ain from 100 to 40 0 tufts to the squ uare inch ... no machine-made m c carpets are equa al to them. For c put 400 tuftss into the square e inch, our best example while the patient Easttern craftsman can Crompton Axmin nsters only contain 60 tufts ...34


Indian rrugs were ess sential for any bungalow int erior; strong r ich co lour in g for l i v in g a nd dining area as, and delicate pastel s h a d e s f o r alian b e d r o o m s . (Austra Home B Beautiful, Augustt 1928)

Other carpett types were the Patent Axminster A (tuufted), the B Brussels Carp pet (hiigh quality lo oop-pile), th he Wilton Caarpet (cut do ouble-bound pile, strong er thaan the Brusssels) and the cheaper Tap pestry Carpe ts. For the 'h hack passagees' coconut mattin g was also fe asible, either dyed (crimso on) or naturall. Compared in priice, the fittedd Seamless Axxminster used in a drawingg-room cost U UK £10 3s wi th ceddar-felt undeerlay while Turkey T squaree was L8 6s; the Brussels square was £5 £ 15s; and the linoleum (9 X 6 feeet) UK £1 1s.. 35 Decorating digests d of thee time pointeed to the pra cticalities of rugs. Yards of o feet wide bo order. The carrpet fitting co ost carrpet were sav ed by a modeest one or two waas reduced if hay winddows and d oorways couuld he avoiided, and th he un nderside of the t heavy fu rniture arouund the perim meter of a r oom could he h c leea ne d w it h grea ter e asee. The car peet c ou ld be tak e n out a nd c lea ned

Carpets s from Myer's ne ew Bourke Street store, 19 929.

(Austral alian Home Beautifu ful, March 1929))


thorougghly during th he Spring Cleean, somethin ng that was n ot easily don ne for fitted carrpets until cheaaper and betteer vacuum cleaners arrived in n the 1920s. 36 The Melbourne M F Forster Carp pet Co. ann nounced a n new carpet range r during 1925 which had a 'two -tone fawn ground, wiith conventiional design, in touches of o black, rosee, tango and blue b .. all at 114s 6d per yaard. 37 Fitted wall-to-wall carpets were w in thee wealthier homes of the mid-19220s, but mo ore modest householders h used centraal rugs or ca rpets with th he exposed timber at the perimetter stained and waxed d or stain-la cquered (i.ee. with Ezyywork). Hen nce, a vital element off any bungalo ow was the fl oor itself. Tiimber floors (tongue and grooved 4 in nch x 7 / inch boards) of hardwood h (Jarrrah, Sydney bluegum andd tallow woo d) or 8 the che aper softwo oods (Hoop Pine or Rim mu) dependeed on the house h constru ctor's budgeet. Applying the border stain, s as migght be done today, was ofteen done with pre-mixed p staain varnishes. Light oak staain was prefe rable for darkk rooms whi le Walnut w as thought the t best for sitting-room s but 'Mahogaany stain has a reddish tin nge, which caan scarcely bee called artisticc. 38 The use u of putty to o stop holes or o nails was addvised agains t, in preferen nce to wood pllugs which to ok the stain equally e with the t wood aro und them. To oday, putty wo ould be mixedd with the staain varnish to o allow it to t ake up the ovverall colour. Application A o floor paintt was similar to of t that of borrder stain, wi th an optionall clear varnish h coat for prottection: 39 pain nt was particuularly useful fo or old worn flo oors where muuch patching was needed. In keeping wiith the bungaalow's origins, the t floor bordders were also japanned black as a contin nuation of the floor paint off previous eraas. These floo or finishes w ere typical off the sleepingg and living roo oms.40 A cheeaper but mu ch later optio on to fitted c arpet was thee Australian made m Feltex. 411 It was madee from 1925 and a was avail able in mottl ed patterns, using u 4 it was easilly cut to fit whole pastel g reens, pinks and blues. Made M of felt, 42 w rooms reegardless of wiindow bays.

Vacuum m cleaners With fit ted carpets came c suction cleaners or vice-versa? v T Taking the Pe rsian pattern rugs outsidee to beat the m was all rigght for serva nts, but the poor `servanttless' housewiife was reluct ant to attemp pt this and eveentually electtricity answeredd her need wiith yet anotheer electrical seervant substituute. Once in place, p the sucttion cleaner allowed a the gradual g adve nt of all walll-to-wall or fitted f carpets in n the years wh hich followed the t bungalow. The in ntroduction of compact fan-forced f suuction, powe red by electr icity, followe d early suctio on pumps, drriven in one bizarre case by a one-perrsonpoweredd rocking chaair. It started d the march of o the uprigh ht cleaner int o the world's households. h E Electrolux maade their first vacuum clean ners in Stockh holm, twelve yeears before theey became avaiilable in Austraalia during 19225.43

Linoleu um Service areas such as a passages, kitchens k andd bathrooms attracted in laidlinoleum m, commonly in a blue or black b and whiite check or qquarry tile pattterns (plain, granite g speckle or marbly), laid wall-to- wall using heeadless brass tacks or adhesiive with brass edgings and seeam bindings. Patterns such as the Persian n


or tapestry carpet, tile or parquetry also prevailed. 44 The Australian Linoleum Company Ltd opened a lino factory at Auburn in Sydney in 1924, but prior to this it was generally imported from Nairn's Kirkaldy (Scotland) factory, although some 27 American and 50 European factories existed in 1905.45 Today, linoleum if not 'lino' is still offered along with its synthetic and, ironically, cheaper equivalents; vinyl tiles or sheet vinyl (2 mm) which can, unlike linoleum, he welded at the joints to provide a smooth seamless finish. 46 Remarkably, linoleum is now more expensive than carpet, presumably because it is imported and made in small quantities. 47 Today's Iwo is also devoid of those patterns which made its fame; instead it is in a plain corklike finish in a range of colours.


Linoleum squares imitating Persian rugs were one quarter o the cost of carpet and were used extensively by those of lesser means, usually with paint or polish applied to the exposed borders of floorboards. (Australian Home Builder, June 1924)

Below right: Linoleum sellers also promoted patterns which departed from the ornate Persia rug copies, following instead simpler tile patterns. This coincided with a general trend towards simplicity in decor. It was claimed the new patterns would suit all rooms, not just kitchens and halls. This new tile pattern could also act as a neutral backdrop for rugs or grass mats, replacing the use of carpet felt. Colours suggested for a sunroom were green or blue with rugs and window cretonnes to match. Good linos had to be soft and pliable, cork-b a s e d w i t h a b u r l a p b a c k ; finishes included wax polish or varnish. (Australian Home Beautiful, April 1928)

Below: A version of a stone

fireplace in an early American bungalow. The stone is set into the hearth while the rest of the interior is suitably rustic, in the hunting lodge manner, and departs from the mainly urban character of Australian bungalows. (Saylor, Bungalows, 1911)

Fireplaces The bungalow prototypes were born around the fireplace. One large living- room focused on the fire at its end. The legendary ingle-nooks stood close by each fireplace, forming the glowing heart of bungalow folklore. Whether this fixation with the fireplace arose from American east coast bungalow prototypes (in the form

of mountain lodges) is unclear. Far Eastern colonial origins or g unny Californian climes hardly reinforced the dependence felt for a cosy hearth. A bungalow without a fireplace would be almost as much an anomaly as a garden without flowers — and as cheerless . . . Perhaps you have heard of the man whose definition of a home was 'a fireplace, boxed-in'.

So began a special chapter

in Saylor's Bungalows devoted to the fireplace. The ingredients for the first bungalow fireplaces were rough stone or exposed brick chimney breasts, a heavy oaken shelf, the fire opening with its crafted metal accessories (andirons to hold the logs), the brick or quarry-tiled hearth, and the


Stair runner and timber fittings from the 1920s.

Below The modest interior of a genuine State Bank-financed bungalow: stained and lacquered joinery, bevelled glass panes in the doors, antique-bronze door fittings, a picture-rail frieze in autumn tones. The wallpaper is buff-coloured and slightly textured, while the rest of the walls are pristine white fibrous plaster. There is no timber panelling to be seen.

The ever popular 'bowl and chain' shown hanging in a bank bungalow. The chains and ceiling rose would be antique-bronze finish, and the 'bowl' veined to resemble marble.


Above A careful bungalow renovation which blends current taste with fastidiously refurbished original joinery. Present are the typical small fire-side windows, the mantle, the picture-rail, and the generous window bay to one side.

Left A recent bungalow

addition which tries hard to emulate the original character. Bookcases and door-heads have the plate-shelf details built in. The timber has been stained and lacquered, and stained strapwork is used in the new plaster ceiling.


The sort of dramatic fireplace which formed the visual and comfort centre of the early American bungalows. Invariably they were constructed of rubble stone or, particularly in Australia, red brick. The tall-backed Mission-style seats faced the g e n e r o u s l y s i z e d h e a r t h , providing visual intimacy within the large living area. Ingle-nooks, where walls or alcoves created the same intimate effect, were also used by Australian Arts & Crafts designers, in Queen Anne and Tudor revival styles in the early 1900s. (Saylor, Bungalows, 1911)

Modest Australian urban bungalow fireplaces did not possess the visual dominance of the rural American prototypes. Instead of the ornate wrought-iron fire dogs and hand-hewn mantle shelf, there was a coal grate complete with copper art-metal hood or a gas fire set in finer joinery. (Australian Home Beautiful, August 1928)


ingle seatts, straight-b backed timbeer bench-seaats with loo se cushions.. Embellishments included a minstrel m galleery connectedd with the ch himney shaft above or integration n of the firepllace shelf with h the wainsco oting plate sheelf. There was always a fireplace in n the living room, r most likely to be on ne in the dinin ng room, and d possibly others in the t other hab bitable roomss, if finances allowed. Tip s for the fire-sider: Do not make e the mistake o f having an ash-drop in the hea arth, nor take ou ut the ashes at all until the accumulatio on leaves no sp pace for fresh lo ogs. The prese nce of a glowin ng mass of emb bers under and back of o the blaze is one o of the woo od fire's greate st charms. Burry the unconsu umed wood each night under u the ashess and it will furn nish the best kin nd of starter to light the next eve ening's fire.'

R Right: Fireside in n a State Bank bungalow — alth hough altered in n c detail the basic components emain. Good effect e comes re frrom the fireside e windows set in n deep recesses which w also house cupboards for storing the eading matter much m needed fo or re lo ong winter even nings. The heart/ is simple red r brickwork since painted) with w a bullnose (s profile edge.

Ty ypical of Edwarrdian and later firreplaces, this ty ype was not specifically bungalow in character, but ne evertheless was s used extensively y in bungalows. Ty ypical finishes were w the plain amber, maroon, brown or green n glazed tiles for wall w (often m matching generral wall colours s) and hearth, and polished b lackwood or oak o for the jo oinery. The exa ample shown h as a 'well' grate e which allows updraft to come from beneath th he floor rather th han under the ty ypical elevated grate. g

Tools and andirons were w best ill black wrougght-iron, not highly finish hed brass, especially if the chimneyy was rough sto one. Austra lian bungalow w fireplaces varied v from th he Edwardian n polished bl ack-wood or silky-o oak overmanttels with mirrrors, glazed-tiile surroundss, bronzed iro on radiators and gratess to the American open-fire type describedd above. Somee resembled Edwardian E fuel fires but acted a s frames for gas radiator s. The two o options (an open- or closed-fiire fireplace)) could not be further apart a but neevertheless are found freely mixed with h other bungalow interior ellements. An ouutstanding fireplace f exiisted at 3300 Cotham R Road, Kew, inside a Japanese bungalow. Within a heavily h beam med living rroom, it is the main attribute to an otherrwise plain interior. i Buiilt of clinkerr bricks, it has brick ingle-seatts, and leadliight side cup pboards for books, b while a beaten an nd riveted copper hood h complettes the dresssing of the fire-opening. f There are also a small leadlight highlight windows w whicch were meaant to shed a soft light over the wonderin ng reader neestled in thee ingle-seat below. Besidde it, polish hed wood panellingg extends aro ound the ro om, complette with platee shelf. Abo ove, is an electric candelabra, c f finished in antiqued a bro onze and hu ng by the ubiquitous u bronze c hain. The reecent demolittion of this superb bunggalow has lefft many a fireside gh host restless an nd without a ho ome.


Hecla's heaters Charles Marriott's Hecht Electrics was not content with making gleaming electric irons. Using nickel-chrome wire, coiled around an insulator, Marriott created one of the world's early electric radiators in 1916. By the 1920s, it sold as a 9-inch cast reflector, finished in oxidized or 'antiqued' copper, not unlike the copper hoods which shielded open-fire grates or gas radiators during the period. Using a sizable 900 watts, it sold for a mere ÂŁ3 2s 6d, about half an average worker's weekly wage. Hecla also made electric hot water heaters, sold for a fabulous price.

Lighting

The cheapest form of pendant electric light fitting consisted of mounting rose, twisted cloth-covered flexible wire. lamp holder and conical opal shade —likely to be used in kitchens, sculleries and laundries. Similar fittings are still sold. (I.C.S. Reference Library)

In the dawn of the appliance household, it was electricity which offered both a wider range of products and wider distribution than gas. But even in the new electric age sales of gas mantles and burners continued, topping the 73,000 figure (1925-6) in Victoria alone. 49 Electric light, above all of electricity's conveniences, was the first to arrive and the most universally craved: 'Why? Simply because you know that electric light is the better medium in every way ... more convenient, more economical, cleaner, healthier ...' Thomas Edison and Joseph Swan, between them, perfected the carbon filament light bulb in the late 1870s-1880s but the cost of their relatively feeble light remained prohibitive, Swan's lamp costing ÂŁ1 5s when introduced. 5 0 Tungsten, an element identified as late as 1870, was the next and more economical choice for the filament, this time by the American, Coolidge. The coiled Tungsten filament which provides the heart of the modern light bulb was perfected as late as 1934. Amongst the glitter of this high technology, the craftsmen and craftswomen and their bungalows were anachronistic in their striving to revive the old crafts of metal and wood working throughout their homes. In the fashioning of the light fittings which hung from their dark beamed ceilings, the craftspersons found a link with this new power source, pursuing the artistic ornamentation in glass, copper, iron and brass, around the gleaming globe. Illustrations of early American bungalows published in Craftsman magazine show a range of light fittings including the almost modern opal-glass oyster (or cluster) type fittings in low ceilinged living areas, combined with opal-glass faceted spheres atop standard lamps in corners. 51 The same shape was used as a pendant shade and was to gain widespread use in the 1920s. Other designs were more traditional: brutal looking hammered iron fittings or heavy dished beaten copper or brass dish pendants on chains, with rim cut-outs and multiple candle-like glass shades suspended from beneath them. 52 There were also more conservative candelabra forms, with hoops suspended on chains, attached to multiple, flared glass shades. Common in dining rooms and libraries were the fringed silk shades, hung on chains, with an opal diffuser concealed within them to soften the light's glow within the shade. The most modest lamp was the Plain Pendant, with its conical or spherical opal shade and twisted wire or tube suspension. Reflector pendants were also in use early this century. These used enamelled sheet metal, or ground or opalescent (most common) glass as the reflector.53 As gaslights had taken the form of the earlier oil lamps, early electric light shades took on a similar appearance to their gas predecessors in Australia. In


Another econ nomical electric c ceiling-moun nted light used in service areas s but also on fro ont porches: a sp pun metal (bron nze finish) rose with w a ground glass opal sp phere shade he eld by setscrews s (brass) to the rose.

A m more ornate ch hain pen ndant w i t h a r t - g l a s s s h a d e , o p a l difffuser and silke en fringe, deem med for a din ing room (overr a table) or a stud dy. Replication of o such a fittin ng today may be e difficult.

Right: Anothe er form of 'artistiic' shade, in cutt glass and often n taking on anc cient Greek mottifs. These were either e held by se etscrews to a ceiling c rose or suspended on o bronze-finish h chains. Toda ay's reproduction n equivalents are a usually in bra ass rather than th he more authen ntic bronze.

B elo w: ' J e l l y m o u l d ' ate p e n d a n t light fitting in a Sta ow, showing Bank bungalo bronze-finish h chains and ceiling rose.

the faashion of thee American Mission or medieval-insspired protottypes, they were usually hungg by fine brronzed meta l chains fro m a similarlly finished circulaar spun meta l ceiling rosee by the 19200s. The shadees or diffuserrs were like inverteed dishes, oftten in opal or marblised po orcelain. Moree salubrious shades s were hand painted p with exotic sceness, yet retainedd the basic ch hain and bow wl formula. A belatedd contender waas the gasolier, with two or more m diffusingg


Typical porch lamps made from wrought-iron and cast-iron (brackets), finished in black (typical) or antiqued green, and glazed with frosted (etched), stippled or amber glass. Bungalow lanterns followed traditional Japanese stone lanterns in form, unlike those (153, 154) designed for use in Spanish Mission revival houses.

A reproduction chain pendant sold by the Surry Hills Restoration Centre (NSW) — but this model's metalwork is i n brass rather than the more traditional bronze.

shades attached to a bronzed metal frame suspended on a single chain. Gas fittings were often Art Nouveau by inspiration and, like their power-source, belonged to the previous eras.54 Candle-stick wall-bracket lights repeated the old-world themes, with brass or bronze arms holding candle-like shaded frosted-globes out from a Greek Revival or Mission-style moulded metal wall plate. They were favoured in halls, on stairs or as background lighting to large rooms, in combination with lighting pendants. Table-top lamps also took on the pendant form albeit inverted, with silk shades favoured for their rich subdued lighting. Perhaps the most visible of the bungalow light fittings lay out on the front porch. Typically it consisted of one or two opal spheres, or perhaps a glass Olympic torch, sprouting from the porch piers on tube supports. A variation on this might be inspired by Japanese stone lanterns, with their light glimpsed


A distinctively Japanese-style porch lantern (securely padlocked to its i base) which h has been give en a thick coat of white paint yet is otherwise inta act. Picture it in antique or Grecian green.

Some of the more m ornate metal-framed (bronze for indoors, black k or green for outdoors) lantterns and pendants sold by the much-vaunted d Brooks Robins son company. (Aus stralian Home Beautiful, April 1928)

only th hrough narro ow aperture s in the 'sh hade'. Insidee the house,, the same Eastern n effect was achieved in stained tim mber, fretted to resemblee the stone lanternss outside. Furrther versionss of these lam mps adorned th he newel postt of the attic stairs. The chain pendan nts, conical shades and the t opal sph heres are all stocked by lightingg stores tod ay, mainly using u lacqueered brass fiittings rathe r than the antique bronze of the t bungalow w era. Firms such as Reccollections, in n Ormond, Victori a, have enaamelled 'risee and fall' conical shaaded pendan nt fittings, 200mm diam. opal s pheres on brrass rods, thee so-called 'scchool house' opal shade and casst-iron Greeek Revival wall w bracket s supportin g 150 mm or o 200 mm diam. s pheres. Penddant fittings were hung from white p porcelain ceiiling roses.55


Light switches

A tumbler switch with brass cover plate on a white porcelain base. (Marshall's Private House Electric Lighting, 1915)

Light switches were located on the wall, next to doorways. They were either bronze or antiqued flush plates with toggle metal switches or, later, two pushbuttons for on-off operation. Simpler switch forms were the round brass-covered toggle or tumbler type, mounted on a white porcelain base either sunken or surface mounted. A variation in America was the 'turn' type. If the wiring conduits were surface mounted, a timber (preferred as teak) mounting block might be employed under the switch. The conduits were screw-fit black metal tubing, with special bends for direction changes. Above the ceiling sometimes were the familiar grooved wooden channels which carried the wiring. The Victorian Brass Company of South Yarra (Victoria), among others, supplies similar switches to the round metal switch used in the bungalow era. The flush plate type is not readily available new and probably should be sought second-hand, the choice of flush-plate or round switches being dependent on your bungalow's original pretensions.

Window Dressing It is hard to find original examples of window dressing because it was more fragile and replaceable than other interior elements. Craftsman magazine described a 1903 window treatment 'of extreme simplicity, such as a figured Creton in varying shades of pale yellow accented with dull red ‌`against a general living room scheme of stained wood (wainscoting and floors), dull olive-yellow walls and moss green ceilings ‌ a suggestion of the woodland'. 56 A 1916 Southern Californian bungalow with 'Palatial Furnishings' took on 'Papal velvet hangings of deep red' (elsewhere it was 'Goblin blue') around the doors and windows, together with Papal lamps hung on chains in the shape of old Saxon crowns. The impression conveyed was of England in the time of King Richard the Lion Hearted.57 A New Zealand example published in 1914

A flush wall-mounted switch finished in bronze or brass.

Elaborate window dressing: an extensive valence, full-length drapes, a figured cretonne filler curtain and Holland blinds behind.

(Australian Home Beautiful, March 1929)


Portieres (curtains hung over doorways) were usually hung in conjunction with a fretwork arch. The ones shown here are designed in the Arts & Crafts manner.

A different, less formal approach t o w i n d o w dressing used gingham ( p i c t u r e d ) a n d cretonnes only, in conjunction with the usual brown Holland b l i n d s .

( A u s t r a l i a n H o m e Beautiful, August 1928)


used chintz c in the b edroom casem ments 'with piccturesque effeect’. 58 Many off the early Ameriican bungalow w photograph hs show tran nslucent casem ment cloths hung on expos ed rods with small rings. One O Craftsmann decorator c hose a 'golde n-brown hing exactly t he wall-paperr' for her livin ng-room.59 bungaalow net ‌ a colour match Cassement windo ows in the Br itish bungalo ow-era house needed 'casem ment cloths': They arre made in cotto on, linen, and wo ool, and in an inffinite variety of co olours and patte erns. White cream and natural flaxx colours are th he most suitable e; yellow has a bright, sunny effect, e and greenss are often used, but the stronge er colours are liab ble to fade. The material can be had with a slight pattern p woven intto it or printed on n it either in the same s colour as th he ground or in quiet tints to harm monize, but som me of the prettiiest curtains ha ve stencilled pa atterns, or pattern ns imitating stencilliing, around the ed dges only.60

A rare exa ample of a pelm met from the p period, using pas stel shades ag gainst a cream backgroun nd.

In Auustralia, poplin n, taffeta, velveet or flowered cretonne, lineen or chintz weere viewed as thee most popula r options of th he 1920s. Rea dy-made, theyy came in two side drops (to silll rather than floor f level) an nd had a flouncced or gathereed valence. Th he brass or polish hed wood currtain rod of t he past was often o now hiddden in the vallence hem. Anoth her more form mal option was the shaped vaalence board, perhaps p in velveet, with two drawn n drapes held in n place on a soliid base. In the late 1920ss, the Australiian Home Beau tiful reluctant ly proclaimedd that 'The most popular form m of window trreatment at p resent, in spitte of all that may m be said against it, is that off a pelmet wit h hanging draapes and a cas ement curtain of net'. 61

Walll Papers The absence a of th he old Victorrian-era wallp paper dado/ddado frieze/ffiller/main friezee hierarchy wass the basis of the t original buungalow decoraation. Plain plaaster walls with calcimine or distemper paaint finishes set over stain ned timber wainscoting w were often o used for American bun ngalow living areas. a So too was w a wallpaper filler above the plaate shelf or pictture rail.


Wallpaper friezes, combined with plain, embossed or textured paper for the rest of the wall, were usually cream-coloured. Right, top to bottom: black and orange zig-zag and floral frieze; an old-fashioned floral and lattice frieze made by Cunliffe & Ward (1925); an Edwardian l a c e - pattern frieze, also made by Cunliffe & Ward (1925); a typical 1920s cut-out frieze depicting richly coloured fruits; a cut-out frieze using fruits and flowers, m a d e b y Wallpaper Manu fa ctur ers (192 5); and a floral frieze with black-line border, by Cunliffe & Ward (1925). Far right, top to bottom: An American cut-out frieze embossed and gilded; a frieze embossed with silver, also from Wallpaper Manufacturers Ltd (1928); and filler paper (used under a picture or a plate rail) showing a typical autumn-toned design. A common alternative was plain unpatterned paper which was embossed.

Right: Friezes of the 1920s collected by the Historic Houses Trust of NSW: the late 1920s introduced Jazz–Moderne zigzag or geometric decoration, replacing the fruit, leaves and flower motifs, previously popular. with abstracted patterns. However, some old patterns prevailed, as did the bungalow style itself. (Lyndhurst Conservation Resource Centre. Historic Houses Trust of NSW. Photography: Jim Whitelock)


In n the absen nce of the costly tim ber panellin ng and in the hands of fash hion-conscio us home deccorators, prisstine walls to ok on papereed hues as th hey hadd done in th e Edwardian n era, but th is time simp pler, fine flo ral patterns or plai n-coloured. In I any event, timber t panelliing was not seeen as suitablee for bedroom ms, kitcchens or bath hrooms. Bedrrooms were painted p or paapered througghout while the t servvice rooms werre enamelled and tiled. A American decorator m atched her livving room wallpaper with An h the colours of her two 'art-glasss' windows placed over the mantel. Between herr dado and the t pictture rail she used a goldeen-brown waallpaper and above, the w walls and ceiliing weree papered in a deep cream. A Another prou d bungalow owner's o descrription pointss to the visio n of woody warm mth intended for the first buungalows: The interior of the e bungalow in n harmonizing tones of crea am, brown an nd old gold. The T woo dwork, of whic ch there is a gr eat deal, is all brown, and the e floors are of oak. The masssive man ntel of red-brow n brick seems to t center in itse elf the warmth of o the whole coloor scheme. On the side of the living ro om opposite th he fireplace is a deep alcove which w was builtt and used by the t prevvious owner forr installing a pipe p organ but is now used fo or a cushion re ecess. Bookcasses with wooden doorss extend acrosss the entire end d of the room, and a a line of lattticed windows fills f the space s between these cabinetss and the plate rail that runs ju ust below the pllaster frieze. Mo ore bookk-cases with lea aded glass doo ors extend up th he side of the room r to the corrner of the rece ss. On either e side of th he fireplace are e two large wind dows, so that the e room is amplyy lighted. A small hall with h a built-in seatt connects the living l room with h the dining roo om, and also with w h affords a me eans of commu unication to th e bedrooms a nd the bath. The T the rear hall which ers only in min nor details from m that of the livving room. A hiigh treattment of the diining room diffe wain nscot has pane els of dark bro own leather pap per, divided with w four-inch s tiles set eighte een inch es apart. This wainscot w is topp ped with a wide e plate rail, and d the wall above e is tinted to a soft s e of light buff. Th he ceiling, like that of the living g room, is span nned with beam ms, and the plasster tone pane els between are e tinted to the same s colour ass the walls. All the t furniture in tthe dining room m is of ce edar and was sp pecially design ned by the owne er to express hiis own ideas.'

State Ban nk bungalow wa allpaper: embossed filler paper an nd a cable and d leaf embossed d and gilded frie eze in autumn to ones. The plaste er above appea ars unpainted d.


Ap precursor of Tile ex and other sim mulated tile wall finishes, Sanitas was an oill-painted wall fab bric popular in 1920s' and 193 30s' bathrooms s. (Australian Ho ome Beautiful, April A 1928)

4

The use o f panelled leaather wainsco oting reoccurrs in The Crafftsman articless but n commonly ussed in Australiian bungalows. appears not to have been

Grass maatting and heessian Somewherre between wallpaper w and d plain walls was the Easstern grass matting m applied duuring the ea rly bungalow w period, som metimes as a dado renovvation techniquee. Accordingg to The Boook of the Hom me, 6 3 mattingg made an a rtistic covering for f a bare w all, and theree were manyy kinds of thiin flexible matting m woven fro m reeds and grasses, g bordeered, checkedd or plain. It rrequired a frieeze and a rail, and was w also put up p diagonally. Stained or natural burlap b or hesssian provideed another ruustic wall fin nish. It was applieed to the walls in a techn nique used by the Australiaan mud-brick house builder/dessigner Alistair Knox in the 1960s.


The treatment of the bedroom is, as far as material and colour are concerned, identical with that of the living room: viz., burlap side walls and stained construction of the ceiling; the former of olive green; the latter of moss green. 64

Interior Colours and Finishes American bungalows established the dark stained, earthy colour schemes as starting points for later Australian decorators. The Messmate framing, stringy-bark or Ash floors and interior joinery of John Elmore's Blackburn bungalow were all finished with various shades of Creosote oil, reflecting his nationalism and his love of timber. The finish was always secondary to the timber used. Invariably, the grain was visible, running straight in general joinery and fiddle-back or figured in the special pieces, such as his furniture. The following colour rules, suggested in an Australian magazine, compare with the American bungalow forbears and Elmore's rough woody interiors. For the 'austere' interior: 'Stain and a soft, dull finish are best for the woodwork, and either plain or two-toned walls, with stencil frieze of appropriate design . The ceiling colour . . . must show a tone lighter in shade than either walls or woodwork.' For the 'small' interior: 'If the house is small the best general treatment ‌ is white woodwork.' For the passage and dining interior: 'Panelling ‌ finished in some good, dark stain, is always livable and combines well with white or ivory woodwork ... (doors, stairs, mouldings).' Stains could subtly vary from room to room yet could appear harmonious by adopting varying tones of the one hue, as determined by the room lighting. Grain could be strong in 'masculine' rooms such as libraries, living or dining rooms, while in bedrooms, reception or drawing rooms (where 'dainty' furnishings were needed), the grain should be fine. Grain variations could be achieved economically with proprietary 'art boards' like Beaver Board or 'Amiwud', marketed by the Paraffine Paint Co., or three-ply veneer. Even Australian timbers gave 'charming effects' using recently perfected stains. The interior of Harry Day's Middle Harbour Mission Bungalow of 1912 was of face brickwork and hand-picked Oregon pine, stained and satin-varnished. There was the wainscoting and brick-arched fireplace flanked by stained timber ingle-nooks, shaped to resemble church pews. A Persian pattern rug extended between them across the polished timber floor to join a large floral carpet-square. Across the ceiling ran white beams and above a shelf, the plaster 'frieze.' Such a frieze was described in The Craftsman of 1904: From the height of the top of the door to the underside of the ceiling extends a frieze in stencil, of conventional objects relating to primitive life, done in the same straightforward manner as the balance of the structure . . . the slightest attempt at anything beyond pure symbolism would result in disaster, as the building is essentially primitive in its design and so should be the decoration. 65

Stencilled wall patterns continued from the Arts & Crafts origins of the bungalow wherein more artistic bungalow owners would often make their own furniture and fittings. The bungalow bibles, such as Saylor's Bungalows and Craftsman magazine, suggested repetition of a stencilled emblem onto furniture and fabrics. One such suggestion was for a 'conventionalized marigold, golden rod or something of that sort, stencilled in orange' on the backs of


Th hese stencil des signs in the Ja apanese style were w originally pu ublished in Audsley's Practical D Decorator and were w available co ommercially in n America ea arly this century y.

Although published in the b ungalow era, this t wall tr eatment has Edwardian E ch haracteristics, yet the fruit and d flo ower motifs are typical of the 19 920s. (The Ho ome, 1926)

chairs wh hether finish hed as naturral wood, ass in the livin ng rooms, or o white enamelledd, as in the bedrooms.b This T emblem m would easilly find its waay Onto cupboardd doors, sofaa and curtai n fabrics, ruugs, and in ccut-out form m as the artistic meetal work used on light fittinggs, hinges and door plates. The H armer Bungaalow in Mid dle Harbourr was an info ormal, 'sensiible and freedom-ggiving' bungaalow designed d for econom my (ÂŁ450) byy H. G. Harm mer on a seaside siite. Contrastiing with the norm of staiined internal woodwork, Harmer instead p rescribed 'Zeepplin' whitee enamel in tandem t with pastel colouured 'art' calcimine or o distemper (pigments ( in water-based w gluue or starch meedium). He


An artistic concept applied to a spacious bedroom, b using g shades of grey with some e pinks and pale blues b for details. (The Home, 192 26)

coulld have usedd 'Amiwud' reproduction r hardwood (oak, ( mahogaany or jensetto patteerns) to defeat the costs of reeal stained waiinscoting. T he Muralo Co ompany weree one of manyy offering 'kallsomines', theeirs being in 22 2 flat pastel shadess and only reequiring addittion of cold water w to allow w the paint to t flow w. Preparatio on of old su rfaces mean t washing o ff the previo ous calcimin ne with h water, app lying a size or glue-baseed sealer andd then the fiinishing coatts. The result was 'delightful velvety', v did not rub off and was no on-poisonouus. Murralo also maade the fam miliar 'Spackkle' and 'Muural-tex' pro oducts. Otheer com mpanies or brands b were Arabic, Duuresco, Kalssomine, Meddusa, Hodgees, Indeeliblo, Hall's,, and Pulveritte. 67 Oil-baseed paints (lin seed oil, turp pentine, whi te leadd, driers andd pigments traditionallyy mixed on the spot buut also, morre freqquently, prem mixed) were also a used forr interiors, ass the inherite d means of th he Edw wardian and Victorian er as, but the powder and water typess had obviouus attraactions for h ome decorat ors. Howeveer, enamels were w still reco ommended fo or bath hrooms and kitchens, k usin ng a 'flatted' finish f induce d by a greaterr percentage of o turp s. Suggested options to painting, p earlyy in the centuury, were plaain wall pape rs but, like any pap pering, this co ost more than n the painting it emulated.68 Paainting probllems with buungalows tod ay usually staart with the ccalcimine paint — th hat is, gettingg rid of it. In n bungalow days, d the old calcimine cam me off, just as a it haad gone on, with thorouugh washing with water and sealing. Although n ot madde from glue, modern m paintt sealers will still s provide a secure base for the flat or o low--sheen waterr-based pain ts which em ulate the oldd calcimine. P Porter's rangge of c alcimine paiints is availa ble for the serious s restorrer, however.


Bungalow Furniture

Cane furniture was used both inside and outside the bungalow alluding to its Asiatic tropical derivation. This scene has other Asian characteristics including the verandah post detail and the paper lantern.

Clocks of the 1920s had no Asian connotations, Instead they were designed as Greek temples, alluding to the then fashionable Greek revival style. The clocks shown here are from a Dunklings catalogue of 1925.

Ideally, bungalow furniture should all be built-in, of oak and, in the true Craftsman manner, designed and built by the bungalow owner. Mission furniture, simple and dark-stained, was the essence of loose furniture in the bungalow. Photographs of the time show beds, refectory tables, settees and ingle-seats fashioned from polished half-round logs. Outdoor or porch furniture was almost certainly of rough timber, if not of cane or wicker. Those items which had to come from the shops were sturdy and with no frills, to suit the simplicity of the original bungalows.


Above The ideal modem bathroom of the 1920s. Father tends the hot water service while ghost-like steam clouds billow from the purest of porcelain. The pedestal basin will be familiar to many. (Australian Home Beautiful, August 1928)

Left Hot water (day or night) on tap was a luxury to many. Certainly a central boiler filling both radiators and taps was unheard of in most Australian bungalows. (Australian Home Beautiful, April 1928)


The type of grand pergola favoured by Edna Walling — a real pergola. This one is part of a 1924 house renovation designed by H. Desbrowe Annear.

One of those rare bungalow garden shelters, built in the 1920s in Camberwell, Victoria, hidden behind a finely clipped cypress hedge.


You u will find it posssible, frequentlyy to secure a sturdy type of kitch hen chair withou ut frills of any kind d, but we ell fitted to its w ork, which with a coat of brow wn or green stain n, or a few coa ts of white pain nt and en amel, will be a revelation. Som me of these cha airs are made with w a fairly wid de cross-piece at the d be more effec ctive in a dining g room than a s et of these painted a light green n, with ba ck. What could s emblem m . . . on those wide w back piece es?69 a stencilled

Th he same chairs would do in a bedroom, buut painted whitte. The styles which prefaaced the bu ngalow furn niture design ns included that naamed after the t American n Shaker relligious sect whose dediccation to sim mple fuurniture creaated the ele gant slat-baacked cane-sseated chairrs seen in many m Am merican bunggalow interio ors, the woo od being maiinly Maple. 70 The Ohio Zoar co ommunity was w another emanater of o simple pllank-backed or plank-s ided 71 fu rniture. Heeart and garliic or onion head h shaped holes were ffretted out o f the plaanks for thee purpose off hanging or lifting. How wever, the fuurniture desi gned sp pecifically for bungalow waas in the Missiion theme, in nspired by thee examples creeated byy Gustav Stickkley and his contemporary c y, Elbert Hub bbard, both b based around or in Neew York and both followiing the hand -crafted wayss. These weree often crafteed in fu med or weatthered oak, using u rail-bac k or slat-sideed filling betw ween stout fraaming meembers. The Stickleyy brothers' Quaint Q Furnit ure cataloguee was influen ntial to the exxtent that many of its i hand-mad e designs weere plagiarized and mass-p produced by their co ompetitors. Guustav Stickley was w forced into o bankruptcy in i 1915.72 The easy chaair created byy the Charles Limbert Co. in 1907 reseembled closelyy the ch hairs designedd in Australia by Walter Buurley Griffin for f Newman College and other o prrojects. Frankk Lloyd Wrigght had design ned in the Mission M manneer, one armcchair exxample bein ng executed in poplar c1895. 7 3 So ome designeers favoured d the Jaccobean mann ner, with its s piralled legs, woven cane backs and taapestry upholsstery. Otthers followedd the English Arts & Craftss furniture styyles, such as s een in the Reennie M ackintosh ch hairs with ruush seats. Ca binets and dressers d weree typically laarge, wiith glass-fron nted cupboa rds, featurin ng the typical Arts & Craftss beaten copp per or an ntiqued bronzee strap-work door d catches and knobs. The T Japanese also had a ro ole in sh haping Ameriican furniturre: the archiitects Charle s & Henry Greene desi gned Jap panese-inspirred furnituree for their Jap panese Bungaalows, specifi fically the Gam mble ho ouse of 1907--8. 74 Lloyd Wright W also desiigned with thee Japanese influuence in mind early thiis century.75


Mission (or Crafts sman) furniture: the e simple block-llike joinery wh hich populated many m American n Bu ungalow i n t e r i o r s . T h e exa amples illustrate ed were intended to be of oak and de erived from desig gns by Gustav Stickley and Elberrt Hubbard. ( W i n d so r , M iss s ion Fu r n i t u r e : Ho ow to Make It, Popular Me echanics Co., Chicago, C 1912)


Comm mon Australian n bungalow furn nishings — the e fat floral ches sterfields being a far cry from Stickley's aus tere Missio on designs. (Au Australian Home e Beautiful, Marc ch 1929)

A livin ng room with a Queen Anne-s style table, leattherette cheste erfields and a Jacobean-inspired standard la amp. (Australia an Home e Builder, June 1924)


The scrolled chair, table and siideboard legs off the Queen Ann ne sttyle blend well with w the scrolled arms of the leath her-covered chesterfields. Typ pically, the fu urniture was of Blackwood. B (A Australian Home e Builder, March 1925)

PAGE TWELV VE

The Jacobean style T s was, along w Queen Anne, the most with p popular for furnitture of the b bungalow era in Australia. It is p pictured here in oak with silk or w woollen tapestry y covers. At top i the fully uphols is stered alternative e w which was also common in the e but further in era n concept from t the original Crafttsman- or M Mission-style des signs. (Australian n H Home Beautifull, March 1929)


4

Above: A walnut bedroom suite in what was termed 'William and Mary' period contrasts with the stylised padded forms of the 'De Luxe' Moquette suite in the same advertisement which were to replace much of the furniture in the 1930s. (Australian Home Beautiful, August 1928)

Right: An austere, almost Craftsman-style bedroom suite in Tasmanian oak. The bathing dresser has the marble top, tiles and porcelain setting typical of two decades earlier, but the simplicity of the joinery evokes the bungalow era. (Australian Home Beautiful, April 1928)

In Australia, the Jacobean style found favour as did the Queen Anne style furniture with its cabriole legs affecting the design of even kitchen fittings such as stoves and refrigerators. However, it was the Jacobean style that most suited the bungalow; sideboards, round tables, settees and chairs all being available in the style and often finished in a dark stain with a flat finish. 76 This did not exclude passing furnishing fashions which eventually introduced the ubiquitous well-stuffed lounge chairs of the 1930s. Examples such as Ackmans Ltd's damask-covered 'Valencia Suite' had a vastly different character to the Mission style furniture, yet nevertheless shared living rooms with them.


BUNGALOW GARDENS

American Prototypes Saylor's comprehensive book on the American Bungalow had a short chapter on planting which provides a guide for true American Bungalow gardening. However, as with his approach to the buildings themselves, his view of the bungalow garden was that it was by necessity a temporary one. Too often the bungalow or temporary summer house is never given a setting of flowers, vines and shrubs that would make it seem at home on its site. The owner excuses his neglect of planting by reason of the fact that he goes out to the summer house as late as June, when it seems hardly worthwhile planting anything . . . The solution of this problem lies in fall [Autumn] planting — the best season of the year to set out most of the hardy perennials, shrubs and bulbs. Once planted, the majority of these need no further attention, with the exception of dividing clumps when these grow too large.1

His answer to gaining quick results in hitherto neglected gardens was to plant gladioli bulbs, petunias, snapdragons, verbenas and Japanese anemones — all calculated to give colour instantly and in the succeeding months of the year to come. Blending the house with its setting was Saylor's aim and to that end he prescribed cover-all vines on trellis attached to verandahs, across window bays and along balustrades. A Japanese favourite was the Kudzu vine, 2 also Boston and English ivy and Virginia Creeper. Flowering shrubs for the garden's long-term future included Golden Bells' (Forsythia suspensa 'Fortunei' or Forsythia suspensa), the German Iris,' peonies, hydrangeas, chrysanthemums, a row of hollyhocks ('nodding in at the window'), dahlias ('unquestionably the reigning flower of September') 5 and Van Houtte's spirea. 6 His selection was based on attaining one flowering burst for each month of the year from each of his choices, each alone and blazing on the garden stage. For the 'temporary' home, flower boxes were an easier alternative.

128


Saylor's book on American bungalows s emphasises th he integrattion of the hous se into its land dscape setting , even to the point of cov vering the walls s with vines. In tu urn, the gard den's hard lan dscape eleme ents reflected those o f the house: sttone bed edgin ng follows the use u of stone e in the chimne eys or walls. (Sa aylor, Bungalow ws, 1911) Hydra angeas in an Am merican bung alow garden around a the tu urn of the centurry, and still lov vely in today's bungalow garde ens.

The a availability of reticulated water in suburrban gardens mean nt greater plantin ng freedo om. (The Home e, 1926))

If there waas a philosop hy to bungallow planting above any o other type off house in n that era, itt was for infformal (like the houses themselves) , self-maint aining a nd instant flowering f g ardens. In addition a to this was th e p re sumed d rur al s ett i ng and the t desire t o b l e nd t he bun g a l o w wit w h it s surrroundings.


Order in the Gaarden The Auustralian garrden experieence was diifferent. Th e mass of bungalow b gardeni ng was donee in the sub urbs and revvolved aroun nd public an nd private open sp pace. The public p space , between th he house an nd the road,, was the showpieece. Far from m being info rmal and ovver-grown, it reflected th e owner's tidiness and diligencce. The garde ner was alwaays there to teend it and haad none of Saylor's excuses e for tarrdiness, unlike with the summ mer bungalow w. In 19924 a corresp pondent to The T Garden wro ote: 'There iss at present a growing feeling among gardeeners that th he reaction against a form ality in gard ening has reached its limit . . . the artistic c riterion of a garden is som mething higheer than its naturaln ness.' Part off this new ord der was the in ntroduction o of architecturral garden elementts. Those wh ho created th hem were a new n breed caalled 'garden architects'. Pergolas, trellis, arbouurs (seats shad ded with climb bers or trees) aand summerh houses all had a place p in forrmalising thee bungalow garden wheether small or large. Garden n paving, forr example, could c no lon nger be simp ply accidentallly 'rustic'. It must be designed. If moss was to soften ston ne edgings, itt must be put there, not merely wished w for. I f rose beds were w to be crreated, so too o must paved d walks to accomp any them. Arrtistic formallity, yes, but never heavy--handed. Bed design d in sm mall gardens tested t any Eddwardian garrdener's gardening and culinaryy skills. So itt seemed to the garden columnist c 'Baarberry' writiing in The Australiaan Home Gardeener in 1924, likening l Edw wardian frontt-lawn effortts to those achievedd by pastry cooks. c Diamo onds, hearts and a circles w were carved out o of the preciou s lawns in an n effort to imp press, but to no avail for B Barberry who o despised the fashion of assemb bling well-kno own standard tea roses on eeither side of an equally disliked serpentine grravelled path. This typicallly wound its w way from the front gate to the door d where a straight brrick-paved paath, with perrgola overhead d, was the obvious answer. Inste ad of a merre grouping of o cultivatedd cliches aro ound a lawn, Barberry recomm mended ther e be a totall concept, o ne that suit ed its site above a all. 'Foundaation plantingg' created th he backdrop or garden peerimeter, com mprising a 'liberal sp prinkling of evvergreen shrub bs of good shap pe and substan nce, intermixed

A Above: Edna W a l l in g d ecr ied the dis ssolute display of o s standard roses along the S S-curve to the front door. Her a alternative front garden plan s shows a more straightforward s a approach covered by a pergola a a and flanked by good g 'foundation n' p planting of everg green shrubs s sprinkled with flo owering shrubs. w while climbers at a the house h helped blend itt with the g garden. (The Home Ho Gardener, N November 1924 4)

R Right: A large bungalow b g garden of the 1920s o overlooking the Darebin Creek, A Alphington, Victo oria. Its in n-ground pool, pergola–cabana a and pergola sha ade pavilion reflected the late est American trrends


Cane and sea-grass furnishings allude to colonial times in India. aided by the palm in the background. Deck and directors chairs, using striped canvas, were also emerging in garden furniture fashions. (Australian

Home Beautiful, D e c e m b e r 1926)

with flowering shrubs not too brilliant in hue . .'. Creepers and low shrubs around the base of the house united it with the garden. The garden could even penetrate indoors by use of fragrant shrubs under windows (e.g. Winter-sweet or the All-spice bush).

The Hedge An essential part of this backdrop was the cypress hedge, especially it a low stone wall was built at its base to mask any untidy connection with the ground and a wire fence provided security while it established. The secret to a 'splendid hedge' lay in cutting or pinching back new growth on the front and back side of the hedge to a uniform 600 mm thickness from the main stem. Authorities recommended that the hedge be grown to about 150 mm over t h e t a r g e t h e i g h t a n d c u t b a c k 3 0 0 m m f o r g r o w t h t o i t s f i n a l h e i g h t (i.e. 2100 mm), guaranteeing a smooth profile. Plants should be placed

The typical urban bungalow garden: wire fabric fencing and gates, privet hedges, pergola entry, and concrete 'wheel tracks' leading to the garage.


Rig ght and below: An nother typical urban bungalow garrden, with a fine cypress hedge and a perrgola entry. Beyon nd the hedge arch hway an S-curve path me eanders to the fron nt porch. The wire e fabric fence is probably p embedded in the he edge.


15500 mm ap art, requirin ng around 1 0 plants forr a typical suburban frrontage. ` W h e n t h e h e d g e i s g r o w n y o u w i l l h a v e a b o u n d a r y t h a t w i l l c l a i m ap ppreciative glan nces …’. There was also the prrivet, the sm mall-leaf everrgreen type. Barberry th hought that any a nurserym man who couuld maintain stocks of th is species w would quicklyy make his fortune. f Ano other commo on backdrop p was the om mnipresent 1500 1 mm-hig h paling fencce. Like any other o elementt it was to b e covered in plants, and required at leeast a trellis along a its top to carry a crreeper, perhap ps Honeysuckkle. Hedges to o screen hen enclosures e or vegetable gaardens could be a combinaation of old faavourites; fo or example, a trellised cllimbing rosee could span between uprrights while a Rosemary heedge could taake care of the t ground-leevel. Even th he now much h-maligned H Hawthorn (w white, pink orr scarlet) couuld be left uncclipped or clip pped, informall or formal — but only in the t larger gardeen. Despite rosse authority Jules Rossi'ss distaste forr front hedgges which co oncealed gardden art, Cuprressus 'Lamberrtiana-horizonntalis' (35s peer dozen), G Golden Cypreess, Coprosma (Mirror Bush h), Tecoma cappensis and Durranta ellisia (aacclaimed as a 'splendid heddge plant') weere all much in i demand, allbeit more so o in larger or rural gardenss. 8 Lasscock of o South Aus tralia sold theese highly deesirable and necessary n hedgge plants.

P Paving The car intro duced subtleeties to 19200s garden deesign. Car traacks (and T p aths) were trraditionally suurfaced with gravel and always a had grrass strips eiither side of th he wheel traccks (now a lo ost art). Ednaa Walling's allternative w the use o f brick pavin was ng — two b ricks width for each tra ck. Brick p aths, prefer ably formedd from clink er bricks sett in sand, co onstituted 'eeasily one off the most attractive a maaterials for the t making o of garden 9 p aths'. Baskeet or herringgbone patterrns were thee answer to charming p aths and 'br ick walls' (b bricks laid on n their sides ) were thougght to be d efinitely nott in characteer. Joints weere better saand-filled thaan cement po ointed becausse mossy join nts added charrm and the lo ook of old age.. Alternativeely, if somew where in the garden g theree was an iris ((English, Jaapanese or Spanish) garden, sto one-flagged paths werre more ap ppropriate. Particularly P iff the stone maatched the greey-toned leaf o of the iris. P aving also waas to have low w retaining waalls, built of rough r stone w work with drry joints, wheere 'suitable alp pines' could grrow to soften the effect.

P Pergolas The bun ngalow era introd duced random m or flag stone pa aving (crazy p paving), preferably of local stone, to o many suburba an front yards. W With its axial ge eometry this plan n reflects the dev veloping Italian garden trend . Edna Walling promoted irregu ular pattern ns for both briick and stone p paths.

Another gardden writer, styled as 'Walltyne' 10 noted the 'pergola A ep pidemic', bo th among weealthy garden ners and thosse 'less well n nourished o f purse,' such h that 'pergo ola-ising' garrdens had beecome a clich hé by the m mid-1920s. T Their creato ors had fo rgotten thee 'dignity, aand true siimplicity' of earlier perggola design. A pergola s hould functi on as a coverred way and not n stand mi d-lawn as a monument. 'But in thos e rare instan nces where th he innate meeaning of th he pergola witth its creeper-ttwined pillars has h been preseerved, you will find


One range of 'standardised' garages. Others followed the house design and materials, using horizontally sliding door panels with glazed top panels.

(Australian Home Beautiful, March 1929)

inspiration, dignity, and true simplicity.' 1 1 Natural, not sawn timber was more appropriate to the pergola's origins. Wisteria, Clematis montana and climbing roses, especially Souvenir De Leonie Viennot, Sinica Anemone, American Pillar, should be used to cover its frame. 12


Above: A pergola p porch with w stout column ns and climbing g rose.

Left: A perg gola entry to a la arge bungalow, more common nly seen as a pergola p porch or o verandah acrross the front of a suburban bungalow. (Au ustralian Home e Builder, Marc ch 1925)

Flowers in the Bun ngalow Garrden Flowers su ch as cineraarias, cyclam mens, gladiollus, pansies,, Iceland po oppies, violas, prrimulas, frreesias, agaapanthuses, stocks, peonies, lupins, l chrysanthem mums, sweeet Williamss, poppies, sweet peaas, wall fl owers, dianthuses, calliopsis, cornflowers , camellias, carnations and dahlias,, were favoured byy 1920s garden ners. Such waas the popularrity of many o of these annuaals that plant -neediing was at a zenith. z New, bigger and better b varietiies were con stantly being introdduced. In 19 26 there werre about 60 different d var ieties of sweeet vas, 20 differentt Californian poppies, 17 varieties of hollyhocks, h 229 different pansies p and some 577 different nassturtiums, to mention m but a few of the a nnuals n voguue. The majority of these t varietiess are no longeer available viia nurseries o or seed merchaants. In the bush h houses weree palms, aspidiistras, azaleas,, begonias, ferrns (stag and elk) e and adiantums. Herbaceous H perrennials, eitherr in borders orr in flower bedds, maintained d some 13 lasting charaacter to the gaarden with th he coming andd going of ann nuals, while phlox, shasta daisiees and perennial a ster and sun nflowers (i.ee. Star of Bethlehem), B delphiniumss were also po opular. The yeearly task of dividing d the m more rampan nt types (i.e. asters) to halt their takeover of the t garden was w almost legeendary.


This bungalow in T n Brighton, V Victoria, uses qu uartz pebbles e extensively, inclu uding around a f fish pond and on the birdbath. C Concrete edging g also appears to t b original. The Garden be G Furniture e S Supply Co. supp plied sun dials, b birdbaths, lawn seats, flower t tubs, window bo oxes and pergola c columns.

Gladioli was anotther popular G flo ower for the 192 20s.

The rosee Pergolas,, trellis and the ubiquittous climbin g rose, as a combinatio on, could enhance the appeara nce of mostt rudimentar y outbuildin ngs. The bed ds of tall, staked staandard roses,, with daphnee, petunia or bouvardia, fo ormed the typ pical axes of a 19200s suburban garden. g To 'B Barberry's' diislike, they sttood either s ide of the main patthway or fo rmed part of o some gran nder design. 14 Perhaps the most impressivve illustration n of this stylee was B. V. Rossi's R Ivanh hoe nursery, Roseland, R with its teeahouse-like villa v set in a forest f of hybrrid roses, each h bed reached by asphalt pathways with w timber eddging. The ro ose was the Queen of flowers f and Rossi was t he King of roses, as demonstrrated by his many m books on o the subjecct. 15 His adveertising assurred us that he had 25 000 roses in bloom, b includin ng the 'World's Latest Produuctions'.


Above e: Dahlias and roses r were the tw wo most popularr bungalow flowerrs for pathway planting. p

Right: The tea rose was w

param mount in bungalo ow front garden ns, often as a he edge to fences s or pathways. It was also useful for rear gardens s and was comm monly grown over trellis or arbors s. (The Home Gardener, G May 1927) Prize e-winning roses for 1927 wer e ( 1) 'Ma man Co C ch et ' (Rossi)); (2) 'Ophelia' (Mc cIntosh): (3) 'Madame Abel Chaten nay' (Sweettman); (4) 'Lady Plymount' (Stewa art); and (5) 'Duch hess of Portlan nd' (Stewart).

The rose was the flower of the 1920s, itss popularity evvidenced by tthe numerouss T n `sports' an new nnounced in garden g journalss every month from all over Australia. Hybrid teaa roses becam me possible a fter Guillot'ss 'La France' of 1865, butt o only gained momentum m in n the 1890s. In I 1900 theree was the new w hybrid classs ' 'Pernetiana', w which gave new n colours (yyellow, orangge, copper) to o rose bloomss a excited another and a fieldd of hybridizaation. Nine years y later th here were thee P Polyantha rosses. Hybrids in i Australia in ncluded the impressive i an nd vast Sunnyy S South (c19199) rose. The main m hybrid bush b rose sup ppliers of thee 1920s weree W Walters & So ons in Melbo ourne, Jules Rossi in Ivaanhoe, Victo oria, Kemp'ss N Nurseries in Unley, U SA, and Lasscock's in Lockleys, Souuth Australia. Rossi cons idered the beest Australian roses of the 1920s 1 were L ady Fairbairn n ( (1928), Goldeen Dawn (19228) and Coun ntess of Stradb broke (1928),, the first and d l last of which h were producced by the Viictorian, Alisster Clark. Cllark bred and d r released many roses during this t period and d by 1942, no fewer f than 1388 of the


B. V. Rossi's Roseland (Ivanhoe, Victoria) rose farm in Spring —25,000 roses surrounding a Federation bungalow. Both bungalow and roses have since disappeared. Jules V. Rossi was the other arm of the business, winning with the Best 18 Roses in the National Rose Society of Victoria's Autumn Show, 1924. (The Home Gardener, April 1924)

available roses were credited to the Clark name. Often as not he presented a new seedling to a local rose society so that budded plants could be sold and all profit went back to that particular society. Some of his most famous roses in this period were Lorraine Lee, Jessie Clark, Sunny South and Black Boy. Clark's roses, which include the archetypal Sunny South, are still grown today by Ross Roses in Willunga, South Australia, and at Bleak House in Malmsbury, Victoria. The Argus's top twelve roses for 1924 were: Madame Abel Chatenay, Golden Emblem, General MacArthur, Chateau De Clos Vougeot, Frau Karl Druschki, Madame Edouard Herriot (Daily Mail ÂŁ1000 prize winner), Mrs Bryce Allen, Mrs Herbert Stevens, Red Letter Day, Sunny South, Ophelia and Lady Hillingdon.16 Rossi recommended bold, simple yet ordered garden layouts to best show roses, with beds following pathways. He thought, as did other writers, that if the front gate was opposite the front door, a straight pathway should link them. On either side, he advised planting three-quarter or half rose standards, or bush roses of assorted colours. 'But don't torture the path with forced curves' . . . as was common in Edwardian gardens (and still present in the bungalow era). Rossi believed curved paths could work in larger gardens, but their success depended on having natural serpentine curves rather than 'wriggles'. Wriggles were strictly the 'work of worms' and usually resulted from an attempt to take a potentially straight path through a series of bends, simply for effect.


A typical bungalow front garden in a provincial city, set out in rectangular beds with crushed rock pathways. The centrepiece is the Japanese Crepe Myrtle, highlighting the bungalow's Asian origins.

The Home Beautiful, a bungalow in its garden with golden hollyhocks as one recognisable flower among the many.


Local gardening magazines, like their architectural equivalents, blossomed after World War I, with better photographs and cheaper colour reproduction helping to sell more copies.

'Lorraine Lee' was one of Alister Clark's most prized hybrid tea roses. Created in 1924, it was vigorous, branching and fairly upright. Tea scented and semi-durable, it was a fine garden variety, especially good in winter. The hybrid tea rose proliferated in bungalow gardens, along front fences and around winding pathways.


Above:: A rustic rose pergola picture ed in The Home e Garden ner in 1926.

Above right: Alister Clark (1864 1949), another king g of the rose. At A his property, 'Glenara', Clark created c a vast nursery n for the pro opagation of ro oses and daffodils. He was a fo oundation er of the Natio onal Rose membe Society y of Victoria (1900—) and becam me its president.. His rose hybrids s, 'Lorraine Le ee', 'Black Boy', 'S Sunny South' an nd 'Nancy Haywarrd' were popu ular both nationa ally and overse eas where he won n awards for roses r and daffodils.

s very popular 'S Sunny Clark's South'' rose, probably y viewed throug gh B. V. Rossi's bungalow window. (Rossi, Mode dern Roses)


Neveertheless, Rossi's plan for a typical subuurban 50 feet frontage would have an entranc e to one sidee, allowing a gently g curvedd walk to the door. On eitther side of this pat h, oval or rouund rose bed s filled the laawn without ccrowding it. While W along the fron nt fence, Orleeans style Po olyantha rose s, at about 5550 mm spacin ng, formed the bes t hedge. Thee pick of thiss group were Edith Cavelll (1917), Frrank Leddy (1927),, Ideal (19222), Locarno (1926) and Orange Perrfection (1928). The best flower beds should d be clearly visible from m the housee, glimpsed through h windows or from fro ont verandah hs, so thougght Rossi. Also, A front boundaary hedges orr high fence s should nott obstruct th he public vieew into the garden. Let everyon e enjoy your garden (or `gglorious rosees'). Privacy could c always be had at a the back. Lightt trellis with climbing c rosess or, less com monly, a divi ding hedge (o of tall Sunny South or Lorraine Lee roses) could d act as a side fence to dividde the private rear garden from th he public fron nt. A garden a rch over the entrance e path h in the front garden was enough to show off roses withou t the design fussiness f whi ch often provved so hard to main ntain. Red-gum m or jarrah posts p (100 X 100 mm or 1 50 X 75 mm)) 1.8 metres high witth galvanizedd or stainless steel s wire straands was the m minimum trelliis needed for the rose..

Window w Boxes Window w or porch boxes b were popular and s temmed from m the temporary garden conceptt surroundin ng the earliesst bungalowss. Small or llarge, they demanded d a well-dr ained rot-reesistant timb ber such as Oregon orr Western Red R Cedar, paintedd both sides.. Bark nailed d to the outtside of thesse boxes len nt a 'rustic' appearaance to som e. The moree durable terrracotta and concrete po orch boxes needed special suppo ort for windo ow locations, but b were indeestructible. Window W box plants included p ansies, Bosston fern a nd ivy for shade, and d virtually everyth hing for sunn ny locations, including g eraniums, peetunias, phlo ox, verbena, salvia, lo obelia, cannas, nasturtiums an nd snapdragon ns.

Porch planterr boxes were usually of mas sonry but were also built of tim mber following the tradition set s by the early American bungalows which were considered 'temporary', y, homes that mainly holiday required portable planting


Trees Writing in the late 1920s, the yet to be famous writer and garden theorist Edna Walling deplored the treeless state of many small gardens. A tree or two could lift 'quite commonplace gardens out of their state of mediocrity into the realm of the beautiful.' But each tree in its place. For instance, the blazing western sun was always very trying in summer but a row of Golden Poplars (Populus canadensis — not as large as the Lombardy and Silver varieties) easily coped with the problem. The Persian Plum (Prunus cerasifera 'Pissardii ) provided similar solar shelter and looked a treat set behind a bed of delphiniums. Edna illustrated such a bed, elevated above a battered, random stone apron. Cramped conditions suggested flowering trees to give both colour and a three-dimensional feel to the small garden. As Edna Walling wrote (in April), her Crepe Myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) had just finished flowering but still looked 'very charming', its pink flowers aptly reminiscent of crepe. The Crepe Myrtle is a beautiful tree, both with and without leaves. Perhaps the most telling thing about it is its origin: India. Its tortured branches and delicate red blossom evoke the very origins of the bungalow and perhaps it is no accident that it was a favoured specimen tree in bungalow gardens (along with the cotoneasters, date palms and tree privets). Virgilia capensis was a far less decorative but nevertheless very fast growing and effective camouflage tree for disguising sheds or creating shade. Edna Walling's favourite flowering tree was the purple-leafed Crab Apple (Pyres purpurea), which she described as 'beautiful for four seasons in the year. It bears the most exquisite rose-pink blossoms in clusters in spring, followed by foliage that is a wonderfully clean bronze-green with red tips to the young growth, and in late summer it is covered with the most fascinating little crab apples, which can be used for making jelly. What is more, it grows, amazingly!' Of the flowering plums (also popular as street trees), the pink-flowering plum (Prunus duiriana) and Prunus `Moseri' both have impressive foliage, while for indoor decoration, the pink blossom of Prunus cerasifera 'Pissardii' is unsurpassed.

Native Plants Among the native garden plants commonly seen in bungalow gardens were correas, grevilleas, templetonias, pultenaeas, eutaxias, acacias and boronias (supplied in Victoria by Enid Nurseries, Ivanhoe, now gone). The West Australian Wax Flower (Chamelaucium ciliatum) was among the most beautiful of western natives and equal to many imported favourites. Sugar gums were already popular in larger gardens and Western Australian flowering gums, including E. macrocarpa, E. torquata, E. miniata and the much favoured dwarf crimson flowering gum (E. erythronema), were also beginning to make their mark. Nothing more interesting can be imagined than the raising of these beautiful flowering gums from seed. They are little more than shrubs, and will not crowd out other subjects in the garden.


Ed dna Walling's design for a ty pical small 19 20s suburban fro ont yard or cotta age garden with crrazy paving. This s plan included a pe ergola to screen the garage wall fro om the house, climbing c roses, ' f r a g r a n t ' b o x w o o d hedge, an nd the 'little plants' so o important in so oftening the hard d paved edges. Sh he suggested Th hymus pancifolia a, Se erphyllum and Oritida O on edgings, an nd R o s ma r inu u s pr o str a tu s f o r ground cover near pathways.. 'Order is very nece essary in the co ottage garden but b do not let the e de esire for it so rule e you that a se ense of tangle ed mystery is uttterly destroyed.' (Australian ( Hom me Be eautiful, March 1929) Ed dna Walling's scheme s for a 19 920s villa garde en, again using crrazy paving in a geometric but infformal pattern. Not for her the 'pa astry cook's art' a of carefully arrranged bedding g and borders. Th his plan accom mmodates the ga arage at the re ear of the site, following crazy--paved tracks (sttone or brick) fro om the fro ontage. A few sh hade trees, ev vergreen and flow wering shrubs, a lon ng pergola and a sundial were so ome of the essen ntials in such a ga arden. (Australian an Home Be eautiful, March 1929)


Eucalyptus torquata (Coolgardie Gum) grows from 4 to 7 metres high, E. erythronema from 5 to 7 metres, and E. miniata from 5 to 8 metres, indicating some misconceptions in tree size by the retailer, Walters & Sons, of Melbourne. The scarlet gum (E. ficifolia) was then, as now, the most popular flowering gum, whether planted as street avenues or as single specimens in private gardens. Emphasis with natives was always on their similarity with plants from the old country. Hence the gleaming white trunk of the lemon-scented gum would parallel with that of a silver birch and both could be features or specimens in the garden.


R REST TOR RAT TION N MATE M ERIIALS S &

The e following supplierss have bee en listed in various trrade dire ectories as specializzing in som me form of building resstoration services or pplies. The list is not a sup com mprehensive one, no or does the e author necessarily rec commend any of the e pro oducts or suppliers listed.

Ba ath, basin resurfac cing —— ————————— —— NS SW Nu--pride Bath Resurfac cinc 448 8 Botany Rd. Alexand dria (02 2) 698 4000 Ultrraglaze 700 0 Young St, Albury (06 60) 21 2836 Qld d Perrmalustre Bath Ressurfacing 2E Elizabeth St. Paddington (07 7) 848 1839 SA Ren new-A-Tub 12 Lorinya Rd, Salisburry Park 8) 281 0966 (08 The ermo-Glaze Bath Ressurfacing (SA) Gre eenhill Rd. Eastwood d (08 8) 378 2721 Ultimate Bath & Tile Resstorations 11 Tench Crt. Golden Grove G (018) 83 0042 Tass. The ermo-Glaze Bath Ressurfacing 79 Balook St. Lauderd dale (00 02) 48 6527 Vic c. The ermo-Glaze Bath Ressurfacing 397 7 Camberwell Rd. Camberwell 3)882 5581 (03 WA A The e Bath Doctor 37 Milson St, South Pe erth (09 9) 367 8803

SU UPP PLIE ERS

Bathroo om fittings ———— ———————— NSW e Industries Brodware St Jamess PI, Seven Hills (02) 838 8200 Country Floors 28 Moncu ur St. Woollahra (02) 326 2444 Reece Au ustralia 2 Barney St, Parramatta North h (02) 630 7733 The Rend ditions Corporatior 112 Pyrm mont Bridge Rd. Camperdown (02) 516 4066 Sydney Antique A Centre 531 Soutth Dowling St, Surry Hillls (02) 361 3244 3 Qld Country Floors works Rd, Red Hill 32 Waterw (07) 369 4025 Reece 19 Lathe St. Virginia 1 (07) 265 1100 SA H & Lighting g Colonial Hardware Co. 278 Unle ey Rd. Hyde Park (08) 271 3342 3 Tas. Bathroom ms Revived 10 Dodso on St, Rosetta (002) 72 7848 athroom Centre Hobart Ba 40 Brisba ane St, Hobart (002) 34 7022 Hot & Co old 188 New Town Rd, New Tc (002) 28 6240 6 Vic. Agnew's Architectural A Antiques 376 Swan St. Richmond (03) 427 1588 Classy Re estoration Hardware e 374 Pasc coe Vale Rd, North Essendo on (03) 374 2978

Country Floorss 1256 High St, Armadale A (03) 509 9688 Hawthorn Show wer Screens Church St. Haw wthorn (03) 853 0053 Knobs & Knoc ckers 736 Hampton St, S Brighton (03) 592 6630 Reece Australia H 118 Burwood Highway. Burwood (03) 808 0988 Timber Bathroo om Centre 405 Swan St. Richm mond (03) 428 3622 Victorian & Edw wardian Shower Screen Reprod ductions 2A Bentley St, Surrey S Hills (03) 890 297 76 WA Federation Tile e Factory 1 Thorley St, East Perth (09) 227 7633

Blinds, shutte ers, drapes ——————— ————— NSW Authentic Deco oration 28 Murdoch St.. Cremorne (02) 953 2012 Lumeno W 14 Moncur St, Woollahra (02) 362 473 35 Qld John Thurlow & Sons 31 Frodsham St, S Albion (07) 262 244 44 Tas. Bon well Blindss 219 Main Rd, Moonah M (002) 72 0577 Window Decorr 70 Melville St, Hobart (002) 34 1077 Vic. Campbell & Johnson 139 elbourne Lonsdale St. Me (03) 663 2704

144

Gaydrapes G 61 Matthews Ave. Airp port W West (0 03) 338 9122 Lace Interiors ndon 291 Buckley St. Essen 03) 337 5120 (0 Lumeno ahran 513 High St. East Pra 03) 510 3765 WA A (0 C Cottage Decor 28 Frobisher St, Osbo orne P Park (0 09) 242 3052

B Brass & copper ware w — ————————— ———— NSW N A Architectural Metal Co olourers 25 Daphne St. Botany (02) 316 7645 A Australian Metallising S Services 44 Sydenham Rd, Bro ookvale (0 02) 938 4813 B Berczi Copper Co 25 Daphne St. Botany (02) 316 7645 Decorative Brass 2 Au D ustralia S Ca m p e r d o w n (02) St. ( 519 3937 R Restoration Centre 276 Devonshire St. Su urry Hills 02) 698 5511 (0 Q Qld R Recollections 136 Anderson St. Manuda 070) 53 1580 (0 44 Enoggera Terrace. Red H Hill (0 07) 368 2544 T Renovation Statio The on 280 B Brisbane St. West Ipsswich (0 07) 812 3400 S Sandgate Colonial Sh hoppe 4 K Knox St. Sandgate (0 07) 269 8033

SA al Hardware & Lighting Colonia Co. nley Rd, Hyde Park 278 Un (08) 271 3342 onal Charm Traditio 7 Mt Ba arker Rd. Stirling (08 8) 339 500 07 Tas. aditions (122) St John Fine Tra St. L a u n c e s t o n (003) 34 4 2040 Vic. Christopher & Alexander's K Rd, St Kilda 146 St Kilda (03) 534 1685 House of Design 62 Oakover Rd. Preston (03) 480 0353 House of Knobs 101 Union Rd. Surrey Hills (03) 898 4782 Recolle ections 550-554 4 North Rd. Ormond d (03) 5 78 8818 WA Brass Decor D 169 Stirrling Hwy, Nedlandss (09) 386 6 6057 Metal Decor D 10 Guth hrie St. Osborne Park (09) 244 3766 ections Quality Period d Recolle Produc cts 181 Stirrling Hwy. Nedlands (09) 386 5558

Buildin ng materials (secon ndhand) ———— — ————————— NSW Archite ectural Australiana 153 Canterbury St. Casino (066) 62 3573 Architectural Heritage be Point Rd, Glebe 62 Gleb (02) 6 60 0100 Qld. al Restoration Supplies Colonia 20 Curtin Ave. Hamilton (07) 268 2669


Full C Circle 25 Ca armel St. Garbutt (0 077) 75 7148 oration Station 98 Resto Waterrworks Rd. Ashgrovve (07) 3 366 5855 Sid's C Colonial Materials 282 2 Monta ague Rd. West End d (07) 8 846 4577 SA Centrral Demolitions 117 W Wingfield Rd, Wingfie (08) 3 347 4022 Federration Trading 127 W Waymouth St. Adela aide (08) 2 212 3400 Wayvville Demolitions 259 G Goodwood Rd, King gs Park (08) 3 373 0270 Tas. art Salvage Hoba 210 C Collins St. Hobart (002) 34 1864 Launc ceston Salvage Co. 3 Can nal St. Launceston (003) 34 2264 Salvag ge Building Materia al, 30 Oswa ald St. Invermay (00 03) 26 5849 T & S Recycled Materialss Matthews Way. Devonpo ort (004) 24 6741

Ceilin ngs, mouldings –––––––––—————— ——— NSW Arkleyy Fibrous Plaster cnr Reserrvoir St & Claremontt Ave, Green nacr (02) 7 790 2875 SA T W. IIngham & Sons 3 Lyons Pde, Forestville 371 1610 (08) 3 Norwo ood Fibrous Plaster Workss 25 Syydenham Rd, Norwo o (08) 3 362 4122 Ornam mental Plasterworkss 5 West Thebarton Rd. arton Theba (08) 3 354 0610 Vic. n Hopkins & Sons 140 1 Picton Bell S St. Preston (03) 4 484 5101 WA Chris Savage & Associattes 10 Collingwood St, Osborne Park 446 8099 (09) 4 Colon nial-Federation Ceiliir Prese ervers 125 G Glendower St. Perth (09) 3 328 7943 Subi C Ceilings 179 R Railway Rd. Subiaco o (09) 3 381 3460

Ceilin ngs (plaster) ——— ———————— ——— Greekk revival or Moderne e style mould dings are typical for ceiling gs.

NSW Arkley Fibrous Plaster cnr Reservoir St & nt Ave, Greenacre Claremon (02) 790 2875 E. A Baile ey & Sons 83-85 Boundarry Rd, Mortdale (02) 53 9326 9 Cooper Brothers B 381 Liverrpool Rd. Ashfield (02) 798 6191 6 Qld P Ceiling Panels 60 Love St, Bulimba (07) 399 3441 3 Tas. City Plasstering Service 13 Hayess St, Burnie (004) 31 2543 CSR Ltd Gyprock Group 25 R Derwent Park Howard Rd, (002) 72 6488 Gibson Plaster P 7 Manga ana St. Launceston (002) 39 1537 1 Vic. prock Group CSR Gyp 277 White ehall St, Yarraville (03) 688 7422 Hopkins Plaster Industries 17 Laity St, Richmond (03) 427 9966 Picton Ho opkins & Sons 140 Bell St. Preston P (03) 484 5101 F. Vitale & Sons n St. Essendon (03)) 88 Albion 375 4666 6

Ceilingss (pressed meta al)

———— ———————— NSW Wunderlite Panels nmore Rd. 202 Glen Paddington 4 Qld (02) 331 4545 Restoration Station 98 Waterrworks Rd, Ashgrovve (07) 366 5855 5 SA T. W Ingh ham & Sons 3 Lyons Pde, Forestville (08) 371 1610 Vic. que Garden The Antiq 278 Cantterbury Rd. Surrey Hills (03) 888 5347

Cleanin ng (steam, pressurre, chemical) ———— ————————— — To prevent surface damage e. abrasive blasting should no ot be used on b r i ck or st onew o rk . NSW Blast to Basics B 11 Mabel St. Georgetown (049) 47 6202 Brick. Bo oat & Building Blasters 2 Kotara a Place, Kotara (049 52 7211 7

aners & Building Clea Restorers S Warners Bay 18 Medcalf St, (049) 54 619 99 Historical Re estorations 86 Wooloow ware Rd, Cronulla (02) 527 453 36 State Facade Restorations D Dundas 54 Moffatts Drive, (02) 871 274 46 SA Essex Indusstrial Services 41 Sunbeam m Rd. Glynde (08) 365 1411 Tas. Paint Stripping 84 Hopkins St. Moonah (002) 28 637 76 Stripoff 2-10 Herberrt St, Invermay (003) 31 823 39 Tasprotect 9 Surveyors Dr, Derwent Park (002) 73 064 44 Vic. Complete Graffiti Removals on St, St Kilda 26 Wellingto (03) 526 690 09 Fitzroy Qualiity Stripping 147 St Georges Rd, R North Fitzroy (03) 489 408 89 Hydro-Blast Cleaning Co. 26 St Georges Rd. Norlane 81 (052) 75 288 Melbourne Paint P Strippers cnr Kingston & Junction J Rds, Surrey Hills (03) 830 477 73 WA Advanced Masonry M Preservation n 53 Anzac Tc ce, Bassendean (09) 279 733 36 Delvex Indusstrial Steam Cleaning W Jandakot 18 Lakes Way. (09) 417 171 17

Concrete castings c & mouldingss ————— ———————— SA m & Sons T W. Ingham 3 Lyons Pde e. Forestville (08) 371 1610 Vic. V Applied Pain nting Services 1546 Heathe erton Rd. Dandenong g (03) 791 883 37 Grecian Colu umns & Garden Requisites 39 Downard St. Braeside 42 (03) 580 024 Rietman & Co. C 347 Bay Rd, Cheltenham 00 (03) 555 450 F. Vitale & Sons S 88 Albion St, Essendon 66 (03) 375 466

Damp repairs & waterprooffing –————— ——————— For background information, consult article in Choice, Aprril 1984.

NSW Australian Tech--Dry Westmorland La ane, Glebe (02) 552 4645 Dampmaster 8 Bevin Ave, Fivve Dock (02) 712 3008 Drystat e St, 62-72 Lawrence Alexandria (02) 519 5077 Hunter Valley Waterproofing W 10 Callistemon Close, C Warabrook (049) 60 2280 T. A. Taylor & Son S 40 Robert St, Rozelle R (02) 810 6933 SA Adelaide Stone Restorations 32 Beaufort St, Woodville W Park (08) 45 9873 Drystat (SA) ach Rd, 203 Henley Bea Torrensville (08) 352 3533 Tech-Dry Salt Damp D Treatment 145 Franklin Stt, Adelaide (08) 414 5108 Tas. Antidamp aunceston 54 Tamar St, La (003) 34 3620 Associated Buillding Services 25 Lefroy St, No orth Hobart (002) 34 9973 G. D. & I. N. Coombe C 123 Fehres Rd, Margate (002) 67 2794 Vic. Australian Damp p-Proofing 28 Foote St, Alberrt Park (2) 699 1159 Australian Tech--Dry 179 Moray St, South h Melbourne (03) 699 8202 Drystat (Vic.) 203 Victoria St, Northcote (03) 489 4322 Foster Sturroc ck 17 Yarra PI, South Melbourn ne (03) 696 1620 WA Access Building g Maintenance 12 Maroog Wayy, Nollamara (09) 344 3134 Advanced Maso onry Preservation B 53 Anzac Tce, Bassendean (09) 279 7336 Dampguard 11 Phillimore St, Fremantle (09) 335 4053

Doors & fittings –—————— —————— NSW Architectural Heritage R Glebe (02) 62 Glebe Point Rd, 660 0100; aitland (049) 282 High St, Ma 34 5288

Bowles Joinery 6 65 Barry Ave, Morttdale 0 02 53 7620 Efco Manufacturing g 108 Princes Highway, Arncliffe A (02) 597 6600 Hornsby Joinery 9 Kelray Place, Assquith (02) 476 1577 Qld A Allkind Joinery & Glass G 594 Rode Rd, Chermside (07) 3 359 3025 erials 282 Sid's Colonial Mate Montague Rd, Wesst End (07) 846 4577 T Traditionals 6 606 Sherwood Rd. Sherwood (07) 379 5600 A Woodworkers Jo oinery Shop c cnr Baldock & Evesham Sts, Moorooka (07) 848 1383 T Tas. Finer Details of Resstoration 2 282A Argyle St, North Hobart (002) 31 2377 V Vic. A Agnew's Architectu ural A Antiques 376 Swan St, Rich 3 hmond (03) 427 1588 Early Kooka Joinery 2 20 London Dr., Ba ayswater (03) 761 1288 Exclusive Hardwarre 1348 Malvern Rd, Malvern M (03) 822 5732 House of Knobs 101 Union Rd, Surrrey Hills (03) 898 4782 Knobbery adale (03) 1014 High St, Arma 5 509 7374 Knobs & Knockerss 736 Hampton St, Brighton B (03) 592 6630 oinery) 62 Provans Timber (Jo A Alexandra Parade. Clifton Hill (03) 489 8255

Fences & gates (supplies, construction) — ———————— ————— V Vic. A Ashwood Timber Gates G 3 Azalea St, Vermon nt (03) 874 4 4212 T The Better Letterbo ox Co 354 Reserve Rd, Chelte enham (03) 583 1155 oor Co. 9 Colonial Screen Do Stanswell St, Kew (03) 818 2954 ckets Old Melbourne Pic 12 Progress St, Mo ornington (059) 75 6494 Perry Bird Pickets 3 389 Victoria St, Bru unswick (03) 387 8422


STY Building Sup S pplies 3 Station St. Boxx Hill 395 (0 03) 890 0737 V Victree Timber Produ ucts 188 Blackshaws Rd d, A Altona North (0 03) 392 5400

Fences & gates F (w wire)

— ———————— Qld Q R Restoration Station 9 Waterworks Rd 98 d. A Ashgrove (0 07) 366 5855 T Tas. F Fence City 6 South Arm Rd. 65 R Rokeby (0 002) 47 8677 P Pride Fencing 3 Channel Hwy, Ke ettering (0 002) 67 4861 Smorgon Fencing S R Remount Rd. Mowb bray (0 008) 26 6998 Vic. V D Dercon Security Fen ncing 4 49/22 Dunn Cres D Dandenong (0 03) 792 9142 E Emu Fencing Co 2 Wheatsheaf St. Ce eres (0 052) 49 1203 McLure Garden & Fencing M P Products 2 Grange Rd. Thornbury 218 (0 03) 499 7625 P Period Details 5 Burwood Rd. 538 H Hawthorn (0 03) 819 6080

F Fireplaces & fittin ng — ———————— ——— N NSW Architectural Heritag A ge 6 Glebe Point Rd. 62 G Glebe (0 02) 660 0100 2 High St. Maitlan 282 nd (0 049) 34 5288 B Balgowlah Restorations 3 375-377 Sydney Rd d. B Balgowlah (0 02) 949 6266 G Log Fires Gas B 580. Narrabeen Box n (0 02) 913 1184 R Flame Gas Log Real g Fire! 375 Sydney Rd. B Balgowlah (0 02) 949 6266 Q Qld R Restoration Station 9 Waterworks Rd. 98 A Ashgrove (0 07) 366 5855 S SA F Federation Trading 127 Waymouth St. A Adelaide (0 08) 212 3400

Vic. A Garden The Antique 378 Mt M Alexander Rd. Asco ot Vale (03) 370 8409 C St. South 438 Chapel Yarra a (03) 827 7701: C Rd. Surrey 278 Canterbury Hills (03) 888 5347 Exclu usive Hardware 1348 8 Malvern Rd. Malvvern (03) 822 5732 Full Circle C 59 Church St. Hawthorn n (03) 818 1474 Housse of Gas Log Firres 20 Motherwell M St. Sou uth Yarra a (03) 826 9391 bs & Knockers Knob 736 Hampton H St. Brighton (03) 592 6630 Lasting Impressions 593 Burwood B Rd. Hawth horn (03) 819 1170 Real Flame Log Fires 282 Canterbury C Rd. Surrey Hills (03) 836 8 1472 WA Chriss Savage & Asso ociates 10 Collingwood St. orne Park Osbo (09) 446 8099 Deco or Gas Log Fires 6 O'M Malley St. Osborne Park (09) 446 6988

Floo or coverings NSW W Craw w Son & Lyall 27 Dale D St. Brookvale (02) 905 9 1521 Vic. J. G Bayliss & Son (Ausst ) am 74 Herald St. Cheltenha (03) 584 3877

Floo oring (Baltic pine e, hardwood) Vic. Dahlssens Building Centre Ring Rd. Wendouree (05 53) 38 13 333 Victre ee Tim6er Productss 188 Blackshaws B Rd. Alton na North (03) 392 5400

Floo oring (parquet) NSW W J Jam mes & Co. 539 Pacific P Highway. Artarrmon (02) 415 4 1137 Vic. Genu uine European Oak Parquetry K Rd. 352 Kooyong Caulfield (03).528 5145

Garden n furniture & fittings

———— ———————— NSW Reprodu uction Antique Garden Furniture 8 Tolland d CI. Wagg ga Wagga (069) 26 2090 Vic. The Antique Garden A Rd. 378 Mt Alexander Ascot Va ale (03) 370 0 8409 278 Canterbury Rd. Surrey Hills 8 5347 (03) 888 438 Cha apel St. South Yarra (03) 827 7 7701 Garden Trend 65 Blaze ey St. Richmond (03) 428 8 4284 Recollec ctions 550-554 North Rd. Ormonc c (031 578 8 8818

Gutterin ng & spoutin ng

———— ———— NSW T Helsbyy & Sons 642 Bourke St. Surry Hills (02) 318 1655 Tas. J Minty & Co 92 Argyle St. Hobart (002) 34 4194 WA e & Son H Rance 14 Howe e St. Osborne Park (09) 244 4 3066

Hardwa are ———— ————————— — NSW Lane Ha ardware 24 Colleg ge St. Gladesville (008) 22 2 4444 K R Luca as & Co 10 Northco ote St. St Leonards 6 2793 (02) 436 Magin's Lighting & Home Restorattion 493 Willo oughby Rd. Willough hby (02) 958 8 1766 The Resstoration Centre 276 Devo onshire St. Surry Hiills (02) 698 5511 Qld Colonial Hardware Co obe Terrace, 180 Latro Paddington (07) 369 9 3171 Heritage Hom Ipswich me Renovatiions & Hardwa are Suppliess 1A Dinmore St. Dinmore 2 5049 (07) 282 The Ren novation Station 280 Brisb bane St. West Ipswich (07) 812 3400 SA ng Colonial Hardware & Lightin Co ey Rd. Hyde Park 278 Unle (08) 271 3342

Tas. ers Hardware 43 Howard Silve Dry St. Launceston (003) 31 3837 Vic. ware Lane Hardw 286 Maroondah Hwy, Croydon 0 (1800) 334 080 A Lewis & Co C 302 Jasper Rd. R Ormond (03) 578 621 18 Provans Timber (Joinery) 62 Alexandra Pa arade. Clifton Hill 55 (03) 489 825 Recollection ns 550- 554 No orth Rd. Ormond (03) 578 8818 WA Colonial Harrdware Agencies 89 Avon Terrrace. York (096) 41 183 31 Stanco Brasss Hardware Co 30 Troode St. S West Perth (09) 322 699 93

House nam me-plates

————— ———————— NSW A. E Harradence & Co (82) May St. St Peters (0081 22 6052 6 Qld S The Brass Shop 194 Bounda ary Rd. Bardon ( 0 7 ) 3 6 9 7 1 7 9 Vic. Authentic Nameplates S Moonee 54 Lennox St. Ponds 07 (03) 370 280 Lasting Imp pressions 5 Rebecca Crt, C Oakleigh South 72 (03) 579 597

Insect scre eens

————— ———————— NSW Period Designs 87 Young Stt. Carrington (049) 69 3387 3 Vic. Campbell & Johnson 139 Lonsdale St. Melbourne 04 (03) 663 270 Colonial Scre een Door Co. 9 Stanswell Stt. Kew (03) 818 295 54 Victorian Scrreen Doors 103 Arden St. No orth Melbourne '03) 329 161 16

Interior perriod design ___________________ Vic. Art Investiga ations 1 Ellis Rd, Glen Iris (03) 509 1021 Paperhangings 22 Stirling Cr, Surrey Hills (03) 836 7315

St James Furnishings d. Hawthorn 142 Burwood Rd (03) 819 1569

Joinery

——————— —————— NSW E. Bailey Joineryy & Shop Fitting 68 Claremont Avve. Greenacre (02) 790 1740 Balmain Joinery (Aust.) S Rozelle 180 Mullens St. (02) 555 1620 Bowles Joinery 65 Barry Ave. Mo ortdale (02) 53 7620 Conlon Staircasses & Joinery d. 14 Langlands Rd Annangrove (02) 679 1727 Eastment Joinery 2 Porter St. Ryde (02) 808 3788 W S. Field Joine ery 47 Sydenham Rd. Brookvale (02) 905 1291 Hornsby Joinerry 9 Kelray Place. Asquith A (02) 476 1577 eriors 8 Kell & Rigby Inte Dunlop St, South Strathfield (02) 742 8888 Period Designss 87 Young St. Ca arrington (049) 69 3387 Roseville Joinery 23 Chapel St. Marrickville M (02) 519 8667 Qld Allkind Joinery & Glass 594 Rode Rd. Cherm mside (07) 359 3025 Duce Joinery 49 Brisbane Rd.. Brisbane (07) 282 1366 The Woodworkers Co E cnr Baldock & Evesham Sts, Moorooka (07) 848 1383 SA oinery Port Adelaide Jo Works 5 Alice St. Rose ewater (08) 47 2155 Tas. ets Custom Cabine 38 Feltham St, North N Hobart (002) 34 3595 ompson Drumm & Tho 145 Hopkins St. Moonah (002) 78 1146 Irvines Joinery 4 Letitia St. Norrth Hobart (002) 34 3626 Vic. arden The Antique Ga 14 Russell St. Brunswick B (03) 387 1815 Colonial Crafftsman 11-13 Queens Ave, Hawthorn (03) 819 3331


Early Kooka Joinery 20 London Dr., Bayswater (03) 761 1288 Grainstore Restorations 183 Fairy St. Warrnambool (055) 61 3885 The House of Fretworks 73 High St, Prahran (03) 529 5574 Perry Bird Pickets 389 Victoria St. Brunswick (03) 387 8422 Provans Timber (Joinery) 62 Alexandra Parade, Clifton Hill (03) 489 8255 WA Architectural Heritage Newcastle St. Perth (09) 227 1104

Light fittings NSW Architectural Heritage 282 High St. Maitland (049) 34 5288 Restoration Centre 276 Devonshire St. Surry Hills (02) 698 5511 Stevenson & Co 18-20 York St, Sydney (02) 233 8111 Qld The Colonial Hardware Co. 180 Latrobe Ice, Paddington (07) 369 3171 Recollections Quality Period Products 42 Enoggera Tce, Red Hill (07) 368 2544 Restoration Station 98 Waterworks Rd. Ashgrove (07) 366 5855 Townsville Restoration & Lighting 792 Flinders St. Townsville (077) 21 2431 SA Classic Electric Switch Co 33 Beulah Rd (rear). Norwood (7) 362 9408 Colonial Hardware & Lighting Co 278 Unley Rd. Hyde Park (08) 271 3342 Traditional Charm 7 Mt Barker Rd. Stirling (08) 339 5007 Tas. Fine Traditions 122 St John St. Launceston (003) 34 2040 Vic. Antique Decor 899 High St. Armadale (03) 509 7322 Antique Light Co. 511 Victoria St. Abbotsford (03) 428 3498 Recollections 550-554 North Rd. Ormond (03) 578 8818

WA Recollections Quality Period Products 181 Stirling Hwy. Nedlands (09) 386 5558

Linoleum NSW Forbo Australia 6 Rachel Close. Stiverwater (02) 648 4044 Old PR Floors 6-12 Barrinia St. Slacks Creek (07) 209 1022 Tas. R. A. Jones & Co. 9 Mowbray St. Mowbray (003) 26 3888 Vic. George Low of Melbourne 65 Jarrah Drive, Braeside (03) 587 4222 WA Florco 96 Hector St. Osborne Park (09) 244 1100

Louvres & shutters NSW Louvre Windows Australia Trading 198 Young St. Waterloo (008) 25 2483 Louvres & Shutters 34 Bearing Rd. Seven Hills (02) 674 6766 The Shuttery 25 Beaumont Rd, Mt Kuring-Gai (02) 457 9066 Qld John Thurlow & Sons 31 Frodsham St. Albion (07) 262 2444 The Timber Shutter Co Warehouse Rd. Southport (075) 91 3282 Vic. R & J Payne Timber Products 7c Elliot PI., Ringwood (03) 870 0694 Timber Blind & Shutter Gro 82 Ireland St. West Melbourne (03) 328 3464 WA Cedar-Blind 40 Meliador Way. Midvale (09) 274 6003

Marble & granite NSW Al Marble & Granite Services 35 Quirk St, Dee Why (02) 981 2470 SA Adelaide Marble Specialist: 1 Ware St, Thebarton (08) 352 2892 Marble & Granite Merchant of Australia 18 East St, Brompton (08) 346 3921

Tas. Dobsons Marble & Granite 72 Hopkins St, Moonah (002) 28 2302 Heritage Stone 9 Sunderland St. Moonah (002) 78 2004 Vic. J. B Heath 14 Farquharson St, Mt Waverley (03) 807 8578 WA Bernini Stone & Tiles 16 Forrest St, Subiaco (09) 388 1193 Exclusive Marble & Granite 33 Hector St. Osborne Park (09) 244 2284

Mouldings (timber) NSW Annandale Timber & Moulding Co. 21 Bennelong Rd, Homebush Bay (02) 648 5722 Chippendale Restorations 505 Balmain Rd. Lilyfield (02) 810 6066 The Federation Timber Moulding Co. 106 Beattie St, Balmain (02) 810 1234 Porta Mouldings 11 Durkin Pl., Peakhurst (02) 533 1311 Softwood Milling Co 106 Beattie St, Balmain (02) 810 1234 Qld Gill & Co 1421 Ipswich Rd. Rocklea (07) 277 1177 Watts Wood & Mouldings 81 Pentax St, Salisbury (7) 274 4299 SA Aardvark Timber Trading Co. 106 Frederick St. Welland (08) 346 4617 R G Moyle & Co 17 Cheltenham Pde, Cheltenham (08) 347 1677 Prestige Mouldings 3 Gurners Lane, Lonsdale (08) 326 3500 Vic. Classic Architraves & Skirting 18 Airlie Ave. Dandenong (03) 794 8525 A. Lewis & Co. 302 Jasper Rd. Ormond (03) 578 6218 O'Shea & Bennett Sales Wells Rd. Oakleigh (03) 568 5722 Porta (Vic.) 224-256 Heidelberg Rd. Fairfield (03) 481 6211 Provans Timber (Joinery) 62 Alexandra Parade, Clifton Hill (03) 489 8255

STY Building Supplies 395 Station St, Box Hill (03) 890 0737 Tait Timber & Hardware 15 Weir St, Glen Iris (03) 822 3381 WA Cedarclad 246 Fitzgerald St, Perth (09) 328 5777

Paint (black Japan) NSW Feast Watson & Co. 19 Hale St. Botany (02) 316 6444 Vic. Applied Painting Services 1546 Heatherton Rd. Dandenong (03) 791 8837 Manfax Paint Spot 166 Gertrude St. Fitzroy (03) 419 4166 Watsonia Feast Watson & Co 50 Church St. Beaumaris (03) 584 3098

Paint (cementitious) For upgrading cracked or discoloured cement render or stucco NSW Porters Original Lime Wash 895 Bourke St. Waterloo (02) 698 5322 Vic. Fosroc 272 Wickham Rd, Moorabbin (008) 33 1701

Paint (heritage) Consult the National Trust of Australia technical bulletins on period paint colours. or uncover old paint layers with steel wool or a sharp blade. NSW O'Brien Manufacturing 9 Hackett St. Ultimo (02) 211 2335 Feast Watson & Co. 19 Hale St. Botany (02) 316 6444 SA W P. Crowhurst 37 Belford Ave. Devon Park (08) 340 2400 Vic. Haymes Paint 25 Scott Parade. Ballarat (1800) 03 3431 Manfax Paint Spot 166 Gertrude St. Fitzroy (03) 419 4166

Restoration (general suppliers) NSW Antique Brass Co 47 Glebe Point Rd, Glebe (02) 660 1608 Architectural Australiana 153 Canterbury St. Casino (066) 62 3573

Country Image 132 William St. Bathurst (063) 32 1209 Hanks & Lindsay 230 Hammond Ave, Wagga Wagga (069) 21 3387 K. R. Lucas & Co. 10 Northcote St, St Leonards (02) 436 2793 Qld S. Cook.& Sons 16 Chippendall St, Milton (07) 369 5630 Traditional Signs O'Sullivan Rd. Ravensbourne (076) 97 8182 SA Ornamental Plasterworks 5 West Thebarton Rd, Thebarton (08) 354 0610 Tas. Finer Details of Restoration 282A Argyle St, North Hobart (002) 31 2377 Vic. Agnew's Architectural Antiques 376 Swan St, Richmond (03) 427 1588 Antique Decor 899 High St, Armadale (03) 509 7322 The Antique Garden 378 Mt Alexander Rd, Ascot Vale (03) 370 8409, 438 Chapel St, South Yarra (03) 827 7701; 278 Canterbury Rd, Surrey Hills (03) 888 5347 Antique Light Co. 511 Victoria St, Abbotsford (03) 428 3498 Full Circle 59 Church St. Hawthorn (03) 818 1474 Knobbery 1014 High St, Armadale (03) 509 7374 Lasting Impressions 593 Burwood Rd. Hawthorn (03) 819 1170 Victorian Screen Doors 103 Arden St, North Melbourne (03) 329 1616

Restoration services NSW Building Restoration Advisory Service 267 Lyons Rd, Five Dock (02) 712 3679 Heritage Building Advisory Service 5 Lois Lane, Pennant Hills (02) 875 1244 Qld Colonial Alterations (18) Ayr St. Morningside (07) 399 6244 VSH Timber & Garden 56 Radley St, Virginia (07) 265 5334


S SA A Adelaide Restoratio on C Centre 53 The Parade, Norrwood 08) 362 7078 (0 A Adelaide Restoratio on S Specialists S Sunnydale Ave, Ga awler (0 08) 522 3136 T Tas. T Tamar Restorations 35 Tamar St, Launcceston 003) 34 3195 (0 V Vic. A Authentic Renovations 283 Canterbury Rd.. C Canterbury (0 03) 836 9864 H Hawthorn Restorattions 182 Brougham St, Kew K (03) 8 53 0812 W WA M Masterhand Wall Re epairs 14 4A Mayfair St, Wesst Perth (0 018) 94 2753 N National Estate of W.A. W B Builders 366 Barker Rd. Subiaco (0 09) 381 7094

R Roofing (rrestoration) N NSW G & S Hancock W Wentworth St, Wagga W Wagga (0 069) 21 7767 S Sydney Slate Centrre 73 Winbourne Rd, B Brookvale (0 02) 938 1473 Q Qld R Restoration Station n 98 Waterworks Rd. A Ashgrove (0 07) 366 5855 S SA C Character Roofing 10 Gilbert St. Adela aide (0 08) 410 1883 V Vic. C Creeks Metal Ind dustries 491 Mountain Hig ghway. B Bayswater (0 03) 720 2244 G Gargoyles & Drago ons 169 Canterbury Rd. C Canterbury (0 03) 836 9555 H Heritage Roofing Co. C 75 Mary St, North M Melbourne (0 03) 331 1801: 4 Edinburgh St. Richmond 64 (0 03) 399 9056 M Melbourne Roofing Co. 40 Wimba Ave. Kew w (03) 817 4608 M Metal Roof (Vic ) 9 North Rd, Avonda ale H Heights (0 03) 337 7707 T The Original Roof Co. C 791 Highbury Rd, Vermont V S South (0 03) 802 9200 W WA C Castle Industries 4 43 Armagh St. Victoria Park (0 09) 361 1246

Dufe eu Metal 435 Scarborough S Beacch Rd. Osborne O Park (09) 444 4915 ance & Son H Ra 14 Howe St, Osborne Park P (09) 244 3066

Roo ofing (shingles,, shak kes) NSW W Ceda aroof (Aust ) 16 Wethenll W St. Lidcom mbe (02) 648 5599 gles & Shakes Shing Beattties Creek Rd. Goon nengerry (066) 84 9189 Shin ngles Australia 140 Pacific P Highway. Murwillumbah (066) 72 5133

Roo ofing (terracotta a) NSW W Fred A Mashman Mash hman Ave. Kingsgrrove (02) 502 2344 Monttoro Clay Produccts 19 Sttoddart Rd. Prospe ect (02) 896 2073 derlich Roof Tiles Wund Gran nd Ave. Rosehill (02) 638 0281 SA AAA Roof Salvage Co o 127 Main St. Beverley (08) 268 4030 Benn net's Magill Potteryy 28 Brent B Rd. Magill (08) 31 1340 Monier Roofing. Wunde erlich Rooff Tiles 10 Sccholefield Rd. Seacliff (08) 296 5111 Terra acotta Roofing Siestta Crt. West Lakess (08) 347 3 4237 Tas. Bristile Clay Tiles 12 Roslyn Ave, Kingsto on Beacch (002) 29 6492 Moniier Roofing 32 Derwent Park Rd, Derw went Park (002))72 5211 Vic. Moniier Roofing Ltd 656 Mtcham M Rd. Vermont (03) 874 4333 goyles & Dragons Garg 169 Canterbury C Rd. Cantterbury (03) 836 8 9555 WA AAA Tiled Roof Specialists 8 Delbridge Dr.. Kenwick (09) 459 1461 Monier Re-roofing Servvices Inkpe en Rd. Bunbury (097) 21 3158

Rug gs NSW W Casp pian 469 Oxford O St, Padding gton (02) 331 4260

Nomadicc Rug Traders 125 Harrris St, Pyrmont (02) 660 0 3753

Sheridan's 14 Florence St, West Perth (09) 328 68 855

The Perssian Carpet Gallery y 352 Ken nt St. Sydney (02) 299 9 3577 Persian Carpet C Repair & Restora ation Co. 125 Harris St. S Pyrmont (02) 660 3753 SA P Oriental Persian Palace Rugs & Carpets 254 Pulte eney St, Adelaide (08) 232 2 1020 Rahman ni's Persian & Oriental Carpets 93 Good dwood Rd. Goodwo ood (08) 272 2 6653 Solomon ns of Gouger Stree et 31 Goug ger St, Adelaide (8) 231 6157 WA O Rugs Khans Oriental 47 Loch St, Claremont (9) 386 6 7326 Persian Carpet C Museum 517 Hayy St. Perth (09) 483 6201 Vic. J. G Bayyliss & Son (Aust.)) 74 Herald St. Cheltenham m (03) 584 4 3877

Skylights

Natural Floor F Coverings 28 85 Toorong ga Rd. Glen Iris (03) 822 2 4455 Persian Forum 1138 Hig gh St, Armadale (03) 509 9 5047 Rugs Ga alore Chadsto one Shopping Centre, Chadstone C (03) 569 417 77

Signs NSW Tradition nal Signs 574 Willough hby Rd, Willough hby (02) 958 5596 Qld Tradition nal Signs O'Sulliva an Rd. Ravensbourrne (076) 9 7 8182 SA Luna Na ameplates (Aust ) 361 Rd, Toorrak Greenhill Gardenss (08) 332 9344 Tas. Retlas Bronze B 5 Evanss St. Hobart (002) 23 6989 Vic. Beagleyy Name Plates 199 Canterbury Rd, Canterbury 6 1226 (03) 836 Cedarsig gn 6B Gabrrielle Crt, Bayswate er North (03) 720 2483 WA P Jemal Products 5 Forge St, Welshpool (09) 350 0 5555

Vic. Creeks Mettal Industries 491 Mounta ain Highway. Bayswater 244 (03) 720 22 Deluge Skyllights & Glazing Co 102 Henkel St. Brunswick (03) 380 23 345

Stained glass & leadlight NSW Architectura al Heritage 62 Glebe Po oint Rd. Glebe (02) 660 0100 282 High Stt. Maitland (049) 34 52 288 Architectural Stained Glass 36 Goodhope St. Paddington (02) 331 16 652 Art Glass Works W 8 Beardow St. S Lismore (066) 25 10 066 Chippendale e Restorations 505 Balmain n Rd. Lilyfield (02) 810 60 066 Magin's Ligh hting & Home Restoration hby Rd. 493 Willough W i l l o u g h b y (02) 958 1766 Old World Art A Glass 62 York St. Gosford G East (043) 23 12 284 Sydney Stained Glass 39 Pyrmont St. Pyrmont (02) 660 74 424 A Touch of Class C Art/Glass Studio o Rd. Llandilo Old Llandilo (047) 77 4558 4 Qld Art Glass 75 Minnie Stt. Southport (075) 31 36 653 Art Glass Sttained Glass Leadlight 199 Golden Four Dr Bilinga 553 (075) 36 75 Leadlights 38 Caswell St. S Brisbane East (07) 391 44 427 Stained Gla ass Centre 221 Hale St. Petrie Terrace (07) 369 09 914 Traditionalss 606 Sherwo ood Rd. Sherwood (07) 379 56 600 SA Architectural Stained Glass Studio 312A Unleyy Rd. Hyde Park (08) 272 33 392 Art Glass Glover St. Kersbrook K (08) 389 30 008 Wilson Glasss Art 14 Rheims St. S Broadview (08) 344 57 767

Tas. Addicoat Art Glass G 56 North Terrrace, Lauderdale (002) 48 6670 Kape's Stained Glass Art 395 Macquarie St. Hobart (002) 23 3423 Vic. Abbey Leadligh ht 31 Valerie St. East E Kew (03) 859 7298 Armadale Stainglass Centre 14 Queens Ave e, Hawthorn (03) 819 2662 Art of Glass 239 San Mateo Ave, Mildura (050) 23 6402 Lead Balloon 1240 Malvern Rd. R Malvern (03) 822 0686 Leadlight & Art O 560 North Rd. Ormond ( 0 3) 57 8 5 5 49 4 WA Art Nouveau Glass 134 High St. Willetton W (09) 354 3050 Gladavart Glas ss & Art 2 Renshaw Pla ace, Morley (09) 276 3480 own Cowers & Bro (30) Old York Rd. Greenmount (09) 294 1438

Staircases NSW Conlon Staircas ses & Joinery 14 Langlands Rd. R Annangrove (02) 679 1727 Gladesville Join nery 21 Buffalo Rd. Gladesville G (02) 809 4579

Stonemason ns, stonework NSW Allstone-Mason ns 7 Columbine Close. Loftus (02) 521 8521 Artist Stone Ma ason 18 Longview St,, Five Dock (02) 712 1916 Ayoub Bros 9 Warren Ave. Bankstown B (02) 790 0918 Dwyer Heritage Restorations 134 Forest Rd. Arncliffe A (02) 567 1189 homes Gabriel Stoneh 29 Orpington Stt, Ashfield (02) 716 6340 ns N Khouri & Son Stonemasons A 36A Gleeson Ave. Condell Park (02) 796 4023 Seaborg emburn Dallys Rd. Nare (02) 906 8998 Tassico 16 Erith St. Bota any (02) 666 3806


T. A Taylor T & Son 40 Roberrt St, Rozelle (02) 810 6933 Traditional Stonemasonry Co. C D St, Rozelle 780 Darling (02) 555 1991 SA Adelaiide Professional Repointers 23 Stra athalbyn Rd. Aldgate (08) 370 9973 Adelaide Stone Restorations 32 Bea aufort St. Woodville Park (08) 45 9873 mato N. Am 1 Harm man Ave. West Beach h (08) 356 6751 Fine Line L Repointing 25 Ch hurchill Rd, Ovingham m (08) 269 3903 Wistow w Stone Mason 840 Lo ower North East Rd, Derna ancourt (08) 36 65 2311 Tas. A. Coo oper 110 Swanston St, New Town (002) 28 1448 S. L. & K. L. Kaye 4 Selb by Place, Lindisfarne (002) 43 8257 Herita age Stone 9 Sunderland St, Moonah (002) 78 2004 Peter Macfarlane 28 Kin ng St, Sandy Bay (002) 23 2 5761 Vic. Abbeyy Stone Restorationss 33 MccArthurs Rd, Altona North (03) 399 1111 David Broadhurst 27 Pie era St. Brunswick Easst (03) 380 9250 A. G Dalton D Tuckpointer 16 6 Bourke e St, Ringwood (03) 870 9654 Lodge e Bros 22 Sw wanston St, Preston (03) 484 0695 R. S. & C. M. Purdy 32 Ma acaulay St, William mstown North (03) 39 97 6127 WA R Stonemasonry 11 Hard Rock The Boulevard, B Mt Ha awthorn (09) 444 4452 Stone Developments h 74 Corbett St, Scarborough (09) 341 3078 Stone Supply & Consttruction 103 Broome St, Cottlesloe e (09) 384 3329

Tiles s (wall & floor) NSW Artisticca Terracotta & Marb le Tiles 73 Parram matta Rd, Camperdown (02) 519 4333

Country Floors 28 Moncur St. Woollahra (02) 326 2444 2 Old Balgo owlah Restorations 375 Sydne ey Rd. Balgowlah (02) 949 6266 6 Olde English Tile Factory 73-79 Parrramatta Rd. Camperdo own (02) 519 4333 4 Renditionss Corporation 112 Pyrmo ont Bridge Rd. Camperdo own (02) 516 4066 4 Reproduction Tiles 176 Parram matta Rd. Camperdo own (02) 550 5205 5 Qld Brisbane Heritage H Tile Co. Box 395. Bulim mba (018) 78 2477 2 The Colon nial Hardware Co. 180 Latrobe Tce. Paddingto on (07) 369 3171 3 Country Floors 32 Waterw works Rd, Red Hill (07) 369 4025 4 Townsville e Restoration & Lighting 792 Flinde ers St. Townsville (077) 21 2431 2 SA Bennett. s Magill Pottery 28 Bnant Rd.. Magill (08) 31 13 340 Country Floors 169 Unleyy Rd. Unley (08) 373 3250 3 Heritage Tile T Co 53 The Pa arade. Norwood (08) 362 1717 1 Olde English Tile Factory 237 Franklin Stt. Adelaide (08) 231 0663 0 Regenera ation 285 Unleyy Rd. Malvern (08) 272 38 833 Tas. Fine Traditions 122 St Joh hn St. Launceston (003) 34 2040 2 Montle 6 Edwardss St. Devonport (004) 24 6011, 6 6 Racecou urse Cres.. Launcesto on (003) 31 3900 3 45 Albert Rd. Moonah (002) 78 22 200

Hammersmith Woo odturners 14 Hocking St, Bromp pton (08) 346 8211

W Wallpaper (rreproduction)

WA Country Floorss 34 St Quentin Ave. A Claremont 7 (09) 384 7777

Jefferson Wood Tu urners 31 York St, Wingfield d (08) 262 6048 Timber Turn 1 Shepley Ave, Pa anorama (08) 277 5056

NSW Baresque 28 8 Mountain St, Broad dway (0 02) 212 4099

Timber

Tas.

NSW Annandale Tim mber & Moulding Co o. 21 Bennelong Rd, Homebush

Colonial Woodturn ning Judbury Rd, Glen Huon (002) 66 6234 Custom Cabinets 38 Feltham St, Nortth Hobart (002) 34 3595

Rogers Seller & Myhill 27 City Rd. South Melbourne (03) 620 0781

2 (02) 648 5722 Chippendale Restorations R 505 Balmain Rd. Liilyfield (02) 810 6066 6 Crescent Timb ber & Hardware Co. ent & Chapman cnr The Cresce Rd, Annandale (02) 660 7133 3 Softwood Milliing Co. 106 Beattie Stt, Balmain (02) 810 1234 Qld Brett & Co. 142 Newmarke et Rd, Windsor (07) 361 0555 5 Colonial Resto oration Supplies 20 Curtin Ave, Hamilton (07) 268 2669 Tas.

K & D Warehhouse Mitre 10 103 Melville St, S Hobart (020) 30 0300 Vic. V Melbourne Tim mber cnr Lloyd & Bruce Sts, Flemington (03) 372 1222 2 O'Shea & Ben nnett Sales Wells Rd, Oakkleigh (03) 568 5722 WA Bunnings Build ding Supplies 13 Leura Ave, Cla aremont (09) 384 5000 0: 46 Main St, Ossborne Park (09) 444 785 5 55 Salvado Rd, Subiaco (09) 388 171 1: 152 Pilbara St. Welshpool 2 (09) 351 6322

Vic. Artform Tile Centre 318 Bluff Rd. R Sandringh ham (03) 598 3793 3 Country Floors 1256 High h St. Armadale (03) 509 9688 9 Full Circle e 59 Church h St. Hawthorn (03) 818 1474 1 Olde English Tile Factory 376 Swan n St. Richmond (03) 427 7677 7 Regenerattion 101 Bay St. Port Melbo ourne (03) 646 15 515

Timber turners NSW Fedwood R Lilyfield 493 Balmain Rd, (02) 810 8088 8 Period Design ns 87 Young St, Carrington C (049) 69 3387 7 Turning Point Architectural A Components 1 K o a l a Cre s c e n t , Gosford West (043) 23 492 22 SA Aardvark Timb ber Trading Co. 106 Frederick St, S Welland 7 (08) 346 4617

Tamar House Wood Turning Centre Rosevears Dr., Ro osevears (003) 30 1744 A. J. Whyte Wood Turning 8 Park Dr., Amblesid de (004) 27 9064 WA Classic Wood Turrners 23 Morgan St. Cannington (09) 458 2646 Colonial Timber Tu urners 33 Buckingham Dr., Wangara W (09) 309 4320 Western Woodturn ners 69-71 Gordon Rd.. Osborne Park (09) 444 4622 Vic. Auburn Woodturniing Co 97 Auburn Rd. Hawthorn (03) 882 8991 Perry Bird Picketss 389 Victoria St. Bru unswick (03) 387 8422 Ryan Woodworks 12 Hood St. Airportt West (03) 330 2203

Tuckpointing g NSW A. C. Hockley Tucckpointer 3 Union St, Lidcomb be (02) 643 1902 SA N. Amato 1 Harman Ave, West Beach (08) 356 6751 Vic. AAA Dalton Tuckp pointing 5 Wilhemina Court, Croydon (03) 870 2326 Paul Burton Tuckp pointer 6 Kooluna Court, Frankston (03) 789 7890 R & M Swarbrickk 8 Lancaster Place, Chirnside Park (03) 735 1507 Versatile Bricklaying 20 Sandpiper Pl., Frankston (018) 558 595 WA Trueline Tuckpoin nting 22 Campbell St. Subiaco (09) 388 2424

Q Qld Baresque 13 39 Melbourne St, Sou uth Brisbane (0 07) 844 8147 V Vic. Baresque 42 Dorcas St, South 24 M Melbourne (0 03) 690 1555 Paperhangings 2 Stirling Cr., Surrey Hills H 22 (0 03) 836 7315 W WA Baresque 8 Olive St, Subiaco 18 (0 09) 381 1766

W Windows, fitting gs NSW Balmain Joinery (Aust ) 180 M Mullens St, Rozelle (02 2) 55 55 1620 Bowles Joinery 65 5 Barry Ave, Mortdale e (02) 53 3 7620 W S Field Joinery 47 Sydenham Rd, Brookvale (0 02) 905 1291 G Gladesville Joinery 21 1 Buffalo Rd. Gladesville (02) 80 09 4579 Hornsby Joinery 9 Kelray Place. Asquitth (0 02) 476 1577 R Roseville Joinery 23 3 Chapel St. Marnck kville (0 02) 519 8667 Q Qld A Allkind Joinery & Glas ss 59 94 Rode Rd. Cherms side (0 07) 359 3025 SA O Otto & Co 13 39 Magill Rd. Stepne ey (0 08) 362 3522 R Reedy's Timber & Hardware Supplies nr Churchill & Alexandra Sts. cn Prospect (0 08) 344 5376 V Vic. A Agnew's Architectural A Antiques 37 76 Swan St, Richmond (0 03) 427 1588 LB BA Joinery 11 George St. Blackbu urn 03) 878 0572 WA (0 W Wood World Lo ot 62, Hyne Rd. South h G Guilford (0 09) 277 8311


NO OTE ES

INTRODUCTION (pages 1-5)

— ————— —————— ————— —————— — 1 Keeley, C. J. H., H Bungalows and a Modern Hom mes, London : B Batsford, 1928. 2 Hatje, G. (Edd.), Encylopedia of o Modern Archiitecture, Thamess & H Hudson, 1963. ORIGINS (pages 6-30)

— ————— —————— ————— —————— — 1 For examplee, Elizabeth Farm F Cottage , 1793, and L Lancer Barracks, 1822-8, both in n Parramatta. 2 Cambria, near Swansea, S late 18820s. a 3 Weatherstonee, J., The Early British Tea andd Coffee Planters and T Their Way of Life, Quiller Press, London, L 1986. 4 Ibid., p. 86, Chabwa C Bungaalow c1836; p. 108, 1860s b bungalow. 5 King, A., 'The Bungalow' partss 1 & 2, in Archiitectural Associatioon Q Quarterly, p. 8. 6 Ibid., p. 16. 7 Ibid., p. 18. 8 See John Nash's design for Regent's Park, 18112. 9 See Wilson's Eryldene, Gorrdon, NSW, 19914; Bank of N NSW, Gilgandrra, NSW, 19244; Macquarie Cottage, C Pymb le, N NSW, 1918. Seee also J. Reid'ss Clayfield, Brissbane, designed by H Hall & Dods. 1 0 King, op. cit., c part 2, p. 6.

12 Ib bid., p. 8. 13 Ib bid., p. 10. 14 See laater Malthoid biitumen felting. 15 Lanccaster, C., 'Thee American Buungalow', in The T Art Bulletin, 1958-9. 16 Ib bid., p. 252. 17 Ib bid. 18 Ib bid. 19 Birreell, J., Walter Burley B Griffin, U ni. of Queenslland Press, 1964, pp p. 12, 12, 28. 20 Ibid.,, p. 173. 21 Weaatherstone, p..90, etching o of Bartchinhuull bungalow, c1865. 22 John nson, D. L., The T Architecturee of Walter Burrley Griffin, Macmillan, 1977, p. 13. 23 Saylo or, H. H., Bungallows, Philadelphiaa, 1911, p. 19f. 24 Sequ oia sempervirenss, some specim mens thought to o be 2000 years old d and some grow wing to 360 feett. 25 See St S Francis Court, Pasadena, desiggned by Sylvanuus Marston. 26 Spaniish, a central spaace in a house, o open to the sky.. 27 i.e., J. J H. Codman house, Massacchusetts, Guy Lowell L architectt. 28 Saylo or cites the Aitkeen house, Mayw wood Tallmadge & Watson architectts. 29 Buildiing, 13 March 19911. 30 Buildiing, 12 August 1909. 31 Buildiing, 12 May 19111. 32 Sticklley, G., Craftsmaan Bungalows: 59 Homes from The Craftsman, Dover Publications, New York, 19988, p. 65f.

150


33 Buuilding, 12 June 1911. 34 Buiilding, 14 Decem mber 1907. 35 Buiilding, 15 July 19 908, p. 65f. 36 Taaylor, A., 'Crafftsman Bunga lows in Blackb burn', in Historric Environment, vol. v 5, no. 1, 19886. 37 Baallara, the Abo original form of Ballarat, Deakin's D electo orate. 38 Naauze, J. A., Alflfred Deakin: A Biography, An gus & Roberrtson, 1979. 39 Seee Queensclifff Urban Conseervation Studyy, Allom Lovelll & Associates Pty P Ltd (Melbouurne), 1984. 40 Buiilding, 11 May 19912, p. 79. 41 Buiilding, 12 July 19912, p. 42. 42 Prrevost, R., Ausstralian Bungalow w and Cottage Home H Designs, design n 1. 43 Seee Voysey's The Barn, B Devon, 18897. 44 Preevost, op. cit., plan p 78. 45 Seee W. R. Butler's Mission to Seam men, Flinders Sttreet Exten nsion, Melbourn ne. 46 Buiilding, 12 Augustt 1909. 47 Buiilding, 12 October 1916. BUN NGALOW SUBURBS (pages 31 3 -46)

1 Birrrell, p. 75f. 2 Houusing Board Ann nual Report, NSSW, 1916. 3 Histtoric Environment,, vol. 1, no. 4, p.. 46. 4 Freeestone, R. , Moddel Communities, Nelson, N 1989. 5 Sayllor, p. 20f. 6 See St Francis Couurt, Pasadena, as a pictured in Saylor, S op. cit. p. 20ff. 7 Geellong Advertiser, 233 September 19222. 8 Freeestone, op. cit., p. p 71. 9 Ibidd., p. 41. 10 Ibiid., p. 42. 11 G arlick, J., Mellbourne Suburrban Expansio on in the 1920s, MA thesis, Meelb. Uni., 1983. oncrete Roads and Their Con nstruction', as reprinted in 12 Co Historric Environment, vol. v 2, no. 3. 13 Gaarlick, p. 128. 14 Seee Merchant Builders' B Ellis ton Estate, Rosanna, R Victorria. 15 Gaarlick, p. 1041 16 Buutler, G., Heiddelberg Conseervation Studyy, City of Heideelberg, 1985, p. 132. 1 17 Auustralian Home Buuilder, 15 April 1925. 18 Buiilding, 12 March 1917. 19 Buiilding, 12 April 1918, 1 p. 27. 20 Alllport, C., 'Castlees of Security', in n Kelly, Sydney City off Suburbs, NSW University U Presss, 1987, p. 951 All staates achieved ho ome finance by the t 1920s throuugh the baanking system. 21 Freeestone, p. 175ff.

22 Ibid., p. 177. S Homes Act A 23 See War Service 24 Types of o Houses Ereected by the SState Rivers a nd Water Supp ply Commission n for Settlers iin Irrigation Areas, A State Rivers and a Water Supp ply Commission n, p.22. 25 Australiann Home Beautiful, 15 April 1925. 26 Design Boook, Brick Dwelllings, State Saviings Bank of Victoria, V 1929. Sy - City off Suburbs, NSW W University Press, 27 Kelly, Sydney 1987, p. 138f. 28 Design Boook, Timber Dw wellings (for tim mber-framed houses), State Savingss Bank of Victorria, 1936. 29 Saylor, p. 20. 30 Perrott, L. M., Concrete Homes, Perrottt, Melbourne, c1919. EXTERNAL FINISHES AND FITTINGS

(pages 47-77)

1 Mayes, E. C., The Austra lian Builders & Contractors' Pricce Book, p 88. NSW Bookstall Co. , 1927, p. 2 Building, 11 June 1910. 3 Saylor, p. 95. mlock (Tsuga vvar.) including the 4 Spruce (PPicea var.), Hem Japanese Hem mlock-Spruce. 5 Eucalyptus microcorys, m New South S Wales andd Queensland. 6 E. resinifera,, also New Soutth Wales and Quueensland. 7 Araucaria cuunninghamii. 8 Nangle, J., Australian Buildding Practice, Willliam Brooks & Co. , Sydney, 19111. 9 Mayes, p. 85. 8 10 Saylor, p. 114. 11 See Sticklley, p. 81. 12 Prevost. 13 Design Boook, Timber Dw wellings (for tim mber-framed houses), State Savingss Bank of Victorria, 1936. 14 Carpentry & Concrete, p. 53 3. 15 Stickley, p. p 35.

16 Ibid., p. 65. 17 Building, 12 June 1913. p 52. 18 Stickley, p. 19 Boyd, R., Australia's Home, Penguin, 19788. p 75. 20 Nangle, p. 21 Apperly , R. E., Sydneyy Houses, M. A Arch. thesis, 2 vols., University off NSW, 1972. 22 For example, 330 Cotham m Road, Kew (ddemolished). 23 Apperly, p. p 258. 24 Nangle, p. p 87. 25 Halstead, Architects & Buiilders' Reference Boook, (New York)), 1927, pp. 116-7. 26 Ibid., p. 116. 27 Nangle, p. p 120.


288 Conite. 299 Hardie's Fibroliite Building Bookklet, James Hardiie & Co., p. 84. 300 Mayes, pp. 38-9.. 311 Ibid., p. 130. 322 Ibid., p. 37.

INTERIORS: PLANNING, DESIGN &

333 Butler, G., Footscray Conservatioon Study, City of Footscray, F 1989, vo ol.

1 Stickley, p. 65f.

4, p. 77.

2 Buildinng, 12 February 19913.

344 Building, 12 June 1913. 355 Halstead, pp. 1118-9. 366 Lewis, M., 200 Years of Concrete in Australia, Con ncrete Institute off Australia, Sydney, 1988, 1 p. 24f. 377 Bures, S., The House H of Wunderlich ch, Kangaroo Presss, Kenthurst, NSW W, 19987, p. 30f. 388 Ibid. 399 Mayes, p. 50, alll per square. 400 Mayes, p. 349; Nangle, N p. 362. 411 Evans, I., The Federation F House - A Restoration Guuide, Flannel Flow wer Prress, Glebe, NSW W, 1986, p. 45. 422 Mayes, p. 349.

433 Spry, A., Principples of Cleaning Massonry Buildings, Technical Bulletin 3.1, Australian Council of National Trustts, Melbourne, 19882. 444 Lewis, p. 112. 455 See http://www w.roofrestoration.ccom.au/guides.htm m for repairs on ceement and terracotta tiles 466 20 x 10 inches, 16 1 x 8 inches. 477 Mayes, p. 50. 488 Hardie's Fibrolitte Building Bookleet, op. cit., p. 5. 499 Ibid. 500 Building, 12 June 1913. 511 Nangle, p. 351. 522 Mayes, p. 246; Nangle, N p. 380. 533 Stickley, 544 Mayes, p. 101. 555 De Bono, E., Eureka: E An Illusttrated History off Inventions, Tham mes & Hudson, 1979, p. 169. 566 Period Home Reenovator's Guide, 1989, 1 p. 92. 577 As it is a Malaysiian rainforest timb ber, its use is not recommended. 588 See 148 Douglass Parade, Williamsstown, Victoria. 599 Cyclone cataloguue no. 37, pp. 9-166. 600 National Trusst of Australia (Vic) ( Technicaal Bulletin 8.1 Feences & Gates, p. 49; 4 Cyclone cat alogue no. 37, pp. 9-16. 611 National Trust of o Australia (Vic) Technical Bulletin n 8.1 Fences & Gattes, pp p. 30 & 52f; Mayees, p. 361. 622 See Brian and Rhonda James' Ornamental Wo oven Wire Fencin ng Co ompany of Malveern, Victoria. 633 See Izumo Taish ha temple, 1874644 Building, 12 Deccember 1914. 655 Ibid. 666 Ibid.

FINISH HES (pages 78-127)

——— ————— —————— ————— ———

3 Buildinng, 12 April 1913. 4 Austraalian Home Beauttiful, October 1965, p. 24. 5 Ibid., p. p 33. 6 Mayes,, p. 342f. 7 Austraalian Home Beauttiful, October 19655, p. 38. 8 Colin E. E Begg Ltd's C.E E.B. Electrical Stovve. 9 Apperlly, p. 284. 10 Appeerly. 11 Austrralian Home Beauutiful, 15 April 19225. 12 Prouudley, R. Circle of Influence: A H History of the Gass Industry in

Victoria,, Hargreen Publishing Co. (Nth M Melbourne), 1987, p. p 173. 13 Boyd, p. 62. 14 De Bono, p. 113. 15 Austrralian Home Beauutiful, October 19665, p. 41. 16 Adam ms, J. R. P., Distinctive Australian H Homes, 1925. 17 Austrralian Home Beauutiful, 15 April 19225, p. 7. 18 Appeerly, p. 2861 19 Proud dley, p. 14. 20 To em mulate nickel-platiing. 21 The low-cost option. dley, p. 161, 2864 sold 1925-6. 22 Proud 23 Boyd, p. 251. 24 Austrralian Home Beauutiful, ibid., p. 57. 25 Mayes, p. 369. 26 Austrralian Home Beauutiful, 15 April 192 25. 27 Appeerly, p. 271f. 28 Mayes, p. 318. 29 Galvaanised clouts. 30 Appeerly, p. 269f; Nanggle, p. 373. 31 Mayes, p. 318. 32 Ibid.

33 Ameerican examples used Aztec or Inndian patterns. Seee Stickley, p. 108. 34 Hump phrey, C. E., The Book B of the Home, The Gresham Puublishing Co., London,, 1914.

35 Ibid., p. 116f (1914 prices). p 36 Austrralian Home Beauutiful, October 19665, cites Electroluxx, introduced here in 1925, 1 after the Ho oover's earlier importation. 37 Austrralian Home Beauutiful, 14 May 192 25. 38 Hump phrey, p. 85. 39 Todaay, use clear polyuurethane over wo ood stains.

40 Apperly, p. 264. 41 Cufffley, p. 203 cites patent 1937. 42 Ibid. 43 Austtralian Home Beauutiful, October 19965, p. 36.


44 SSee Cuffley, Foyy & Gibson catallogue, 1923. 45 Ibid. See also Hiistoric Environmennt, vol. 3, no. 3, p. p 31f. 46 C Cordell's 19888 building pricce book givess lino at $40/ metre compared with w $20/m for welded sheet vinyl v or tiles. 47 Ibid., wool carpeet $35/m. 48 SSaylor, p. 145. 49 P Proudley. 50 T The Macquarie History H of Ideas,, Macquarie Li brary, 1983, p. 479.. 51 SStickley, p. 108. 52 IIbid., p. 152. 53 I.C.S. Reference Library, Architeectural Design. Ornnamental Plastter Work, Ornam mental Metal Work k, Light Fittings. Stained S Glass and M Mosaic, circa 19009. 54 P Proudley, p. 161. 55 SSee Marshall's Pri rivate House Electrric Lighting, (Lon ndon), 1915. 56 SStickley, p. 67. 57 IIbid., p. 151. 58 IIbid., p. 119. 59 IIbid., p. 4f. 60 H Humphrey, vol. 1, p. 222f. 61 A Australian Home Beautiful, B July 19229. 62 SStickley, p. 49f. 63 H Humphrey, p. 922. 64 SStickley, p. 6. 65 IIbid. 66 SSaylor, P. 153. 67 M Mayes. 68 Ibid., p. 299f. 69 SSaylor, p. 1491. 70 IIbid., p.423. 71 IIbid., p. 454.

72 Ibid., p. 470. 73 Ibid. 74 Bishop p, R., The Amerrican Chair: Thrree Centuries o Style, S Bonanza Books, New York, 1983. 75 Ibid., p. 470f. 76 See Cufffley, p. 193.

BUNGALOW GARDENS (pages

128-143)

———— ————— —————— ————— ——— 1 Saylor, p. 173f. n. 2 Unknown 3 Saylor, lo oc. cit. 4 Iris germannica, also known n as the Louisian na Iris. 5 Our Apriil. 6 Spirea X vanhouttei simillar to the Caryoopteris famil) naative of China and Japan. J 7 Calycanthuus praecox, now kn nown as Chimonannthus praecox, 1.8 m high. 8 The Homee Gardener, 1 Mayy 1924, p. 118. 9 Ibid, 1 October O 1924, p. 2261. 10 Presumaably Edna Walliing. 11 The Hom me Gardener, ibid.., p. 227. 12 The Hom me Gardener, ibid.. 13 A herb baceous peren nnial grows ffrom the sam e root system, dyiing back each yeear after yieldingg seeds, and reggrowing with flowerrs. 14 The Hom me Gardener, 1 Ap pril 1924, pp. 844-5. 15 Ibid., p. 87. o these are sto ocked by Rosss Roses, Willuunga, 16 Most of South Austtralia.


INDEX Adirondack lodge bungalows 16 Annear, Harold Desbrowe 18 Arts & Crafts 5, 14, 119, 123 asbestos tiles 61 Australian Bungalow and Cottage Home Designs 24 Australian bungalows 23 Bandini, Arturo house 10 Barlow, Marcus R 29 bathrooms 44, 95f. Billson, Edward 12 brick areas 38 bricks 51, 72, 133 British bungalows 8 bungalow courts 33 bungalow subdivisions 311 bungalow, types 3f. Bunker oil 21 bush bungalows 21 Busselton, West Australia 7 California 13 Californian bungalows 13, 15, 45, 47, 53 Californian redwood 21, 29, 48-9, 66 carpets and rugs 102f. cement sheet 19, 54 cement tiles 60 Ceylon 6 Chandler, D. W. 71 Chicago Columbian Exhibition 9 Chicago School bungalows 17 Clark, Alistair 137 clothes lines 99 Colonial Georgian 6 Colonial Indian bungalows 5, 7 colours exterior 21, 51-2, 77 interior 84, 86, 104, 119 concrete walls 56 corrugated iron 62 Craftsman magazine 4, 11, 29, 63, 78, 80f., 122 Creosote 21, 50, 119 Cyclone Woven Wire & Gate Co. 70 Dacey Gardens bungalow suburb 32 Deakin, Alfred 22 doors 66 Durabestos 54 Eaglemont & Glenard estates 31, 38 Elizabeth Farm cottage, Parramatta 7 Elmore, John 21, 101, 119 Federation bungalow 2, 4, 23, 57 fences 68f. Fibrolite 56 fibrous plaster 101 fireplaces 83, 85, 106 floor finishes 102 flowers 135

fresh air 9, 18 furniture 122f., 131 Garden City movement 31, 34 gardens 128f. gates 74 Gawler, John 33 glass 64 Greek revival 77, 80 Greene & Greene 10, 123 Greenhill, Charles 11 Griffin, Walter Burley 2, 11f., 31, 123 Gurney, Edgar 38 Hardie, James & Co. 30, 50, 56, 61, 101 hedges 131 Himalayan bungalow 13 India 1, 6f. industrial revolution 35 insect screens 19, 66 interiors 78f. Irrigation bungalows 41f. Irwin, Theodore bungalow 10 Japanese bungalows 9, 11 Japanese influence 2, 7, 9f., 47, 77, 82, 120, 128 jarrah 21, 50, 104 Jennings, A. V. 38 Kelly, Arthur 11 Kipling, Rudyard 7 kitchen sinks 90 kitchens 86f. Laird & Buchan 34 laundry 98 Leith, A. Burridge 42 light switches 113 lighting 109 linoleum 29, 85, 97, 104, 106 log bungalows 20 Mack Slab construction 27 Malthoid 61 Mathews, A. C. 56 Messmate 21 Miller Memorial Homes 34 Mission style 79, 81, 84, 107, 110, 119 123f. Modernism 2 motorised transport 36 Mt Gambier limestone 53 name-plates 68 Nangle, James 48 native planting 34, 141 nature strips 34 New England seacoast bungalows 17 Oakden & Ballantyne 20, 48 oak 29, 82 open planning 18 Oregon pine 48, 100f., 119, 140

154

paints 120f. Pasadena bungalows 7, 10, 15 patio bungalows 10, 15 paving, garden 133 Peddle Thorpe 32 pergolas 18, 15, 77, 133f. Perrott, Lesley M. 57 Petit & Green 11 Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition 9 piazza 15 Prevost, R. A. 24 Queen Alexandra bungalow 21 Queen Anne revival 2, 4, 57, 84, 92, 125f. Redwood, Roseberry 29, 86 refrigeration 93 reinforced concrete roads 37 Rocke & Co. 58 Romanesque revival 2 roofing 57 roses 136 Rossi, B. V. & Jules 133, 137f. Saylor, Henry H. 14 servants 27, 87 shingles 30, 48 slates 59 sleeping out 18 sleeping porches 18-19 Spanish Mission revival 10, 27 State Rivers & Water Supply Commission 42 State Savings Bank houses 27, 40, 42, 96 Stickley, Gustav 29, 123, 125 stone 53 stoves 90 stucco 32, 52 suitability for place 17 summer bungalows 16 Swiss Chalet bungalows 5, 11, 14-15 Sydney sandstone 51 tea and coffee planting 6 tent houses 16 timber finishes 29f., 49f. timber interior linings 1001 town planning associations 35 verandahs 9 Voluntary Workers' Association 41 wall papers 115f. Walling, Edna 130, 133, 1411. War service bungalows 40 Western Red Cedar 49, 66 Westgate-on-sea 1, 8f. window boxes 140 window dressing 113 windows 63f. World War One 3 Wright, Frank Lloyd 2, 9, 123 Wunderlich 27, 54, 57


Profile for Graeme Butler

Californian bungalow in Australia  

First Edition of this now out of print book- from the author's collection. Californian bungalows ring the inner suburbs of many Australian...

Californian bungalow in Australia  

First Edition of this now out of print book- from the author's collection. Californian bungalows ring the inner suburbs of many Australian...

Advertisement