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BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF

AUSTRALIAN ARCHITECTS

Compiled by

GEORGE TIBBITS Faculty of Architecture and Building University of Melbourne


ADAMSON, Robert (c.1842-1901) architect, was born in England, the son of Thomas Adamson a leather merchant, and Elizabeth Telford Adamson nee Smith. He was one of seven children and probably lived in Bishopwearmouth, Durham. He emigrated to Australia between 1857 and 1859, and was in practice at 35 Queen Street Melbourne by 1868, moving to 69A Bourke Street in 1879 and the Metropolitan Chambers, 30 Collins Street from 1882 to 1888. During 1869-1870 he was in partnership with S.A. Oement(q.v.) Clement and Adamson, and between about 1875-1876 with William McKean(q.v.) as Adamson and McKean, while in 1899-1900 he joined a partnership with A.L. Smith and A.E. [ohnson as Smith, [ohnson and Adamson shortly before A.L. Smith retired and A.E. [ohnson died). From at least 1868 Adamson lived at 43 Napier Street, Emerald Hill (South Melbourne) until 1875 when he moved to 46 (now 83) St Vincent Place, Emerald Hill; in 1878, 146 Riversdale Road, Hawthorn; in 1882, 38 Perth Street, Prahran; in 1884, 41 (now 101) Greville Street, Prahran; in 1895, 21 Margaret Street, South Yarra; and in 1897, 55 Powell Street, South Yarra. During his forty years in Victoria, he designed many residential and commercial buildings, and for the Wesleyan Church he designed churches in Footscray and North Melbourne and a parsonage in East Melbourne. Adamson died on 20 September 1901 aged 59. Three of his children survived him, Robert Gm) (23), Mary (21) and William (19), and two had predeceased him, Robert and Stanley. P.J. Coulter, The Life and Work of Robert Adamson, Investigation Project 1979, B.Arch, University of Melbourne; Sands and McDougall, Directory; Australian Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'.

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ARMS ON, Francis William (ÂŁ1.1854), architect, practised in London before going to New Zealand (1852) and then to Victoria (1854) where he established himself in Melbourne. He was the father of the noted New Zealand architect W.B. Armson (q.v.). J.K. Collins, A Century of Architecture (Christchurch 1965); Robert McDougall Art Gallery, Exhibition Catalogue, W.B. Armson A colonial Architect Rediscovered (Christchurch 1983).

ARMS ON, William Barnett (1834-1883), architect and surveyor, was born in London, the son of Francis William Armson (q.v.) architect, and [ane nee Barnett. He arrived in New Zealand in 1852 and then in Victoria in 1854 and settled in Melbourne where he remained until March 1862 when he returned to New Zealand. Although little is known of his eight years in Melbourne he must have been seriously engaged in architecture as a number of his drawings from this period survive and they establish him as s superb architectural draftsman of refined sensibility. During his stay in Melbourne he worked with the Office of Purchas and Swyer (q.q.v.) and, before the firm was created (1856), he may have worked for either Purchas or Swyer, although it seems unlikely he would have served his articles with them, his father being an architect and he being some 22 years of age when he arrived in Melbourne. Purchas and Swyer (1856-62) were associated with some of the most elegant buildings designed in Melbourne in the 1850s, and as the nature and quality of their individual work before and after their partnership does not match the quality created during their partnership it may be that a designer of Armson's talent may have been responsible for the firm's high quality architectural work. Armson's beautiful architectural drawings and Charles Swyer's later commendation in New Zealand of Armson's ability indirectly support this. In a letter book surviving from the partnership many of the copies of letters have on them the initials WBA further indicating Armson's active involvement in the practice. In New Zealand Armson established himself as one of the leading architectural figures and among his many fine buildings the Bank of New Zealand in Dunedin (1879-83) was described as 'one of the most perfect of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere'. On his arrival in New Zealand in 1862 he was appointed to the Provincial Engineer's Department with the Otago Provincial Government. The Department was under the direction of Charles Swyer who had himself just arrived from Melbourne. Arrnson was retrenched from government service and by July 1864 was in private practice in Dunedin, and by December in Oamaru in partnership with J. Thornley as Architects, Civil Engineers, Surveyors and Land and Estate Agents. In February 1866 Armson moved to the west coast township of Hokitika and on 30 October 1866 was appointed Town Surveyor. His major building while at Hokitika was the Town Hall (1869, demolished) but his diverse practice included shops, stores, cottages, churches, hotels, a brewery, a grandstand, and a number of branch banks for the Union Bank of Australia nd the Bank of New South Wales built in various towns of the South Island. In 1870 Armson moved his practice to Christchurch where he remained until his death, and the present practice of Collins, Hunt and Loveridge is a continuation of the old Armson office. His finest work is from his years at Christchurch and splendid examples in the Classical and Gothic idioms were created. Classical examples include: Strange's Building, Hugh Street, Christchurch 1874; the exceptional Bank of New Zealand, Dunedin, 1879-83; the small bank office of the Bank of New Zealand at Ashburton, 1881; and the Union Bank, Hereford Street, Christchurch, 1882. Among the gothic designs are: Lyttleton Borough School, 1873-5; Public Library, Crhistchurch, 1874; offices of J. Lewis, Hereford Street, Christchurch, 1877; Boys' High School, Worcester Street, Christchurch, 1879; St Mary's Anglican Church, Timaru, 1880; and the New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Building,

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Christchurch, 1881, this latter building being in a bold post. Burgesian manner suggestive of the American architect Frank Furness. Armson was an outstanding architect of the first rank and his early death at the age of fifty on the 28 February 1883 had been a cause of great regret. His obituary in the Christchurch Press touched not only on his supreme architectural skills but also on his refined tastes, and described him as ' ... a man of considerable culture, a loyal friend and a high minded and honourable gentleman'. Letterbook of Purchas and Swyer, 1856-1862, University of Melbourne Archives; ].K. Collins. A Century of Architecture (Christchurch 1965); Robert McDougall Art Gallery, Exhibition Catalogue, W.B. Armson A Colonial Architect Rediscovered (Christchurch 1983).

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ANDERSON, E.W. (fl. c.1867) architect, practised in Sale, Gippsland, and designed the Gippsland Hospital at Sale, opened on the 20 August 1867. The delightful design was for a symmetrical two storey brick complex with cross windows and label mouldings, an imposing octagonal entrance hall, matching towers with octagonal sp ires, and simple storey side wings. The contractor of the hospital was a Mr Monger.

The Illustrated Australian News.. 27 September 1867. APLIN, CD. (fl.1866) architect, surveyor, and geologist, had a business address at Temple Court, Collins Street West, Melbourne, and his private residence at 14 [ohnston Street West, Fitzroy. Sands and McDougall, Directory, 1866.

ARMITSTEAD, Thomas (fl.1848-1850), builder and building surveyor in Melbourne. Called tenders for eight buildings which included an hotel in Collins Street East for Henry Crossley, a shop and dwelling house for Thomas Aitken, and a number of other shops, houses and cottages to be built in Collins Street East, Stephen Street (now Exhibition Street) and Russell Street. He applied for the position of Surveyor to the Union Building Benefit and Investment Society in 1850. Arrnitstead was elected in 1846 as Councillor for Lonsdale Ward of the Corporation of Melbourne but retired from the Council on 1 November, 1847. In that year he was listed as a builder in Little Flinders Street.

Argus, 20 October 1848, 10 February 1849,22 June 1849, 13 March 1850,29 July 1850; Port Phillip Gazette, 7 February 1849; Melbourne Herald, 10 February 1849, 20 February 1849, 25 July 1849, 6 November 1849, 23 March 1850; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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ARM STRONG, M. (fl.1860s), architect and surveyor, had an office at 57 Smith Street, Collingwood, between 1857 and 1862. Sands and McDougall, Directory, 1859-62.

AUSTIN, [ames Edward (1829-1884), architect, surveyor and civil engineer was born in Devonshire England, the son of [ames Austin (architect) and Elizabeth Austin nee Westcott. He married Estelle Townsend Deeming in London in 1851 and had one son, Fleetwood, in about 1854. Austin emigrated to Melbourne in that year and is recorded as starting a practice in Melbourne in 1856 as a partner of Austin, Climie and Co (probably with J.C Climiefq.v.j), In mid-I856 the partnership was listed as Austin and Co ., until 1862 when it became Austin and (William J.) Ellis(q.v.); in 1869 Austin and (Alfred F.) Kursteiner(q.v.); 1871 Austin and Son; while from 1872 to 1882 Austin practised on his own (although he does not appear to be listed in Directories after 1875). He practised in Lonsdale Street East until 1862 when he moved to Elizabeth St, and he was in Swanston St during 1871 and the Post Office Chambers, 13 Bourke Street West, from 1872 onwards. The partnership of Austin and Co. was involved in residential work as well as several hotels, while Austin and Ellis were responsible for some larger buildings including the Post and Telegraph Offices and the Town Hall in East Collingwood. The buildings designed by Austin and Kursteiner were primarily residential. Austin's residential address appears to have changed many times. During the 1860s he spent some time at 51 King William Street, Fitzroy and during the 1870s he resided at several Carlton addresses. [arnes E. Austin died on 9 February 1884, aged 55.

M. Munckton, J.E.Austin, In vestigation Project 1977, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Australian Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett, Index of M.CC 'Notices of Intent to Build'.

AUSTIN, Thomas (fl.1865), architect, emigrated to Victoria in 1865 from Newcastle- uponTyne, England. He emigrated for his health's sake and brought with him a letter of reference from Gilbert Scott in London to Bishop Perry in Victoria which stated "Mr Austin is eminent for his knowledge of our ancient architecture, to the study of which he has devoted himself for several years, partly in conjunction with Mr Edward Shame formerly of Lancaster, who he assisted in his professions work". Austin is known to have practised in partnership with a Mr [ohnson (initials unknown) in Melbourne and to have designed the Anglican Church, Clunes. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and Kenny, Directory 1961; Sands and McDougall, Directors 1862-1892.

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BACKHOUSE, Benjamin (1829-1904), stonemason, architect and Member of Parliament, was the son of Benjamin Backhouse a stonemason and builder in Ipswich, Suffolk, and Elizabeth Prentice nee Fuller. Backhouse married Lydia Warne [ohnson in 1849 and emigrated to Victoria in 1853, settling in Geelong where he began work as a stonemason and later as a building contractor. Within three months of landing at Geelong he had launched into an architectural career. The practice appears to have grown very quickly, attracting a sufficient number of commissions by 1854 for Backhouse to employ William Reynolds(q.v.) as his assistant. Reynolds had been trained in architecture in England and worked under Backhouse until 1856, when they formed the partnership of Backhouse and Reynolds. A prosperous practice developed throughout the Geelong and Ballarat areas. In 1855 Backhouse was the honorary secretary of the Geelong Society of Architects, Civil Engineers and Surveyors. Unfortunately by the late 1850's the two architects had fallen on hard times, forcing both Backhouse and Reynolds to return to England in 1860 where they practised together for a short time. Nothing further is known of Reynolds, however Backhouse returned to Australia in 1861 and settled first in Brisbane (Moreton Bay) in private practice and briefly in a partnership of Backhouse and Taylor (1862-3), and after 1868 in Sydney, where he ran a large architectural practice with branches at Newcastle and Bathurst. He was a founder of the Institute of Architects of New South Wales and was their secretary in 1871-73. During 1895 he became the first socialist member of the Legislative Council of New South Wales. Backhouse again visited England in 1886 and on this visit was made an associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects. In 1874 he entered a partnership with his son Clarence as Backhouse and Son and between 1882-4 he was in partnership with John J. Lough as Backhouse and Lough. Backhouse seems to have retired from active practice in 1884. He died, aged 75 on 29 July 1904, survived by his second wife Emma Sanday nee Byrnes, whom he had married on 16 December 1903, and by seven sons and four daughters. Throughout his career Backhouse was assisted by his brother Ioseph who acted as the architect's agent, having arrived in Geelong in 1853, then moved to Ballarat, and was then in Queensland and New South Wales. Of Backhouse's early years in Geelong, before the partnership with Reynolds, only a small number of buildings are now known. These include the Independent (Congregational) Church in McKillop Street, the Methodist School and Chapel in South Geelong, the Geelong Exchange Association in Corio Terrace as well as several residential projects. The partnership with Reynolds undertook a variety of work in Geelong and Ballarat, much of which was ecclesiastical or institutional and included the Trinity Free Church, La Trobe Terrace, Geelong; the Lutheran Church, Grovedale; the Presbyterian Churches at Buninyong and in Ballarat; and the Chamber of Commerce and Theatre Royal at Ballarat. K. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; K.J. Cable, 'Benjamin Backhouse', in Australian Dicti~nary of Biography. Vo1.7, 1979, Melbourne; Geelong Directory. 1853-59; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Allan Willingham Index; Watson and McKay, A Directory of Oueensland Architects to 1940 (Brisbane 1984). BAGGE, Christian Herman Ohlfsen (OHLFSEN-BAGGE?) (fl.1851-1891), was born in Ge.rmany. He trained there before moving to Great Britain where he practiced for a time. It IS not known when Bagge arrived in Australia, however he entered the office of the Colonial Architect of Victoria on 21 May 1852 and worked in the position of Acting Clerk of Works at Mt. Alexander during that year and as a Clerk of Works at Castlemaine in 1853. He ~a~ apparently dismissed from the public service late in 1853 and subsequently began practising independently as an architect and surveyor in about February 1854 at 48 Collins

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Street. In 1855 the practice was listed as Bagge and Co. of 50 CoBins Street East, while in 1856 he joined Alfred F. Kursteiner(q.v.) and one Spencer(q.v.) in the partnership Bagge, Spencer and Kursteiner. The partnership was reduced to Bagge and Kursteiner sometime between 1857-59 and operated from the same address. In August 1859 Bagge was in a temporary branch of the public service, the partnership with Kursteiner seeming to have been dissolved around this time. Little is known of his work or movements up until 1867, except that on 21 June 1861 he was listed as a temporary engineer for the water supply to the gold fields and in 1865 as a temporary Clerk of Works and Draftsman in the public service (from which he resigned on 31 October 1865). In January 1867 he joined the Ballarat Water Supply as a consultant engineer and in 1889 wrote a report for the Ballarat Water Commissioners on 'Increasing the storage capacity of the Water Supply'. He held this position until 1891. Bagge was an inaugural member of the Victorian Institute of Architects in 1856. His known architectural works are generally minor residential buildings, the more significant buildings being a Theatre Royal for George Coppin at Cremorne Gardens and the Auction rooms and Store for William Easey in Collins Street West, both in 1856. The partnership of Bagge, Spencer and Kursteiner undertook several residential projects as well as a schoolhouse, and an Auction Room, Shop, Store and Office for [arnes Purves in Collins Street West; while Bagge and Kursteiner designed many small cottages and residences in Melbourne. C. Smith, C.H.Ohlfsen Bagge Investigation Project 1977, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; B. Trethowan, 'The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900', Research Report 1975, B.Arch, University of Melbourne.

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BAGOT, Robert Cooper (1828?-1881) civil engineer and surveyor, was born in County Kildare, Ireland, son of John Bagot a Church of England clergyman, and Olivia, nee Edward. He emigrated to Australia around 1850 and settled in the Moreton Bay District but from 1849 was in New South Wales. In about 1855 he moved to Melbourne where he soon established a practice as a civil engineer and surveyor. He was listed as practicing at 50 William Street between 1860-67; at 103 Bourke Street West from 1868-1871; 102 Bourke Street West from 1873-75; and 100 Bourke Street West from 1876-81. In 1865-66 he lived in Flemington and from 1867-81 in Ascot Vale. Bagot wa s best known for his work in remodelling both the Melbourne Cricket Ground in 1861 and the Flemington racecourse (between 1864-81). He was also well known through his position as the secretary of the Victorian Racing Club, which he held from 1864 to 1881. Bagot married twice, first to [ane nee Smith and later Maria nee Gregor, both of whom predeceased him. He died at Ascot Vale on 14 April 1881 aged 53, and was survived by a son from his first marriage and two daughters from his second. M. Cavanough 'Robert Cooper Bagot' in Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol.3, 1969, Melbourne; Sands and McDougall, Directory. 1861-81; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. BAGSHA WE, E.W. (fl. 1858), building surveyor, whose office was in Lyttleton Street, Castlemaine, Victoria. Called tenders for three bank buildings in 1858 for the Bank of Australasia at Dunolly, Daisy Hill, and Arnherst. Bagshawe was the agent for Faulder Watson for whom Purchas and Swyer(q.q.v.) designed the Imperial Hotel, Lyttleton Street, Castlemaine, and correspondence survives from Purchas and Swyer to Bagshawe concerning the hotel. Argus. 19 July 1858; Letter Book of Purchas and Swyer, Archives Department, University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. BA LDIN G, Charles (fl. 1854-1865) architect (?) called tenders for an hotel for John Gremmoy near the Darobin Creek on the Heidelberg Road north east of the Melbourne township. Between 1862-5 he was variously Town Clerk and Town Surveyor to the Ipswich (Qld) Municipal Council. Argus. 10 March 1854; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Watson and McKay, A Directory of Queensland Architects to 1940.

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BALDING, Robert (1822- ), architect, builder and surveyor, was born at Lynn, Norfolk, and arrived in Geelong, Victoria, in 1852. He is credited with several Wesleyan Churches including those at South Geelong, Colac, and Queenscliff. The Exhibition Hall, Geelong, built at a cost of 3,500 pounds was designed and erected by him. In 1860 he was appointed Corporation Surveyor at Geelong and under his direction the abattoirs, sale-yards, and the main sewers of the town were constructed. He was a prominent member of the Wesleyan Church and participated in philanthropic and public affairs in the town of Geelong. Balding completed the fittings for the Bank of Australasia, Geelong, to the design of Purchas and Swyer(q.q.v.) (1860). Balding and his wife Elizabeth nee Allan had at least one child , Robert Latham Balding, born at Geelong in 1855, who became an estate agent and died in Prahran in 1907. A. Sutherland et al, Victoria and its Metropolis: past and present. vo1.2, p.152; Letter Book of Purchas and Swyer, Archives Department, University of Melbourne; The Australian. Sketcher, 27 September 1879.

BALDWIN, Henry (1810-1868), civil engineer and surveyor. He was married in Dublin in 1840 to Hannah Darby and had five children. The family arrived in Victoria in 1856. At the end of his life Baldwin was living at "Moss Grove" Tennyson Street, St Kilda, where he died on 18 October, 1868 of paralysis, from which he had suffered for about two and a half years. He was survived by his wife and two of his children, and is buried in the (East) St Kilda Cemetery. His name is associated with the calling of tenders for two cottages in Queensbury Street, Hotham (North Melbourne) for William Walsh. Architecture Index, University of Melbourne.

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BALMAIN, [ames (f1. 1846-1859) architect and clerk of works, arrived in Sydney c.1844, and entered the office of the Colonial Architect of New South Wales on 7 November 1846. He served in Melbourne under the Clerk of Works for the Port Phillip District, Henry Ginn (q.v.) who was his brother-in-law, and after Separation from New South Wales in July, 1851, in the office of the Colonial Architect of Victoria under Ginn, and then under Charles Pasley (q.v.) the Colonial Engineer who was also for a time the Acting Colonial Architect. Balmain is credited with having remained in the Colonial Architect's Office during the hiatus and mass disertion from employment following the discovery of gold in 1851, notwithstanding his apparent absence from the Office between January and May 1852. From 1 July 1851 he was a Draftsman and Overseer of Works, from 1 January 1853 he was Chief Clerk of Works and between 18 June and 1 November 1853 he was Acting Colonial Architect. He succeeded Henry Ginn to this position with no increase in salary and his request for a permanent appointment was refused by Lieutenant-Governor Charles LaTrobe, perhaps because of his family relationship with Ginn. In November 1853 when Pasley as Colonial Engineer was also appointed Acting Colonial Architect, Balmain was classified as Chief Architect which became effective on 1 January 1854. During 1855 he was classed as Clerk of Works. As a result of retrenchments he ceased to be in government employment from 18 May 1855. He is attributed with the design of the Customs House, Brougham Place, Geelong (1853/54), built by W.e. Cornish and opened in 1856. This much admired design, built of basalt rubble and faced in Barrabool sandstone ashlar, is one of the finest public buildings from the Office of the Colonial Architect of Victoria. It is a late example of the sober old fashioned style of public architecture inherited by Victoria from the 1840s idiom used in the Colonial Architects Office of N.S.W. Balmain also maintained a private practice while working for the government. That such activity was prohibited early in 1855 may have precipitated the termination of his employment. Little is known of his practice. In the later 1850s he was in a partnership with E.J. Sanders (q.v.) who had also been in the Colonial Architect's Office. The partnership practised from 141 Swanston Street. Tender notices for a house for John Bon, alterations to the Bull and Mouth Hotel, two wooden shops in Richmond, and an unidentified hotel in Brunswick, are the fragmentary evidence of the partnership. The partnership was awarded first premium in the Melbourne City Council competition for the City Baths. Both the competition and Balmain's supervision of the building's construction were contentious. It was claimed in the press that members of the architectural profession ..... were publically invited ... to compete when it was already arranged beforehand who should carry off the prize". It was further claimed that an inspection by John Gill (q.v.) and Ioseph Reed (q.v.) rev.ealed poor materials and workmanship in the completed building. In 1866 he is believed to have designed a pair of attached houses in Spring Street Melbourne, two doors from the White Hart Hotel. These were rendered brick two storied houses with a string course between the floors and a moulded cornice with plain parapet above. Balmain was invited to join the short lived Victorian Architects' Association in June 1856, but he was not recorded as having attended the meeting which was held on 14 August 1856. During Balmain's short tenure as Acting Colonial Architect, the Legislative Council appointed a committee to enquire into public works in the colony. Balmain's brief evidence to the enquiry provides insight into the manner in which the Colonial Architect's Office was organised and conducted under Henry Ginn and then himself. Balm~in'~ sister, [ane, married Henry Ginn in St Laurence's Church, Sydney in 1845. Nothing IS known of Balmain's later life.

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Melbourne City Council Records held at Victoria Public Records Office, Laverton; Architectural Index, Universlty of Melbourne; D.S. Lyall, The Architectural Profession in Melbourne 1835-1860, M.Arch 1965 University of Melbourne; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B. Arch University of Melbourne; Allan Willingham, Index; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build '.

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BARKER, Ernest A. (fl 1882) architect. He is credited with the design of a Roman Catholic Church at Stratford Victoria built at a cost of 1,400 pounds. He is also presumed to be the same Ernest Barker who built three shops on the corner of Market Lane and Little Bourke Street, Melbourne, in 1882. They were built for R. Dawson by a builder Robert S. Ekins. An architect by name of Barker also built a house in Rathdowne Street Carlton in 1884. This was for a Mrs Hughes and was built by G. Richardson. Ernest A. Barker is known to have articled E.J. Henderson into his office. M.A. Ebsworth, Pioneer Catholic Victoria (Melbourne 1972) p .l36; A. Sutherland et al, Victoria and its Metropolis; Past and Present. Vo1.2, p.520; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notes of Intent to Build '.

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BARKER, R. Stelling (ÂŁ1.1853-1858) architect(?) in Melbourne whose office was at 139 Little Collins Street East in 1853 and at 56 Chancery Lane in 1854. Five tender notices were placed by him for buildings which included two houses in Bourke Street West for H.W. Mortimer and G.A . Mauritz, two bluestone warehouses at the King Street wharf for H.W. Mortimer, a brick cottage and outbuildings at upper Hawthorn for Waiter Dudley. Two of the tender notices refer to a bluestone store in Little Bourke Street East, and two stores in Elizabeth Street. Argus 13 June 1853,23 February 1854, 15 March 1854, 15 February, 1858; Melbourne

Herald 4 January 1854; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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BARNES, Frederick (c.1824-1884) architect in Melbourne and partner of Ioseph Reed (q.v.) in the practice of Reed and Barnes, was born in London and arrived in Victoria in 1852. Barnes died unmarried at the age of sixty on 5 January 1884. He was Clerk of Works for 'Kolor', Penshurst. Death Certificate, Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne; Diary of J. Stenton, 'Kolor', Penshurst; Christopher Wood biographical index of Reed and Barnes.

BARRElT, Charles (c.1824-1891) architect and clerk of works, was employed in the Public Works Department of Victoria from 10 March 1856 until 1884. In 1859 his duties were described as the design of buildings and the making of drawings and specifications under the direction of the Chief Draftsmen. He is credited with the design of the part of the Victoria Barracks (St Kilda Road) commenced in 1856, and was Clerk of Works, with A.T. Snow (q.v.), for the Warden's Office at Smythe's Creek. Until 1 January 1861 his positions were temporary, but after that date he was one of the permanent professional staff. He was classified Assistant Architect (Class 2) on 1 July 1874, and in 1879 he was listed as Architect (Class 2). In mid 1876 he took 12 months leave on half pay. Barrett retired from the Public Works Department in 1884 after 28 years service, and in which year he turned sixty. The only private commissions associated with his name are Holy Trinity Church of England, Kew (1862) and Holy Trinity Church of England, Doncaster (1868-9) both of which were later extended and altered. In 1856 he was living in Cremorne Street, Richmond, and from 1861 he was in Kew where in 1872 he was living in "Leura" in Pakington Street. In the early 1880s he was at 100 Punt Road, Richmond, and then from 1885 he lived at 25 Avoca Street, South Yarra . Building Engineering and Mining Journal

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BA TEMAN, Edward La Trobe (c.1816/20-1897), book-illuminator, draughtsman, architectural decorator and garden designer was probably born in Derbyshire, England. He was the son of John Frederick Bateman and Mary Agnes nee La Trobe. Bateman possibly had an architectural background as his uncle by marriage, Benjamin La Trobe, was the architect for some major buildings in Washington and Baltimore; however Bateman did not enter the architectural field immediately, instead he pursued other artistic activities. Before emigrating to Australia in 1852, Bateman became known as an illuminato~ for writers such as Mary and William Howitt (whose daughter he was engaged to for a time) and artists T. Woolner, B. Smith, J.E. Millais andD.G. Rossetti. He worked for four years under Owen Iones, illuminating two books for him namely Fruits from Garden and Field (1850) and Winged Thoughts (1851), and it has been suggested that he also worked on [ones' famous Grammar of Ornament. This is improbable as its publication date was four years after Bateman's departure for Australia. Bateman's skills extended past book illuminations, and he undertook projects such as the design and fabrication of rustic furniture for the H ermitage (a house he had taken at Highgate, London) and it is claimed that he helped [ones with the decoration of the Fine Arts Court of the Crystal Palace for the 1851 Great Exhibition. In 1852, William Howitt left for the Victorian goldfields, a nd Bateman, Woolner and Smith departed a month later aboard the Windsor. Bateman had an important connection in Australia with his cousin by marriage being Lieutenant-Governor Charles Ioseph LaTrobe. During the time before La Trobe's departure from Melbourne in 1854, Bateman prepared several pencil sketches for him, including some of the cottage at [olimont, Despite this connection, Bateman appears to ha ve spent most of h is time with William Howitt. He travelled with Howitt to the Bendigo (then Sandhurst) diggings and later made his base at Howitt's residences in Collins Street and 'Barragund a' at Cape Schanck. Bateman has been accredited with the designs of both 'Barragund a' , built in 1866, and 'Heronswood' built at Dromana in 1871 for Professor W.E. Hearn, both similar in their ruggedly picturesque designs. In about 1866 Bateman was working for the prominent Melbourne architectural firm of Reed and Barnes (q.v .). His contribution to this firm appears to have been in the decorative arts and he executed stencil decorations to the interior of the 'Octagon' they built behind the Melbourne Public Library in 1866. His other known decoration included passion in flowers painted ov er a fireplace at the pre-1866 'Barragunda' and a drawing room at Mountstuart House. While in Australia, Bateman continued to pursue his interest in book illuminating, and his title blocks prepared for the Melbourne Public Library catalogues in 1861 were one of the first instances of Australian flora being used for decorative motifs . His adaption to Au stralian themes and motifs was also displayed in Louisa Meredith's Bush Friends of Tasmania (1860 and 1891). Bateman's other main activity was garden design, and he is credited with the design of several large gardens in Melbourne. These include the Treasury Gardens and Fitzroy Gardens (1857), and in May 1867 he was engaged for three years to layout the grounds of Chatsworth House in the Western District for John Moffat. Bateman was unfortunately not able to fulfill this commission, due to a hand injury he received in a buggy accident in September the same year. Bateman left Australia after a series of prolonged lawsuits relating to his accident. He died aged 82 and 30 December 1897 while in service as landscape gardener to the Marquess of Bute at Mountstuart House, Rothesay Scotland.

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D. Thomas 'Edward LaTrobe Bateman' in Australian Dictionary of Biography VoI.3, 1969, Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BIERS, Henry (Hugh?) (ÂŁI. 1853-1859) architect and surveyor, was in the partnership Wylie and Biers from 1853-1855. Wylie's full name and biographical details are not known. The firm bad offices at llA Collins St West in 1853, and in 1854 moved to 29 Bourke St East and 83 Elizabeth St, while in 1855 their offices were in Russell St. The partnership was responsible for a variety of buiding types including a cottage ornee at Gardiner for Adolphus HaIler, two villas in East Melbourne for David Barry, and a warehouse and flour mill for the merchant W.F. Rucker. In 1857 and 1858 Biers is listed in private practice as an architect and surveyor at 46 Russell St and in 1859 as H. Biers and Co. of 44 Elizabeth Street. William John Henningbam (q.v.) is listed as being in Bier's office in 1859.

Henry Biers is probably the same as Hugh Biers (Snr) architect, recorded as the father of Hugh Biers (Inr), a Civil Servant, who died in Melbourne in June 1886. Hugh Biers (Inr) had arrived in Victoria in 1853, presumably with his father Hugh Biers (Snr) the architect, which is the same year that Wylie and Biers are believed to have commenced in practice. Hugh Biers (Inr) was born in Liverpool England and his mother was Elizabeth Biers, nee Stringer, suggesting that the architect also came from there. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and Kenny, Directory 18571860; Death Certificate Hugh Biers (jnr), Registrar of Births Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne.

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BILLING, Nathaniel (1821-1910) architect, was born on 5 March 1821 at Brightwell, Oxfordshire, the son of William Billing, a grazier, and Mary, nee Billing. He was articled to the prestigious office of Sir Gilbert Scott in London and later commenced in practice under his own name in Slough. Billing married his first wife Henrietta, nee Heybourne, in 1850 at Hillington. During their 19 years of marriage they had four sons and five daughters. They emigrated to Australia in 1853 and in August the same year Billing was appointed by [arnes Balmain (q.v.), the Acting Colonial Architect, to the post of Clerk of Works at Port Fairy (then Belfast) on a salary of 500 pounds per annum. He stayed in this positi~n until he was dispensed with as a part of Government cutbacks on 18 February 1855. During that time he worked in the Warrnambool and Port Fairy districts, his main jobs being the supervision of the Immigration Depot at Port Fairy and the Court House at Warrnambool. After leaving the Colonial Architect's Office Billing commenced his own practice in Port Fairy. He attracted important clients, designing the Bank of Australasia and St John's Church in Port Fairy and Christ Church in Warrnambool. He is also recorded as the supervisor for St Patrick's Church in Port Fairy from 1857-61, the design of which had been sent from England by Charles Hansom (q.v.). Billing's involvement with that project could not have been very extensive as he moved to Melbourne in 1857 and soon launched into a busy practice there. In Melbourne, Billing practised from many different offices over the 36 years before hi s retirement in 1893. Early in 1858 he worked at 33 Swanston St, moving to 28 Collins St West later that year, in 1860 41 Collins St West, 1861-62 57 Elizabeth St, 1863-65 49 Elizabeth St, 1866-67 21 Queen St, 1868-7070 Queen St, 1871 41 Collins St West,. 1872-7346 Collins St West, 1874-83 8 Collins St, 1884 22 Collins St, 1885-88 78 Collins St, 1889411 Collins St West and from 1890409 Collins St West. His residential address was more stable, being in Grey St St Kilda then after several short moves, High Street Road in Mr Waverley from 1871 to 1881, and then 93 Westbury St St Kilda from 1882 until his death in 1910. His interests extended beyond architecture as he owned a vineyard called 'Waverley Park' adjoining St Stephen's Mt Waverley and when resident at Mt Waverley was treasurer and first trustee of St Stephen's. When based in Melbourne, Billing's work was predominantly ecclesiastical and for many years he worked under Bishop Perry as the Anglican Church architect. Despite this position, he designed churches for several denominations sltuated all throughout Victoria. He was strongly influenced by his training with Scott and designed in the Gothic mode. Among his churches a All Saints' St Kilda, St Paul's Sale and St Mattias' Richmond. In 1855 he declined the second prize of 75 pounds for St Mary's of the Angels in Geelong. His secular commissions included several houses, offices and hotels. He was an active member of the profession, and was a member of the Victorian Institute of Architects in 1856, (its inaugural year) becoming the auditor and a member of the council in 1858. He was Vice-President of the second Institute in 1879-80 under Sir Redmond Barry and President in 1884-85 in succession to his close friend Charles Webb (q.v.). From 1885-96 he held the position of Honorary Secretary and for his services was made a life fellow . Billing was active in his official posts. In February 1884, as the newly elected President of the V.LA. he lectured on 'The Desirability of Establishing a Chair of Architecture at the Melbourne University'. He was also keen to advance technological knowledge and was an associate of Cope whose firm manufactured 'Tyerman's Patent Hoop Iron Band' . In 1880 he proposed to the Victorian Institute of Architects an annual exhibition of members' work, which resulted in the first architectural exhibition in Melbourne, being held in August that year and was opened by Sir Redmond Barry. In 1868 he acted as judge with Leonard Terry for the new Ballarat West Town Hall Competition. I/B/10


Billing's fourth child, William Urban Billing joined his father's firm in 1880/ and they practised as Billing and Son . They worked together until Nathaniel retired in about 1895/ and although he was succeeded as a partner by Solon Alonzo Peck in about 1895/ the firm name was Billing and Son and Peck until Billing's death in 1910/ William Urban having predeceased him. From about 1882 until 1892, the talented young architect E.G. Kilburn worked for Billing and Son. Billing's first wife, Henrietta died in June 1867 and in 1869 Billing married Mary Anne, n~e Hooke. He had no children by this second marriage. Billing died on 29 January 1910 at his home in St Kilda, aged 88 and is buried in the Church of England section of the St Kilda Cemetery. 'The Late Nathaniel Billing' Royal Victorian Institute of Architects Journal' Vol. 8, March 1910 pp.25 and 26; P. Trergrove, Nathaniel Billing, Investigation Project 1975/ B.Arch., University of Melbourne; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; I. Cortese, Biography of Nathaniel Billing, Investigation Project 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong, 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979/ B. Arch., University of Melbourne; B. Trethowan A Study of Banks in Victoria 1851-1939, 1976 Historic Buildings Council; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; National Trust of Australia (Victoria), Research into St Stephen's Church of England, Mt Waverley, Ref. No. 1648, 28 February 1978; Allan Willingham Index; Death Certificate, Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne.

BLACKBURN, [arnes (Snr) (1803-1854), civil engineer, surveyor and architect was born in Upton, West Ham, England, the son of John Blackburn, a liveryman. Blackburn married Rachel Hems in 1826 and they had ten children of whom all but two were born in Australia. In 1833,when employed as an inspector for the commd. D.Pike (ed.). Australian Dictionary of Bjography, VoI.3, 1969, Melbourne; Sands and McDougall, Directory. 18610-81; Architectural Ind ex, Un iver sity of Melbourne.

BLACKBURN, Iames (Snr) (1803-1854), civil engineer, surveyor and architect was born in Upton, West Ham, England, the son of John Blackburn, a liveryman. Blackburn married Rachel Hems in 1826 and they had ten children of whom all but two were born in Australia. In 1833, when employed as an inspector for the commissioners of sewers for Holburn and Finsbury (in London), Blackbum was involved in a building speculation which failed. The financial hardship that resulted lead him to forge a cheque for 600 pounds. Consequently he was tried and sentenced in May 1833 to transportation for life. He arrived in Hobart Town aboard the IsabeJla on 14 November, his wife and daughter following on the Augustus Ca.e.sar in October 1835, and son [arnes Jnr(q.v.) in 1842 (aged 13) on the Canada. On arrival, Blackburn was employed by the Department of Roads and Bridges, and in 1839 by the newly formed Department of Public Works. Although a convict, he was given considerable responsibility within these Departments, and after about 1838 was their chief designer of both architectural and engineering works.

After petitioning in 1836 and 1839 he was granted his free pardon in May 1841 upon which he established a private practice with another former convict, [arnes Thompson. During lIB/l1


this period Blackburn was responsible for a variety of work, mostly in the vicinity of Hobart, such as the Government House for the Franklins (1840), the watchhouse at St John's, Newtown (1841-2) and a museum for Lady Franklin (1842). In late 1844 Blackburn moved his home from Risdon Road, Newtown to the Midlands town, Campbell Town. His partnership with Thompson continued after this move despite Thompson remaining in Hobart. In Campbell Town, Blackburn rented a cottage called Camelford and carried out architectural work as well as operating a flour mill on the Elizabeth River with his son [ames. This was necessary to supplement his income (architectural commissions being scarce at this time) and he was recorded in 1847 as owing a debt, amongst others, of 2,000 pounds to [ames Thompson . During this period his architectural works included the remodelling of 'Rosed ale' (c.1846) and engineering works such as The Bridgewater Bridge across the Derwent River. Due to economic difficulties in Tasmania, Blackburn moved to Melbourne with his family in 1849. They sailed on the Shamrock and arrived on 20 April, taking lodgings in Collins Street. Blackburn set up a practice as an architect and civil engineer and became one of the proprietors of the Water Company which in 1849 undertook to establish a filtered water outlet on the corner of Elizabeth and Flinders Streets. The Company put up 'certain Buildings, Engines, and Machinery ... for the supply of filtered water to the inhabitants of Melbourne, but unfortunately the project wa s not realized due to protests from the town's water carriers. Blackburn also investigated the practicality of mining coal at Western Port, however he did not proceed with that project either. On the 1 November 1849, he took up an appointment as City Surveyor to the Melbourne Council. It was in this capacity that he was responsible for the planning of the Melbourne water supply from the Yan Yean reservoir. Upon taking up the appointment as City Surveyor (in which he wa s prohibited from accepting private commissions), Blackburn transferred his practice to his son [arnes [nr (aged 21), and Arthur Newson(q.v.). They practised until 1851 as Newson and Blackburn. The notable architectural work by lames (Snr) in Melbourne was Bishopscourt, East Melbourne, built for the Anglican Archbishop Ch arl es Perry. The building was started by Iarnes (Snr) before his appointment as City Surveyor, passed onto Newson and Blackburn, and appears to have been completed between 1851-53 by the firm Russell and Thomas(q.v.). In January 1853, Blackburn wa s injured in a fall from his horse while checking the boundaries for the Water Works Scheme. Still weak from his fall, he contracted typhoid fever the following year and died on 3 March 1854 at Brunswick Street, Collingwood. He was survived by only five of hi s ten children. A catalogue of Blackburn's extensive architectural library survives. lane Grove, The Architecture of the Blackburns, Research Reports 1981, B.Arch, U.niversity of Melbourne; H. Preston, '[arnes Blackburn', in Australian Dictionary of BIOgraphy , Vol.1,¡ (Melbourne 1968) Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; H. Preston, Iarnes Blackburn, 1803-1854, M.A. Thesis, 1970, University of Melbourne; Records of the Melbourne City Council, Public Records Office, Laverton. BLACKBURN, Iames (Inr) (c.1829-1888), architect, surveyor and civil engineer, was the ~ldest son of the architect and engineer [arnes Blackburn Snr(q.v.). He emigrated to Hobart ~ 1842 on the Canada at the age of 13, following his parents and sister who had emigrated In 1833 and 1835 respectively, as a result of his father's sentence to transportation for life. No details of Blackburn's formal eduction are known, however it is probable that he

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trained under his father, who received a full pardon in 1841, learning much from his father's extensive library. Blackburn moved with his parents to Melbourne in 1849, arriving on the Shamrock on the 20 April. In November of that year, his father accepted the appointment of City Surveyor of the Melbourne Corporation; a position that prohibited him from accepting private commissions. As a result, his father transferred his practice to [arnes (jnr) and Arthur Newson(q.v.). They practised at 35 Collins Street, West under the name of Newson and Blackburn until March 1851, when the partnership was dissolved by mutual consent. Between 1851 and 1856 Blackburn was listed as a sole practitioner, however from 1857 to 1863 he is not listed as working in Melbourne, although he was again working by 1864. His business addresses were: 52 Collins Street from 1855-1856,55 Elizabeth Street, 1864-1869; 48 Collins Street West, 1870-1872; 253 Hoddle Street, East Collingwood, 1873-1879; 140 Fitzroy Street, Fitzroy, 1880-1886 (possibly only his private address); and 41 Temple Court, Collins Street West, 1887-1888. During this period Blackburn's private address changed several times. From 1865-67 it was in Darling St, South Yarra; 1870-1875, 128 (now 364?) Church Street, Richmond; 1876c.1880,35 Kerr Street, Fitzroy; and c.1881-1888 probably at 140 Fitzroy Street, Fitzroy. Blackburn is known to have attended the third meeting to form the Victorian Institute of Architects on 14 August 1856. He acted in 1888 as Official Referee under the Melbourne Building Act (Peter Kerr(q.v.) was the other Official Referee, acting as a nominee of the Government). Relatively little is known about Blackburn's architectural works. When working with Newson, the partnership won third prize in the Melbourne Benevolent Asylum competition (in which Charles Laing(q.v.) was awarded first prize and John Gill(q.v.) second). Newson and Blackburn were also responsible for the central nave of St Stephen's Church Richmond, St Enoch's Church CoBins Street and Merville House, South Yarra. After 1851 Blackburn designed St Mark's Church Parsonage and Infant School in Fitzroy (of which he was a trustee); otherwise his known work consisted of small houses, inns and shops, mainly in Melbourne, Fitzroy and Collingwood. In 1854 he called tenders for the erection of two pairs of iron houses at 181-3' and 187-9 Brunswick Road, Brunswick, these were constructed of prefabricated English components (extant in 1981). In about 1858 Blackburn turned to Civil Engineering and Surveying and in this capacity he was appointed Borough Surveyor of Richmond. Blackburn died on 15 August 1888 aged about fifty-nine. B. Katsipidis, Biography of [arnes Blackburn [nr, Investigation Project 1973, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; N. Lewis, Biography of Iarnes BIackburn [nr, Investigation Project 1974, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; J. Grove, The Architecture of the BIackburns, Research Report 1981, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne, H. Perston, [ames BIackburn, in Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol 1, (Melbourne 1968) W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'; J.M. Freeland, Melbourne Churches 1836-1851. (Melbourne, 1963).

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BOURKE, Thomas A. (fl.1864) called tenders for buildings in the Melbourne area from his office at 41 Swanston Street. The tenderswere for a weatherboard cottage in Footscray for Anderram, a residence in Franklin Street, Melbourne for Flannigan, a five roomed verandah cottage in Elgin Street Carlton for Tuomsy, additions to the Polish Arms Hotel, Little Collins Street, and a store and residence at Wood's Point for Allport and Co . Argu s, 1 June 1864, 7 July 1864, 18 July 1864, 18 October 1864, 27 January 1865; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BOYD, Robert (fl.1856) an architect whose office was at 67 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne in 1856. Not to be confused with the Robert Boyd who practised Architecture in Sydney and who died aged 51 years in 1897. Argus, 9 June 1856; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BOYKETT, Charles (Snr) (1831-1876) architect, was born in London in 1831, the son of Thomas Hebbert Boykett a solicitor, and Hannah, nee King . Boykett married Catherine, nee Cronin, in Kent in 1853 and emigrated to Australia in the same year with his wife, father, brothers William and John, and two aunts. His mother having died prior to the voyage. They emigrated on the ~ arriving in Adelaide in August 1853. Soon after his arrival in the colony, Boykett took up the position of clerk to the architect Edmund Wright on the salary of five pounds a week. This was a good appointment as Wright was th e Municipal Architect and Surveyor and was a prominent member of the profession, at one time President of the South Australian Institute of Architects and from 1859 the Mayor of Adelaide. It is not known if Boykett was trained in architecture in England, however, it appears that he was, as within a few months of his arrival he was described as the junior partner in the firm Wright and Boykett. By the end of 1853 he was in charge of the branch of Wright's office in St Vincent Street Port Adelaide. Boykett subsequently left Wright's office to become the City Surveyor for Port Adelaide and was involved in improving the roads, laying footpaths and dredging and filling works. His involvement with the area also extended to being the Secretary to the Port Adelaide Regatta Committee. . Despite an apparently flourishing career in Adelaide, Boykett left for Victoria in about 1857/58. It is possible that he visited the goldfields for a time, although he is known to have executed several small works in Geelong in 1858, the first, being tendered in March that year. His office in Geelong in 1858 was at 5 Professional Chambers. By 1861 he had moved to South Melbourne (then Emerald Hill) where he lived and worked almost continuously until his death in 1876. Boykett is listed at various South Melbourne addresses, in 1861-62 at 26 Clarendon Place, 1863 22 Church St, 1864 22 Charles St, 1865 104 York St, 1869-71 59 Clarendon St, 1872 151 Moray St, 1873 72 Market St and 187644 York St East. It is not known if Boykett lived in Melbourne between 1865-68 nor in 1874, or whether he left the Colony during those years. He appears to have worked from his home for much of the time, and most of his buildings are in the South Melbourne locality. Boykett's best known work is Rochester Terrace in St Vincent Place, designed for the entrepreneur W.P. Buckhurst. Designed in 1868, and built in two stages, it is a symmetrically composed group of ten terraces with a central block and end pavilions, each with a Corinthian portico above a ground floor arcade. Boykett also designed several hotels and cottages in the South Melbourne area and it appears that he had connections in Gippsland, as in 1865 he designed the Criterion Hotel in Sale for John Cobain.

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Although there is no official record of Boykett's professional training, both the Criterion and Rochester Terrace display a significant fluency in architectural design. Boykett died in October 1876 at his home at 44 York St East, South Melbourne and is buried at the Melbourne General Cemetery. He was survived by his wife, four sons, three daughters and one younger child; four children having predeceased him. His eldest son, Charles Bolton (q.v.) and second son, Thomas (q.v.) were also architects, however they only survived their father by one and two years respectively. Catherine Boykett returned to Adelaide upon her husband's death and appears to have taken the six younger children with her, while Charles Bolton and Thomas remained in Melbourne. Boykett family records, held by R. Freeman, Hawthorn, South Australia; E. and R. Jensen, Colonjal Architecture jn South Australia, (Sydney 1980); Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Allan Willingham Index; Sands and McDougall, Directory 1868-1878; Emerald Hill Ratepayers' Roll 1860-1872; The Record, 4 Feb. 1869, p.3, Emerald Hill.

BOYKETI, Charles Bolton (1852-1877) architect, was the eldest son of Charles Boykett Snr (q.v.) and Catherine, nee Cronin. He was born aboard the Gypsy during its voyage from England to Adelaide in 1852. His parents emigrated in that year with his grandfather Thomas Hebbert Boykett, two uncles and two great-aunts. He was still young when his parents moved to Geelong in about 1857/8, before settling in South Melbourne (then Emerald Hill), in about 1861. There is no record of Boykett's education, and it is probable that he and his brother Thomas (q.v.) learnt their profession from their father, and did not practise independently until after the father's death in October 1876. During 1877 Charles (Jar) erected four brick residences for W.P. Buckhurst. His fath er had designed Rochester Terrace in St Vincent Place for Buckhurst, and it is possible these later buildings were the second stage of that terrace. His other works were minor commissions for cottages in the South Melbourne area. Boykett died prematurely aged only 24, on 3 December 1877, He was unmarried residing at his parent's house at 44 York St East, South Melbourne and is buried in the Melbourne General Cemetery. At the time of his death he was a member of the Emerald Lodge No.12, Grand United Order of Free Gardeners and was described as a prominent and popular member of the lodge. Boykett family records, held by R, Freeman, Hawthorn, South Australia; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BOYKETI, Thomas Hebbert (1855-1878) architect was born in Adelaide, the second son of Charles Boyke.tt (q.v .) architect and Catherine, nee Cronin. His parents had emigrated from England In 1853 and settled first in Adelaide before moving to Geelong in about 1858 and then South Melbourne (Emerald Hill) in about 1861. Both Tho~as and hi~ brother Cha:les (q.v.) were architects and it is possible that they ~earnt their profe~slOn from their father. Thomas appears not to have practised Independently until 1878. In January 1878 he had an office at 40 Napier St, South Melbourne and by March had moved to the orphanage block of C1arendon St (between 1/B/15


Dorcas and Park Streets, west side). His work included a wooden cottage in Richmond and a six roomed wooden house of unknown location. In a similar manner to his brother Charles, Thomas died very young, on 24 May 1878 aged only twenty two . He was unmarried and living at 40 Napier St South Melbourne. He was survived by his mother, younger brother and sisters and is buried at the Melbourne General Cemetery. Boykett family records, held by R. Freeman, Hawthorn, South Australia; Arch itectural Index, University of Melbourne; Argns. 1 June 1878, p.I.

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BRACHE, Iacob (fI.1854), architect and civil engineer was in practice in Melbourne with offices at Neaves' Buildings, Collins Street East in 1854. He was a graduate of the Royal Academy of Architects Berlin. He was placed second in the competition for the Melbourne Royal Exchange which was won by T. and S.H. Merrett (q.q.v.) in 1854. For some time around 1854 he was in partnership with George O'Brien (q.v.) as architects and engineers. The practice called tenders for a weatherboard verandah cottage in St. Kilda, and for a brick store in Bourke Street West. Brache married Hannah Campbell and had at least one child, a son, [acob Campbell, who was accidentally drowned at Northcote on 18 November 1866.

Argua 13 February 1854, 27 May 1854, 8 Jun e 1854. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. BREES, Samuel (fI.1854) was Acting Colonial Engineer until the appointment of Charles Pasley as the Colonial Engineer in 1853. Pasley found the department undermanned and demoralized . Australian Builder 29 May 1856; D.S. Lyall, The Architectural Profession in Melbourne 1835-1860, M.Arch. 1965, University of Melbourne.

BROPHY, John Townshead (fI. 1864) architect in Daylesford. Between 1863-65 he supervised the building of St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church at Daylesford to the design of William Wardell and called tenders for a brick store, for Fitzgerald Brothers, also at Daylesford. Argus, 23 January 1864, W.A. Ebsworth, Pioneer Catholic Victoria. (Melbourne 1972), pp.456-7; Architectural Ind ex, University of Melbourne.

BRYDG ES, H. Edwin (fI.1858) architect (?), called tenders in 1858 for the 'restora tion' of the Northcote Arms Hotel at Northcote, now a sub urb of Melbourne. His office was at 42 Victoria Parade, Melbourne. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BULL, Frederick William, (f1.1864-1872) variously a civil engineer, surveyor and architect: He was a surveyor at Brighton (Melbourne) with a business address there at Park Street (1864-8), S1. Kilda Street (1869-70), and Carpenter Street (1871-2). In 1867 he is listed as Town Clerk, Brighton.

A1:gll..S. 12 January 1869; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. BULL, William (fI.1855-1866) surveyor and architect was appointed by the Williamstown Council in 1856 to be its first Borough Surveyor where he resided from that date. In the yer be!o.re he had an office in ~apier Street, Fitzroy. In 1861 there was a practice styled William Bull and Son at 58 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne. In 1859 Bull was listed as being at St evedore Street, Williamstown, and in 1864-66 he was at 120 Douglas Parade Williamstown. '

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.. In 1855 he was awarded First Prize of 50 pounds for the design of a cottage of four rooms, and from the Victorian Freehold Land Society he was awarded the First Premium of 75 pounds for the design of a six-roomed cottage. He called tenders for a pair of villa residences, South Yarra (1855), a villa residence, South Yarra (1855), a manse for the Presbyterian minister at Williamstown (1856), a house and store for Thomas McMahon near the Kororoit Creek Bridge, at Braybrook, west of Melbourne (1865), and as William Bull and son, the completion of two cottages in Bay Street, Sandridge, for Cruikshank (1862).

L

In 1859 Bull was asked to design the Williamstown Mechanics' Institute, after which he was asked to prepare the working drawings and specification. The plans were then attacked by Andrew Inglis as being too elaborate. Bull reworked the scheme but without success for Inglis insisted on having competition designs called. A design by William White (q.v.) with plans similar to Bull's was adopted and John Flannagan (q.v.) acted as supervising architect. Bull also designed Abberton House (later Mandalay) 24 Th e Strand at the corner of John Street, Williamstown, in which he used local bluestone. The house was built in 1858-59 for William Probert and the builder was Charles Pinckney. It is a cement rendered house of extreme simplicity, with three windows placed symmetrically across the first floor, with a low fitted roof and only a slight eaves overhang. The windows are defined by architecture mouldings, and a plain string course at cill level runs horizontally across the building. Later additions have changed the appearance of the house. Argus, 21 September 1855, 21 September 1856, 19 April 1862, 4 April 1865; Australian Builder. 6 September 1855, 14 May 1856, 11 September 1856, 2 October 1856; Melbourne Herald. 21 September 1855; W, Evans, Port of Handy Prows Williamstown (19 ). Architectural Ind ex, University of Melbourne.

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BURGOYNE, William Henry (fl.1853-1855) clerk of works in the Colonial Architect's Office (later the Public Works Department) in Victoria. He joined the Office on 1 November 1853, was Clerk of Works at Bendigo from 1 November 1854, and left or was transferred from the Office on 23 May 1855. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1974, B.Arch., University of Melbourne. BURKITT, George L. (fI.1854) architect (?) of St. Kilda (Melbourne) who called tenders for a 7-roomed house, at St. Kilda and for a stable, coach-house, etc. at St. Kilda. Argus, 29 May 1854, 4 September 1854; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. BURN, Thomas (fl.1845) architect whose office was in Lonsdale Street, Melbourne. Port Phj1\jp Herald, 28 March 1845; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BURNS, Ioseph Robert (c1807-1883) architect and surveyor arrived in Melbourne in about 1842. He is first mentioned as working in Melbourne as the designer of a two room brick schoolhouse in Collins St that acted as a temporary Schots Church. He is next known as being employed in the Colonial Architect's Office in Melbourne from about 1843. Bums gained the position of second senior officer by 1851 and was the Foreman of Works under Henry Ginn(q.v.), the Colonial Architect at that time. He resigned from this position at the end of 1851 because he had been excluded from a fifty percent pay rise given to civil servants, (as incentive not to leave for the Ballarat gold fields). Bum's activities over 1852 are not clear, for while he was doing work for the architect George Wharton (q.v.) in February 1852, he was either dissatisfied or in need of employment because by the end of that year he applies unsuccessfully to the Colonial Architect for re-employment. During 1853 Burns joined George Wharton in the partnership Wharton and Bums, architects and surveyors. They practised at 30 CoBins Street and during that year called a large number of tenders for a variety of buildings including the Victoria Arcade, Bourke Street East; a Wesleyan Chapel in Church Street, Richmond; and many hotels, shops and houses. It is likely that these commissions were brought into the practice substantially by Wharton, as he already had a very busy practice prior to 1853. In 1854, as a sole practitioner listed at both 62 Little Collins Street West and 25 Swanston Street, Bums called tenders for many hotels and houses, perhaps the most notable being Erindale Villa in St Kilda for Thomas Monahan. During that year he also carried on Arthur Newson's practice (q.v.) during Newson's temporary absence from the colony. In 1855-6 his practice moved to 58 Flinders Lane East and in 1857 to 41 Swanston Street, during which time he was responsible for fairly large projects such as the Mechanics' Institute at Prahran and a Chapel in Collingwood. Bums is also recognised as the designer of Sors. They practised at 30 Coliins Street and during that year called a large number of tenders for a variety of buildings including the Victoria Arcade, Bourke Street East; a Wesleyan Chapel in Church Street, Richmond; and many hotels, shops and houses. It is likely that these commissions were brought into the practice substantially by Wharton, as he already had a very busy practice prior to 1853. In 1854, as a sole practitioner listed .at both 62 Little Collins Street West and 25 Swanston Street, Bums called tenders for many hotels and houses, perhaps the most notable being l/BIl9


Erindale Villa in St Kilda for Thomas Monahan. During that year he also carried on Arthur Newson's practice (q.v.) during Newson's temporary absence from the colony. In 1855-6 his practice moved to 58 Flinders Lane East and in 1857 to 41 Swanston Street, during which time he was responsible for fairly large projects such as the Mechanics' Institute at Prahran and a Chapel in Collingwood. Burns is also recognised as the designer of St Thomas' Free Church of England, Ballarat. He was of sufficient standing in the profession to be invited to join the Victorian Institute of Architects in 1856 (but did not attend their third meeting in August 1856). Burns also chaired a meeting concerning competitions in opposition to those of the Victorian Architects Association. Burns died at the Alfred Hospital on 20 March 1880 at the age of 73, an old Colonial of 38 years. M.C. Sheppard, Biography of George Wharton, Investigation Project 1980, B.Arch, University of Melbourne; Sands and Kenny, Directory. 1857-61; Sands and McDougall, Directory. 1862-63; J. Blundell, The Melbourne Commercial Directory. 1854-56; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'; J.M. Freeland Melbourne Churches 1836-1851. (Melbourne 1963); Argus. 25 March 1880, p.l.

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BUTLER, J.E. (fl.1868) called tenders for the erection of 6 wooden shops (1868) at Emerald Hill (South Melbourne). ~

30 October 1868; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BUTTON - (fl.1854) called tenders for the erection of a house in Collingwood (Melbourne) (1854). ~

6 May 1854; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BYERLEY, F.J. (FL.1859-62) architect, whose office was in the Hall of Commerce, Collins Street West, Melbourne. Tanner's Melbourne Directory, 1859; Architecture Index, University of Melbourne.

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CAMERON, T.B. (fl.1860) is credited with the design of the Hebrew Synagogue, at the corner of Barkly and Princes Streets, Ballarat, for the erection of which he called tenders in 1860. The builder of the synagogue is believed to ha ve been W. Barker. Argu s. 15 February 1860; W B Withers, Hi story of BaJlarat. (Ballarat 1887); Records of the National Trust of Australia (Vict oria); Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. CAMPBELL - (fl.1855) architect, known to be the designer of a house for Orr, on Gardner's Creek Road Toorak (Melbourne). A dispute over the tender for the plastering in the house lead to an action in the Supreme Court (Carroll & Orr) . Australian Builder. 5 August 1855, 9 September 1855; Architecture Index, University of Melbourne. CAMPBELL, Edward (fl.1854) who called himself architect, surveyor and valuer, had an office in Yarra Street, Geelong where he called tenders for the slating and painting of an unnamed building. He roay be the Edward Campbell who arrived with his wife on the H.C. Kidston in September 1852. Geelong Adyertiser. 11 December 1854; L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Allan Willingham Index.

CAMPBELL, John (1828-1864), architect, was born in Birmingham England the son of John Campbell, the Curator of Birmingham Town Hall and Martha, nee Mills. He emigrated on the John Bunyan to Victoria in 1852 and married Hephzibah Bevis in 1861 in Melbourne. They had three children, Percy, Herbert and Edith. Campbell died at Balmain Street Richmond on 11 December 1869, and was buried in the St. Kilda Cemetery. Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate.

CAMPBELL, J. (fl.1869) architect was born in 1828 in Birmingham, England the son of John Campbell the Curator of Birmingham Town Hall and Martha, nee Mills. He emigrated to Victoria in about 1852 and in 1861 he married Hephzibar, nee Bevis in Melbourne. Campbell died on 11 December 1869 at Balmain Street Richmond, the same address that was listed as his office in 1869. He had three children Percy John, Herbert Thomas Lewis and Edith Lucy Martha aged 6, 4 and 1? in 1869. Sands and McDougall Directory 1869; Death Certificate, Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages.

CASELLI, Henry Richard (c.1815-1885), architect, was born at Falmouth in Cornwall in about 1815. He emigrated to Australia in 1853 with his wife Georgiana, nee Ford, and daughters Georgiana and Elizabeth, arriving in December of that year aboard the Gazelle. Caselli's first (known) address in Victoria was his office in Webster Street, Ballarat in 1858. It is not known when he arrived in Ballarat, however he stayed on and had a long 2/e/1


and successful career there. By 1868, the Illustrated Australian News referred to Caselli as , ... a gentleman who has for many years successfully followed the profession of an architect in Ballarat'. He was of some standing within the city, being president of the Ballarat City Club and a Justice of the Peace. Caselli designed several major civic buildings, at least twelve churches, and some hotels and domestic buildings. He won first prize of 50 pounds in the competition for the Ballarat District Orphan Asylum, built in 1865-66, and again in 1868 won a prize of 100 pounds for the new Town Hall. Despite this, the Town Hall was not built to his design. The appointed judges were Terry (q.v.) and Billing (q.v.), however their decision was overruled by the Council who appointed Percy Oakden (the second prize winner) to combine Caselli's submission with that of J.J. Lorenz (q.v.). The building, as built in 1870-72, is essentially Caselli's interior within Lorenz's exterior. Other prominent buildings designed by Caselli are the headquarters for the Ballarat City Fire Brigade (1860); Welsh Presbyterian Church (1862-3); Mitchell's Building (1868-71), St Thomas Aquinas Church in Clunes (1872); and Glenfine Homestead on the Cressy Road (1872) for the wealthy pastorilist William Rowe. From about 1881 to 1884 and perhaps even as early as 1870, Caselli was in partnership with Charles Douglas Figgis, as Caselli and Figgis. They are known to have designed the Ballarat Gas Company Offices (1870); Congregational Church (1881-2), and a large house in Drummond Street for William Bailey, a wealthy pastoralist and investor in mining. Caselli is believed to have moved his office from Webster Street to the Chamber of Commerce at 42-46 Short Street at an unknown date. He designed his own home in 1865 a 20 room brick residence in Webster Street. By that date it was a fashionable address and presumably an indication of Caselli's financial success. Caselli died at the age of sixty-nine on 3 March 1885, his two daughters having predeceased him. It is not known whether his wife survived him. A. McIvor, Biography of H.R. Caselli, Investigation Project 1977, B. Arch., University of Melbourne; W. Iacobs et al Ballarat A Guide to Buildings and Areas 1851-1940. (Melbourne 1981); Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Illustrated Australian News. 26/5/66, 11/7/68; A Sutherland Victoria and Its Metropolis, Vol. HA, (Melbourne 1888); Australian Heritage Commission, ~ Heritage of Australia, (Melbourne 1981); Allan Willingham Index. CHADLEY, [arnes (ÂŁI.1858) architect and surveyor, had an office for a time at 180 Bourke Street East in Melbourne and for a time at 45 Swanston Street. In the year 1860 his office was in the Exchange, William Street. ~ .25 August 1858~ Victoria Industrial Society, Catalogue of the Eighth Annual

ExhIbItion. 1858; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. C~AM~ERS, Thomas (ÂŁI.1863) surveyor, is known to have practised in Melbourne in 1863. HIS business address during that year was 129 Westgarth Street, Fitzroy.

Sands and McDougall, Directory. 1863.

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CHRISTY - (ÂŁ1.1854) called tenders for the erection and completion of a six-roomed brick cottage on the Eastern Hill (East Melbourne) near the Bishop's Palace (Bishopscourt, C1arendon Street) in 1854.

Argus. 31 July 1854; Architecturallndex, University of Melbourne. CHIRADE, Emile (fI.1862) was listed under architects and surveyors as practising in Melbourne in 1862. His business address was 58 Elizabeth Street, and private address 4 Banbridge Terrace, Bouvrie Street, Carlton. Sands and McDougall, Directory, 1862,

CLARKE, George S. (ÂŁ1.1859-1886) architect and surveyor, Swanston (was Madeline) Street CarIton in 1859, and 51 Leicester Street from 1860 to 1886. He is believed to be the same George Clarke who built a brick and stone shed in Queensberry Street Carlton opposite Dight's Mills in 1873, owned and built by Robert Boddington. A C1arke also designed a four room two-storey house in Bouverie Street Carlton in 1878 for a Mrs Murphy with John Bell as contractor, and a house in William Street Melbourne in 1880 for Newman with William Baird contractor. It is possible that he was also the Clarke in the partnership of Roberts and Clarke, with [arnes Roberts (q.v.) during 1853.

Tanner's Melbourne Directory. 1859; Architecturallndex, University of Melbourne.

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CLAUSCEN and BECKER (fl.1856) are credited, incorrectly, with the design of Black Rock House, 36 Ebden Avenue, Black Rock (Sandringham) for Charles H. Ebden. The house and stone walled stable court of Black Rock House were probably designed by A.E. [ohnson (q.v.), a nephew of CH. Ebden. D. Saunders (ed.) Historic Bujlding of Victoria. Melbourne 1966.

CLAY, Charles (fl.1867-1877), surveyor, practised in both Sandridge (Port Melbourne) and Richmond. During 1867 and 1868 he practised in Bay Street, Sandridge and in 1869 was listed as the Town Surveyor at Nott Street, Sandridge. He appears to have held this position until 1871, and is next listed from 1873-1877, this time as Borough Surveyor at Church Street, Richmond. Sands and McDougall, Directory, 1867-77.

CLAYTON, William Henry ( - 1877) architect, practised in New Zealand in the later 1860s and 1870s, but before that he had been in Tasmania and, probably, Victoria. He was born in Tasmania, trained in Brussells, and worked in London for Sir John Rennie. At some time he returned to Tasmania where he designed a large number of buildings (estimated at about 300), many of which are in the Launceston area and include churches, banks, mansions, a theatre and a mechanics' institute. Before going to New Zealand he was probably in Melbourne as he was later referred to as a 'Melbourne man'. In New Zealand he formed a partnership in 1863 with William Mason in Dunedin. In 1868 he was appointed Colonial Architect and moved to Wellington. He died while visiting Dunedin in 1877. John Stacpoole, Colonial Architecture of New Zealand, (Wellington 1974);

CLEMENT, S.A. (fl. 1869-71), architect(?) was in partnership with Robert Adamson (q.v.) as Clement and Adamson during 1869 and 1870 at 35 Queen Street. Clement and Adamson are known to have designed several cottages in South Melbourne, a villa at Studley Park, a parsonage for The Wesleyan Church in Port Melbourne, and a Friendly Societies' Hall for W.J,T. Clarke, also in Port Melbourne. Their partnership only lasted two years and by 1871 Clement had his own practice. Sands and McDougaJl, Directory, 1870; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

COAD, Henry (fl,1863) surveyor, practised in Melbourne around 1863, His business address was 252 ]ohnston Street East, East Collingwood. Sands and McDougall, Directory, 1863.

CONLON, Peter Thomas (c.1830-1871), architect and engineer, was born in London, England. He married Isabella Scott in about 1850, and their first child, lames Thomas was born in London in about 1851. Conlan emigrated to Australia in 1852, but appears not to have commenced in professional practice for several years. Conlon first called for tenders in 1857 although he was not listed in the Melbourne Directory until 1864. During that year, his business address was given as 17 Queen Street, from 1865-1869 as 30 Queen Street, and 18701871 at 56 Little Collins Street East. His private address between 1864-1868 was Cupitt

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Street, Richmond, and in 1879 Union Street, Richmond, and at the time of his death in 1871, Punt Hill, South Yarra. In his fourteen years of practice in Melbourne, Conlon built up a seemingly busy practice. He designed such buildings as a Music Hall and [enkins' Hotel, both for Charles Deane, the Duke of Wellington Hotel in Flinders Street, and many houses in Melbourne and Geelong, including a villa for George Coppin in Richmond. Conlon was only 41 when he died on 8 April 1871 from a wasting condition probably caused by tuberculosis. His practice was continued by his eldest son [ames who was then aged 21 (he subsequently formed the partnership Taylor and Conlon). Conlon was also survived by his wife and three other children, Isabella (19), Mary Ann (17) and Kate (15). Two children, Eliza and Edward predeceased him. Surprisingly, his family at his death did not know the names of Conlon's parents. He is buried in the Boroondara Cemetery, Kew. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and McDougall, Directory, 1864-1873; L. Huddle, An Architectural Biography of [arnes Thomas Conlon, Investigation Project 1978, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'.

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COOK, Abel (fI.1829-1894) inspector of works, worked for the Public Works Department for about twenty five years. He joined the Department on 15 October 1866 as a temporary inspector of works and by 1885 his duties were to supervise the erection and completion of buildings. On 16 July 1890 he was appointed the District Inspector of Works for the Eastern District (Gippsland). B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B. Arch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

COPE, F.e. (ÂŁ1.1860) architect at Inkerman Street, St Kilda and then at 57 Little Collins Street East, Melbourne. Argus. 14 December 1860, 20 February 1861; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

CORBETT, Charles (f1.1850's) architect and contractor at Geelong. He established an architectural drawing academy in 1850 which was located in Coronation Street, Little Scotland (Geelong West). He called tenders in 1853 for the erection of a two-storey house. His office was at that time in Hope Street, Ashby. Geelong Advertiser. 6 July 1850,20 April 1853; L Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's. Research Report 1979, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Allan Willingham Index.

CORBETT, Charles (1819-1868) mason, born at Campbelltown, Argyleshire where his father Richard Corbett was a farmer. He was married at Campbelltown at the age of 29 to Cecilia Somerville before embarking to Victoria in 1849. He was survived by his wife and four children. He died at Woodhouse Station and his wife was living in Geelong at his death. It is not known whether this is the same person as the Charles Corbett listed above. Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate.

COUNSEL, R. (ÂŁ1.1859) architect, Park Street, Emerald Hill (South Melbourne) Tanner's Melbourne Directory. 1859; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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COURTNEY and CAMPBELL (fl.1854) architects, submitted a design in the competition for the Melbourne Royal Exchange, described as having the "ad vantage of economy but not adequate for city requirements". The competition was won by T. and S.H. Merritt. Argus, 13 February 1854; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.,

COX, George Reilly (c.1821-1888), architect and surveyor, was born in Lancashire, son of George Cox, architect, and arrived in Victoria in c.1848, and had a long but obscure career in architecture in Melbourne. He is not listed in the Melbourne Directory before 1862, despite having advertised for building tenders as early as 1854 and having been recognized as the architect of St John 's Church, Burgundy Street, Heidelberg, built between 1849-51. Between 1862 and 1871 he is listed as practising at 41 Swanston Street; moving to 40 Collins Street East from 1872-1875; then to 52 Collins Street East from 1876-1884; 50 Collins Street East in 1885; 35 Queen Street East from 1886-1888; and 87 Queen Street in 1889. During this time, Cox lived at several addresses in Brunswick, Fitzroy, East Collingwood and Richmond, but in 1872 he settled at 111 Hodgkinson Street, Clifton Hill, where he remained until at least 1890. Cox was responsible for a variety of work. His ecclesiastical buildings included St John's Church, Heidelberg (which suffered structural problems soon after completion); Primitive Methodist Churches in Carlton, Bendigo and Prahran; and several manses and schools. He also designed a variety of villas and cottages in several Melbourne suburbs. Cox married twice, his first wife probably having died before he came to Victoria. He married his second wife, Elizabeth Anne Hoghton, at Northcote, Melbourne, perhaps in 1872. He had no children from either marriage. He died at his home in Hodgkinson Street, Clifton Hill, on 14 October 1888 aged sixty-seven. He was a Methodist and is buried in the Boroondara (Kew) Cemetery. Sands and McDougall, Directory. 1862-1890; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'; M.M. Freeland Melbourne Churches 1836-1851.(Melbourne 1963).

CRAIG, John H (1818-1884), surveyor, teacher and auctioneer, born in Manchester, the son of John Craig, school teacher. He arrived in Victoria in 1841 and married Susanna Tillie at Warrnambool, it being his second marriage, of which nothing is known of his first. He was in Melbourne in 1842 where he opened a private school and during 1843 called tenders for buildings in Melbourne which have not been identified. By 1845 he was in Geelong where he ran an academy which included land-surveying, plotting and mapping, and landscape drawing. Early in 1846 he was an assistant to David Lennox, the Superintendent of Bridges for the Port Phillip District (Victoria) in the Colonial Engineer's Office of N.S.W. Craig also practised engraving. He died at Warrnambool in 1884 where he was an auctioneer and commission agent. He was survived by his wife, two children of his first marriage and two from his second. Geelong Adyertiser. 1 March 1845, 15 February 1845; L Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; AIlan Willingham Index.

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Melbourne City Council Records held at Victoria Public Records Office, Laverton; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; D.S. Lyall, The Architectural Profession in Melbourne 1835-1860, M.Arch 1965 Uni versity of Melbourne; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B. Arch University of Melbourne; Allan Willingham, Index; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'.

BARKER, Ernest A. (fl 1882) architect. He is credited with the design of a Roman Catholic Church at Stratford Victoria built at a cost of 1,400 pounds. He is also presumed to be the same Ernest Barker who built three shops on the corner of Market Lane and Little Bourke Street, Melbourne, in 1882. They were built for R. Dawson by a builder Robert S. Ekins. An architect by name of Barker also built a house in Rathdowne Street Carlton in 1884. This was for a Mrs Hughes and was built by G. Richardson. Ernest A. Barker is known to have articled E.J. Henderson into his office. M.A. Ebsworth, Pioneer Catholic Victoria (Melbourne 1972) p.136; A. Sutherland et al, Victoria and its Metropolis: Past and present. Vo1.2, p.520; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notes of Intent to Build' .

BARKER, R. Stelling (fl.1853-1858) architect(?) in Melbourne whose office was at 139 Little Collins Street East in 1853 and at 56 Chancery Lane in 1854. Five tender notices were placed by him for buildings which included two houses in Bourke Street West for H.W. Mortimer and G.A. Mauritz, two bluestone warehouses at the King Street wharf for H.W. Mortimer, a brick cottage and outbuildings at upper Hawthorn for WaIter Dudley. Two of the tender notices refer to a bluestone store in Little Bourke Street East, and two stores in Elizabeth Street. ~

13 June 1853,23 February 1854, 15 March 1854, 15 February, 1858; Melbourne Herald 4 January 1854; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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BARNES, Frederick (c.1824-1884) architect in Melbourne and partner of Ioseph Reed (q.v.) in the practice of Reed and Barnes, was born in London and arrived in Victoria in 1852. Barnes died unmarried at the age of sixty on 5 January 1884. He was Clerk of Works for 'Kolor', Penshurst. Death Certificate, Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne; Diary of J. Stenton, 'Kolor', Penshurst; Christopher Wood biographical index of Reed and Barnes.

BARRETT, Charles (c.1824-1891) architect and clerk of works, was employed in the Public Works Department of Victoria from 10 March 1856 until 1884. In 1859 his duties were described as the design of buildings and the making of drawings and specifications under the direction of the Chief Draftsmen. He is credited with the design of the part of the Victoria Barracks (St Kilda Road) commenced in 1856, and was Clerk of Works, with A.T. Snow (q.v.), for the Warden's Office at Smythe's Creek. Until 1 January 1861 his positions were temporary, but after that date he was one of the permanent professional staff. He was classified Assistant Architect (Class 2) on 1 July 1874, and in 1879 he was listed as Architect (Class 2). In mid 1876 he took 12 months leave on half pay. Barrett retired from the Public Works Department in 1884 after 28 years service, and in which year he turned sixty. The only private commissions associated with his name are Holy Trinity Church of England, Kew (1862) and Holy Trinity Church of England, Doncaster (1868-9) both of which were later extended and altered. In 1856 he was living in Cremorne Street, Richmond, and from 1861 he was in Kew where in 1872 he was living in "Leura" in Pakington Street. In the early 1880s he was at 100 Punt Road, Richmond, and then from 1885 he lived at 25 Avoca Street, South Yarra . Building Engineering and Mining Journal

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BA TEMAN, Edward La Trobe (c.1816/20-1897), book-illuminator, draughtsman, architectural decorator and garden designer was probably born in Derbyshire, England. He was the son of John Frederick Bateman and Mary Agnes nee La Trobe. Bateman possibly had an architectural background as his uncle by marriage, Benjamin La Trobe, was the architect for some major buildings in Washington and Baltimore; however Bateman did not enter the architectural field immediately, instead he pursued other artistic activities. Before emigrating to Australia in 1852, Bateman became known as an illuminator for writers such as Mary and William Howitt (whose daughter he was engaged to for a time) and artists T. Woolner, B. Smith, J.E. Millais and D.G. Rossetti. He worked for four years under Owen [ones, illuminating two books for him namely Fruits from Garden and Field (1850) and Winged Thoughts (1851), and it has been suggested that he also worked on [ones' famous Grammar of Ornament. This is improbable as its publication date was four years after Bateman's departure for Australia. Bateman's skills extended past book illuminations, and he undertook projects such as the design and fabrication of rustic furniture for the Hermitage (a house he had taken at Highgate, London) and it is claimed that he helped [ones with the decoration of the Fine Arts Court of the Crystal Palace for the 1851 Great Exhibition. In 1852, William Howitt left for the Victorian goldfields, and Bateman, Woolner and Smith departed a month later aboard the Windsor. Bateman had an important connection in Australia with his cousin by marriage being Lieutenant-Governor Charles Ioseph LaTrobe. During the time before La Trobe's departure from Melbourne in 1854, Bateman prepared several pencil sketches for him, including some of the cottage at [olimont. Despite th is connection, Bateman appears to have spent most of his time with William Howitt. He travelled with Howitt to the Bendigo (then Sandhurst) diggings and later made his base at Howitt's residences in Collins Street and 'Barragun da' at Cape Schanck. Bateman has been accredited with the designs of both 'Barragunda', built in 1866, and 'Heronswood' built at Dromana in 1871 for Professor W.E. Hearn, both similar in their ruggedly picturesque designs. In about 1866 Bateman was working for the prominent Melbourne architectural firm of Reed and Barnes (q.v.), His contribution to this firm appears to have been in the decorative arts and he executed stencil decorations to the interior of the 'Octagon' they built behind the Melbourne Public Library in 1866. His other known decoration included passion in flowers painted over a fireplace at the pre-1866 'Barragunda' and a drawing room at Mountstuart House. While in Australia, Bateman continued to pursue his interest in book illuminating, and his title blocks prepared for the Melbourne Public Library catalogues in 1861 were one of the first instances of Australian flora being used for decorative motifs. His adaption to Australian themes and motifs was also displayed in Louisa Meredith's Bush Friends of Tasmania (1860 and 1891). Bateman's other main activity was garden design, and he is credited with the design of several large gardens in Melbourne. These include the Treasury Gardens and Fitzroy Gardens (1857), and in May 1867 he was engaged for three years to layout the grounds of Chatsworth House in the Western District for John Moffat. Bateman was unfortunately not able to fulfill this commission, due to a hand injury he received in a buggy accident in September the same year. B?teman left Australia after a series of prolonged lawsuits relating to his accident. He died aged 82 and 30 December 1897 while in service as landscape gardener to the Marquess of Bute at Mountstuart House, Rothesay Scotland.

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D. Thomas 'Ed ward LaTrobe Bateman' in Australian Dictionary of Biography Vo1.3, 1969, Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BIERS, Henry (Hugh?) (f1. 1853-1859) architect and surveyor, was in the partnership Wylie and Biers from 1853-1855. Wylie's full name and biographical details are not known. The firm had offices at 11A Collins St West in 1853, and in 1854 moved to 29 Bourke St East and 83 Elizabeth St, while in 1855 their offices were in Russell St. The partnership was responsible for a variety of buiding types including a cottage ornee at Gardiner for Adolphus Haller, two villas in East Melbourne for David Barry, and a warehouse and flour mill for the merchant W.F. Rucker. In 1857 and 1858 Biers is listed in private practice as an architect and surveyor at 46 Russell St and in 1859 as H. Biers and Co. of 44 Elizabeth Street. William John Henningham (q.v.) is listed as being in Bier's office in 1859. Henry Biers is probably the same as Hugh Biers (Snr) architect, recorded as the father of Hugh Biers (Inr), a Civil Servant, who died in Melbourne in June 1886. Hugh Biers (Inr) had arrived in Victoria in 1853, presumably with his father Hugh Biers (Snr) the architect, which is the same year that Wylie and Biers are believed to have commenced in practice. Hugh Biers (Inr) was born in Liverpool England and his mother was Elizabeth Biers, nee Stringer, suggesting that the architect also came from there. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and Kenny, Directory 18571860; Death Certificate Hugh Biers (Inr), Registrar of Births Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne.

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BILLING, Nathaniel (1821-1910) architect, was born on 5 March 1821 at Brightwell, Oxfordshire, the son of William Billing, a grazier, and Mary, nee Billing. He was articled to the prestigious office of Sir Gilbert Scott in London and later commenced in practice under his own name in Slough. Billing married his first wife Henrietta, nee Heybourne, in 1850 at Hillington. During their 19 years of marriage they had four sons and five daughters. They emigrated to Australia in 1853 and in August the same year Billing was appointed by Iarnes Balmain (q.v.), the Acting Colonial Architect, to the post of Clerk of Works at Port Fairy (then Belfast) on a salary of 500 pounds per annum. He stayed in this position until he was dispensed with as a part of Government cutbacks on 18 February 1855. During that time he worked in the Warrnambool and Port Fairy districts, his main jobs being the supervision of the Immigration Depot at Port Fairy and the Court House at Warmambool. After leaving the Colonial Architect's Office Billing commenced his own practice in Port Fairy. He attracted important clients, designing the Bank of Australasia and St John's Church in Port Fairy and Christ Church in Warrnambool. He is also recorded as the supervisor for St Patrick's Church in Port Fairy from 1857-61, the design of which had been sent from England by Charles Hansom (q .v.), Billing's involvement with that project could not have been very extensive as he moved to Melbourne in 1857 and soon launched into a busy practice there. In Melbourne, Billing practised from many different offices over the 36 years before his retirement in 1893. Early in 1858 he worked at 33 Swanston St, moving to 28 Collins St West later that year, in 1860 41 Collins St West, 1861-62 57 Elizabeth St, 1863-65 49 Elizabeth St, 1866-6721 Queen St, 1868-7070 Queen St, 1871 41 Collins St West,. 1872-7346 Collins St West, 1874-838 Collins St, 1884 22 Collins St, 1885-88 78 Collins St, 1889411 Collins St West and from 1890 409 Collins St West. His residential address was more stable, being in Grey St St Kilda then after several short moves, High Street Road in Mr Waverley from 1871 to 1881, and then 93 Westbury St St Kilda from 1882 until his death in 1910. His interests extended beyond architecture as he owned a vineyard called 'Waverley Park' adjoining St Stephen's Mt Waverley and when resident at Mt Waverley was treasurer and first trustee of St Stephen's. When based in Melbourne, Billing's work was predominantly ecclesia stical and for many years he worked under Bishop Perry as the Anglican Church architect. Despite this position, he designed churches for several denominations situated all throughout Victoria. He was strongly influenced by his training with Scott and designed in the Gothic mode. Among his churches a All Saints' St Kilda, St Paul's Sale and St Mattias' Richmond. In 1855 he declined the second prize of 75 pounds for St Mary's of the Angels in Geelong. His secular commissions included several houses, offices and hotels. He was an active member of the profession, and was a member of the Victorian Institute of Architects in 1856, (its inaugural year) becoming the auditor and a member of the council in 1858. He was Vice-President of the second Institute in 1879-80 under Sir Redmond Barry and President in 1884-85 in succession to his close friend Charles Webb (q.v.), From 1885-96 he held the position of Honorary Secretary and for his services was made a life fellow. Billing was active in his official pos ts. In February 1884, as the newly elected President of the V.LA. he lectured on 'The Desirability of Establishing a Chair of Architecture at the Melbourne University'. He was also keen to advance technological knowledge and was an associate of Cope whose firm manufactured 'Tyerman's Patent Hoop Iron Band'. In 1880 he proposed to the Victorian Institute of Architects an annual exhibition of members' work, which resulted in the first architectural exhibition in Melbourne, being held in August that year and was opened by Sir Redmond Barry. In 1868 he acted as judge with Leonard Terry for the new Ballarat West Town Hall Competition. l/BIlO


Billing's fourth child, William Urban Billing joined his father's firm in 1880, and they practised as Billing and Son. They worked together until Nathaniel retired in about 1895, and although he was succeeded as a partner by Solon Alonzo Peck in about 1895, the firm name was Billing and Son and Peck until Billing's death in 1910, William Urban having predeceased him. From about 1882 until 1892, the talented young architect E.G. Kilburn worked for Billing and Son. Billing's first wife, Henrietta died in June 1867 and in 1869 Billing married Mary Anne, nee Hooke. He had no children by this second marriage. Billing died on 29 January 1910 at his home in St Kilda, aged 88 and is buried in the Church of England section of the St Kilda Cemetery. 'The Late Nathaniel Billing' Royal Victorian Institute of Architects Journal' Vol. 8, March 1910 pp.25 and 26; P. Trergrove, Nathaniel Billing, Investigation Project 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; I. Cortese, Biography of Nathaniel Billing, Investigation Project 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong, 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979, B. Arch., University of Melbourne; B. Trethowan A Study of Banks in Victoria 1851-1939, 1976 Historic Buildings Council; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; National Trust of Australia (Victoria), Research into St Stephen's Church of England, Mt Waverley, Ref. No. 1648, 28 February 1978; Allan Willingham Index; Death Certificate, Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne.

BLACKBURN, [ames (Snr) (1803-1854), civil engineer, surveyor and architect was born in Upton, West Ham, England, the son of John Blackburn, a liveryman. Blackburn married Rachel Hems in 1826 and they had ten children of whom all but two were born in Australia. In 1833, when employed as an inspector for the commd. D.Pike (ed.). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol.3, 1969, Melbourne; Sands and McDougall, Directory. 18610-81; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BLACKBURN, [arnes (Snr) (1803-1854), civil engineer, surveyor and architect was born in Upton, West Ham, England, the son of John Blackburn, a liveryman. Blackburn married Rachel Hems in 1826 and they had ten children of whom all but two were born in Australia. In 1833, when employed as an inspector for the commissioners of sewers for Holburn and Finsbury (in London), Blackburn was involved in a building speculation which failed. The financial hardship that resulted lead him to forge a cheque for 600 pounds. Consequently he was tried and sentenced in May 1833 to transportation for life. He arrived in Hobart Town aboard the Isabella on 14 November, his wife and daughter following on the Augustus Caesar in October 1835, and son [ames Jnr(q.v .) in 1842 (aged 13) on the Canada. On arrival, Blackburn was employed by the Department of Roads and Bridges, and in 1839 by the newly formed Department of Public Works. Although a convict, he was given considerable responsibility within these Departments, and after about 1838 was their chief designer of both architectural and engineering works.

After petitioning in 1836 and 1839 he was granted his free pardon in May 1841 upon which he established a private practice with another former convict, [ames Thompson. During

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this period Blackburn was responsible for a variety of work, mostly in the vicinity of Hobart, such as the Government House for the Franklins (1840), the watchhouse at St John's, Newtown (1841-2) and a museum for Lady Franklin (1842). In late 1844 Blackburn moved his home from Risdon Road, Newtown to the Midlands town, Campbell Town. His partnership with Thompson continued after this move despite Thompson remaining in Hobart. In Campbell Town, Blackburn rented a cottage called Camelford and carried out architectural work as well as operating a flour mill on the Elizabeth River with his son [ames. This was necessary to supplement his income (architectural commissions being scarce at this time) and he was recorded in 1847 as owing a debt, amongst others, of 2,000 pounds to [ames Thompson. During this period his architectural works included the remodelling of 'Rosedale' (c.1846) and engineering works such as The Bridgewater Bridge across the Derwent River. Due to economic difficulties in Tasmania, Blackburn moved to Melbourne with his family in 1849. They sailed on the Shamrock and arrived on 20 April, taking lodgings in Collins Street. Blackburn set up a practice as an architect and civil engineer and became one of the proprietors of the Water Company which in 1849 undertook to establish a filtered water outlet on the corner of Elizabeth and Flinders Streets. The Company put up 'certain Buildings, Engines, and Machinery ... for the supply of filtered water to the inhabitants of Melbourne, but unfortunately the project was not realized due to protests from the town's water carriers. Blackburn also investigated the practicality of mining coal at Western Port, however he did not proceed with that project either. On the 1 November 1849, he took up an appointment as City Surveyor to the Melbourne Council. It was in this capacity that he was responsible for the planning of the Melbourne water supply from the Yan Yean reservoir. Upon taking up the appointment as City Surveyor (in which he was prohibited from accepting private commissions), Blackburn transferred his practice to his son [ames [nr (aged 21), and Arthur Newson(q.v.). They practised until 1851 as Newson and Blackbum. The notable architectural work by [arnes (Snr) in Melboume was Bishopscourt, East Melbourne, built for the Anglican Archbishop Charles Perry. The building was started by [ames (Snr) before his appointment as City Surveyor, passed onto Newson and Blackbum, and appears to have been completed between 1851-53 by the firm Russell and Thomas(q.v.). In January 1853, Blackburn was injured in a fall from his horse while checking the boundaries for the Water Works Scheme. Still weak from his fall, he contracted typhoid fever the following year and died on 3 March 1854 at Brunswick Street, Collingwood. He was survived by only five of his ten children. A catalogue of Blackbum's extensive architectural library survives. [ane Grove, The Architecture of the Blackbums, Research Reports 1981, B.Arch, University of Melboume; H. Preston, '[ames Blackburn', in Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol.1, (Melboume 1968) Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; H. Preston, [arnes Blackburn, 1803-1854, M.A. Thesis, 1970, University of Melbourne; Records of the Melboume City Council, Public Records Office, Laverton.

BLACKBURN, [arnes (Inr) (c.1829-1888), architect, surveyor and civil engineer, was the eldest son of the architect and engineer [arnes Blackbum Srn(q.v.). He emigrated to Hobart in 1842 on the Canada at the age of 13, following his parents and sister who had emigrated in 1833 and 1835 respectively, as a result of his father's sentence to transportation for life. No details of Blackburn's formal eduction are known, however it is probable that he

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trained under his father, who received a full pardon in 1841, learning much from his father's extensive library. Blackburn moved with his parents to Melbourne in 1849, arriving on the Shamrock on the 20 April. In November of that year, his father accepted the appointment of City Surveyor of the Melbourne Corporation; a position that prohibited him from accepting private commissions. As a result, his father transferred his practice to [arnes (Jnr) and Arthur Newson(q.v.). They practised at 35 Collins Street, West under the name of Newson and Blackburn until March 1851, when the partnership was dissolved by mutual consent. Between 1851 and 1856 Blackburn was listed as a sole practitioner, however from 1857 to 1863 he is not listed as working in Melbourne, although he was again working by 1864. His business addresses were: 52 Collins Street from 1855-1856,55 Elizabeth Street, 1864-1869; 48 Coli ins Street West, 1870-1872; 253 Hoddle Street, East Collingwood, 1873-1879; 140 Fitzroy Street, Fitzroy, 1880-1886 (possibly only his private address); and 41 Temple Court, Collins Street West, 1887-1888. During this period Blackburn's private address changed several times. From 1865-67 it was in Darling St, South Yarra; 1870-1875, 128 (now 364?) Church Street, Richmond; 1876c.1880, 35 Kerr Street, Fitzroy; and c.1881-1888 probably at 140 Fitzroy Street, Fitzroy. Blackburn is known to have attended the third meeting to form the Victorian Institute of Architects on 14 August 1856. He acted in 1888 as Official Referee under the Melbourne Building Act (Peter Kerr(q.v.) was the other Official Referee, acting as a nominee of the Government). Relatively little is known about Blackburn's architectural works. When working with Newson, the partnership won third prize in the Melbourne Benevolent Asylum competition (in which Charles Laing(q.v.) was awarded first prize and John Gill(q.v.) second). Newson and Blackburn were also responsible for the central nave of St Stephen's Church Richmond, St Enoch's Church Collins Street and Merville House, South Yarra. After 1851 Blackburn designed St Mark's Church Parsonage and Infant School in Fitzroy (of which he was a trustee); otherwise his known work consisted of small houses, inns and shops, mainly in Melbourne, Fitzroy and Collingwood. In 1854 he called tenders for the erection of two pairs of iron houses at 181-3 and 187-9 Brunswick Road, Brunswick, these were constructed of prefabricated English components (extant in 1981). In about 1858 Blackburn turned to Civil Engineering and Surveying and in this capacity he was appointed Borough Surveyor of Richmond. Blackburn died on 15 August 1888 aged about fifty-nine. B. Katsipidis, Biography of [arnes Blackburn [nr, Investigation Project 1973, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; N. Lewis, Biography of [ames Blackburn Jnr, Investigation Project 1974, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; J. Grove, The Architecture of the Blackburns, Research Report 1981, B.Arch., Uriiversity of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne, H. Perston, [arnes Blackburn, in Australian Dictjonary of Biography. Vol 1, (Melbourne 1968) W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'; J.M. Freeland, Melbourne Churches 1836-1851. (Melbourne, 1963).

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BOURKE, Thomas A. (fl.1864) called tenders for buildings in the Melbourne area from his office at 41 Swanston Street. The tenders were for a weatherboard cottage in Footscray for Anderram, a residence in Franklin Street, Melbourne for Flannigan, a five roomed verandah cottage in Elgin Street Carlton for Tuomsy, additions to the Polish Arms Hotel, Little Collins Street, and a store and residence at Wood 's Point for AIlport and Co. Argus, 1 June 1864, 7 July 1864, 18 July 1864, 18 October 1864, 27 January 1865; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BOYD, Robert (fl.1856) an architect whose office was at 67 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne in 1856.. Not to be confused with the Robert Boyd who practised Architecture in Sydney and who died aged 51 years in 1897. ~

9 June 1856; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BOYKETT, Charles (Snr) (1831-1876) architect, was born in London in 1831, the son of Thomas Hebbert Boykett a solicitor, and Hannah, nee King. Boykett married Catherine, nee Cronin, in Kent in 1853 and emigrated to Australia in the same year with his wife, father, brothers William and John, and two aunts. His mother having died prior to the voyage. They emigrated on the ~ arriving in Adelaide in August 1853. Soon after his arrival in the colony, Boykett took up the position of clerk to the architect Edmund Wright on the salary of five pounds a week. This was a good appointment as Wright was the Municipal Architect and Surveyor and was a prominent member of the profession, at one time President of the South Australian Institute of Architects and from 1859 the Mayor of Adelaide. It is not known if Boykett was trained in architecture in England, however, it appears that he was, as within a few months of his arrival he was described as the junior partner in the firm Wright and Boykett. By the end of 1853 he was in charge of the branch of Wright's office in St Vincent Street Port Adelaide. Boykett subsequently left Wright's office to become the City Surveyor for Port Adelaide and was involved in improving the roads, laying footpaths and dredging and filling works. His involvement with the area also extended to being the Secretary to the Port Adelaide Regatta Committee. Despite an apparently flourishing career in Adelaide, Boykett left for Victoria in about 1857/58. It is possible that he visited the goldfields for a time, although he is known to have executed several small works in Geelong in 1858, the first, being tendered in March that year. His office in Geelong in 1858 was at 5 Professional Chambers. By 1861 he had moved to South Melbourne (then Emerald Hill) where he lived and worked almost continuously until his death in 1876. Boykett is listed at various South Melbourne addresses, in 1861-62 at 26 Clarendon Place, 1863 22 Church St, 1864 22 Charles St, 1865 104 York St, 1869-71 59 Clarendon St, 1872 151 Moray St, 1873 72 Market St and 187644 York St East. It is not known if Boykett lived in Melbourne between 1865-68 nor in 1874, or whether he left the Colony during those years. He appears to have worked from his home for much of the time, and most of his buildings are in the South Melbourne locality. Boykett's best known work is Rochester Terrace in St Vincent Place, designed for the entrepreneur W.P. Buckhurst. Designed in 1868, and built in two stages, it is a symmetrically composed group of ten terraces with a central block and end pavilions, each with a Corinthian portico above a ground floor arcade. Boykett also designed several hotels and cottages in the South Melbourne area and it appears that he had connections in Gippsland, as in 1865 he designed the Criterion Hotel in Sale for John Cobain. I/B/14


Although there is no official record of Boykett's professional training, both the Criterion and Rochester Terrace display a significant fluency in architectural design. Boykett died in October 1876 at his home at 44 York St East, South Melbourne and is buried at the Melbourne General Cemetery. He was survived by his wife, four sons, three daughters and one younger child; four children having predeceased him. His eldest son, Charles Bolton (q.v.) and second son, Thomas (q.v.) were also architects, however they only survived their father by one and two years respectively. Catherine Boykett returned to Adelaide upon her husband's death and appears to have taken the six younger children with her, while Charles Bolton and Thomas remained in Melbourne. Boykett family records, held by R. Freeman, Hawthorn, South Australia; E. and R. [ensen, Colonial Architecture in South Australia, (Sydney 1980); Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Allan Willingham Index; Sands and McDougall, Directory 1868-1878; Emerald Hill Ratepayers' Roll 1860-1872; The Record, 4 Feb. 1869, p.S, Emerald Hill. BOYKEIT, Charles Bolton (1852-1877) architect, was the eldest son of Charles Boykett Snr (q.v.) and Catherine, nee Cronin. He was born aboard the Gypsy during its voyage from England to Adelaide in 1852. His parents emigrated in that year with his grandfather Thomas Hebbert Boykett, two uncles and two great-aunts. He was still young when his parents moved to Geelong in about 1857/8, before settling in South Melbourne (then Emerald Hill), in about 1861. There is no record of Boykett's education, and it is probable that he and his brother Thomas (q.v.) learnt their profession from their father, and did not practise independently until after the father's death in October 1876. During 1877 Charles (Inr) erected four brick residences for W.P. Buckhurst. His father had designed Rochester Terrace in St Vincent Place for Buckhurst, and it is possible these later buildings were the second stage of that terrace. His other works were minor commissions for cottages in the South Melbourne area. Boykett died prematurely aged only 24, on 3 December 1877. He was unmarried residing at his parent's house at 44 York St East, South Melbourne and is buried in the Melbourne General Cemetery. At the time of his death he was a member of the Emerald Lodge No.12, Grand United Order of Free Gardeners and was described as a prominent and popular member of the lodge. Boykett family records, held by R. Freeman, Hawthorn, South Australia; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. BOYKEIT, Thomas Hebbert (1855-1878) architect was born in Adelaide, the second son of Charles Boykett (q.v.) architect and Catherine, nee Cronin. His parents had emigrated from England in 1853 and settled first in Adelaide before moving to Geelong in about 1858 and then South Melbourne (Emerald Hill) in about 1861. Both Thomas and his brother Charles (q.v.) were architects and it is possible that they learnt their profession from their father. Thomas appears not to have practised independently until 1878. In January 1878 he had an office at 40 Napier St, South Melbourne and by March had moved to the orphanage block of Clarendon St (between

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Dorcas and Park Streets, west side). His work included a wooden cottage in Richmond and a six roomed wooden house of unknown location. In a similar manner to his brother Charles, Thomas died very young, on 24 May 1878 aged only twenty two. He was unmarried and living at 40 Napier St South Melbourne. He was survived by his mother, younger brother and sisters and is buried at the Melbourne General Cemetery. Boykett family records, held by R. Freeman, Hawthorn, South Australia; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Argas, 1 June 1878, p.l .

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BRACHE, [acob (fl.l854), architect and civil engineer was in practice in Melbourne with offices at Neaves' Buildings, Collins Street East in 1854. He was a graduate of the Royal Academy of Architects Berlin. He was placed second in the competition for the Melbourne Royal Exchange which was won by T. and S.H. Merrett (q.q.v.) in 1854. For some time around 1854 he was in partnership with George O'Brien (q.v.) as architects and engineers. The practice called tenders for a weatherboard verandah cottage in St. Kilda, and for a brick store in Bourke Street West. Brache married Hannah Campbell and had at least one child, a son, Iacob Campbell, who was accidentally drowned at Northcote on 18 November 1866. ~

13 February 1854,27 May 1854, 8 June 1854. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BREES, Samuel (fl.1854) was Acting Colonial Engineer until the appointment of Charles Pasley as the Colonial Engineer in 1853. Pasley found the department undermanned and demoralized. Australian Builder 29 May 1856; D.S. Lyall, The Architectural Profession in Melbourne 1835-1860,M.Arch. 1965, University of Melbourne.

BROPHY, John Townshead (fl. 1864) architect in Daylesford. Between 1863-65 he supervised the building of St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church at Daylesford to the design of William Wardell and called tenders for a brick store, for Fitzgerald Brothers, also at Daylesford. Argus. 23 January 1864, W.A. Ebsworth, Pioneer CathQlic Victoria. (Melbourne 1972), pp.456-7; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

BRYDGES, H. Edwin (fl.1858) architect (?), called tenders in 1858 for the 'restoration' of the Northcote Arms Hotel at Northcote, now a suburb of Melbourne. His office was at 42 Victoria Parade, Melbourne. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. BULL, Frederick William, (fl.1864-1872) variously a civil engineer, surveyor and architect. He was a surveyor at Brighton (Melbourne) with a business address there at Park Street (1864-8), St. Kilda Street (1869-70), and Carpenter Street (1871-2). In 1867 he is listed as Town Clerk, Brighton.

Argus 12 January 1869; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. BULL, William (fl.1855-1866) surveyor and architect was appointed by the Williamstown Council in 1856 to be its first Borough Surveyor where he resided from that date. In the yer before he had an office in Napier Street, Fitzroy. In 1861 there was a practice styled William Bull and Son at 58 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne. In 1859 Bull was listed as being at Stevedore Street, Williamstown, and in 1864-66 he was at 120 Douglas Parade, Williamstown.

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In 1855 he was awarded First Prize of 50 pounds for the design of a cottage of four rooms, and from the Victorian Freehold Land Society he was awarded the First Premium of 75 pounds for the design of a six-roomed cottage. He called tenders for a pair of villa residences, South Yarra (1855), a villa residence, South Yarra (1855), a manse for the Presbyterian min ister at Williamstown (1856), a house and store for Thomas McMahon near the Kororoit Creek Bridge, at Braybrook, west of Melbourne (1865), and as William Bull and son, the completion of two cottages in Bay Street, Sandridge, for Cruikshank (1862). In 1859 Bull was asked to design the Williamstown Mechanics' Institute, after which he was asked to prepare the working drawings and specification. The plans were then attacked by Andrew Inglis as being too elaborate. Bull reworked the scheme but without success for Inglis insisted on having competition designs called. A design by William White (q.v.) with plans similar to Bull's was adopted and John Flannagan (q.v.) acted as supervising architect. Bull also designed Abberton House (later Mandalay) 24 The Strand at the corner of John Street, Williamstown, in which he used local bluestone. The house was built in 1858-59 for William Probert and the builder was Charles Pinckney. It is a cement rendered house of extreme simplicity, with three windows placed symmetrically across the first floor, with a low fitted roof and only a slight eaves overhang. The windows are defined by architecture mouldings, and a plain string course at cill level runs horizontally across the building. Later additions have changed the appearance of the house. Argus . 21 September 1855, 21 September 1856, 19 April 1862, 4 April 1865; Australian Builder. 6 September 1855, 14 May 1856, 11 September 1856, 2 October 1856; Melbourne Herald, 21 September 1855; W. Evans, Port of Handy Prows Williamstown (19 ), Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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CROUCH, Thomas [arnes (1832-1889), architect and surveyor, was born in Hobart on 20 December 1832. As a youth in Tasmania he was a pupil of Alexander Dawson, an officer of the Royal Engineer's Department, and as such Crouch was one of the first architects to be articled to a professional in Australia. In 1850 he started his own practice in Tasmania and in 1852 he moved to Melbourne, however he did not immediately recommence practising. Instead, he went to the Bendigo and Beechworth gold diggings for about nine months and after that was involved in building speculations in South Yarra for about one year, apparently accumulating a significant amount of capital by 1853. When he recommenced practice in 1854 he took offices in the Central City Chambers at 51 Swanston Street and advertized himself as an architect, surveyor and valuator. In 1858 he was joined by Ralph Wilson in the firm Crouch and Wilson. This was an extremely successful partnership that lasted until 1881 when it was dissolved by mutual consent. For the first four years they worked at Crouch's Swanston Street office, moving to 49 Elizabeth Street in 1864, and to 46 Elizabeth Street in 1872 with the dissolution of the partnership between Crouch and Wilson, the partnership name continued on after 1881, with Crouch's son, Ernest W.M. Crouch, Crouch's wife, Mrs Emma Crouch and Wilson's son, Sydney H. Wilson, being the principals by 1889. Crouch had a Wesleyan-Quaker background and was active within the Wesleyan Church. This explains the enormous body of work he did for this church, both solely and with Wilson. They were involved in the design in part or whole of approximately forty Wesleyan Churches throughout Victoria, Tasmania and even New Zealand. However they did not restrict their practice to these and were also involved in many secular commissions, such as the Deaf and Dumb School in St Kilda Road, Fairholme (the residence of [arnes Copeland in Camberwell, the Homeopathic Hospital (later the Prince Henry's Hospital), Messrs Pyne, Beath and Co's warehouse in Flinders Lane, the Melbourne Model Lodging House, Robertson's Dye Manufactory in Lonsdale Street and the Prahran Town Hall. Crouch won several prizes during his career . In 1855 he won second prize of 20 pounds for the Victorian Freehold Land Society's four roomed cottage; he also won second prize in the Benevolent Asylum competition judged by Charles Pasley (q.v.) (which was subsequently awarded to J.M.Barry (q.v.) by a committee decision); in 1858-9 Crouch and Wilson won first prize of 300 pounds for their entry in the Melbourne General Post Office competition (although it was subsequently built to a composite Design by A.E. [ohnson (q.v.); and in 1889 Crouch again won a second prize, this time 200 pounds for the National Mutual Assurance Association offices in Collins Street. Early in his career he exhibited three watercolours at the Victorian Society of Fine Arts Exhibition 1857 (Carlton Terrace, St Kilda; Villa at Elsternwick; and Private Residences). Crouch was an authorized surveyor under the Transfer of Land Statute and was appointed a J.P. in 1871. He was also on the committee of several charitable institutions such as the Melbourne Benevolent Asylum, arid was secretary and treasurer of the committee to establish a homeopathic dispensary in Melbourne (1869-70). Apart from this work, he was a St Kilda councillor for the North and South Wards variously between 1868 and 1873, was mayor of St Kilda in 1870-71 and participated in the affairs of the Victorian Institute of Architects. On the 9 July 1856, a meeting of seven architects was called by Crouch and Thomas Watts (q .v.) It was held at Crouch's office and they resolved to invite all architects in Melbourne to attend a meeting to draft rules for a Victorian Institute of Architects. That meeting was subsequently held at the Mechanics Institute, Collins Street on 14 August and Crouch was in attendance. Crouch continued to be actively associated as the Honorary Secretary of the Institute in 1856, and he read a paper to members on 9 April 1857 titled 'The Melbourne Building Act'. In the same position in 1869, he rejected a set of rules submitted to architects by the Builders and Contractors Association.

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Crouch lived in St Kilda continuously from 1853 until his death in 1889, at addresses in Barkly Street, Argyle Street, Waterloo Street and from 1870 at Euston, 10 Dickens Street. After Crouch and Wilson dissolved the ir partnership in 1881, Crouch continued working. Some of the projects such as CH. [arnes's Empire Buildings and several Church designs were of a scale that suggest his son, Ernest W.M. Crouch was working with him, despite the firm of Crouch and Son not appearing until 1890 (by which time Crouch was dead). At the time of Crouch's death, on 4 December 1889, E.W.M. Crouch was en-route to England to further his architectural education. On news of his father's death he returned immediately to take over as principal of the firm . Crouch is buried in the Wesleyan portion of the St Kilda cemetery. Crouch married Mary Emma Bloor Turner in Sydney in c.1857 and had twelve children, of whom three predeceased him. Ernest Crouch was the sixth child and was born c.1866 and was twenty-three when his father died. A. Sutherland Victoria and Its Metropolis. Vo!. lIB, (Melbourne 1888); [oan Kerr (ed.), Dictionary of Australian Artists Working Paper I. 1770-1870 A-H. (Sydney 1984). J.J.Blundell, Melbourne Commercial Directory, 1854-6; Sands and Kenny, Directory. 1857-61; Sands and McDougall, Directory. 1862-1889; C. Corallo Biography of Crouch and Wilson, Investigation Project 1979, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett, Index of M.CC 'Notices of Intent to Build '; Allan WiIlingham Index.

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CUTHBERT, Charles D. (fl.1859-70) architect and surveyor, practised first in Melbourne at 75 Smith Street, Collingwood (1859-60) and then in Ballarat. Nothing is known of his practice in Melbourne. The move to Ballarat ma y have been induced by the success of his design for the (second) Town Hall, District Police Court, Public Library and Museum, for which he was awarded First Premium in the competition of 1860 (Backhouse and Renolds, second, and Christopher Porter, third) although he was reported to be working on the construction of the Ballarat Gaol (1857-63) at the time the competition result was announced. Work on Cuthbert's Town Hall complex ceased when only the Municipal Offices and Police Court had been completed. The project was abandoned in 1868 when a new competition was held. The result was the present Town Hall, a composite design created from entries by T.J. Lorenz (exterior) and H.R. Ca selli (interi or), put together by Percy Oakden acting as Borough Architect. It is belie ved that some part of Cuthbert's building was incorporated into the new (third) Town Hall which was erected between 1870-72. He was also responsible for a number of other building in Ballarat: Town Hall, East Ballarat (1861, dem.), a bluestone warehouse at 120 Lyd iard Street North for the merchant Robert Dunn (1861), the nave of St Andrew's Kirk (Uniting Church) enc. Sturt and Dawson Streets (1862-64), Craig's Royal Hotel (Southern Section) 10-16 Lydiard Street South (1862), the nave of St Peter's Anglican Church, Sturt Street West (1864), and the south wing of the District Hospital, Ballarat. In 1866 he was awarded Second Prize of 25 pounds for his design for the Ballarat Orphan

Asylum (won by H.R. Caselli). Cuthbert wa s a strong President of the Ballarat Institute of Architects, Civil Engineer, and Surveyor. The small number of buildings known to have been designed by Cuthbert show him to have been an architect of fine sensibility. His best work was probably the East Ballarat Town Hall (d em .), a confident renaissance revival design, and both Craig's Royal Hotel, and Dunn's warehouse each express a strong and severe, though refined, architectural character. His most interesting design is the Norman nave of St Andrew's Kirk.

Argus, 8 October 1861; Austra lian Builder, 11 February 1860; Illustrated Australian ~ 26 May 1866; J.M. Freeland, The Making of a Professjon (Melbourne 1971);

Iacob, Lewis, Vines, Ballarat Conservation Study, Volume 2, Bujlding Inventory (South Yarra 1978); M. Sandow, The Town Hall. Ballarat 100 Years (Ballarat 1979); W.B. Withers, History of Ballarat (Ballarat 1870); Membership Records, Royal Institute of British Architects; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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CRAIG, John H (1818-1884), surveyor, teacher and auctioneer, born in Manchester, the son of John Craig, school teacher. He arrived in Victoria in 1841 and married Susanna Tillie at Wamambool, it being his second marriage, of wh ich nothing is known of his first. He was in Melbourne in 1842 where he opened a pri vate school and during 1843 called tenders for buildings in Melbourne which ha ve not been identified . By 1845 he was in Geelong where he ran an academy which included land-surveying, plotting and mapping, and landscape drawing. Early in 1846 he was an assistant to David Lennox, the Superintendent of Bridges in the Colonial Engineers' Department. Craig also practised engraving. He died at Warmambool in 1884 where he was an auctioneer and commission agent. He was survived by his w ife, two children of his first marriage and two from his second. Geelong Adyertiser. 1 March 1845, 15 February 1845; L Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's, Research Report, 1979, B.Arch University of Melbourne; Private Index of Mr A Willingham, North Fitzroy.

CUTHBERT, Charles D. (fl.1859-70) architect and surveyor, practised first in Melbourne at 75 Smith Street, Collingwood (1859-60) and then in Ballarat, Nothing is known of his practice in Melbourne. The move to Ballarat may have been induced by the success of his design for the (second) Town Hall, District Police Court, Public Library and Museum, for which he was awarded First Premium in the competition of 1860 (Backhouse and Renolds, second, and Christopher Porter, third) although he was reported to be working on the construction of the Ballarat Gaol (1857-63) at the time the competition result was announced. Work on Cuthbert's Town Hall complex ceased w hen only the Municipal Offices and Police Court had been completed. The project was abandon ed in 1868 when a new competition was held. The result was the present Town Hall, a composite design created from entries by T.J. Lorenz (exterior) and H.R. Caselli (interior), put together by Percy Oakden acting as Borough Architect. It is believed that some part of Cuthbert's building was incorporated into the new (third) Town Hall which was erected between 1870-72. He was also responsible for a number of other building in Ballarat: Town Hall, East Ballarat (1861, dem.), a bluestone warehouse at 120 Lydiard Street North for the merchant Robert Dunn (1861), the nave of St Andrew's Kirk (Uniting Church) cnr. Sturt and Dawson Streets (1862-64), Craig's Royal Hotel (Southern Section) 10-16 Lydiard Street South (1862), the nave of St Peter's Anglican Church, Sturt Street West (1864), and the south wing of the District Hospital, Ballarat. In 1866 he was awarded Second Prize of 25 pounds for his design for the Ballarat Orphan

Asylum (won by H.R. Caselli). Cuthbert was a strong President of the Ballarat Institute of Architects, Civil Engineer, and Surveyor. The small number of buildings known to have been designed by Cuthbert show him to have been an architect of fine sensibility. His best work was probably the East Ballarat Town Hall (,dem.), a confident renaissance revi val d esign, and both Craig's Royal Hotel, and Dunn s warehouse each express a strong and severe, though refined, architectural character. His most interesting design is the Norman nave of St Andrew's Kirk. Argu s. 8 October 1861; Australian Builder. 11 February 1860; Illustrated Australian ~ 26 May 1866; J.M. Freeland, The Making of a Profession (Melbourne 1971);

Iacob, Lewis, Vines, BaJlarat Conservation Study. Volume 2. Building Inyentory (South Yarra 1978); M. Sandow, The Town Hall. BaJIarat 100 Years (Ballarat 1979); W.B. Withers, History of Ballarat (Ballarat 1870); Membership Records,

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Royal Institute of British Architects; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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DALL, Thomas (ÂŁ1.1869-1889), architect, was in partnership with a John W. Roberts (q.v.) from 1869 until 1881 as Dall and Roberts of 32 Swanston Street, Melbourne. They were responsible for several cottages and shops, largely in Prahran, South Melbourne, Carlton and Williamstown. The only sizeable building they are known to have designed was the E.S. & A. Chartered Bank in Elizabeth Street North in 1874. In 1882 Dall commenced practice alone at 20 Swanston Street, where he stayed until 1887, moving to 98 Market St East, South Melbourne in 1888 and 104 Market St East in 1889. His private address during 1882-83 was 26 Murphy Street, South Yarra and 1884-85 was 6 Victoria Parade, East Melbourne, while his later South Melbourne address may ha ve also been his residence. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and McDougall, Directory. 1870-1885; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'.

DANGERFIELD, A.D. (ÂŁ1. 1857-1862), architect, practised in Melbourne from 1857 to 1862 at 34 Swanston Street. Sands and Kenny, Directory. 1857-1861;Sands and McDougall, Directory. 1862.

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DAVIDSON, Alexander (1839-1908), architect, was born in Edinburgh on 17 May, 1839, the son of Samuel Davidson a spirit dealer of William Street Edinburgh. As a young man Davidson was engaged as an assistant, first to the Edinburgh architect John Henderson and then to David Cousin. It was in that office that Davidson met his future partner George Henderson (q.v.), son of the Scottish architect John Henderson. At the age of twenty five, Davidson emigrated to Victoria, doing so largely at the encouragement of a family connection, a Rev. John Cooper. Upon his arrival aboard the Ayalanche in December 1864, he went to live with Cooper and his wife at the Manse in Rokewood. He commenced practice immediately and as early as February 1865 called tenders for the Rokewood Presbyterian Church. Davidson remained at Rokewood for four years, designing buildings in the surrounding area, such as the Rokewood Episcopalean Church, Mortlake Wesleyan Church, and the Gala homestead at Lismore. George Henderson arrived in Victoria in May 1867 and soon afterwards joined Davidson as his assistant. The first project they worked on together was the Barunah Plains Station at Inverleigh. They continued to work in association from Davidson's residence at Rokewood until 1869. In January of that year they moved the office to 32 Malop Street, Geelong, (where they occupied the top front room) and at the beginning of 1871 they entered into a partnership, with the unusual arrangement of Henderson receiving two thirds of income generated while correspondingly bearing two thirds of the expenses. In 1877 Henderson decided to return to Scotland, while Davidson stayed in Geelong and continued to practise under the partnership name for the next six months: However the partnership itself was not formally dissolved until 1879. During the nine years of their partnership, Davidson and Henderson designed many prominent buildings such as the Colac Episcopal Church, Oddfellows Hall Colac, Barwon Woollen Mill, Geelong, and the Geelong Free Public Library. They were also responsible for the design of many homesteads throughout western Victoria, including Barwon Park, Winchelsea, Coragulac House, Colac, Mooramong, Skipton, and Eurack at Mt Hess. Davidson also contributed a technique of building underground tanks in brickwork, as well as his own designs for sheep washes, both of which were widely adopted by squatters and contractors in the district. From September 1877 Davidson practised as Alexander Davidson & Co., located at the same Geelong address, while in 1879 he worked in association with the Melbourne based Edmund George Ovey, and they are known to have designed the Grand Pacific Hotel at Lorne, the Colac Shire Hall and to have added to premises owned by the Melbourne Hotel Company in Collins Street East. During this period Davidson's designs included both the Werribee and the Wickliffe Presbyterian Churches, Meredith Shire Hall, and Elcho homestead, Lara . In 1882 he opened a second office at 62 Collins Street East, however in 1884 moved to the O'Connors Chambers, 100 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne and closed his Geelong office. From 1884 to 1906 his firm is listed as Davidson & Co and he resided at 84 Powlett Street, East Melbourne. He executed very few buildings actually in Melbourne. At this time designed the Gordon Technical School, Geelong, some shops in Frankston, and the Sale Mechanics' Institute. It appears that the firm suffered financially in the economic depression of the 1890's and it is not known to what extent Davidson resumed practice after this period. Davidson married his first cousin, Euphemia Cooper Davidson on 16 November 1865, just one year after his arrival in Victoria. They had five children, two of whom died in infancy. At the time of his death on 3 January 1908 Davidson was living with a daughter in

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Albert Park. His son, John Cooper Davidson lived at Clarke Street, Northcote. Davidson is buried in the Melbourne General Cemetery. A. Willingham, Davidson and Henderson, M.Arch., 1984, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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DA VIDSON, E. (ÂŁ1.1849-1854) builder, worked in Geelong from an office in Yarra Street. His only known works are an Episcopalean church at Barwon and two shops at 80-86 Yarra St Geelong known as Davidson's Buildings. He also prepared the drawings for the Geelong Customs House which were modified by J. Perrin (q.v.) of the Public Works Department, and built in 1855-56, and may have been responsible for the Design which is by convention attributed to [arnes Balmain (q.v.) who was Chief Architect in the Colonial Architect's Office. L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979,

B.Arch., University of Melbourne; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

DA VIDSON, WiIIiam E. (ÂŁ1.1850-1861), architect, worked both privately and for the Government. On 1 July 1851 he was appointed an Overseer of Works and a Clerk, and from 8 January to 24 March 1852 he was an Acting Clerk of Works and Draftsman with the Colonial Architect's Office. He was then appointed a Clerk of Works, until 21 May when he became Acting Clerk of Works at Geelong and again a Clerk of Works in 1854. His career with the Government appears to have been rather insecure, as on 18 May 1855 he was dispensed with, only to be re-employed by the newly formed Public Works Department as a Draftsman, on 1 September 1856. During that year he designed the (prepared the drawings for) Warden's Quarters and Entrance Gate at the Castelmaine Gaol. In 1858-59 Davidson was again an Acting Clerk of Works. As such, he was particularly involved in the Boundary Wall of the Turnkey's Quarters at Melbourne Gaol, and on the entrance building and sleeping cells at Pentridge Gaol; however his duties also included inspecting works at all penal establishments in Victoria and to report on all tenders from out-stations. Davidson's only other known design for the Government was an addition to the Warden's Offices at DunoIIy, built in 1861 (but probably designed before 1859). In 1859 the Government stated an intention to reduce the Civil Service and provide no further funds for new public works save what was in the course of erection and actually required. As a result, Davidson was reduced to the position of Temporary Draftsman on 17 February 1860, and reduced from the Service on December 31,1861. Davidson also executed a small number of private works. In 1852 he is listed as an architect of Bellarine Street, Geelong and is known to have advertised for tenders for two shops with attached houses in Yarra Street Geelong in 1852 and three brick cottages in 1853. L. Huddle Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979, B..Arc~., University of Melb~urne; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

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DEAKIN, Samuel (f1.1862-1896), architect and surveyor is intermittently listed as practising in Melbourne between 1862 and 1896. From 1862 to 1864 he was at 83 Collins Street East, and lived at 8 Cecil Place, South Melbourne; following this he worked and maybe also lived at 53 Dorcas Street, South Melbourne in 1865-66; in 1872, at King Street, 1873 at O'Connell Street, North Melbourne and in 1874 at Berkeley Street Carlton, and from 1879-1884 at 64A Park Street West, South Melbourne and then until 1896 in Hambleton Street, South Melbourne. He designed several residences in South Melbourne during 1864-65 and called tenders for the 1864 Town Hall at South Melbourne. Deakin also designed St Ioseph's Church, Port Melbourne. Sands and McDougall, Directory. 1862-1896; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

DENNIS, Alexander (f1.1840-1888), pastoralist, emigrated with his brothers John and William from Trembath Cornwall to Port Phillip early in 1840. Before settling in the district, he went over to Tasmania to purchase sheep, bullocks, horses and farming implements. Upon his return, he proceeded overland to an area eight miles east of Colac. He squatted there until aquiring a lease in 1841, and in 1848 he designed and built the homestead Tarndwarncoort. It is a low two-storey sandstone rubble house, in a style reminiscent of early nineteenth century English rural houses. It was extended in 1877 to designs of the Colac architect Alexander Hamilton who added a two storey bluestone wing and a cast iron verandah. Dermis became a prominent member of the community, and held the position of magistrate for the southern bailiwick from 1848 to at least 1888, and was a member of the local shire council for ten years. M. Cantlon, Homesteads of Yictoria, 1836-1900. (Melbourne 1967); Australian Heritage Commission, Heritage of Australia. (Melbourne 1981); A. Sutherland, Yictorja and Its Metropolis; Past and present. Vol.llA, (Melbourne 1888; 1978). DERRICK, Elijah (1830- ) foreman and inspector of works in the Victorian Public Works Department. He was born on 5 May 1830. He was appointed on the 28 May 1859 as a Foreman of Works, and after 1 January 1866 was Inspector of Works, and from 1885 had b~come Distri.ct Inspector. of Works. His employment ceased c. 1890. His duties required him to supervise the carrYlOg out of government contracts for buildings. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria, 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

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DICKSON, [arnes (ÂŁ1.1857) called tenders for three buildings from his office or house at 71 Little Napier Street, Fitzroy. The buildings were: The United Presbyterian Church, Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, 1857; a two-storey house in Gertrude Street, Fitzroy, 1857; and an addition to the Brittania Hotel, Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, for [arnes Farmer, 1857. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

DICKSON, [ames (c.1822-1866), engineer, was born in Kilor, Roxburghshire, the son of Andrew Dickson, engineer, and Anne, nee Wood . He arrived in Victoria c.1853. He died of alcoholism on 12 March 1866 at the age of forty-four. He was unmarried and lived in Palmerston Street, Carlton, where a brother, George W. Dickson, also lived. He may be the [arnes Dickson listed above. Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate. DORRINGTON, Henry (f1.1857-1871), architect, surveyor and land agent practised in Melbourne from 1857 to at least 1864, and probably to around 1871. His business address changed six times between 1857-64, but was always within the centre of Melbourne. He designed several houses in various suburbs of Melbourne and a soda water factory in Rosslyn Street, West Melbourne, for P.G. Dixon, in 1860 (with additions in 1867). Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'; Sands and Kenny, Directory. 1857.

DOUGLAS, William (ÂŁ1.1851-1877) architect and surveyor, and builder, had a practice at 6 Grattan Street, Carlton in 1866-67 and then in 1874, at 71 Chetwynd Street, Hotham (North Melbourne), and between 1875-76, as a builder, in Broughan Street, Hotham, and in 1877, in Cumberland Place off Little Lonsdale Street East. He is believed to have designed a hotel on the corner of Queen and A'Beckett Streets in 1865 for Rupprecht, built by Bartholomew O'Donovan. He may also be the William Douglas credited with the design of additions (n.d.) to the Old Victory Hotel (1851) cnr Ebden and Piper Streets, Kyneton, and the Douglas who called tenders for the erection of an unnamed hotel in Queen Street, Melbourne (1865). Argus, 24 June 1865; 0, Saunders (ed.), Historic Buildings of Victoria (Melbourne 1966); Sands and McDougall, Melbourne Directory 1866-1877; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'.

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DOUGLAS, William (c.1824-1878), a carpenter, was born in Whithorn, Scotland, son of John Douglas, joiner, and Janet, nee McGeoch, and came to Victoria in c.1853. Before coming to Melbourne he had married [essie Boyle in Glasgow in c.1849. He lived in Kensington where also lived a brother, John Douglas. At his death on 6 October, 1878, William Douglas was survived by a son, John, aged twenty-two, and was predeceased by a daughter, Grace. Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate. DOWDEN, Richard Abraham (1829/30-1868), architect (and civil engineer?), was born in Cork, Eire in 1829 or 1830. Before emigrating to Melbourne at the end of 1853, he was employed in several projects as chief assistant to John Benson, the County Surveyor for Cork and Engineer to the Cork Harbour Commissioners. In this position he had experience in the construction of sea walls, wharfs, and docks, and was also involved in the design of the Cork Exhibition of 1852 and the Dublin Exhibition Buildings. At this time he also gained experience in bridge and office design in Ireland and Scotland, and it is likely he was already working with his future partner David Ross (q.v.). Ross came from Aberdeenshire, was only two years older than Dowden and emigrated to Victoria in the same year as Dowden. At the end of 1853, Dowden established an office at 112 Queen Street Melbourne and then entered into partnership with Ross as Dowden and Ross, Architects, Civil Engineers, Land Surveyors. They appear to have been assistants to the prominent Melbourne architect John Gill for a short period in 1853. However their own practice grew quickly, and before the end of that year their designs included a villa in Brighton, a schoolhouse in Richmond, a Roman Catholic chapel in Keilor and a large hotel in Richmond. Their success continued in May 1854 when they won first prize of 70 pounds for St Mary's Church, Geelong, and it was probably due to this that they opened a second office at 106 Yarra Street, Geelong. This office was run by Dowden, with Ross staying in Melbourne. They continued in practice until late in 1855, with most of their work being for the Roman Catholic Church in the Melbourne area, while in 1858 (although no longer in a day to day partnership) they were the supervising architects for St Patrick's Cathedral, Ballarat, designed by the Hansom brothers in England . In 1856-57 Dowden joined the important Geelong architect Ioseph Lowe Shaw (q.v.) in the partnership Shaw and Dowden. They practised at 74 Yarra Street, Geelong, and were responsible for several major buildings such as the Colonial Bank in Malop Street, Geelong, a Roman Catholic School in Ballarat, an Orphanage and School in Geelong and the Holy Trinity Church, Barrabool. Despite this apparently successful practice, Dowden joined the public service on 12 April, 1858 as a temporary draftsman with quarters. His duties were to design buildings and make drawings and specifications under the direction of the Chief Draftsmen. As a draftsman, he worked on the Gaols at Maryborough, Ballarat, Bendigo, and Ararat; and as an architect is attributed with the designs of the Gold Office, Arnhurst and The Warden's Offices, Wood's Point. Dowden resigned on 6 June 1868 due to ill-health and died soon afterwards at 11 Drumrnond Street, Carlton, at the age of 38. He had eight children, four of whom survived him, and had been married to Kate (nee) Kearney since 1855. L. Huddle Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979, B..Arc~ University of Melbourne; B.Trethowan, The Public Works Department of VIctoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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DOWNES, William Beynon (£1.1861-62), Town Surveyor at Castlemaine, and architects of the market at Castlemaine (1861-62). Also probably the B. Downe who called tenders for the completion of position of St Mary's Catholic Church, Castlemaine (1865). He may also be the W.B. Downe, City Surveyor, St Kilda (1894), two of whose drawings survive: Rochester Flour Mill (n.d.) and Band Pavilion, St Kilda (1894). Argus. 13 June 1865; National Trust of Australia (Victoria), CastJemajne and the Market (South Yarra, 1974); St Kilda City Council, Engineer's Department; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. DOYNE, W.T. (£1.1865-66) architect and surveyor in partnership with E.D. La Touche (q.v.), with an office at 82 Collins Street West, Melbourne. Sands and McDougall, Melbourne Directory, 1865-66. DUNCAN, [arnes (1809-1880), a builder, was born at Ayr, Scotland, the son of [ames Duncan, builder and his wife, nee Fraser, and came to Victoria in c.1852. Before coming to Victoria he had married his first wife, Margaret Campbell in Dalmornook, Scotland, in c.1840. He married his second wife, Ann Campbell, in Melbourne in c.1874. He had five children by his first marriage, one of whome survived him, [arnes Campbell Duncan who was 31 at his father's death and no children from his second marriage. He died on 4 May 1880 and is buried in the Melbourne General Cemetery. Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate.

DUN CAN, John H. (£1.1855-1863) clerk of works in Geelong with the Colonial Architect's Office Victoria, but ceased to be employed in 1855. He was listed as a surveyor at 100 George Street, Fitzroy, in 1863. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria, 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B. Arch ., University of Melbourne; Sands and McDougall, Melbourne Djrectory. 1863.

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EADES, Will iam George (fl.1851-1860) was a Clerk of Works in the Colonial Architect's Office between 1851 and 1855. He was Clerk of Works for the erection of the Mounted Police Station, Melbourne, from 2 November 1852; was then a clerk of works at Queenscliff (1854) within the Colonial Architect's Office, but was reduced on 15 March 1855. He was then reappointed from 13 July 1855, and by 1859 was a Draftsman in the newly created Public Works Department. His duties were to design buidings and make drawings and specifications under the direction of the Chief Draftsman. Eades as clerk of works with H.A. Williams was associated with the construction of a number of public buildings: the Beechworth Gaol (1858), the Powder Magazine, Beechworth (1859), the Court of Petty Sessions , Belvoir (1859, unfinished) and Dandenong (1859). Eades and Williams were the clerks of work in charge of the Eastern Division of the Public Works Department during the later 1850's. As a result of the Government's intentions to cut back the Civil Service establishment (1859) W.G. Eades was reduced on 31 August 1869, receiving 3 months compensation. D.S. Lyall, The Architectural Profession in Melbourne 1835-1860, M.Arch. 1965, Univesity of Melbourne; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria, 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., 1975, University of Melbourne.

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EATON, Thomas Andrew (£1.1854-1874), clerk of works, was first engaged in the Colonial Engineer's Office, Victoria (1853) which at that time incorporated the Colonial Architect's Office, and from 1859 he was in the newly formed Public Works Department. He supervised the construction of several buildings designed by J.J. Clark: the New Printing Offices, off Treasury Place (1856-57), the New Treasury Building, Spring Street (1857-), the Offices of 'th e Executive, Chief Secretary, and Registrar-General, Treasury Place (1859, foundations only). He was also clerk of works at the General Post Office (1859 onwards, parts of the Melbourne Gaol (from 1860), the Military Barracks and Hospital, St. Kilda Road (1856), the Post Office, Williamstown (1859). So extensive was Eaten's association with government buildings that it has been suggested that most of the substantial public buildings in Melbourne were supervised by him. He appears to have been hard working and to have carried out his exacting duties with competence, although these matters are in doubt because Eaton was involved in a long and destructive dispute with his superior, William Wardell. The despute became public in 1874 when Eaton circulated a pamphlet alleging that Wardell was prejudiced against him. A Board appointed to investigate the complaints went against Eaton and questioned how an inefficient officer could remain on the payroll of the P.W.D. for so long. He was dismissed on 8 September 1874. A Legislative Assembly Select Committee in July 1876 reconsidered the matter and recommended that Eaton be reinstated on. However, Eaton was not reinstated, probably because of the reduction of the Civil Service on 8 January 1878 which also saw Wardell dismissed from service. DJ. McDonald, 'William W Wardell, architect and engineer', Victorian Historical Magazine. 41, 1970; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria, 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, I3.Arch., University of Melbourne. ESTALL, William H. (1804- ), architect, born in London, arrived in Geelong c.1853. Tried in the Supreme Court (10 July, 1860) on the charge of "assault with intent to ravish". He was sentenced to 10 years, but received a ticket of leave in 1865. Police Gazette: Geeloog Adyertiser

EVEREST, Thomas J. (£1.1868-1883) building surveyor of Barkers Road, Hawthorn (1868-80) and Burwood Road, Kew (1881-83), also City of Melbourne Building Surveyor in 1870. Sands and McDougall, Melbourne Directory (1868-1883)

EDWARDS, William (fl.1854) of Williamstown called tenders for the erection of a twostorey dwelling in May 1854. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Atgus, 16 May 1854. ELLIS, William J. (£1.1862-1883) architect and surveyor, practised in Melbourne both as a partner of ].E. Austin (q.v.) and as a sole practitioner. The partnership of Austin and Ellis spanned f~om 1862 until 1868. They practised from 60 Elizabeth Street and were responsible for a v?~lety ~f work. Two of their larger commissions were for the Royal Albert Mechanic s Institute and the Post and Telegraph Offices, both in East Collingwood, built in 1866-67, however the bulk of their work was residential buildings, shops and hotels.

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Ellis had a successful practice on his own from 1868 until at least 1882. He was responsible for many cottages and several large houses. His most famous work is probably the original wing on the Fitzroy Town Hall with its Corinthian portico and temple-like form. Wins ton Burchett, Index of 'M.C.C. Notices of Intent to Build '; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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FERRIER, WaIter H. (ÂŁ1.1852-1855), civil engineer, surveyor, and architect in Gee long, Victoria. His known work comprises: alterations and fittings to the London Chartered Bank, Geelong (1853); the Geelong and Ballarat Hotel, now the Saleyard Hotel, Church Street, North Geelong (1853); the Balmoral Hotel, now the Balmoral Galleries, Fyansford (1853); an hotel at Newtown Geelong, possibly at 87 Skene Street, Geelong (1853); an hotel and store at the corner of Ca vendish Street and Brougham Place (1853); a cottage for William Knox at the north end of Mercer Street, Geelong, next to or attached to the Crown Hotel; St Mark's Parsonage at Moolap (1854); and three shops in Swanston Street, Geelong. His office was in Ball's Buildings, Ryrie Street, Geelong. After 1855 he also called himself an auctioneer. He may have been still active in the Geelong area as late as 1900. Ferrier was a founding member on the committee of the Geelong Society of Architects, Civil Engineers, and Surveyors in 1855. National Trust of Australia (Victoria) File Card Nos .1636 and 3052; L. Huddle, Architects and Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. FINDLAY, Peter (fI.1859-1885), Clerk of Works in the Public Works Department, Victoria from 1859, then became Inspector of Works (1866), and Travelling Superintending Inspector of Works (1875) on the permanent staff of the Department. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria . 1851-1900, Reseach Report, B.Arch 1975, University of Melbourne. FINDLEY (FINDLA Y?), William (b.17 April 1817-c.1890), Clerk of Works in the Public Works Department, Victoria. He entered the service in 1858, was appointed a Travelling Inspector of Works in 1865 responsible for work at the Kew Mental Asylum and other works in the Melbourne district. He continued to supervise government contracts for building until 1890 when his name ceases to appear in the statistical register. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria, 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch. University of Melbourne.

FLAXMAN, C. (fl.1859) architect (?) called tenders for the erection of a Savings Bank at Warrnambool in 1859. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Australian Builder. 3 December 1859.

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FLECK, Gabriel (1806-1890) surveyor, was born in 1806 at Mannheim Germany, the son of Christian Fleck, a yeoman, and Marie, nee Rachenbach. He spent several years in England, working on surveys of the English railways and he married Elizabeth Priscilla Neale in London in about 1846. Fleck left England in about 1849 and worked for five years in Sierra Leone before arriving in Victoria in about 1854. He settled at Kyneton where he became the Town Surveyor and built the first four rooms of Campaspe Villa on the corner of Wedge and Beauchamp Streets Kyneton in 1855-56. This was the house, office and schoolroom for his wife's girls' school and is a single-storey bluestone villa with a hipped iron roof spreading to form the verandah. The verandah has a shaped timber valence. The design of the Kyneton District Hospital is also attributed to Fleck, and he advertised for tenders for additions to the hospital in 1863 and 1868. Fleck died on 21 October 1890 at Campaspe Villa and is buried in the Church of England section of the Kyneton Cemetery. He had no children. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; D. Saunders(ed.) Historic Buildings of Victoria, (Melbourne 1966), p.230; Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate; Heritage Commission, The Heritage of Australia, (Melbourne 1981).

FLEURY, lames (fl1857-1864) had an office in Sydney Road Kilmore in 1863. He advertised for tenders for three two storey houses in Highett Street Richmond in 1857, a Presbyterian Church at Kilmore in 1864 and a Church at Heathcote in 1863. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

FLORENCE, Anthony (fI.1866-1876), surveyor and civil engineer had a practice at 52 Coliins Street East in 1866-67 before taking up the position of Town Surveyor for Brunswick, then for Essendon and Flemington from 1868-1871. It is not known if he continued in these positions, however he is again listed in 1876, this time as the Town Clerk and Surveyor for Essendon and Flemington. Sands and McDougall, Directory. 1866-1876; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

FLOWER, - (fl.1850) architect and surveyor, had a residence in 1850 in King Street, probably North Fitzroy nearly opposite the Fitzroy Arms Hotel. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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FLUDE, - (fl1866) designed the Congregational Church in Sturt Street, Ballarat. Withers, History of BaJlarat 1870, p.167. FOOTER, W. (£1 .1860), architect and surveyor, practised at 47 Howard Street, North Melbourne. Sands and Kenny, Directory of Melbourne. 1860.

FORBES, Thomas (£1.1863) surveyor with the Crown Lands Office, Melbourne. Sands and McDougall, Melbourne Directory. 1863. FOWLER, John (£1.1868-1872), architect, practised at 28 Grant Street, Emerald Hill (South Melbourne). Sands and McDougall, Directory of Melbourne. 1868-72. FRANCIS, George (£1. 1858-1880), architect, civil engineer and surveyor, practised at 72 Lonsdale Street West (1858-1867), 71 Bourke Street (1868), 69 Queen Street (1859-1872), 89 Collins Street West (1873-1879), and at 56 Chancery Lane (1880) in Melbourne. His private address was in Walsh Street (1868), and then Domain Road (1869-1880), both in South Yarra. He is believed to be the G. Francis who designed additions to the Mitre Tavern in Bank Place for T.F. Born with [arnes Moore contractor. Sands and Kenny, and Sands and McDougall, Directory of Melbourne, 1858-1880; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build '.

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GARRARD, H.M. (fl.1848-1856) surveyor, worked in Geelong from 1848, and was in association with J.L. Shaw (q.v.) from 1850 to 1852, and then with A.C. MacDonald (q.v.) in 1854. He was a member of the Geelong Society of Architects, Civil Engineers, and Surveyors. In 1856 his business address was Uoyds Chambers, Malop Street, Geelong. L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s Research Report 1979, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Allan Willingham Index.

GEORGE, [ames (fl.1855-1858) architect, was probably a partner of George & Schneider, architects of 38 Coli ins Street East with Ioseph A Schneider (q.v.) . Little is known of George's career outside the partnership. However he appears to have been an established member of the profession by 1856 as he joined the Victorian Institute of Architects at its formation in June, and attended its third meeting in August of the same year. The partnership of George & Schneider lasted for at least the four years from 1855 to 1858. It was a successful firm, their major buildings being executed for the Roman Catholic

Church including St Patrick's Church Melbourne (the forerunner to the Cathedral by W. Wardell), St Patrick's College, East Melbourne, St Killian's Church Bendigo and St Mary's Church Kyneton. Schneider is known to have been practising alone during 1873-75, however there is no record of George's career after 1858. Sands and Kenny, Directory, 1858; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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_fZSCHMANN, Robert Eloquis Hermann (1818-1875) architect, was born in Prussia in GET ' 1. He was educated in Germany, probably at Kassel, and emigrated to Victoria in 1849. 1881. a p pea rs not to have commenced in practice until 1857, eight years after arriving in H: a ~ i.oria. His address and occupation during those years are not known, however in 1857 he Vlcto~blished an architectural practice in Bendigo with another German, W .e. Vahland esta~ .), Vahland had arrived from Germany in 1854 and is known to have spent some time at (q.v .) Bendigo goldfields. It is possible that Getzschmann may have done likewise, however ~e n, d ate of arrival predated the gold rush and gold could not have been his incentive for his . .igrating. errug I

land and Getzschmann had their office at 2 Pall Mall Chambers Bendigo for twenty

Vahl~~ years. The partnership was obviously very successful, evidenced by its duration and tw o .:,d uct, however Getzschmann remained largely the silent partner. Their roles in the firm prod ' unclear, and Vahland claimed several of their buildings as his own designs. are

. ~ majority of their work was executed between 1857 and 1869, and included several of The r.,d igo's major institutional buildings, such as the Hospital (for which they won first Be~ "ze in a design competition in 1858), the Benevolent Asylum (1860), and the Mechanics' pnz~ itute (1864). Their ecclesiastical buildings were also noteworthy, being designed for a Ins / iety of denominations, such as the Wesleyan New Church (1862) and Lutheran Church ~t:~65} both in Bendigo, and St John's Church of England, Heatcote (1868).

, 1862-63, Vahland practised in Dunedin, New Zealand. The firm of Vahland and :;' zschmann continued in Bendigo under Getzschmann's charge, however it was a ~t~..ttively quiet period with no large commissions being undertaken by the office. They re il,.umed their busy practice only when Vahland returned, and from 1872 they employed ~~~~1liam Nicholai (q.v .), Nicholai was also German and had emigrated in the same year Vah land. as

I

;

Ge ()Zschman~ was active in Bendigo, being a freemason, and on several committees such as

f

the Hospital and Benevolent Asylum. He is recorded as never having married, and he

d~:;.d on 15 October 1875 at Don Street Bendigo, Vahland being present at his death.

G. Lawler, The Vahland School, 2 vols., Research Report (1977), B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate. G l iB BIN, ~eorge F. (fl.1856) architect(?} was listed as resident at 38 Brighton Street, ' .chmond, ID 1856. R]I" Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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GIBBINS, Williams (fl.1858-1860) land and engineering surveyor is listed as ueas in practice in Melbourne between 1858-1860 at various addresses including 32 Temple Court r t, Little Collins Street west, in 1858. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and Kenny Direc;;:pctory, 1858-60; Tanner's Melbourne Directory, 1859. GILL, John (1796/7-1866) architect, was born in Devonshire, England in 179~6 or 1797. It is not known where Gill was trained or with whom he was employed, early-= w in his career, however he presumably had considerable experience before emigrating to A I' Australia at the age of forty five. He emigrated with his wife [oanna Apperly, nee Meaae:ade on the Bark Caledonia, along with ]oanna's brother Robert and sister, Susan, who w u later married Melbourne architect, Charles Norton (q.v.) They arrived in Melbourne in August 1842 and went to live with the Meadeseaes at Cleveland Terrace, Eastern Hill (East Melbourne). It is not known for how long theT~v stayed at that address, however Gill rented a brick cottage from a Mr Porter, soon after hi s arrival in the colony. He paid 25s. per week for the three room cottage that was one or f the first brick buildings in Melbourne. Gill established his architectural practice in 184~.2, however his earliest known works were executed in 1845. This delay before attracting an. y sizeable work was because of the depression in Victoria at the time, and Gill is reported as: sas having found no work for long periods during those years. By 1844 he was generating eno gh business to open an office in Flinders Street, which he occupied until 1850 when he mov~ to 55 Spring Street then in 1864 to Wellington Parade, East Melbourne, and in 1866 he w~as at 18 Collins Street East. Despite emigrating at the relatively old age of 45, Gill became quite invol~ed in the local Melbourne scene. He was a member of the ill-fated Victorian Architects' A-==associa tion, and he succeeded J.G. Knight (q.v.) as President of the Victorian Institute of A rchitects, from (late) 1861 to 1865. However, support for this body was waning by 1861, ;u::amd with Knight overseas, it was dormant for most of Gill 's term as President. No meetit:=mgs were called during his term and only two council meetings were held, in March and Maj . _1865, when Gill and three members met to prepare a statement of objection concerning arcin=nitects employed by the Public Works Department being permitted to engage in private praco=nce. Gill was responsible for a large body of work, almost all of it in Melbournssae. He designed numerous houses, inns, offices and warehouses. These included the Coldsbrcanugh & Co Wool Store (corner William and Bourke Streets); Charlotte Place (Swans to ,:_5 t); and Royal Terrace (50-68 Nicholson Street Fitzroy) is attributed to him. He alsess o designed the original Baptist Chapel at 170-174 CoIl ins Street with a simplified ten::mple front (later refaced by Reed & Barnes), however Gill executed very little ecclesesaastical work in Victoria. His regional buildings included premises for the Bank of Victt=mria at Avoca & Castlemaine, and several houses, as well as Mack's Hotel in Geelong. Gill did not work in any partnership and little is known of the structure--, ithin his office. R.A. Dowden and D. Ross (q.q.v .) have been recorded as assistants to GilLi:.:in 1853. If so, it would have been for a short period, as these two arrived in Melboume-s.aate in 1853 and already had a busy practice of their own by the end of that year. Around 1860-1861 Ioanna Gill travelled to England. It is not known if Gill...4.accompanied her on this trip, as she alone is recorded as having acquired a first class tickeerr on the Prince of Wa.l.e.s. for the return journey in September 1861. However it is conceivsseble that Gill did

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travel with her, as there is a lull in his known works around 1860-1861, and he did not take up the position of President of the Institute of Architects until November 1861. Gill considered himself a permanent resident of Victoria, and at one stage he expressed interest to his brother-in-law, Robert Meade, in acquiring two blocks near Tooralle. In 1847 he was summoned to appear as a juror in the Supreme Court, and he was given nonresidential qualification to vote for Members of the Assembly in July 1863 and again in July 1865. It is unknown why he was classified 'non-residential'. His home address from about 1853 was Gwyllehurst, Wellington Parade, East Melbourne, situated next to Sir W.J. Clarke's mansion. Gill appears to have retired from everyday practice in about 1859, only executing a few works between 1861 and 1863. He died on 16 June 1866 (aged sixty nine), having had no children. H. Raggatt, John Gill, Investigation Project 1977, B. Arch., University of Melbourne; L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s, Research Report 1979, B.

Arch., University of Melbourne; Family papers, Norton-Meade 1834-e.1919, held by G. [oan Stewart (nee Bostock); Australian Heritage Commission, The Heritage of Australia, (Melbourne 1981); Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'; Sands and Kenny, Directory 1857-1861; Sands and McDougall, Directory 1862-1866; J.M. Freeland The Making of a Profession, (Sydney 1971); The Tatler, supplement, 21 May 1898, pA.

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GILMOUR, - (ÂŁ1.1854) architect, was the designer of St Luke's Presbyterian schoolhouse, South Melbourne, in 1854 with one Kerr. Arch itectural Index, University of Melbourne. GINN, Henry (1818-1892) architect, was born in Box Hill, Sussex, the son of a Major in the Army. It is not know what training Ginn had in England, however he emigrated to New South Wales in 1835 aged only seventeen, and by 1836 his name was associated with the design of St Andrew's Cathedral in Sydney. In 1840 Ginn was chosen to design the Garrison Church Holy Trinity, at Millers Points Sydney: a commission he appears to have received through his father's friend, Royal Engineer Lt. Col. George Barney. The next year Ginn returned to England. However he was back in Australia very soon after, in 1842. He took up a position in the Colonial Architect's Office on 1 July 1842, and in 1843 designed the Sydney Public Library. Ginn was successful at a young age, being appointed Clerk of Works to the Port Phillip District (later Victoria) in May 1846, when aged twenty eight. His success continued and on 30 December 1850 he was appointed Colonial Architect to the newly created Colony of Victoria. This was a prestigious post with a 400 pound salary and a staff of nine, which included [oseph Bums (q.v.) as Foreman of Works and [arnes Balmain (q.v.) as Draughtsman and Overseer of Works. His time as Colonial Architect was however difficult. In 1851 he had to cope with the mass exodus of his staff for the goldfields, while he was also involved in a series of disputes. These concerned his office losing control of buildings constructed both in the goldfields and for the Police Department, and were also over the competitions for the new Legislative Council Chamber and Government House. As a result of these problems, he resigned from the position on 18 June 1853. While with the Department, Ginn is recorded as having designed several buildings including the Police Office in Elizabeth Street of 1848-49; the Court House at Portland, a symmetrical basalt structure with a central Tuscan portico; and the under gardener's cottage in the Melbourne Botanic Gardens in 1850, a picturesque gothic structure. Ginn was also involved in professional bodies during those years. In 1851 he was appointed the first President of the ill-fated Victorian Association of Architects, and in November 1849 had become one of the Official Referees under the Melbourne Building Act. After resigning from the Public Works Department, Ginn took the post of Secretary to the Mount Alexander Railway Company in August 1853. He did not stay with this Company for long, as on 3 December 1854 he again returned to England. He stayed in England for the following fifteen years, not returning to Victoria until 1869 at the age of fifty one. He stayed in Australia until his death on 23 January 1892 at Risca, Regent Street, Elsternwick, the home of his son-in-law, E.J. Thomas, Secretary for the Premier's Department. Ginn married twice . His first marriage was to [ane, nee Balmain, in St Lawrence's Church Sydney .when he was twenty sever:, and the second during his second return trip to England to Sophia, nee Hyslop, at All Soul s Church, Langham Place London in 1860. He had four daughters and two sons by his first marriage, and one son by his second. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; B. Trethowan The Public Works Department of Victo~ia 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Henry Cinn sketchbook, Public Records Office; Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages Melbourne, Death Certificate.

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GOLDIE, D. (£1.1868-1874) had an office in Melbourne at 39 Lt Collins St West in 1868. He designed a variety of buildings, mostly in Melbourne, which included Vincent Terrace in George Street, East Melbourne, additions to St. Stephen's Church, Richmond, and a warehouse in Swanston Street. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'.

GOOLD,-(

GORDEN, J. (£1.1857) was listed as an architect in Melbourne in 1857. Argus., 11 May 1857, p.3.

GRAVE, W.G. (£1.1864-1875) marine surveyor, is listed as working from 145 Flinders St west from 1864-66 and 1872-75, and was resident in the Three Chain Road (now Albert Road) South Melbourne. Sands and McDougall Directory, 1864-66, 1872-75. GREEN, William (£1.1852-1853) had an office at 59 and 29 Bourke St in 1852 and 1855 respectively. He let a five room brick house in Collingwood in 1852 and advertised for tenders for a bluestone store in Collins St West in 1853.

Argus., 30 October 1852, pS and 29 July 1853, p.3. GREENAWAY, John (£1.1855) advertised for tenders for work in erecting a verandah at Ivanhoe villa (probably now Heidelberg). Australian Builder. 6 September 1855.

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GRIFFIN, Ioseph (fl.1874) of 62 Queen St., invited tenders for additions on behalf of J. Owen Esq., High Street Prahran.

Argua 11 August 1874, p.3. GRIFFIN, P. (fl. 1868) architect?, worked in High Street, Prahran, in 1868.

Arg.us., 9 April 1868, p.3. GROVER, William (c.1814-1883) architect and builder, the son of [arnes Grover, builder, and his wife Frances, was born at Ealing, Middlesex, and came to Victoria in c.1857. Before coming to Victoria he married Elizabeth Dale at St. George's Chapel, Old Brentwood, Middlesex, in c.1836, and had five children before coming to Victoria. Grover lived at Schnapper Point on the Mornington Peninsula in 1858 and was involved with the Church of England in the area. His name is given as the architect of St [ames-the-Less Anglican Church in Mt Eliza on the foundation documents placed under its corner stone in 1865. He is also listed as a builder in Mornington and Mooraduc on the voters' roll of 1874. He died on 16 May 1883 and was survived by six of his eight children. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate.

GRUNDY, William (fl.1854-1870) architect, had an office in Gheringhap St., Geelong, in 1854. He is known to have designed three shops and houses in Ryrie St. Geelong in that year and in 1857 two warehouses. An identified example of his work is the Haworth Residence, Breakwater, built in 1869-70 for F. Haworth, a tanner. It is a small Gothic house reminiscent of illustrations in English pattern books of the period. L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979,

B.Arch., University of Melbourne; The Heritage of Australia. (Melbourne, 1981; Allan Willingham Index.

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HANSOM, Charles (ÂŁ1 1857-1874) was an English architect who was responsible for the designs of several churches in Victoria and South Australia. Hansom did not visit Australia, but instead he (and possibly also his brother [oseph) sent plans by correspondence. It has been suggested that Hansom's friend, William Bede Ullathorne (Vicar - General of Australia and later the Archibishop of Birmingham), introduced Hansom to Bishop Gould on one of the latter's visits to Europe from Australia; nonetheless he had strong connections with the Roman Catholic Church in Victoria for a period of at least fifteen years from c.1857. Hansom designed several churches for country centres throughout Victoria. The firm of Dowden & Ross (R.A. Dowden and D. Ross, q.q.v.) are recorded as his local supervising architects; although this association has only been confirmed for the building of St Patrick's Cathedral, Ballarat. Dowden & Ross are thought to have modified Hansom's design for St Patrick's Church, Port Fairy, presumably for reasons of economy, although their involvement was limited as the drawings were executed by the Port Fairy architect Nathaniel Billing (q.v.), Billing is also recorded as the supervising architect, although this seems improbable if the construction dates (1857-61) are correct, as he was working in Melbourne by that time. The bluestone Catholic Church at Learmonth near Ballarat and the nave of St Augustine's, Creswick (plans for which were also submitted by H.R. Caselli, q.v.) are recorded as being built to Hansom's design, although in each case the supervising architect is unknown. Dowden & Ross were not automatically responsible for the supervision of every Hansom design, as at St Mary's Church, Kyneton, Hansom executed it in association with George & Schneider a. George & J.A. Schneider, q.q.v.), Hansom's church designs were quite distinctive, displaying Gothic Revival features often combined with an octagonal belfry. His designs also influenced the work of local architects. St Augustine's Church, Keilor, built c.1858, is very similar to the Port Fairy Chruch, and it has been noted that Dowden and Ross's winning entry for St Mary's Church Geelong displays qualities which suggest Hansom's influence. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; T. Hazell, Notes on the Hansom Brothers' Australian Buildings; Australian Heritage Commission, The Heritage of Australia. (Melbourne 1981).

HARDING, E.W. (fl.1858-1859) engineer(?), joined the Public Works Department as a supernumery staff member on 1 February 1858. While with the Government, Harding was listed as an Assistant Clerk of Works and appears to have been involved in the engineering aspects of the Department's work. In 1859 the Government decided to reduce civil service establishments and to cease funding new public works; as a result Harding was reduced on 16 March, 1859. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

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HARDING, R. (1827- ) was employed by the Public Works Department for at least thirty years . In 1860 he was employed as a Clerk of Works for the Gippsland District State Schools Division, and he later held the position of Inspector of Works. On 1 November 1890, Harding was appointed District Inspector of Works for the Central District. He held this position until about 1893. B. Trethowan 'The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900', Research Report B.Arch . 1975, University of Melbourne.

HARRIS, Thomas L.

HARVEY, Robert McFarlane (fl.1827-1888) surveyor, was born in Glasgow Scotland in 1827, the son of [ames Harvey, a lawyer. Harvey emigrated to Port Phillip in 1852 and for a short time after his arrival was employed by the prominent Melbourne architect and surveyor, Charles Laing. He is thought to have been the Harvey in partnership with the Geelong engineer Andrew McWilliams between about December 1853 and July 1854 (at Wellington St, Geelong) however he is also recorded as entering the Government service in 1853 as a land surveyor. He surveyed the Ballarat area for ten years before turning to mining surveying, which he did until at least 1888. Harvey lived in Buninyong from about 1860 for at least twenty seven years. He became Town Clerk in 1883 and was the surv~yor for the borough council and clerk of petty sessions. For several years around 1870 he was the Buninyong Shire Engineer. He was married (his wife's maiden name was Rankin), and had a family of at least seventeen children. L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; A. Sutherland, Victoria and Its Metropolis Vol 1, (Melbourne 1888).

HARTLEY, Arthur (f1.1853-1855) clerk of works, worked with the Public Works Department from 15 June 1853 until 28 February 1855. He was a clerk of works for the Colonial Engineer's Department at Castlemaine for some of this time. B. Trethowan The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

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HA YDON, G.H. (ÂŁ1.1840-1854) architect(?) and author was working from Porter and White's in Flinders Lane late in 1841 and called tenders for two cottages at Brighton in November that year. He was the author of at least two books; Fiye Years Experience in Australia Felix published in London in 1846 and The Australian Emigrant "' also published in London, in 1854. Haydon was also the author of a sketch of Melbourne in 1840, depicting the west end of the town from the south side of the Yarra. It is probable that this was executed soon after his arrival, if the title of his first book can be taken as an indicator. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; port Phillip Herald. 1 November 1841. HENDERSON, George (1846-1905) architect, was born on 3rd October 1846, the eldest son of John Henderson, architect at Brechin and Edinburgh. He was educated at the prestigious Royal High School and on completion of his schooling in 1860, was articled to his father's practice. His father died in January 1862, and the office was taken over by David Cousin, enabling George to continue there until 1867. His future partner Alexander Davidson (q.v.), was also in his father's employ during these years. Davidson was about seven years Henderson's senior. George Henderson arrived in Victoria on 12th May 1867, two and a half years after Davidson. Soon arrival his arrival he joined Davidson as an unpaid assistant, and the first project they worked on together was the Barunah Plains Station at Inverleigh. They worked from Davidson's residence at Rokewood until January 1869, when they moved to 32 Malop Street Geelong, occupying the top front room. At the beginning of 1871 they entered into the partnership of Davidson and Henderson. The partnership agreement was such that Henderson received one third of the payments while bearing one third of the expenses. They practised together until 1877 when Henderson decided to return to Scotland. Davidson stayed in Geelong and continued to practise under the partnership name for the next six months. The partnership itself was not formally dissolved until 1879. During the nine years of their partnership, Davidson and Henderson designed many prominent buildings such as the Colac Episcopal Church, the Oddfellows Hall, Colac; Barwon Woollen Mill, Geelong; and the Geelong Free Public Library. They were also responsible for many large homesteads throughout western Victoria, including Barwon Park Winchelsea; Coragulac House, Colac; Mooramong, Skipton; and Eurak at Mt Hess. Henderson does not appear to have executed any works outside the partnership. Henderson returned to Scotland on the S.s, Somersetshjre in March 1879. He did not marry, and he died on 24 March 1905. A. Willingham, The Architecture of Davidson and Henderson. M.Arch., 1983, University of Melbourne.

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HENNINGHAM, William (fI.1859-1862) architect and surveyor, worked with H. Biers and Co . (q.v.) in 1859 and as a sole practitioner from 14 Elizabeth Street in 1861-62. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and Kenny, Directory 1861; Sands and McDougall, Directory. 1862.

HENRY, Thomas (fI.l866-1871) surveyor, practised from 5 Stephen Street (now Exhibition Street) from at least 1866 until 1871. Sands and McDougall Directory. 1866-1871.

HERBERT, Michael (f1.1854-1874) architect, civil engineer and surveyor practised in Melbourne for at least twenty years. Although he is not listed in Melbourne until 1870, it is believed he was the Michael Herbert who designed a building on the corner of Queen and Lt Bourke Streets for John Divine in 1854 and a hospital in Ararat in 1859. In 1866 his office was probably at 83 Swanston St., and from 1870-72 it was at 56 Lt Collins St East, and during 1873 at 70 Queen Street. He advertised for tenders for the Hotham Club Hotel, Victoria St in 1871 and had several residential commissions. He was possibly the Herbert in the partnership of Papworth and Herbert which practised from 50 Collins St East in 1856. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'; Sands and McDougall Directory 1870-1873. HERTSLET

HIGGINS, J.F. (f1. 1864-1882) architect, was responsible for the design of at least two churches. In 1864 he called tenders for a Roman Catholic Church at Dandenong, his office at that time being at 32 Lonsdale Street; while in 1882 he was listed at GlenhuntIy Road Caulfield and called tenders for alterations and additions to All Saints' Church, Glen Eira Road, East St Kilda. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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HILL, John (1828-1874) builder, was born in England in 1828, the son of a building contractor. He learnt his trade under his father and in 1849 emigrated to America. In 1853 he travelled to Victoria, and soon after went into business as a general contractor and builder. He was in business until at least 1888, being responsible for a variety of buildings in Melbourne and its suburbs. His office was on the corner of Scotchmer and Egremont Streets, Fitzroy North. Hill was probably the same who is listed as resident at 142 [ohnston St west, Collingwood from 1860-63, and at Duke Street, Collingwood, from 1868-1874, despite these listings describing him as a carpenter not a builder. A. Sutherland, Victoria and Its Metropolis Vol.IIB, (Melbourne 1888); Sands and McDougall, Melbourne Directory, 1860-1874.

HILL, John (f1.1863-1898) architect and builder, appears not to be the John Hill listed above. He is listed in 1863 as an architect and builder at 35 Spring Street, and is possibly the John R. Hill listed as an architect of 90 Victoria Avenue, South Melbourne, in 1890. J.R. Hill was elected as an associate of the R.V.LA. in 1890 and he was probably the Hill who designed a cottage in Little Lonsdale Street for a Mrs C. Rogers in 1898. Winston Burchett, Index of 'M.C.C. Notices of Intent to Build'; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and McDougall, Melbourne Directory 1860-1890. HINTON, - (f1.1854) architect, practised with Patrick Scanlan (q.v.) in the partnership Hinton and Scanlon during 1854. They had an office at the Commercial Chambers, 41 Swanston Street and are recorded as having been the supervisor for the erection of a bluestone school for the Roman Catholic Church at Eastern Hill (probably the supervision of St. Patrick's College) and the designers of a four room weatherboard house at Emerald, and a fifteen room house in Little Bourke Street west for either Hinton or Scanlan. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

HOLMES, - (fl.1859) architect(?) was in partnership with one Kemp in 1859. In that year they won third prize in the competition for the internal arrangement of the G.p.a. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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HONEY, Frank T. (fl.1854-1855) architect, worked in Geelong in the mid 1850's. In 1854 he was responsible for the design and supervision of the interior to Snell and Kawerau's (q.q.v.) Terminus Hotel. He called tenders late in 1854 for a wooden shop and dwelling in Myers Street Geelong and for quarrying 2,000 yards of bluestone. His address in that year was given as at the Council Chambers in Malop Street Geelong. Honey was a member of the Geelong Architectural Association and was the author of 'Architectural and Building Matters in Victoria'. It has been suggested that he was connected with William Honey and that he designed his homestead Merrwarp. In 1864 Honey was in practice in Sydney. He was placed first in the competition for the Supreme Court House, Auckland (1864) but his scheme was not proceeded with, and the commission was given to Edward Rumsey (q.v.). J. Stacpoole, Wjl1iam Mason The Fjrst New Zealand Architect, (Auckland, 1971). L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s, Research Report 1979,

B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Allan Willingham Index. HOWE, John (fI.1861-191O) architect, called tenders for the erection of the Wesley Church at Daylesford in 1861 and was described as being from Daylesford at that date. It is not known if he was the same John Howe of Railway Place, and later Melbourne Road, Williamstown, who was described variously as a carpenter and architect between 1863-66 and 1876-1910. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and McDougall, Directory 1863-1910.

HUCKSON, Robert (fl.1862-1894) architect(?), designed the Congregational Church at East Melbourne whose foundation stone was laid on 6 May 1862. In 1863 he was listed with an office at 45 Swanston Street and as being resident at 220 Victoria Parade East Melbourne. He was in practise in Victoria until at least 1867, however resided in Hobart, Tasmania from December 1887 to January 1894. Sands and McDougall, Di rectory 1863; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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HYNES, T.W. (ÂŁ1.1857) engineer(?) was employed by the Public Works Department on the 21 April 1857 as a supernumerary staff member. He appears to have been occupied on the engineering aspects of their work rather than architectural. B. Trethowan The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

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JACKS ON, Robert H. (ÂŁ1.1859-1860) was listed under 'architects and surveyors' in 1859-60, his address in those years being 69 Cardigan Street, Carlton. Sands and Kenny Directory. 1859-1860.

JACKS ON, Samuel (1806-1876) architect, builder and pastoralist was born in London the second son of Henry [ackson and [ane (nee Paynter). [ackson is recorded as having received a better education than his brothers, although he did not receive any formal architectural training. He emigrated with his younger brother William and one other brother in the brig Lien, arriving in Hobart Town on 7 August 1829. He soon moved up to Launceston and established himself as a builder in Brisbane Street Launceston, moving to St [ohns Street in 1831. During the period 1829-36,[ackson is known to have built Hythe (near Longford), the Paterson Street Methodist Sunday School (Launceston) and a residence for Henry Reed at the corner of Cameron and Charles Streets, Launceston. In 1835 Samuel's brother William, joined Fawkner in the Enterprise on his voyage to Port

Phillip. Upon his return to Launceston the two brothers, along with Messrs Gellibrand, Swanston and Evans chartered the brig Chilli. to transport their sheep to Williamstown, landing on 10 July 1836. They built a pise homestead called Koorakoorakup, near the present [ackson's Creek. This was later absorbed into W.J.T. Clarke's Special Survey of the area. [ackson returned to architecture in 1839 and by 1840 was living and working in Lt Collins Street, at the rear of where Scots Church now is. In doing so, he is credited with the first architectural practice in Melbourne. During the 1840's he designed several prominent buildings such as the first and second St Francis' Churches in 1839 and 1841; the first Scots Church, 1841; the Melbourne Hospital 1846-48 and Toorak House in 1848-51. In 1844 he teamed with Robert Russell and they submitted an entry for a stone bridge over the Yarra for which they won second prize. Despite his lack of formal education, Iackson was active within the profession and in May 1851 was one of the founding members of the short lived Victorian Architects Association in May 1851. He moved to what is now Acland St, St Kilda, in 1845. In about 1847 he built himself a larger residence closeby called Wattle House, and acquired 200 acres of land between Fitzroy and Grey Streets that he later sold at a great profit. He resided in St. Kilda until at least 1851, however by 1855 he was listed at Victoria Parade, the third house west of Brunswick St., then from 1860-62 back in Grey St. St. Kilda. Iackson did not restrict himself to Melbourne properties and in July 1847 he bought Sandford station (15,000 acres) near Casterton from John Harty. In 1852 he married Mary Ann Lowther at St [ames' Melbourne. They had one daughter, also

Mary Ann . Iackson stayed in Melbourne for about 26 years, however the bulk of his known works w~re executed before ~e 185.0's gold rushes. Iackson and his family returned to England In 1862 where they lived In Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex in a house they named Yarra House. Iackson died on 7 May 1876. He left a large estate and is buried in the Highgate cemetery. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; P.R.S. Iackson, 'Samuel Iackson', in Australian Dictionary of Biography Vo1.2 Melbourne 1967; L. Huddle Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and ~850's', Research Report 1979, B.Arch 1979, University of Melbourne; M. Poulston Biography of Samuel Iackson, Investigation Project 1981,

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B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Allan Willingham Index; J.M. Freeland Melbourne Churches 1836-1851. (Melbourne 1963). JA YNE, Charles (fl.1855) architect, lived and worked at Kyneton in 1855. He called tenders for a new stone Eipiscopalian Church at Gisborne, and a stone schoolhouse for the kyneton National School, both in 1855. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. JOACHIMI, Gustav (fl.1857-1893) architect and draftsman is best known for the work he executed while with the Public Works Department. He was employed with this Department as a temporary draftsman from 14 September 1857, until he was retrenched with compensation on 31 December 1868. During this time he mainly worked as a draftsman, however he was also given some architectural duties. His drafting work included much of Pentridge and Beechworth Gaols, and the Melbourne Observatory. His first (known) design is the entrance, towers and offices to Pentridge Gaol, built in 1858-59. These are built of basalt ashlar in a mediaeval style including round towers and crenallated battlements. Throughout the 1860's he designed the more classical 'A' and 'J' Blocks to Victoria Barracks, and a variety of regional Public Buildings including the Court House at Benalla. He was also appointed the Clerk of Works on the sleeping cells for Pentridge Gaol in 1859 during William Davidson's absence. After his dismissal (along with F. Kawerau and C. Vickers q.q.v.), [oachirni appears to have continued in practice as an architect. He had an office at 85 Collins Street East in 1872-75, and during this time he lived in Simpson Street, South Melbourne, and King William Street, Fitzroy. He is also recorded as the architect of a villa in Manningham Road, Parkville, almost twenty years later, in 1893, and as having an office in New Street, Elsternwick, in 1895 and 1896. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. Burchett Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'; Australian Heritage Commission, The Heritage of Australia, (Melbourne 1981).

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JOHNSON, Arthur Ebden (1821-1895) architect, the son of Alfred [ohnson, gentleman, and [ane, nee Tabor, was born in Paddington, London, in 1821. When sixteen, he worked for a short time as an apprentice to the Devonport dockyards, and also travelled to the West Indies. The next year (1838) he commenced as an articled pupil of Messrs Wigg and Pownall, architects of Bedford Row, London. He trained there for five years before entering the office of Messrs Scott (Sir Gilbert) and Moffatt for twelve months and then from about 1844-46 as a paid assistant to Philip Hardwick RA.. [ohnson was very successful during this time: Apart from working in such prominent offices, he was awarded a prize from the Architectural Association in 1840-41, and in 1843 he was awarded the Soane Medallion, followed by the Gold Medal of the Royal Academy of London in 1845. Between about 1846 and 1849,[ohnson was in partnership in London with Horace Iones (later Sir Horace, and President of the RI.B.A.), however despite an apparently flourishing career in England, at the age of about thirty, [ohnson left the partnership to emigrate to Australia. He appears to have stayed in contact with Iones over the years, as [ones signed his application to become a Fellow of the RI.B.A. in 1884. Iohnson's career in Australia was long and varied and was advanced by the support and protection of his uncle, CH. Ebden, pastoralist, businessman and politician, for whom [ohnson probably designed Black Rock House in Sandringham in 1856. By 1852, he is listed as being in practice in Melbourne, first from 126 Latrobe St West and between 1854-58 at 69 Exhibition S1. During the 1850's, [ohnson designed a variety of buildings including several schools and additions to the old Melbourne Club. In 1858 he won the second prize (of 400 pounds) in both the architectural design and internal arrangement sections for the new Melbourne Post Office, however despite first prize having been awarded to Crouch and Wilson (q.q.v.), [ohnson's design was eventually chosen to develop the design to be built. On 26 March 1859, [ohnson joined the Public Works Department as a temporary draftsman,

the position being made permanent on the 22 August of the same year. His duties were to 'design buildings and make drawings and specifications under the direction of the chief draftsman'. At first he was almost exclu sively employed on the drawings for the Post Office. In 1862, [ohnson was appointed as a Clerk of Works and Class 3 Draftsman. He was put in charge of all public buildings in the Melbourne district and was particularly involved in the preparation of a design for the Customs House (completed by J.J. Clarke (q.v.j), and an unexecuted design for Parliament House. In 1868 he took over from F.F. Kawerau (q.v.) as Clerk of Works for the Key Asylum.

In 1873 [ohnson was allowed to resign from the Department. This was because he collaborated with A.L. Smith (q.v.) on an entry in the competition for the Law Courts, and then, as judge, awarded their own design first prize. He resigned from the Department on 25 June 1873 and immediately entered into partnership with Smith. Before he left the Department, Iohnson had a very responsible position under W.W. Wardell as a principal specialist in architectural work, along with J.J. Clarke and Peter Kerr (q.v.). Despite the incident over the Law Courts, Wardell held him in very high regard, as evidenced by his proposal of [ohnson to be a fellow of the RI.B.A. in 1883. In that, he wrote ..... for 14 years he was the most accomplished assistant I had in the Department of Public Works of Victoria and I cannot speak too highly of him as a gentleman or of his professional qualifications." The partnership of Smith and Iohnson spanned from 1873 to 1895. They executed a major body of work during that time including several premises for the Bank of Victoria, offices

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for the Colonial Mutual Life Assurance Society, the Fire Station in East Melbourne and Golf Hill homestead near Shelford. [ohnson preceded W.R Butler as the Anglican Diocesan architect. He held this position until his death in 1895, however little is known of his work as such, apart from perhaps the Melbourne Grammar School Brornby-Pyne Memorial Chapel. [ohnson was invited to join the Victorian Institute of Architects in June 1856 however he is known not to ha ve attended the third meeting in August 1856. He was subsequently elected an associate of the (second) Institute on 7 February 1889 and was President of the RV.LA. in 1894-5. [ohnson went on an extended tour of Europe around 1891. It is unknown when he returned, although he was in Melbourne by 1894 to take up his position with the RV.LA. [ohnson died on 29 May 1895, while still in office as President. In 1861 he married Laura Marie Tuckwell but had no children. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; J.J. Blundell, MelbQurne DirectQry. 1854-56; Sands and Kenny, DjrectQry. 1857-61; Sands and Mcfrougall, DjrectQry. 1862-95; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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IOHNSON, George Raymond (1840-1898) architect, was born at Edmonton near London in 1840, the eldest of seven children. His father was William [ohnson, a contractor of Derby. He served articles with George Hall of Derb y, the architect to the Midland Railway Co., and later practised in London for a time. [ohnson married his w ife Emma Louise prior to leaving England in 1862. On arrival in Australia they first settled in Queensland, however after five years they moved to Melbourne. [ohnson established a practice in Melbourne and worked from several addresses between 1869 and 1895. In 1869-70 44 Elizabeth St; 1871-83, 32 Collins St West; 1884-85, 50/52 Collins St East; 1886-88 88 Little Collins St East; and 1889-95 194 Little Collins St. During this time he lived at Docker Hill Road, Richmond, in 1869 and from 1870 on, at Yarra Street Hawthorn. [ohnson was a prominent Melbourne architect with a most successful practice that undertook a vast range of buildings. He de signed many houses, Town Halls for Collingwood, Fitzroy, Hotham (North Melbourne) and Northcote; Her Majesty's Theatres both in Sydney and Melbourne; The Austin Hospital; the Metropolitan Meat Market and the Eastern Arcade. He also entered several architectural competitions. In 1887 he was awarded 250 pounds for a design of temporary annexes to house the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition while he also won competitions for the Northcote and Hotham Town Halls and the Bijou Theatre. He was awarded second place in competitions for the Melbourne Fish Market and a grandstand for the Caulfied Racecourse in 1891. He also entered the Commercial Bank competition. [ohnson's only known involvement with any professional body or committee was after the resignation of Peter Matthews, when he took over as Vice-President of the R.V.LA.. In 1895 [ohnson left Melbourne for Perth. It is unknown whether he spent time in Adelaide in transit (as the Adelaide Theatre Royal is attributed to him) however by 1897 the Western Australian Directory lists him as an 'architect and surveyor'. He did not stay in Perth long and prepared to return to the eastern states in 1898. [ohnson did not complete this journey as his died on 25 November 1898 of blood poisoning while aboard the ~ Pilbarra. [ohnson left no will and despite a seemingly successful career only left an estate of 150 pounds. A. Sutherland Victoria and Its Metropolis. (Melbourne 1888) Prysten and Kent, G.R.Johnson, Report 1918, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; D. Francis and J. Alsop, North Melbourne Municipal Build ings, Report, B.Arch 1967, UnL of Melbourne; Architectural Index, UnL of Melbourne; Sands and McDougall, Directory 1869-95; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build '.

IONES, John T. (fl.1859) architect (?), practised at 49 Collins Street west in 1859 in the partnership of O'Flanagan and Iones with John O'Flanagan (q.v.) Sands and Kenny Directory. 1859.

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KAWERAU, Frederick Ferdinand (ÂŁ1 1849-1868) architect and surveyor, was born in Germany and educated at the Royal Academy in Berlin. He emigrated to Victoria before 1849 and is believed to have been the first German born architect in the colony. By 1852, Kawerau was practising in Ryrie Street, West Geelong, and living in Skene Street Geelong (his house later became the Hotel Garni). In 1853 he joined Edward Snell in the partnership of Snell and Kawerau. During their short time together they are known to have designed several large buildings including the Terminus Hotel Geelong, a Bank of Australasia in Ballarat and Watson's Hotel at Meredith. Watson's hotel was the largest timber buiding in Victoria for its time, second only to the Melbourne Exhibition Buildings. They were also awarded second place behind Dowden and Ross in a competition for St Mary's Geelong in April 1854. They received a prize of 35 pounds.

Snell and Kawerau practised at Ryrie St until 1855. In 1855 Edward Prowse replaced Kawerau in the partnership, although for a short time they were known as Snell, Kawerau and Prowse. In mid 1854 Kawerau had intended to return to Europe due to ill-health but, while this may have prompted his retirementfrom the partnership, he did not leave Victoria. In 1855 he continued to be active amongst the profession in Geelong, becoming a member of the Geelong Society of Architects, Civil Engineers and Surveyors. By October 1855 he was working in the Steiglitz Forest and on the 23 May 1856 he was appointed as a supernumerary Clerk of Works and Draftsman to the newly formed Public Works Department. His position became permanent on 1 January 1861 and his duties included the design of buildings and to make drawings and specifications under the direction of the Chief Draftsman. During his time with the Public Works Department, Kawerau acted as Clerk of Works on many buildings, and was in charge of the Central Division of Victoria with Samuel White. Amongst other buildings, they were in charge of Gaols at Castlemaine, Maryborough and Bendigo and Court buildings at Amhurst, Keilor and Echuca as well as Warden's Offices, ' Gold Offices and Lunatic Asylums. Kawerau is attributed with the designs for the Yarra Bend Lunatic Asylum (1859), the Tarnagulla Post Office (1860) and Police Quarters at Mandurang (1862) and at Avoca (1859). Kawerau was reduced from the public service, with compensation, on 31 December 1868. No details are known of Kawerau's private life or where and when he died. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch University of Melbourne; L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

KELLY, George (ÂŁ1.1859-1869) draftsman, was employed by the Public Works Department in 1859. He may be the same as one Kelly who called tenders for the Mechanics' Institute at Brunswick in 1869. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria, 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

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KELLY, R.S. (ÂŁ1.1855-1861) draughtsman, was employed by the Public Works Department as a Temporary Draughtsman from August 1855 until he was reduced as a part of general Government reductions, on 31 December 1861. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne. KELLY, Thomas A. (f.1869-1894) architect, worked in Melbourne between at least 1869 and 1873. Nothing is known about Kelly apart from his substantial body of work. Most of his commissions were for the Catholic Church and they included many suburban churches such as St Mary's, Williamstown, S.S. Peter and Paul, South Melbourne, and St Augustine Church, West Melbourne, and some regional churches in Echuca, Colac and Geelong. He also de signed St Patrick's College in East Melbourne and St Francis Xavier College, Kew. Kelly's secular buildings were few and small in scale. They included shops, cottages and stores. A notice advertising for tenders for a school in Gundagai, NSW, under the name T.A. Kelly of Sydney may also have been the same architect. Th is is possible as he only appeared in the Melbourne Directory between 1869 and 1879. In 1869 Kelly was practising at 83 Swanston Street but by May the same year had moved to O'Connors Chambers at 100 Elizabeth St, where he stayed until 1875, and then moved to the Beehive Chambers in Elizabeth St. During this time he was living in Neptune St, St Kilda, in 1869, Punt Rd, Richmond, in 1871 and Vernon Villa, ]olimont Rd, ]olimont, from 1872 until 1879. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; E. Sideridis, Architectural Biography: Thomas A Kelly, Investigation Project 1981, B. Arch., University of Melbourne.

KEMP, Samuel V. (ÂŁ1.1866-1868) was listed under engineers, architects and surveyors as practising at 82 Collins Street west in 1866-67 and at 76 Collins Street west in 1868. His residential address was in Gardiners Creek Road (now Toorak Road), Toorak. Sands and McDougall Directory. 1866-68.

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KEMP, Thomas (fl1853-1855) architect, was probably born in England and practised in Melbourne for at least three years. He may have worked in, or been associated with, the office of Charles Barry in London. In January 1853 W.H. Ellerker (later of Ellerker and Kilburn) joined Kemp's office. It is not known for how long Kemp had been in practice, however only four buildings (hotels and a villa), are recorded as his work, all in 1853. During 1853 Kemp practised at 219 Collins St West, moving to 68 Lonsdale St West. Later in 1853 Kemp entered into partnership with J.G. Knight (q.v .) as Knight and Kemp , Knight had only recently arrived from England, having also an association with Charles Barry's office, and was to become a prominent and acti ve member of the profession in Melbourne. Knight and Kemp won second prize in a competition for Government House, probably with the assistance of [oseph Reed (q.v.). They also received praise for their design of the Melbourne Royal Exchange in a competition won by T. & S.H. Merrett (q.q.v.). Knight and Kemp are only known to have executed small works and additions. In 1854 Peter Kerr (q.v.) who had also been associated with Charles Barry 's practice, joined Knight and Kemp as an employee, and after only two months they formed the partnership Knight, Kemp and Kerr and they practised from 97 Swanston St. The main building for which this partnership is known is Parliament House, Melbourne. The design is attributed to Kerr although Knight and perhaps Kemp were also involved in the project. Their other works included several warehouses, shops and houses, and in 1856 the first stage of the Melbourne Customs House. Apart from his private practice, Kemp was employed in the Colonial Architect's Office (part of the Colonial Engineer's Office) for a short period in 1854, as a Clerk of Works. He resigned from this post later the same year because of an order prohibiting private practice to those employed in public departments. Kemp relinquished his share in the partnership with Knight and Kerr in about 1856 and returned to England. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1979, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne, Australian Heritage Commission, The Heritage of Australia, (Melbourne 1981).

KEMPSON, H.C. (fl.1866) architect(?), called tenders for a wooden building for the Berwick Mechanics' Institute in April 1866. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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KERR, Andrew (fl.I859-1888) architect, was prominent in Victoria's Western District and attracted commissions from prominent landowners and organizations. He designed/extended at least four large homesteads in the area, namely the woolshed and quarters at Terrinallum, for the pioneer pastoralist John Cumming, c.1872; Minjah homestead, for Ioseph Ware (a member of Victoria's first Legislative Assembly), in 1870; extensins and outbuildings to Merrang homestead, for the early Scots settler Robert Hood, in 1875; and Mt Fyans homestead, for pastoralist William Cumming, in 1883. Kerr also received the important commissions of the Bank of Australasia and the 1888 Town Hall at Warrnambool. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Allan Willingham Index; Ih.e Heritage of Australia. (Melbourne 1981); A. Sutherland Victoria and Its Metropolis. Vol.IIA, (Melbourne 1888).

KERR, Peter (1820-1912) architect, was born on 21 April 1820 in Aberdeen Scotland, the son of [ames Kerr, shipmaster and leather merchant and his wife Helen (nee Chesney). He was educated at Aberdeen Grammar School and in 1839 was articled to Archibald Simpson, architect of Aberdeen. In 1843 he moved to the office of George Fowler Iones in York. Kerr was successful at a young age, and in 1845 he was engaged to renovate and extend Dunrobin Castle, Scotland. Upon its completion in 1846, he was introduced to Sir Charles Barry, the architect of the Houses of Parliament, Westminster. Kerr worked in Barry 's office until 1852, when he emigrated to Australia. Kerr commenced practice in Melbourne in 1854 and after working for John George Knight and Thomas Kemp (q.q.v.) for only two months, he joined them in the partnership of Knight, Kemp and Kerr. They practised until Kemp left the colony in 1855, after which Knight and Kerr continued together until 1860. They executed a variety of work, largely houses, warehouses and shops, however the partnership also designed and supervised government projects. In 1856 they were appointed to design the Houses of Parliament in Melbourne, following the setting aside of both the successful competition entry by Smith and Pritchard and the scheme prepared in the Colonial Architect's Office under Charles Pasley's (q.v.) direction. Kerr is attributed with the design although it is probable Knight and Kemp also contributed in the early stages. Kerr joined the Public Works Department as a Temporary Draftsman on 1 June 1866, and by 1873 was a Clerk of Works and Draftsman Class 3. He soon improved his position and by July 1878 had become an Assistant Architect Class 2, the next year an Architect Class 2, and in February 1885, an Architect Class 1. While with the Department, he designed many medium-sized buildings such as Post Offices and Wodonga, Eaglehawk and Beechworth; Court Houses at Smythesdale and Oakleigh; and Police Quarters at Donnybrook, Marong and Chiltern. At this time he was only occasionally asked to design major projects, such as the third storey and tower of the Melbourne General Post Office and of course, Parliament House. Much of his work was supervisory, including the construction of the Public Offices and Law Courts. It is surprising that Kerr was not asked to design larger buildings, as by 1873 he, A.E. [ohnson (q.v.) and J.J. Clark (q.v.) were listed as the principal specialists in architectural work at the Department; and when Iohnson in that year, Kerr took over his position on the permanent staff. In 1877 Kerr was appointed architect to the Royal Commission on the Parliamentary Buildings, although he had already been involved with Parliament House for over twenty years. By 1887 he was in charge of the main public buildings in the Metropolitan area and in 1888 his salary rose from 650 to 1000 pounds. Apart from his very successful career, Kerr involved himself in professional bodies. He was the chairman of a

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meeting held in 1856 to form the Victorian Institute of Architects, and is known t? have attended the third meeting of that Institute in August the same year. He served on its first Council and was made an Honorary Fellow when the institute received a royal charter in 1889. He also became a Fellow of the R.I.B.A. in 1889 and was proposed in his nomination by three prominent Melbourne architects, G.c. Inskip, W. Salway and A.E. [ohnson (q.v.). Kerr acted as an Official Referee on behalf of the Government in adminstering the Melbourne Building Act. Kerr undertook private commissions of which little is known. Kerr retired from the Public Works Department in about 1892. He lived in South Melbourne for many years, and from 1883 until 1912 at 15/20 Service Crescent. His wife was Harriette, nee Bertrand, whom he had married in Melbourne on 8 August 1857. They had seven children of whom one was H.J. Kerr, also an architect. Kerr died at South Melbourne on 31 March 1912 and was survived by his wife and by two sons and two daughters. George Tibbits, 'Peter Kerr' in Australian Dictionary Qf BiQgraphy. VQ1.5 (Melbourne 1974). B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 18511900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Australian DictiQnary Qf BiQgraphy. Vol.5, Melbourne, 1974; A. Sutherland, VictQria and Its MetrQpQlis. VQl.II, Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and McDougall, Pi rectory. 1862-1895, 1898, 1904-6, 1909. KINCHK, Charles (fl.1859-1860), lived and worked at Kilmore in 1859-60. He designed two shops with dwellings for one Warren in 1859, and works for the Episcopal Church building in 1860, both in Kilmore. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. KIRKPATRICK, J. (fl.1857-1887) architect, worked at 15 Commercial Chambers Swanston Street in 1857-58 and called tenders for a brick house at North Melbourne for one Ross. It is possible he was the same J. Kirkpatrick who designed a house at Randwick, Sydney, for H. Oxenham in 1887. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. KNIGHT, John George (1824-1892) engineer and architect, was born in England in 1824, the son of an engineer. He was trained under H.D. Martin, dock engineer; and subsequently joined his father's firm, John Knight & Son engineering contractors and stone and marble merchants. He became an associate of the Institute of Civil Engineers, London, however he was sufficiently inspired by architecture to study it in his spare time, with no formal tuition. Knight arrived in South Australia in 1852, and went to the Victorian goldfields for a short period before joining the Colonial Architect's Office in Melbourne on the 25 March 1852 as an Acting Clerk of Works and Draftsman. His experience in ordinance work and the administration of a large building firm was obviously of value in the Colony, as he was made Acting Clerk of Works for the new military barracks in August 1852 and by 1 June 1852 was the chief Clerk of Works. It was at this time that Knight married Alice Bertrand, at St. Paul's, Melbourne, on 21 April 1853. In 1853 Knight joined Thomas Kemp (q.v.) in the partnership of Knight and Kemp. It is not known how much time Knight had to put into the partnership because he had a very

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responsible position in the Colonial Architect's Office. Knight and Kemp won second prize in a competition for Government House probably assisted by [oseph Reed (q.v.) and they also received praise for their design of the Melbourne Royal Exchange in a competition won by T. and S.H. Merrett (q.q.v.). Knight and Kemp are only known to have executed small works and additions. In 1854 Peter Kerr (q.v.) joined Knight and Kemp as an employee, however after only two months they formed the partnership Knight, Kemp and Kerr and they practised from 97 Swanston St. The principal building for which this partnership is known is Parliament House Melbourne. The design is attributed to Kerr, although Knight was involved in the project, as in November 1855 he became its Clerk of Works, and as such he witnessed the contract documents. The partnership's works also included several warehouses, shops and houses, and in 1856, the first stage of the Melbourne Customs House. Knight claimed to have designed this building. In 1854 public servants were prohibited from having private practices. As a result Knight resigned from the Public Works Department on 30 September, although his involvement with the Department continued, and in 1855 he was employed on a salary of 1200 pounds p.a . to supervise Parliament House. This arrangement allowed him to have a private practice and continued until the end of 1860 when he was reduced as a part of Government cutbacks. Kemp returned to England in 1856, and Knight and Kerr continued in the practice together until 1860. Their designs included 'D'Estaville' Kew, a synagogue and school in Exhibition St, and additions to the Albion Hotel in Bourke St. In 1860 Knight decided to practise alone as an engineer and patent agent, and until at least 1876 he practised as such from several addresses. In 1861 his office was at 30 Queen St, from 1864-67 at 18 Collins St East, 1869-71 at 26/28 Collins St East and in 1873 his address was listed as the Melbourne Mining Exchange, Hall of Commerce (although he had left Melbourne by this time). Knight designed the Melbourne Ship Canal Dock with Robert Adams, an exercise which no doubt drew upon skills gained during his training with H.D. Martin. Notwithstanding his training as an engineer, Knight was active within the architectural profession. He attended a meeting in January 1856 to form the Victorian Institute of Architects and was its first President from 1856 until 1861. He retired from the position because he had been asked to represent Victoria at the London Exhibition in 1862 and after some months was succeeded in this office by John Gill (q.v.). During his time in office he made great efforts to generate interest in the Institute and presented several papers including one in 1857 proposing a building museum for Melbourne: this museum eventuated in 1860, to Knight's design. He also read a paper in 1860 on 'Building Stones of the Colony', a topic he had researched with Charles Pasley (q.v.), Knight returned from England in 1864. In 1865 he was appointed to lecture in civil engineering at the University of Melbourne and he held this position until 1868. He did not confine his interests to engineering and architecture, as he was also a member of the Society of the Arts and a founder of the Athenaeum Club. While in Melbourne, he resided at several addresses; in 1887 at Darling St. South Yarra, in 1868 at Raglan Terrace, Robe St, St. Kilda, and between 1869-72 at Burnett St, St Kilda. In 1873 he left Melbourne, having been appointed by the Blyth Government in South Australia to be Accountant, Architect and Supervisor of Work in the Northern Territory. This appointment resulted in Knight undertaking at Palmerston a varied assortment of tasks with much responsibility. He became Clerk of the Local and Police Courts, Clerk of the Licensing Branch, Assistant Returning Office, Public Trustee, Deputy Sheriff, Crown

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Prosecutor and Special Magistrate. His .final appointments were in 1890, when he became Government Resident and Judge. Knight died in PaImerston on the 10 January 1892,survived by three sons, two married daughters and by his wife who inherited most of his estate, valued at 800 pounds. At the time of his death he was living in London. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and McDougaII Directory, 1866-1876; J.M. Freeland, The Making of a Profession. (Sydney 1971).

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KURSTEINER, Alfred F. (fl.1853-1893) architect, was most prolific during the forty years from 1853-1893 that he practised in Melbourne. Little is known of Kursteiner and it is only presumed that he was of German extraction. This is because of his name and also because in 1856 he joined the German born CH.O. Bagge (q.v.), in a partnership with one Spencer (q.v.), as Bagge, Spencer and Kursteiner. This partnership was short lived and was reduced to Bagge and Kursteiner between 1857-59. Thereafter, except for a brief period in 1869-70 when he was in the partnership with I.E. Austin (q.v.) as, Austin and Kursteiner he appears to have worked alone. While with Bagge, they practised from 50 Collins Street East, however when he practised on his own, Kursteiner worked from a variety of addresses. From 1860-63 at 48,32 & 58 Collins Street West; in 1864 at 9 Neave's Building Collins Street East; 1865 & 66 at 36 & 63 Collins Street West; in 1867 again at Neave's Building; in 1868 at 56 Little Collins Street East; in 1869-70 at 100 Elizabeth Street; between 1871-73 at Neave's Building and in 1877 in Swanston Street. During their short partnership, Bagge, Spencer and Kursteiner are only known to have designed an auction room in Collins Street Melbourne, a schoolhouse at Aitken's Gap and three residences in Melbourne. When reduced to Bagge and Kursteiner, they designed many residences, including a parsonage for the Unitarian Church in East Melbourne and several shops. Kursteiner's practice did not suffer when he continued alone. He undertook a variety of work both in type and scale, designing many residences, shops and larger projects such as the Roman Catholic Church in Epping, and the Royal Polytechnic Institute in Melbourne. Austin and Kursteiner were responsible for several houses, shops and hotels. Kursteiner is listed in 1891 with one Bailey, as Kursteiner and Bailey. It is not known if this was infact a partnership. Kursteiner was of sufficient standing in the profession to be asked to join the Victorian Institute of Architects in 1856. Despite a long and productive career, nothing is known of Kursteiner's private life except his many residential addresses. In 1860 he was listed at 125 Hoddle Street, Richmond, from 1860-68 at 39&29 Palmer Street, Fitzroy, 1869 & 70 at 156 Ferrars Street, Emerald Hill, 1874 again at Palmer Street, Fitzroy, 1877 at 154 Madeline Street Cariton, 1884-87 at 3 Ryans Place, Wellington Parade, East Melbourne, and 1888-92 at 30 Highett Street Richmond. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and Kenny Directory 1859-61; Sands and McDougaB Directory 1862-74,77, 82, 84-94.

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LAING, Charles (1809-1857) architect and surveyor, was born in Manchester, England in 1809 and from at least 1832 practised architecture in Manchester. He emigrated to Melbourne in 1840/41 and immediately established a practice as an architect and town planner being one of the first architects to practice in Melbourne. He worked as a sole practitioner for the next seventeen years, and during that time executed a large number of buildings. The economic crisis of 1842 in Melbourne crippled his first few years in practice and he was forced to work as a butcher part-time to supplement his income, and when on 26 August 1844 he was declared bankrupt his future looked bleak. This was a temporary setback however, and by 1845 his practice started to gain momentum.

He won the Princes Bridge competition in 1844 (his design later being altered by David Lennox) and between 1845-49 was the City Surveyor of Melbourne, his work in that position being mainly concerned with the formation of streets. He also executed many private works during this time including St Peter's Church, parsonage and school at Eastern Hill, the Union Bank in Malop Street, Geelong, the Queen 's Theatre, Melbourne and Coryule homestead, Drysdale. While still in Manchester, Laing had known George Wharton (q.v.) and he subsequently employed Wharton between about 1845 and 1848. Wharton is known to have assisted on the Queen's Theatre and St Peter's Eastern Hill projects. As City Surveyor, Laing prepared at least one map of Melbourne, published on 8 December 1847; however, he resigned from this position on 15 August 1849 because the City Council refused to permit him to undertake private engagements. He continued his architectural practice and over the following eight years was involved with at least 130 building projects. They included the Benevolent Asylums in North Melbourne (which he won in competition) and in Geelong, St. Paul's Church, Geelong, and many houses, shops and warehouses. His clients included wealthy merchants such as Hugh Glass and Solomon and Moses Benjamin. Laing also continued with his surveying work, and in August 1852 advertised his new plan of Melbourne and its extension northwards. Apart from George Wharton, Laing employed Robert McFarlane Harvey (q.v.) during 1852 and in 1853, Leonard Terry. Terry, who had arrived in Melbourne in 1853, stayed with Laing for about three years before he left to establish his own practice. After Laing's death in 1857, Terry succeeded him as the Anglican Church's principal designer in the Colony. Laing was an inaugural member of the Victorian Architects Association in May 1851 and was invited to join its successor, the Victorian Institute of Architects in June 1856. He was also invited to stand for election to the Melbourne City Council by citizens of Bourke Ward, which he did, not, however, being elected. Laing started his business life in Little Collins Street, and by 1845 was at 111 Flinders Street, by 1850 at 20 Swanston Street South, in 1854 at 49 Collins Street West, in 1855 at 65 & 85 Elizabeth Street and in 1856 at Bank Place.

He died aged forty eight, on 29 September 1857 and is buried at St Andrew's Church Brighton. He was married to Isabella, nee Glasgow, and upon his death left her an estate of less than 1,000 pounds. He left his professional equipment to his son [ames. [ames Laing only practised in Melbourne until 1860. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s, Research Report 1979, B. Arch., University of Melbourne; Ball and Cunningham Charles Laing: Architect, Research Essay, B. Arch., University of Melbourne; W. Burchett Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'; Australian Heritage Commission The Heritage of Australia. (Melbourne 1981); J.L. O'Brien, 'Charles Laing' and Miles Lewis, 'Leonard Terry' in Australian Dictionary 0 f

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Biography Vols. 2 and 6 (Melbourne 1967, 1976);J.M. Freeland Melbourne Churches 1836-1851. (Melbourne 1963). LAING, H. (fl.1854) architect(?) was awarded the second prize of 200 pounds for a design for the University of Melbourne in February 1854. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; ~ 16 February 1854. LAING, [arnes (fl. 1857-1860/61) was born c.1834, probably in Manchester, the son of the prolific Melbourne architect and surveyor, Charles Laing (q.v.), who died in 1857 and left his professional equipment to his son [arnes, He arrived in melbourne with h is father in 1840/41 at the age of seven and was presumably trained in architecture by his father. [arnes practised between 1857-61 at Bank Place, 77 Collins Street West; the same address Charles had worked from in 1856. He is known to have called tenders for the completion of a dwelling for Hugh Hunter in 1858, and for a house in Brighton for William Asprinwal in 1859. He left the colony in about 1860-61. Sands and Kenny, Directory 1859-61; 'Charles Laing' Australian Dictionary of Biography Vol (Melbourne 19 ); Argus, 13 March 1858 p.3, 19 March 1858 p.7, 13 September 1859 p.7; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. LAMBETH, Richard (fl. 1858-76) architect, practised from about 1858 to 1876, although it is not known if he was in Melbourne continuously between these dates. In 1858 his office was at 49 Flinders Lane, in 1859 at 6 Punt Road, Richmond, and in 1860-62at 78 Brunswick Street Fitzroy. He is next listed in 1868 and then from 1871-76 at Hodgkinson Street, East Collingwood. Lambeth is known to have designed a villa in Kew for E.L. Splatt, buildings for the Philosophical Institute of Victoria, additions to the Newmarket Hotel and buildings in Fitzroy for one C. Marston, chemist. Sands and Kenny, Directory 1859-61; Sands and McDougall Directory 1862, 1868, 1871-76; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. LANE, Henry Boyer (Boroger?) (fl.1852-1855) architect, worked in England and Canada before emigrating to Australia, He was employed by the Public Works Department in Canada and arrived in Australia with favourable references from a number of private architects, including Sir Charles Barry in London. He was appointed to the Public Works Department of Victoria as an Acting Clerk of Works and Draftsman in August 1852. That appointment was terminated in October the same year, however he was re-employed in June 1853 as a Clerk of Works at Ballarat. He was reduced from that appointment in March 1855. It is probable that he was the architect for a church at Ballarat tendered by one Lane in October 1854. .

Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

LANGTREE, Charles William (1846- ) surveyor, was born in Glenarm, County of Antrim, Ireland, on 25 October 1846. He was only about six years old when he came to Victoria in 3/L/2


1852. Prior to 1863 he served an apprenticeship as a mechanical engineer in the Hobson's Bay railway workshops and subsequently as a civil engineer under Messr William Els~o~ and John Norman Campbell, civil engineers. He joined his brother Octavius (q.v.) a Civil engineer, architect and surveyor in 1863 and later entered into partnership with S. Kingston Vickery, civil engineer and government mining surveyor for the [arnieson and Alexandra goldfields. It was presumably this connection which lead Langtree to call tenders for a new Church of England Church at [amieson in May 1865. In July 1865, Langtree entered the Department of Mines as a Draughtsman, quickly rising to position of Chief Draughtsman by February 1866. In that year he passed the la~d surveyors' examinations and in 1871 the same for mining surveyors. He was to succeed ID this field, becoming the head of the Departments of Mines and Victorian Water Supply and chief mining surveyor in February 1884; a position he held until at least 1888. Langtree was recognised within his profession, holding the offices of vice-president and president of the Victorian Institute of Surveyors and Engineers, and being a Fellow of that Institute. A. Sutherland Victoria and its Metropolis. Vol.II, (Melbourne 1888); Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. LANGTREE, Octavius (fl.1862) civil engineer, architect and surveyor, practised in Melbourne in the mid-1860s. He was the brother of Charles William Langtree (q.v.) surveyor, with whom he worked during 1863. A. Sutherland Victoria and its Metropolis, Vol.II, (Melbourne 1888).

LAPIDGE, Samuel (fl.1859-1860), is listed under architects and surveyors in 1859-60 and was resident at 144 Cardigan and 159 Lygon Streets, Carlton, during these years. Sands and McDougall Directory. 1859-60, LA TOUCHE, E.D. (fl.1865-1866) architect(?), practised with W.T, Doyne (q.v.) at 82 Collins Street west in 1865-66. Sands and McDougall Directory, 1865. LEROUX, Charles Frederick (c1805-1839), surveyor and architect, the son of one of the District Surveyors of London, was trained in London and worked there with his father, spent some time at the Swan River Settlement (Perth) where he supervised the construction of barracks and a powder magazine, then practised as an architect and surveyor in Sydney, from where he was appointed the first Clerk of Works to the Port Phillip District (later Victoria) under the Colonial Architect of N.S.W.. He held the appointment between 13 September and 31 December 1837 when he was dismissed for drunken behaviour. In Melbourne he supervised the building of a gaol, post office, customs house and other small public buildings in the infant settlement. He received the designs from the Colonial Architect's Office in Sydney, directed by Mortimer Lewis, which were intended for "assistance and guidance as regards general arrangements, but may require alterations to suit the materials..", He was required to report to Lewis on local materials. He seems to have been daily intoxicated and at times abusive. After his dismissal he developed a

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private practice and a drawing by him survives of a plan and elevation of a cottage in Lonsdale Street. Less than a month after preparing the drawing Leroux died of alchoholism at the age of 34 on 17 August 1839. D.S. Lyall, The Architectural Profession in Melbourne 1835-1860. M.Arch., 1965, University of Melbourne.

LEWIS, Mortimer, [nr, (£1.1851) architect, the son of Mortimer Lewis, the Colonial Architect of New South Wales from 1835-1849. He was appointed to be the Clerk of Works to the Port Phillip District, (later to become Victoria) after [arnes Rattenbury's (q.v.) suspension. However he did not take up the position and Henry Cinn (q.v.) took up the position. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne. LEWIS, T. (£1.1866) carpenter, designed the Welsh Congregational Church in Doveton Street Ballarat with J. Thomas (q.v.) in 1866. Withers, Hi story of BaJlarat. p.164, Ballarat 1887 (Melbourne 1980), p.268. LIGAR, C.W. (£1.1859) was listed as practising architecture at William Street, Melbourne in 1859. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Tanner's Melbourne Directory, 1859.

LIGHTFOOT, Thomas H. (f1.1870) architect(?), called tenders for the vestry to the Wesleyan Church at Talbot in 1870. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

LINDSAY, Henry (£1.1861-1862) civil engineer and surveyor, is listed as practising in 186162 and was resident at 57 Wellington Street, Collingwood. Sands and Kenny Directory, 1861; Sands and McDougall Directory, 1862.

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LISTER, John H. (fl.1852-1860) draughtsman, was employed by the Colonial Engineer's Office on 1 April 1852 and held the position of draughtsman until he was reduced with three months compensation as part of the Government's general reductions, on 31 August 1860. He appears to have been occupied on the engineering aspects of public works rather than architectural. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

LITCHFIELD, E. (f1.1864) was listed as practising architecture at 31 Swanston Street, Melbourne, in 1864. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Argus, 1 February 1864, p.3. LORENZ, J.J. (fl.1868) architect, of Ballarat, In July 1868 he was awarded thirty pounds in the Ballarat Town Hall competition won by H.R. Caselli (q.v .). At that time he was described as only recently having established himself as an architect in Ballarat. The Town Hall was constructed under the supervision of the Ballarat Borough Architect, Percy Oakden, in 1870 to the combined design of Lorenz and Caselli, with the exterior generally accepted as Lorenz's design. It has been suggested that Percy Oakden, as Borough Architect and supervisor, modified the design during the building works. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; W. [acobs et al BaJlarat, A Guide to Buildings and Areas 1851-1940.(Melbourne 1981).

LOVE, John Dickson (fl.1847-1888) architect, builder, storekeeper and orchardist, first arrived in Victoria in 1847. From 1847 until 1849 he practised in Melbourne as an architect and builder before leaving Victoria in 1849 for the Californian goldfields. Love returned to Victoria when the goldrush started in the early 1850's and he set up stores at Jim Crow (Daylesford) and Creswick before turning to mining in the Maryborough district. In 1873 he selected 320 acres of land at Tatura and established himself as a fruitgrower. At one stage he was the president of the Tatura Agricultural Society and he was a justice of the peace for the midland bailiwick. A. Sutherland, Victoria and Its Metropolis. (Melbourne 1888).

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LOVE, Robert A. (ÂŁ1.1864-1872) architect, worked in the Bendigo district, designing the Lockwood Primary Common School-in 1864 and St Paul's Church of England, Bendigo. St Paul's was erected in stages, the nave in 1867-68, the tower in 1873 and the transept and sanctuary not until 1926-27, and is brick with stone dressings with Gothic detailing. The interior has a fine open timbered roof. Love is also recorded as the designer of the Presbyterian Church at Pleasant, Creek opened in May 1868. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Illustrated Australian News. 19 April 1869; The Heritage of Australia. (Melbourne).

LOWREY, J. (ÂŁ1.1860) is listed under architects and surveyors in 1860. He practised from 11 Flinders Lane East. Sands and Kenny Directory. 1860-61.

LUGG, S.H. (f1.1865-67), carpenter, designed churches for the Bible Christian Church in Humffray Street, Ballarat, in 1866-67 and in Grant Street, Ballarat, in 1865-66. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; J.B. Withers, History of Bal1arat (Ballarat 1887).

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MACDONALD, Alexander Cameron (1828-1917) accountant, surveyor and geographer, was born on 9 August 1828 at Campbelltown, New South Wales. He was the third of twelve children and his father was Alexander Macdonald a grazier, and his mother Sarah, nee Warby. After leaving the local school Macdonald helped his father and in 1847-48 made three trips to the Port Phillip District with livestock. He was subsequently in charge of 600 horses on Rowan's Peechelba Station near Wangaratta, and in 1849 he joined Edward Barnett's survey party near Glenrowan. It was then that he learned how to survey and by 1850 was sufficiently proficient to become assistant to Charles Roward (q.v.) in Geelong. They were later to enter into a partnership and were largely involved in laying out Geelong. During the gold rush Macdonald went to Ballarat and had some success at Fryer's Creek, however he soon returned to Geelong and in 1854-55 was in partnership with H.M. Garrard (q.v.), Apart from surveying, Macdonald described himself as an accountant, and also speculated in land and had auction rooms from which he sold many suburban subdivisions. His widespread interests are reflected in the professional bodies he served with. In 1855 he helped to found the Geelong and Western District Agricultural and Horticultural Society and he served for several years as its honorary secretary and treasurer. He was also a member of the Geelong Society of Architects, Surveyors and Civil Engineers, and helped to promote the Colonial Bank of Australasia and even the establishment of vineyards along the Barwon and Moorabool Rivers, becoming a trustee of the Geelong Vineyard Company. In 1857 he was elected to the Geelong Town Council and was successful in a second term, while he was involved in extending the railway to Colac and in 1879 became secretary of the Local Railway League. Macdonald was invovled in an unfortunate venture with the Provident Institute of Victoria, with at least one of its executors failing to subscribe the appropriate funds and being convicted for this. In 1871 and 1874 Macdonald contested the seats of South Grant and Geelong East in the Victorian Legislative Assembly, but was not successful, apparently due to his free trade views. He had further misfortune with gold speculations that collapsed in the late 1960's, particularly the Fyansford Gold Mining Company. Macdonald was an expert on Aboriginal customs and language and had an excellent knowledge of geography. He compiled a Map Qf the ColQny Qf New South Wales in 1883 and travelled extensively into central Australia. Related to these activities, he was a founding member of the Victorian branch of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia in 1883, was elected a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society in 1885 and later became a member of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society and the society in Lisbon. Macdonald married Margaret Rainy Robertson in 1852 and they had Qne SQn, Gilbert Robertson who predeceased his father. Macfronald was active until his death on 18 June 1917 at this home Erewhon, Prahran. He is buried in the St Kilda cemetery and his burial was conducted by Rev. Charles Strong of the Australian Church in which Macdonald had been very prominent. Colin Macdonald 'Macdonald, Alexander Cameron', in Australian DictiQnary Qf BiQgraphy VQl.5 (Melbourne 1974); L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s, Research Report 1979, B. Arch., University of Melbourne: Registrar of Births Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate. MCGREGOR,j. 3/M/l


MCKEAN, William

MAIS, H.C. (£1.1859) architect(?) was resident in Osbome Street, South Yarra, in 1859.

Sands and Kenny, Directory, 1859,

MALCOLM, William (£1,1859-62) land agent and surveyor, practised at 47 Bourke Street west between 1859-62.

Sands and Kenny, Directory, 1859-61;Sands and McDougall, Directory, 1862.

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MAPLESTONE, Charles (h. 1838-) architect and clerk of works, presumed to be the eldest son of Charles Mapleston, and his first wife Sarah Elizabeth, nee Marsh, married at Ipswich, England, was born c.1838, arrived in Victoria c.1852/3 when he was about fifteen, and was intermittently employed by the Government for sixteen years. On 27 January 1853 he took over the position of Draftsman (from George W. Vivian) in the Colonial Engineer's Office and he held this position until 1 April the next year when he was made a Clerk of Works. Maplestone only stayed in this position for one year as he resigned from the public service on 30 April 1855 so that he could go into private practice. He worked from Bridge Road, Richmond, but the practice was not at all successful and only lasted for seven months, before he was declared bankrupt on 20 November 1855. Only two works are known of from this period, one, the slating a public house in Hawthorn, and the second, a basement for a large house. As a result of this failure, he returned to the Public Works Department as a Temporary Draftsman on 16 June 1856. He stayed with the Department for the next thirteen years and during that time achieved a responsible position. On 1 July 1859 he was made a Clerk of Works and Draftsman and along with Alfred Scurry (q.v .) was responsible for the supervision of several buildings including additions to the Geelong Gaol and the Court of Petty Sessions at both Meredith and Digby. At the beginning of 1861, Maplestone and Scurry were appointed in charge of the Western Division of Victoria. In this position Maplestone worked as both a Clerk of Works and Architect. He designed the gaol office and subtreasury at Daylesford and the Warden's Office at Castlemaine. He also designed St John's Church of England at Diamond Creek (1867) a small Gothic church in polychrome brick. He was still employed by the Department at that time as he was not superannuated from the public service until 21 January 1869. Mapleston had three brothers and one sister and from his father's second marriage to Isabella Margaret Noden at St. Helena near Greensborough, Victoria, in 1857, a step-brother and three step-sisters. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, RArch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Australian Heritage Commission The Heritage of Australia (Macmillan 1981) File on C. Maplestone, Department of Transport and Construction, Melbourne.

MARTELLI(S), Alex (ÂŁ1.1861-1871) architect and civil engineer, practised in Melbourne from at least 1861-1871, from various addresses in Collins Street and in 1868 in La Trobe Street. He was responsible for several cottages and houses including a two-storey house in LaTrobe Street for a T. Russell. His largest known work is the Roman Catholic Church at Lilydale opened in 1871, built in granite and of a German gothic design. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and McDougall, Directory. 1862-71; Sands and Kenny, Directory. 1861. MARTIN, Peter (f1.186O) architect(?) designed a church in Benalla in the Gothic style in 1860. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Australian Builder. 4 February 1860. MATHIESON, G.M. (f1.1854) architect, practiced in Portland in the mid 1850's. Norman Hitchcock is recorded as serving articles with Mathieson in about 1854.

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Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Ray Tonkin. MATTHEW, John (fl.1849-1853), bricklayer turned builder, arrived in Geelong in 1849 on

the Larpent. Is accredited with designing No.s 1 and 3 Skene street, Geelong, and Samia at 266 La Trobe Terrace, Geelong, both in 1853. Not to be comfused with John Field Matthews above. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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MA TTHEWS (MATHEWS?) John Felix (1810-1896) architect and surveyor practised in Melbourne between 1852 and 1896. .He arrived in Melbourne on 25 December 1852 on the Coyenander with his family, Rebecca Duncan, nee Tyler, and four children, the eldest, Peter b.1842, also becoming an architect. His wife died on 18 August 1855 shortly after the family settled in Docker Street, Richmond. On his arrival he entered the architectural office of Charles Laing (q.v.) and he worked with Laing until he commenced practice on his own in Melbourne in 1855 (with an announcement that 'he hopes to obtain a continuance of that patronage and confidence hitherto reposed in him ...' His practice is listed for the next forty years. In 1855 he worked at 97 Collins 5t West, in 1856 at 37 Market St, in 1857 at 99 Elizabeth 5t, in 1857-62, as 83 Elizabeth St, in 1863-80 at 67, 45 and 59 Swanston St and in 1881-91 at 35 and 87 Queen St. Matthews produced a large body of secular work which included houses, shops, hotels and warehouses, nearly all in inner Melbourne. He is attributed with the design of Oberwyl, St. Kilda (1856). He also designed several buildings for the Presbyterian Church at Richmond, Ballan and Bacchus Marsh, as well as a Baptist Chapel off Bourke St and some minor works for the Melbourne Jewish Congregation. Although little is known of his work after 1873, Mathews was listed as an architect in Melbourne until 1896. He attended the meeting in August 1856 to form the Victoria Institute of Architects despite not have been officially invited. His private address from 1860-1896 was No .33 Rotherwood Street (corner of Rotherwood and Goodwood Streets) Richmond. Matthews married twice, firstly Rebecca Duncombe Tyler with whom he had nine children, three of whom survived him, including his architect son Peter, and secondly, Ann McPherson with whom he had four children, all of whom survived him. He died at his Richmond house on 10 January 1896 at the age of 85 and was buried in the Melbourne General Cemetery. L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979, B.Arch University of Melbourne; J. Antcliff, John Felix Matthews, Investigation Project 1981, B. Arch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

MA YES, Charles B. (fl. 1853-1862) builder and architect(?) worked in Melbourne between 1853 and 1862. During 1853 he designed a hotel at Windsor, and shops and houses. He also obtained a building permit in 1853 to construct an 'iron office' in Brunswick 5t, Fitzroy, for his own use. It is likely that this was a prefabricated structure. In 1856 he designed a courthouse in Ballarat and watchhouse in South Melbourne (Emerald Hill) . Mayes is listed under architects and surveyors in the Melbourne Directory between 1859-61. No business address is listed and his private address was at 9 Peel St and 104 Oxford St, Collingwood. Although there are no known works by him during those years, he was active within the profession as an author. In 1859 and 1862 he wrote The Victorian Contractors' and Builders' Price-Book. and as a part of the Victorian Government Prize Essays of 1860, he wrote an 'Essay on the Manufacturers more immediately required for the Economic Development of the Colony ...' Architectural Index, University of Melbourne, Sands and Kenny, Directory 1859-61; W. Burchett, Index of M.C.C. 'Notices of Intent to Build'. M.B. Lewis, Tradition and Innovation in Victorian Building 1801-1865. 3 vols. Ph.D., 1972, University of Melbourne. MEREDITH, Robert (

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McCULLOGH, John (f1.1835) architect(?) called tenders for a weatherboard dwelling and offices in North Melbourne in May 1853..

Architectural Index, Univers ity of Melbourne; Argus, 28 May 1853, p.3. McLAGAN, George (fl.1843-1872) architect, is recorded as having practised in Melbourne at various dates between about 1843 and 1872. Robert Russell (q.v.) noted on his drawing of Melbourne dated October 1844 that the Union Bank (on the south east corner of Queen and Collins Streets) was designed by McLagan. This was a fine two storied building with a superimposed Tuscan order at ground floor level.

In 1858 McLagan was in partnership wi th William Dunn as McLagan and Dunn, architects and engineers. They practised from 49 Coli ins Street west. However, by 1869 McLagan appears to have been practising alone, and in December that year he called tenders for a residence at the corner of Gardiner's Creek Road (now Toorak Road) and Canterbury Road, Toorak. His address in 1872 was in Millswyn Street, South Yarra. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Argus. 2 December 1869, p.3; Sands and McDougall, Directory. 1858, 1872; Robert Russell drawing of Melbourne, October 1844 in the La Trobe Libra ry, Melbourne; S.T. Gill, Victorja Illustrated . Melbourne 1857.

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McWILLIAMS, Andrew (1817-1899) civil engineer, architect and surveyor, was born in Londonderry Northern Ireland, the son of Richard McWilliams, a schoolmaster and Sarah [ane, nee Kane(?). He was engaged in railway surveys in England during the early years of his working life, and later for the government in Southern Ireland. McWilliams emigrated to Victoria in 1853 when aged about thirty-six and landed at Geelong. By December the same year he had entered into the partnership of McWilliams and Harvey. Harvey was probably Frederick Harvey, a Geelong merchant and businessman who was responsible for importing building materials and houses. The partnership did not last a year. By July 1854 McWilliams was alone in practice, describing himself as architect, engineer and surveyor and in 1860 was listed at 13 Great Malop Street Geelong. Over the next twelve years McWilliams designed a number of prominent buildings in the Geelong district. They included several stores, hotels and ecclesiastical work such as All Saint's Church, Mt Moriac, in 1863 (probably his design), and a Roman Catholic Church in Hamilton in 1865. His skills also extended to cartography and in 1864 he was the author of a 'Map of Queenscliff in the County of Grant'. From 1865-99 he was the Secretary and Engineer for the Bellarine Shire and his duties were extended from 1879-96when appointed surveyor and engineer for Geelong West. McWilliams married three times. His first marriage was to Maria Euphrasia, nee Hayes, in Dublin in about 1850, she died aged only twenty five, and they had no children. His second wife was Eliza, nee Nagle, whom he married in Geelong in about 1858, and they had one son who predeceased McWilliams and Eliza died also aged only twenty five. In about 1862 he married Sarah [ane, nee Rowley, and they had four daughters, Florence, Ellen, Alice and Eva, and two sons, John and Henry. McWilliams died on 30 October 1899 at Drysdale in the Shire of Bellarine, where he appears to have been living at the time . Allan Willingham Index; L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840's and 1850's, Research Report 1979, B. Arch., University of Melbourne; Borough of Queenscliff Offices, 'Map of Queenscliff in the County of Grant', 1864; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate.

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MERRETT, Samuel Headon (c. 1827-1883) engineer and architect was born in 1829 in

Middlesex England. He probably emigrated to Melbourne in 1853 with his brother Thomas Henry Merrett (q.v.) as they formed the partnership T & S.H. Merrett in 1854. They worked together for two years at 170 Little Collins Street and during that time are believed to have designed Melbourne's first exhibition buildings built in William Street in 1854. They also won a competition for the Melbourne Royal Exchange in 1854 and called tenders for a two-storey brick building for the Prahran Mechanics' Institute in 1855. Despite their few known works, T. & S.H . Merrett were well enough known in the profession to be invited to join the Victorian Institute of Architects in June 1856. At the beginning of that month, Merrett had joined the public service as the chief drafts man in the newly created Public Works Department and was one of only eight permanent staff members. His annual income was 500 pounds and his duties at that time were to design buildings and superintend the works of the other draftsmen. Although he had a background more in engineering than architecture, Merrett was assigned several tasks within the Department. From 1862 he was a Clerk of Works and Draftsman (class 2), in 1874 he was appointed Architect and Engineer and in 1875 .w as the Chief Assistant Architect and Engineer. His annual income by 1878 was 600 pounds. Little is known of Merrett's early work for the Department except that in 1860 he supervised the construction of the roof for the Melbourne Treasury and designed the Gaoler's Quarters in Ararat, both in 1860. Between 1866 and 1877 he was involved in many projects. He was draftsman for at least eight regional Police Quarters buildings, the Mint buildings in Melbourne and sections of the gaol at Geelong. He also approved drawings for several important buildings including Government House and the Government Offices in Melbourne, Williamstown Customs House and Kew Lunatic Asylum. Merrett was reduced from the Department, along with many of his colleagues, in the mass dismissal of 8 January 1878. He received a lump sum compensation, but was re-employed in September the same year. This was on a temporary basis to carry out his previously assigned job as Engineer for Defence Works. It is not known for how long he held this position, however he was no longer listed in the statistical registers in 1882. Merrett has only been attributed with the design of one non Government building during his time with the Department. This is St George's Church Malvern Hill, built in 1873. A Samuel Hayden (sic) Merritt, Civil Engineer, died on 25 January 1883 at Greville Street, Prahran, aged fifty-six and therefore was born 1827. He came to Victoria c.1853, was married twice, his second wife being Sarah; 'nee Perrin, and had no children from his first marriage of and two from his second, Charles Edward (19 at his .father's death) and Laura Isabel (17). This must be the same person as Samuel Headon Merrett. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, .B.Arch. University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; File on S.H. Merrett, Department of Transport and Construction. M~RRETT, Th~mas.H~nry (fl. 1853-1888) civil engineer was born in Middlesex England and emigrated to Victoria m 1853. Soon after his arrival, Thomas established a practice with his bro~er, ~amuel Headon t-:terret (q.v.). They worked as T. & S.H. Merrett for two years and their office was at 170 Little Collins Street.

T. ~ ~.H. ~~rrett a~e attributed with the design of Melbourne's first exhibition buildings built m Wi~ham St m 1854. They also won a competition to design the Melbourne Royal Exchange m 1854 and called tenders for a two-storey brick building for the Prahran 3/M/8


Mechanics' Institute in 1855. Despite their few known works and their expertise in engineering, T. & S.H. Merrett were sufficiently involved in the architectural profession to be invited to join the Victorian Institute of Architects in June 1856. Samuel Merrett joined the Public Works Department in June 1856. It is not known what Thomas did immediately after their separation, however by 1888 he was employed as a civil engineer in the Victorian Railways Department and he was the engineer of the railways from Melbourne to Windsor and from Melbourne to Hawthorn. Merrett travelled extensively, visiting New South Wales, Western Australia, Queensland and New Zealand and he is recorded as having owned property in each of those places. By 1888, Thomas Merrett was living at 19 Catherine Street Richmond and was married with three sons. A. Sutherland Victoria and Its Metropolis, Vo!. 11 (Melbourne 1888); Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

MILLAR, John (fl.1863-1873) was listed under architects and surveyors in 1863 and 1872-73. In 1863 his business address was in Victoria Street and his residential address at 9A Bond Street, Melbourne, while in 1872-73 he worked in Little Collins Street West. Sands and McDougall, Directory, 1863, 1872-73. MOORE, F.M. (fI.1855) Engineer and architect of Herae Hill, Geelong and Credited with the Design of the building, Thornshill, Highton, Geelong (1855). A firm of Moore & Co., engineers, was listed in 1856. L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s, Research Report 1979,

B.Arch., University of Melbourne. MORRIS, Thomas (fI.1855) advertised in 1855 that he wished 'to inform the public of Williamstown ... plans and specifications as prepared to any order of architecture, at the most moderate term, by the undersigned who has had twenty years practical experience in all the different branches of the building line ...' Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Williamstowo Trade Circular, 20 October 1855. MORRISSON, William (fl.1838), builder, of Collins Street, successfully tendered for the construction of the "carpentry, painting and glazing" of the Presbyterian school and meeting hall (May 1839) which stood on the site of the present Georges store in Collins Street. The flooring and roof trusses were subsequently declared unsatisfactory by the Clerk of Works to the Port Phillip District Games Rattenbury q.v.) in December of 1839 and the roof had to be rebuilt in 1840. Morrisson also built the first Independent (Congregational) Chapel at the corner of Collins and Russell Streets, (he also provided a plan for the building, as did J.J. Peers (q.v.) and Alexander Sims, who is credited with the design). The construction was def.ective and ~e roof had to be replaced in 1840. Morrisson also erected a building for a Mr. Chisholme which burnt down on 24 October 1839. He may also have provided a plan and built a house for the first Congregational minister, the Rev. William Waterfield (17951868). Morrisson and his wife Ellen had a son, William, who was born on 21 March 1838.

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Historical Records of Victoria, Vol. 3, The Early Development of Melbourne (Melbourne 1984); I.M. Freeland, Melbourne Churches 1836-1851 (Melbourne 1963).

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MOSELEY, Hen ry (1830- ) draughtsman an d enginee r, was born in 1830 and was employed by the Public Works Department in Victo ria for sev en teen years. Initially he was employed as a Supernumerary Draughtsman on 16 November 1857, however by 1862 he was a Clerk of Works and Draughtsman Class 4. He was further promoted in October 1863 to Class 3 and on 1 July 1874 became the Engineering Surveyor Class 2, a prestigious position with an annual salary of 566 pounds. Moseley was reduced with lump sum compensation on 9 January 1878, being one of many public servants to be dismissed on 'Black Wednesday'. Department of Housing and Construction, Melbourne, file on 'H. Moseley' held by the Historic Buildings Liaison Officer; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Rep ort 1975, B.Arch. University of Melbourne.

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NANKIVELL, R.

NEVINS, Charles (ÂŁ1.1859) architect(?), was listed as having a practice in Stanley Street in 1859.

Architecturallndex, University of Melbourne; Tanner's Melbourne Directory, 1859.

NEWSON, Arthur (ÂŁ1 1849-1854) architect and surveyor, was trained in England and practised in Melbourne for about five years, first as a partner of [arnes Blackburn (Jnr) (q.v.) and then as a sole practitioner. Newson and Blackburn commenced practice in November 1849. [arnes Blackburn (Snr) (q.v.) had established a practice in Melbourne during that year, and when he was engaged as the City Surveyor he transferred his practice to his son and Newson. Their office was at 35 Collins Street West, until they dissolved the partnership by mutual consent in March 1851. The partnership won third prize in the Melbourne Benevolent Asylum competition (in which C. Laing (q.v.) was awarded first prize and J. Gill (q.v.) second). They were also responsible for the central nave of St Stephen's Church, Richmond, St Enoch's Church, Collins Street and Merville House South Yarra. While still with Blackburn, Newson was the surveyor to the Equitable Benefit Building and Accumulating Fund Society. From 1851-1854 he practised alone. During this time he designed several small houses and shops in Melbourne, Prahran and East Melbourne and in 1853 his office was at 3 Lonsdale Street West. It is not known if Newson stayed in Victoria after 1854, however he did temporarily leave the colony in the middle of that year. His practice was carried on by J.R. Burns (q.v.) for a time during Newson's absence. B. Katsipidis, Biography of [arnes Blackburn Jnr, Investigation Project 1973, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; N. Lewis, Biography of [arnes Blackburn Jnr, Investigation Project 1974, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; J, Grove, The Architecture of the Blackburns, Research Report 1981, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; J.M. Freeland Melbourne Churches 1836-1851. (Melbourne 1963).

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NICOLAI, W.E. (1826-1893) architect was born in Marburg, Prussia in 1826. He was probably educated at Kassel University and Polytechnic before emigrating to Victoria in 1854. It is not known whether he went to the gold diggings on arrival, however in 1872 he commenced work for his countrymen W.e. Vahland and R.E.H. Getzschmann (q.q.v.). This was a long standing Bendigo practice, responsible for a large number of major public buildings. Nicolai's design skills may have had a considerable impact on that firm's work. Nicolai also instructed at the Bendigo School of Mines in architecture and mechanical drawing, and did not retire until 1892. He died in April 1893, aged sixty seven. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; G. Lawler 'The Vahland School', Humanities Research Report, B.Arch. (not dated), University of Melbourne.

NIMMO, [ohn (fI.1860-1863) surveyor, was the Town Surveyor of Emerald Hill (South Melbourne). He had a business address at 12 Bank Street West in 1860-61, and was resident at 69 Nelson Road, Emerald Hill, in 1862-63. Sands and Kenny Directory. 1860-61; Sands and McDougall Djrectory. 1862-63. NIXON, F.H. (fI.1854) clerk of works, worked for the Colonial Engineer's Office as the Clerk of Works for the Ovens District in 1854. He was dismissed on 30 November the same year. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

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NORTON, Charles (1826-1872) artist, clerk and architect, was born at Castle Cary, Somerset England on 20 February 1826, the second son of Frederick Norton, a Captain in the 11th Hussars, and Hannah, nee Birch. His mother died when he was only twelve, and at the age of sixteen, in 1842, he emigrated to Port Phillip with his father aboard the GlenswiJ1y. On his arrival in the colony Norton pursued grazing interests and between 1844 and 1846 he is recorded as holding sheep on Crown Lands at Western Port. He also spent some time at the Seven Hills Estate at Western Port, owned by his uncle Captain Birch, and squatted on the station Tooralle near Clunes. Norton married Susan Meade in 1847. Susan had also arrived in Victoria in 1842, and had taken the position of governess to the children of Lt. Gov . Charles La Trobe. After their marriage they lived at their property Carl sbad near Geelong and by 1851 were resident at 1 Spring Street Melburne, living there until his death in 1872. His associations and movements aft er his arrival in Victoria are clearly illustrated in his sketch book that spanned 1842-1863. His drawings include the Seven Hills Estate (1844), Too ralle, Clunes and Smea ton Hill stations (1846), Carlsbad (1847-48), Dights Mills on the Yarra, and Lonsdale's cottage (1854), the Treasury and Fitzroy Gardens (1859), No.1 Sprin g Street (1860), Flinders Street East (1862) and the Yan Yean reservoir (1863). He also painted John Gill's (q.v.) front garden at 'Gwyllehurst' in East Melbou rne. Gill w as Norton 's brother-in-law by marriage. Norton's occupation after 1850 was varied. For a time he was the secretary to the Melbourne Benefit Building Society until its collapse and in 1850-51 he was describ ed as a clerk in the Treasury. From 1854-71 he was listed vari ously under arc hitects and draughtsmen, and was described as an architect on his death certificate. Despite this long career in the field , none of his works are known and it is not known if he worked with John Gill who had become a very successful architect by 1854. A despondent comment written by Norton in 1868 may explain the lack of prominent works by him: My usual ill-luck see ms to cling to everything I undertake, an d nothing goe s right in great or small'. Norton had three children, one son who predeceased him, a daughter Ioanna an d a son Frederick. He died on 27 March 1872 aged forty six at his home in Sprin g Street, and is buried in the Melbourne General Cemetery. Norton-Meade family papers 1834-c.1919; held by G. [oan Stewart; Sands and Kenny, Directory 1854-1861; Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne Death Certificate; The TatJer (suppI.), 21 May 1868. '

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O'BRIEN George (1821-1888), architect, watercolour artist, was born at Dromoland, Co . Cla ire, Ireland, the fifth son of Admiral Robert O'Brien and first cousin of the 13th Baron Inchiquin whose brother was William Smith O'Brien, a political prisoner transported for six years to Tasmania. O'Brien arrived in Australia in 1839 and worked in Melbourne for some 24 years before settling in New Zealand where he died in 1888. Nothing is known of O'Brien's architectural work in Victoria other than a tender notice for slating and repairing the roof of a stone store in Little Collins Street West of W.M. Bell and Co., and another tender for the erection of a brick s tore in Bourke Street West where the practice was advertised as Brache (q.v.) and O'Brien, architect and civil engineer. O'Brien was a member of the Victorian Institute of Architects . A number of his watercolours on pencil drawings of buildings in and around Melbourne survive. In New Zealand he was responsible for some of the illustrations of Mason's and Clayton's (q.v.) buildings shown at the Dunedin exhibition in 1865. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Arg.u.s., 8 June 1854, 14 February 1855, 17 July 1858; John Stacpoole, WiJliam Mason (Auckland 1971); LaTrobe Collection, State library of Victoria.

O'FLANAGAN, John (f1.1859) architect(?), practised at 49 Collins Street west in 1859 in the partnership of O'Flanagan and [ones with John T. Ion es (q.v.). Sands and Kenny, Directory, 1859.

ORME, Richard P. (f1.1869) architect, practised at 130 Madeline Street (now Swanston Street) Carlton in 1869. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Argus. 27 No vember 1869 p.S.

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PALLElT, George (1824-1878) surveyor and builder was born in Coleshill Warwickshire England, the son of Thomas Pallett a farmer and Ann nee Cotterill. He emigrated to Victoria in 1855 and by 1869 was the Shire Surveyor for Sandhurst (now Bendigo). He is attributed with the design of the Strathfield saye Shire Hall in 1869. Pallett married Mary Ann Slim in Birmingham in 1843. They had six sons and four daughters. He died on 7 April 1878 at Forest Street, Sandhurst, and is buried in the Sandhurst Cemetery. Architectural Index, Uni versity of Melbourne; Illustrated Australian News, 1 November 1869; Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certi fica te.

PAPWORTH, C. (ÂŁ1.1854-56) draughtsman, wo rked for the Colonial Engineer's Office in 1854. By April 1856 he was a partner of Papworth and Herbert, possibly with Michael Herbert (q.v.). They practised at 50 Collins Street east. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

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PASLEY, Charles (1824-1890) military engineer, was born on 14 November 1824 at Chatham England, the eldest son of General Sir Charles William Pasley, a prominent military engineer and his second wife, Martha Matilda nee Roberts. Pasley was educated at King's Grammar School, Rochester, and attended the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich from 1840. He was commissioned in the Royal Engineers on 20 December 1843 and served in Britain until 1846, then in Canada and Bermuda. Pasley's military career was very successful, and he was promoted to Major-General on retirement; however throughout his life he undertook many appointments that were not strictly military, such as early in 1851 when he joined the staff of the Great Exhibtion to be held in London. In April 1853, Pasley was appointed Colonial Engineer of Victoria. He arrived in Melbourne on 18 September 1853 and commenced his duties just three days later. On 1 November the same year, he was also appointed Acting Colonial Architect. Over the next seven years, Pasley's career in Victoria was varied and successful. From October 1854 to November 1855 he was a non-elected member of the Legislative Council and when the constitution was proclaimed in November 1855, he resigned as Colonial Engineer in order to take up the position of the Commissioner of Public Works under the Haines administration. As he had been elected the member for the seat of South Bourke in the Legislative Assembly, he was both the political and professional head of the newly created Public Works Department. John O'Shanassy displaced Haines in March 1857, and having lost his ministerial status, Pasley resigned his seat in July 1857. He officially resigned as Commissioner of Public Works on 21 December 1857, however continued on as head of the Public Works Department under the title of Inspector-General, and received the large salary of 2,000 pounds in 1858. His duties at this time were to direct the preparation of plans and specifications for any building to be erected; to enter into contracts for the erection of buildngs; and to appoint officers to superintend the works. These included the Treasury building and General Post Office in Melbourne. Pasley was also involved with J.G. Knight (q.v.) in research into local building stones and their research culminated with a paper in 1860, read by Knight (as President) to the Victorian Institute of Architects titled 'Building Stones of the Colony'. By 1858, Pasley was a prominent member of the community and his many activities included: Member of the Board of Science, Member of the Central Board of Health, Chairman of the Commission on Water Supply, Vice President of the Commission for the defences of the Colony. In 1858 Pasley's position was closely matched by W. Wardell who was Chief Architect and Inspecting Clerk of Works with duties almost the same as Pasley's. Late in 1859 the Civil Service Commission had recommended that the Public Works and the Roads and Bridges Departments be combined. This merger resulted in Pasley's job being abolished and Wardell emerging as head of the newly structured Department. Pasley objected to this change but failed to obtain compensation for it, however on 1 June 1860 he was granted leave of absence for seven months on full pay to enable him to rejoin his corps. He finally resigned at the end of December 1860. Pasley left Melbourne in July 1860 for New Zealand, where he served under Major-General Pratt, however he did not stay long as he was wounded in October in an attack on a Maori fort on the Kaihihi River. He was invalided back to Melbourne and eventually sailed for England in May 1861.

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Upon rejoining his corps he was appointed commanding engineer at Gravesend, and in 1864 became special agent for Victoria. This part-time position largely concerned advice on armanents and procurement of warlike stores. In October 1865 he became superintending engineer of the naval dockyard and in September 1873 director of works of the Admiralty. Retaining his connection with Victoria, in July 1879 he was appointed a commissioner for the Melbourne International Exhibition and in 1880-82 he acted as Victoria's agent-general and chairman of the Board of Advice in London. Pasley had married h is cou sin, Charlotte, nee Roberts, at Hampton Middlesex on 29 March 1864. They had no children, and she surviv ed him aft er his death at his home, Bedford Park, Chiswick on 11 November, 1890. Ronald McNicoll, 'Charles Pasley' in Atlstra lian Dicti onary of Biography Vol.5 (Melbourne 1974); B. Trethowan The Public Works Department in Victoria, 18511900. Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne. PENDLEBURY, Gerard (fl.1860) surveyor, had an office at (122) Queen Street Melbourne in 1860. Sands and Kenny Directory, 1860. PENDRAN A, Lewis (f1.1837-1839) was appo inted by the police magistrate William Lonsdale, as the Overseer of Roads on 13 Septemb er 1837. He held this position until at least December 1838 and he is listed as Overs eer of Works early in 1839. Pendrana was temporarily clerk of works until Robert Russell (q.v.) took up the appointment on 14 March 1838. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; P. [ones (ed.) Hjstorical Records of Victoria Vol.t. (Melbourne 1981). PETTIFER, Charles A (f1.1863) surveyor, had an office in Lothian Street (probably in North Melbourne) in 1863. Sands and McDougall Directory, 1863. PETTIT, John Heathfield Wroth (1828-1895) architect and surveyor, was born in 1828 in Ipswich England the son of [oseph Ablett Pettit, a builder. He emigrated to Victoria in 1852 and practised in Gippsland from about 1854 until at least 1888. Pettit was probably a partner in the partnership Pettit and Hastings with George Hastings (q.v.). They designed the Christ Church at Tarraville in 1856. Pettit practised alone for most of his car eer . In 1856 he designed Clyde Bank near Sale, and th~ same year called tenders for a hotel near Sale. He is also recorded as calling tenders WIth A.E. Clarke of Melbourne in 1888 for the erection of a large two storey hotel at Sale. He was a Fellow of the R.LB.A. and his office was in Raymond Street, Sale, in 1865 and 1888. At one stage George Cain was articled to Pettit.

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Pettit was married in Norwich, England, to Elizabeth Ann, nee Taylor. They had no children. He died on 26 June 1895 at Gippsland hospital and was described in an obituary as an architect and surveyor, resident in Gippsland since 1854. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate. PHILLIPS, John (fl 1860) surveyor, had an office at 50 Collins Street East, Melbourne in 1860. Sands and McDougall, Directory, 1860. PLACE, Mark (fI.1859) architect(?) called tenders for a hospital at Heathcote in January 1859. RE.M.1.. 29 January 1859; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

PLEYDELL, William Frederick (1829-c.1894) inspector of works, was born on 13 June 1829. He joined the Public Works Department as a temporary Inspector of Works on 13 August 1866. By 1885 he was on the permanent staff and was the District Inspector of Works, whose job it was to assist the Travelling Superintending Inspector of Works. On 1 February 1885, Pleydell was appointed the District Inspector of Works for the Western District of Victoria. His duties carried a fair degree of responsibility, as he supervised the carrying out of all government contracts within his large district. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department in Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne. PORTER, Christopher (fl.1856-1860) architect, practised in Geelong for at least five years. In 1856 he is recorded as having an office next to the Treasury in Gheringhap Street. He was responsible for several major buildings in Geelong including the London Chartered Bank, the Chamber of Commerce and the Gaelic Church in Myer Street. Porter also become involved in local politics, being on the Geelong Town Council from November 1856 until March 1860. He resigned from the Council in order to apply to be Town Surveyor, however this bid was unsuccessful. It is not known if he stayed in Geelong after 1860. Allan Willingham Index; L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s Research Report 1979, B. Arch., University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

POULTON, Edward (fl 1865-1877) architect, practised in Melbourne from about 1865 to 1877. His office was at 58 Elizabeth Street from 1865-68 and at 28 CoIlins Street West from 1869 (if not earlier) to 1877. Poulton lived at several addresses in South Melbourne (Emerald Hill). From 1867-71 at 190 Moray Street; in 1872 at 173 Albert Road; in 1873 at St. Vincents Place; and in 1876 at 83 Cobden Street. Although his office was in Melbourne, a large proportion of his work was in the South Melbourne district. His buildings in that suburb included classrooms and additions at the South Melbourne Grammar School; a Pavilion at the cricket ground and

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brick additions to the Mechanics' Institute. Poulton designed several houses in St Kilda, Elstemwick and Port Melbourne. His only known rural commissions were the Wesley Church at Wallan and a bluestone store at Kyneton, both in 1867. He was also involved in a dispute in November 1869 between the Builders and Contractors Association, and the architectural profession, in which Poulton repudiated any intention of adopting the rule of the Association requiring tenders to be opened in the presence of tenderers. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Sands and McDougall, Directory. 1867-1877.

PRICE, A. (fl.1861) architect, had an office at 102 Moor Street Collingwood in 1861. Sands and Kenny, Directory. 1861. PRICE, Thomas (fl.1872) architect(?) had an office at 15 Fife Street, East Collingwood, in 1872. It is not known if he is the same Thomas Price as that listed below, who worked thirty years earlier. Sands and McDougall, Directory 1872.

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PRICE, Thomas H. (ÂŁ1.1840-1841) architect and surveyor, worked in Melbourne during 1840 and 1841. He is recorded at two different addresses in 1840, first in Lonsdale Street and later at 2 Allan's Buildings Collins Street. His residential address was 4 Duncan Terrace in 1840 and in August 1841 he advertised for a female servant and gave his private address as near Mr Cavenagh's. During these two years, Price designed several villas and shops in Melbourne, including extensive buildings for an estate 5 miles from Melbourne, north of the Yarra. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

PRITCHARD, Edmund (f1.1860) architect, had an office at 46 Howard Street, North Melbourne, in 1860. Sands and McDougall, Directory, 1860. PRITCHARD, Osgood (f1.1850-1859) architect and surveyor, worked as a surveyor in northern Victoria for several years before establishing an architectural practice in Melbourne. He is recorded as having been employed on surveying the course of the River Murray near Swan Hill in 1850, and in the same year as being the Assistant Surveyor in the nearby Lake Tyrell area. No details are known of Pritchard's education, however apart from his surveying skills he was also a proficient architect. During the 1850's he practiced with several prominent architects. In 1853 he joined with Alfred Louis Smith (q.v.) immediately after Smith's resignation from the Colonial Architect's departments. They practiced as Smith and Pritchard and had an office at (29) Bourke Street East, however the partnership only existed for about six months. During that time they won first prize ahead of F.M. White (q.v.) for an (unbuilt) design of the Legislative Council Chambers and executed several warehouses and shops. Their Auction Rooms in Collins Street were probably those for W.M. Tennent and Co ., being a small single storied building dominated by engaged columns flanking the entrance and as enlarged pediment above. In about March 1854, Pritchard joined Thomas Watts (q.v.) and one Russell (probably H.D.G. Russell q.v.) at (94) Collins Street East in the partnership of Russell, Watts and Pritchard. Russell and Watts had established the practice in 1853 upon Watt's arrival from Gloucester, however the new association only lasted until 1 June 1855 when Russellleft and the partnership became simply Watts and Pritchard. During 1854 they executed several works, mostly alterations to hotels and stores. At the time of Russell's departure they were engaged in building two terrace houses at 30 Vautier Street Elwood and the erection of an iron church in Alma Road St Kilda. This church was sent out by the Colonial Missionary Society of England and appears to have been very simple, with improvements only on the interior, executed by Watts.

Watts & Pritchard officially separated on 3 May 1856, less than one year after Russell left the firm, however the partnership appears to have been inactive during that year with only two new commissions being recorded. From May 1856 until at least 1859, Pritchard continued as a sole practitioner with offices at the Hall of Commerce, (48) Collins Street West. He attracted several large commissions in 1856-57 that included a Wesleyan Chapel at Flemington and several villas and terraces.

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He designed Clarendon Terrace in East Melbourne in 1856-57 with its row of three two storey houses dominated by a Corinthian portico across the central terrace. It was a most unusual design in Melbourne and displays Pritchard's considerable skill. Pritchard also designed the adjacent house at 206 Clarendon Street, which displays the same design restraint combined with originality. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Roger Wyatt, 'Biography of Osgood Pritchard', Investigation Project A, 1981/ University of Melbourne; Australian Heritage Commission, The Heritage of Australia, Macmillan, Melbourne 1981/ p.3/45; Smith, CycJopedia of Victoria, 1/ 343; J. Shanley, The Melbourne Commercial Directory, 1853; J.J Blundell The Melbourne Commercial Directory, 1854-56; Sands & Kenny, Directory, 1857-58.

PROWSE, Edward (1824-1862) architect, was born in Bristol England in 1824. It is likely that he worked as an architect in England, and possibly with Edward Snell (q.v.), as they knew each other well enough to emigrate together in 1851. They travelled on the barque Bolson and disembarked at Adelaide. Both Snell and Prowse stayed in Adelaide before moving to Victoria, and Prowse was married there in December 1851 to Mary Ann Carbin. Snell left Adelaide for the Ballarat goldfields and in 1853 he joined Frederick F. Kawerau (q.v.) in the partnership of Snell and Kawerau. They practised in Geelong and early in 1854 Snell asked Prowse to join them. Prowse had son who died in March that year and perhaps because of that he accepted the invitation from Snell and travelled from Adelaide to Geelong. For a very short time they practised as Snell, Kawerau and Prowse, however Kawerau left in mid-1854 and the partnership became Snell and Prowse. Despite only practising together until September 1855 they are listed at four different offices within Geelong: Ryrie St, Kardinia St, Yarra St and Market Square. They designed several buildings including a house for Snell at 2 Skene St Geelong, several large houses in the area and an iron store for George Arrnytage. From late in 1855 Prowse continued in practice alone. He moved his office from Market Square to Malop St in 1877/ to 94 Yarra St in 1859/ and was responsible for several houses in the Geelong area. He designed two distinctive houses for the wealthy Armytage family, one, the Hermitage, in Newtown Geelong for George Armytage Snr and the other, Ingleby, at Winchelsea for George Armytage [nr. The Hermitage is a fine Regency design that has an Ionic porch combined with a delicate wrought iron verandah. By contrast, Ingleby is a less adorned homestead building. An example of Prowse's ecclesiastical work remains at Leopold (formerly Kensington) in St Mark's Church. It has a very simple rectangular pland and the exterior is relieved only by a double bellcote at one end of the steep gable roof. Prowse's works display a proficiency in their design that suggests he had some formal architectural training. His death on 2 February 1862 aged only thirty-eight was a loss to the architecture of the Geelong region. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; L. Huddle Architects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s, Research Report 1979/ B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Australian Heritage Commission, The Heritage of Australia, (Melbourne 1981) A. Sutherland, Victorja and Its Metropolis, VoUI, (Melbourne 1888). PURCHAS, Albert (1825-1909) architect, civil engineer and surveyor, was born in Cheptstone, England the son of Robert Whittlesey Purchas, gentleman and Marianne, nee Guyon. He emigrated to Victoria in 1851 and soon after started a practice that appears to have been primarily architectural. He became involved in the local scene very soon after

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arriving and in 1853 he was the author of a Book of Reference and Map of the Settled Districts around Melbourne. In June 1856 he was sufficiently respected in the profession to be invited to join the Victorian Institute of Architects and he attended the third meeting in August 1856. His first office in 1852 was at 81 Collins Street East (next to the Mechanics' Institute) and from 1853-55 he moved to 30 Queen Street. Purchas attracted a variety of work during those years including several houses, an auction room and a Mortuary Chapel in the Melbourne Cemetery. He also won second prize of 70 pounds in a competition for the Oriental Bank in 1856. In about September 1856, Purchas joined Charles R. Swyer (q.v.) in the partnership Purchas and Swyer. They practised until 1862 at 20 Temple Court in Little Collins Street and during that time designed many buildings. A large proportion of their works were banks for the Bank of Australasia and buildings for the Church of England (as diocesan architects?). Their banks included those at Beechworth, Geelong and Heathcote; and their ecclesiastical works included Christ Church, Brunswick and churches at Benalla and Queenscliff and parsonages at Heathcote and Gisborne. They also designed the Imperial Hotel in Castlemaine, for which E.W. Bagsha we (q.v.) acted as agent. The remainder of their work was mostly shops, houses and hotels around Melbourne. Purchas and Swyer disbanded in 1862 when Swyer went to New Zealand and Purchas continued in practice alone for many years, still at Temple Court until 1883, when he moved to 37 Selborne Chambers in Little Collins Street. His office is listed at Selborne Chambers right up until his death in 1909, however he appears not to have been in full-time practice after 1891; when he was 65 years old.

Purchas ran a very active practice and continued with church and bank work after separating with Swyer. He also executed several large buildings in Melbourne including warehouses for Messrs Briscoe and Co and Messrs George and George, and the offices of the Mutual Insurance Company and the Northern Insurance Company. . Apart from his practice, Purchas was a ].P., and for many years Vice-President of the V.LA. In 1887-88 he served a term as President of the V.LA. in succession to Lloyd Tayler and between about 1873 and 1886 he was the Secretary of the Melbourne General Cemetery (thus his commissions for lodges and gates at the cemetery). Aside from architecture, Purchas was in the army, presumably as a reserve and by 1891 he had ga~ed the rank of Major. When Thomas Monk (q.v.) joined Purchas as a surveyor for 18 months m about 1862-63,he was described as working for Captain Purchas. Purchas m~rried twice~ both his wives predeceasing him. His first marriage was in Melbourne m 1854 to Ehza Anne Swyer. They had two sons and nine daughters, of which seven daughters predeceased him. One of his sons was Guyon Purchas the architect. It is not ~o~ if Eliza was related to Charles R. Swyer. Purchas' second marriage was in 1875 to Victoria Theresa Munro. They had no children. He died on 26 September 1909 in Fitzwilliam Street, Kew and is buried in the Boroondara Cemetery (Kew). Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; A. Sutherland, Victoria and Its Metropoli.s; Past and present, Vo\. H. (Melbourne 1888); Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marnages, Melbourne, Death Certificate; J.M. Freeland, Melbourne Churches 1836-1851.(Melbourne 1963).

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PURVES, [arnes (1813-1878), house and land agent, architect, builder, and surveyor, is believed to have been the [ames Purves born in Berwick on Tweed, Scotland, in 1813, the son of Liddle Purves, engineer and Mary, nee Scott.

Purves emigrated to Tasmania in 1834 and moved to Victoria in 1837. His business was predominently as a house and land agent, however he called tenders for Scots' Church Melbourne in 1840. His office was in Capt. McLean's Store prior to June 1839 when he moved to an office in Little Collins Street. Purves was married in Melbourne in 1841 to Caroline, nee Guillod. They had eight children, four of whom predeceased him. He died on 12 June 1878 at Glen Isla in Church Street, Richmond, and is buried in the St Kilda cemetery. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate.

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QUINN, [arnes (ÂŁ1.1841-1856) su rveyo r and drau ghtsman, had extensive experience in England and Ireland before emigrating to Victoria in about 1840-41. He worked under Lt Tucker, Royal Engineer on the Na tional Survey of Ireland and for ten years prior to his departure for Australia as clerk of works and superintend ing architect for many public and private buildings in England and Ireland . In March 1841 he advertised having an office in Swans ton Street on the corner of Little Bourke Street and the same year called tend ers for a villa on the Merri Creek, four miles from Melbourne. By 1854 he was employed as a Clerk of Works with the Colonial Engineer's Office, Portland, however he resigned in August 1854. This was in protest to an order prohibiting pri vate practice to those employed by public departments. By 1856 Qu inn had returned to Melbourne, seeking employment. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., Univer sity of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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RAMSEY, - (£1.1856) architect(?), submitted an unsuccessful yet praised competition entry for the Church of England Grammar School, Melbourne, in 1856. The competition was won by C. Webb and T.M. Taylor (q.q.v.).

Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

RATTENBURY, [arnes (£1.1839-1851) architect(?), was appointed clerk of works by William Lonsdale on 1 July 1839 following Robert Russell's (q.v.) suspension. The position had a 180 pounds annual salary. While in this post he is known to have prepared a plan for a temporary gaol in Melbourne on 19 August 1839.

A published letter written by George Scott indicated discrepancies in Rattenbury's works. By 1851 Rattenbury was practising privately from Sheriff Street, Collingwood, and he called tenders for two houses in Collingwood in February that year. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; P. Iones (ed.) Hjstorical Records of Victoria . Vo1.3. (Melbourne 1981).

REILLY, John (£1.1863-1882) architect and surveyor, appears not to be the same as John Langtree Reilly of Melbourne. Reilly called tenders from his office at 56 Little Collins Street in 1863 for a dwelling off Lonsdale Street. He was still in practice at the same address in 1869.

From 15 January 1872 until 3 March 1882 he was the City of Melbourne Building Surveyor, following T.J. Everest (q.v.). In 1865 he was responsible for superintending the design of the Fish Market on the corner of Flinders and Swanston Streets and was described at that time as the City Surveyor, despite appearing to have also been in private practice during that year. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; LA..N.., 25 March 1865.

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SURPLICE, A.A.(fI.1863),architect, called tenders for the erection of a hotel in Armstrong Stre et, Ballarat, for J.H. Bates. Probably the son of William Surplice below.

Argus. 3 October 1863, p.3. SURPLICE, W. & A. (f1.1847-1855), architects, also known as Willia m Surplice and Son, called tenders on 6 November 1847 for additions to Chri st Church, Ceelong, which involved ad ding transepts an d new chancel. Work began in 1849 bu t was stopped by the goldrushes and was not finished un til the mid- 1850s. The practice is attributed with the design of The Priory at Geelong. L. H uddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s, Research Report 1979, B.

Arch ., Univer sity of Melbou rne . SWYER, Charles (fl.1852-1875), civ il engi neer and arch itect, arrived in Melbourne with his fath er in 1852 and became Engineer to the Melbo urne, Mount Alexander and Murray River Railwa y Co. on its incorporation in 1853 with a salary of 1000 pounds. The Secretary to the Company wa s Henr y Ginn (q.v.) and Swyer may have known Cinn before coming to Melbourne. In 1856 he was resident govern ment engi nee r on the Williamstown line when he resign ed becau se of friction with the chief engineer (Derby shire). In th is same year he entered a partnersh ip w ith Albert Purchas (q.v.) (Sept ember 1856) styled Purchas and Swyer (1856-1861) and was invited to join the Victorian Insti tu te of architects, being elected its first Treasurer (26 Augus t 1856). In the turmoil of the found ing of the Institute the partners brought a charge of un professional cond uct again st their rivals, Roberson and Hale (q.q.v.). The partners had a substantial and well-run practice and their designs included the Melbourne Savings Bank, cnr Market Street and FIinde rs Lane, Melbourne, the Union Bank, Geel ong, Christ Church, Brun swick. The ir office wa s at 20 Temple Court, Little Collins Street wes t. Record s of the practice, includi ng letter books, su rv ive. If the partnersh ip was in fact dissolved in 1861 then Swyer pr actised alone and his designs include the Christ Church, Sale. However, as la te as 1866 a design is attributed to the partner sh ip, the interest ing Bank of New Zealand in Ch ristchurch, New Zealand. The quality of designs from the p ract ice may in some measure be the result of the talented architect W.B. Armson (q.v.) being in the office from c1856 until he left for New Zealand in 1862. Swyer also left for New Zealand in 1862 on being appointed Pro vincial Engineer to the Otago Pro v incial Go vernment and may have invited Armson to New Zealand. Swyer designed the Cargill Monument in Dun edin. Swyer's partner Albert Purchas married Eliza Anne Swyer in 1854, p resumably a siste r of Charles Swyer. Swyer married Victoria Theresa Munro in 1875. While in Melbourne, Swyer lived at 7 Dalgety Street, St Kilda (1860). John Stackpoole, WiJIiam Maso n the First New Zeal and Architect (Auckland 1971) and Colonial Archit ectu re in New Zeal and (Wellington 1976); Letter Book, Archi ves Department, University of Melbourne; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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TAYLOR, J.H. (ÂŁ1.1854), produced a map of Geelong in 1854 and was an honorary member of the Geelong Society of Archi tects, Civil Engineers and Surveyors in 1855. L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s, Research Report 1979, B.

Arch., University of Melbourne.

THOMAS, Frederick H. (fI.1866-1874), architect and civil engineer, had an office at 83 Collins Street (1866), at 18 Collins Street east (1869), and at 80 Elizabeth Street (1874). He lived in Simpson's Road, East Collingwood (1866), at Southampton Crescent, East Collingwood (1869) and at 9 Alfred-terrace, Rupert Street, East Collingwood (1871). Nothing is known of his practice. Sands and McDougall, Directory, 1866-1871. THOMAS, J. (fI.1866) carpenter, designed the Welsh Congregational Church in Doveton Street, Ballarat, with T. Lewis (q.v.) in 1866. . Withers, History of Ballarat (Ballarat 1887).

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TODD, Alexander Crombie (1826- ), was born in Dumphries, Scotland, in 1826. He was brought up and educated by h is uncl e, Andrew Crombie, an architect and builder, who entrusted him with the supervision of w ork s. In September 1852 he left for Australia, arriving in Melbourne early in 1853. He went to the gold diggings for a short time before returning to Melbourne to take up building wo rk. He en tered the Public Works Department on 15 October 1858 and became a Foremen of Works. He appointed Travelling Inspector of Works on 14 November 1865 and Travelling Sup erintending Inspector of Works on 1 Jan uary 1866. He was responsible for insp ecting works at the new General Post Office, cm Bourke and Elizabeth Streets and the Alfred Gra ving Dock at Williamstown, and later, the Royal Mint in William Stre et and the com pletion of the new Cu stoms House in Flinders Street. Todd's appointment as a Tra vellin g Insp ector was the result of a re-organization of the P.W.D. by William Wardell which involved doing away with the office of Clerk of Works and replacing them w ith Trave lling Inspectors. Their duties required them to ensure the proper use of material s, the proper execution of wo rks and the strict adherence to plans and specifications, as well as ensuring that the duties of foremen of works were faithfully and efficiently performed . Furthermore, no final payments we re to be mad e until the travelling inspector certified that the wo rk was done according to contract. As one of these inspectors Todd held a position of respon sibility under Ward ell. In 1874 he was on leave of absence for 10 months, presumably vis iting Scotl and. He was reduced with other public servants on 'Black Wednesday', 9 January 1878. Todd then went to New South Walesand South Australia to superintend building works. He returned to Melboure to supervise the erection of the English, Scotti sh an d Austr alian Ch art ered Bank, cm Collins and Q ueen Streets, designed by William Wa rde ll. This enga ge ment suggests a strong and confidant regard by Wardell for Todd's ability in building work. He cla imed a large sh are in developing the building resources of Victoria and the other colonies. A. Sutherland, Victoria and its Metropolis, Vo! 2 (Melbourne 1888); B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department of Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B. Arch. , University of Melbourne.

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TURNBULL, Thomas (fI.1851-1894), architect, was born in Scotland and worked for the

government Architect for Scotland until 1851. He then spent some time in Melbourne and then in San Francisco from where he went to New Zealnd in 1871, settling in Wellington. His designs in Wellington include the Wellington Club (1877), St Peter's Anglican Church (1879), St John's Presbyterian Church (1884), the Wellington Post Office (1884), and the General Assembly Library (1887), a Gothic design whose stairhall is rated one of the best Victorian interiors in Wellington. His last known work, a design for the offices of the Government Life Insurance Co, (1894), was passed over which induced Turnbull to make an angry public claim for his design. He prided himself on his ability to build in brick to withstand earthquakes, a technique which he claimed he learnt in San Francisco. Nothing is known of his Melbourne pra ctice or how long he stayed, presumably for only a short time before going to San Francisco. J. Stacpoole, Colonial Architecture in New Zealand (Wellington 1976). TURNBULL, Thomas (0.1852-1888), architect and builder, came to Victoria in 1852. He

established a practice immediately but gave up architecture and building in 1854 and established "an American churn, ice-chest, and store-truck factory" at Type Street, Bridge Road, Richmond. He also had an int ere st in the timber trade which he relinquished in 1856. He received a gold medal at the London Exhibition of 1872 for his manufactures. A. Sutherland, Victoria and its Metropolis, Vo!. 2 (Melbourne 1888).

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VAHLAND, William Charles (1828-1915) architect, was born in Hanover, Germany on 2 October 1828, the son of Ernest Vahland a builder and Augusta, nee Schede. Vahland's interest in building probably came from his fath er, and he was given the opportunity to study at several technical institutions from which he graduated in 1850. He travelled within Germany for a time and also had some practical experience for about four years. Vahland emigrated to Victoria on the San Franci sco in 1854, reportedly in the pursuit of gold. He travelled straight to the Bendigo (then Sandhurst) goldfields, however was unsuccessful as a digger, soon resorting to work as a carpenter. In 1856 he took up his architectural career. His first commission was for a warehouse for H. Sharp and Co. in Pall Mall. The next year he went into partnership with another German, R.E. Getzschmann (q.v.). They practised together from Pall Mall Chambers in Bendigo and their busy practice was responsible for a variety of major public buildings in Bendigo, all of which Vahland claimed to have des igned . These included the Hospital (for which they won first prize in a design competition in 1858), the Benevolent Asylum (1860) and the Mechanics' Institute (1864). Vahland and Getzschmann also designed several churches, including the Wesleyan New Church (1862) and Lutheran Church (1865) both in Bendigo, St John's Church of England, Heathcote (1868) and the Pre sbyterian Church, Deniliquin NSW (1878). For several months during 1862-63, Vahland left Bendigo to practise with the architect W.H. Monson, in Dunedin New Zealand. While together, they designed the Commercial Hotel and the Theatre Royal in Dunedin and called tenders for a lodge at Woodhead for Or Shadrack [ones, The reason for this brief move is unclear, and could have been in the pursuit of gold, however by the end of 1863 Vahland was back practising in Bendigo. After Getzschmann died in 1875, Vahland continued the practice alone, moving his office to Albion Chambers Pall Mall Bendigo. This was a very active time for Vahland, during which he executed some of his largest works includ ing the Bendigo Town Hall (1885). In 1895 he was joined by his son Henry Ernest, and they practised as W.e. Vahland and Son from A'Beckett Chambers in Bull Street, Bendigo. At some time, perhaps the early 1880s, P.A. Kennedy was articled to him. Vahland had married [ane, nee Barrow, at Elmore (Vic.) in 1859 and despite his Lutheran upbringing changed his religion to Church of England at the time of his marriage. They had six daughters and four sons, of which Henry Ernest was the eldest. Henry was educated by the architect W.e. Nicolai (q.v.) at the Bendigo School of Mines, served his articles with his father and completed his training in Germany before becoming a partner in the firm. Vahland and Son had quite a busy practice at the end of the 1890's, despite the increased competition from other Bendigo architects. They designed the Sandhurst Club (1895), several residences and the Presbyterian Churches in West Bendigo (1897) and Elmore (1898). Due to ill-health Vahland had effectively retired from the firm by 1900, and during 1901-02 Henry Ernest worked with J. Beebe, the son of the prominent local architect William Beebe. The practice came to a close with Henry Ernest's death in 1902. Vahland's practices had an enormous impact on Bendigo, being responsible for nearly all the large public buildings, apart from U10se designed by the Public Works Department, He w.as also pr?minent in his co~munity service, representing the Barkly Ward in the Bendigo City Council from 1869-72, being on the Bendigo Hospital and Mechanics' Institute boards of managements and being the secretary of the Masonic Lodge for forty-seven years. He was also a J.P. for forty years, a founding member of the Sandhurst Building Society and was a

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member of the Victoria Institute of Architects from 1856. He also had connections with the local wine trade at Elmore and th rou gh his brother who was a wine merchant in Melbourne. Despite his active interest in Bend igo affairs, Vahland did not lose touch with his German background. He returned there for a-tour in 1902 and at the outbreak of World War I had to suffer the humiliation of surrend ering his asset s an d reporting to authorities each week. He died on 21 July 1915, aged eigh ty six, his add ress at that date being 5 Barkly Place Bendigo, and is buried in the Church of England sec tion of the Bendigo Cemetery. His papers have never been retrieved from the Commonwealth authorities which confiscated them in 1915. G. Lawler, The Vahland School 2 vols., Research Report 1980, B.Arch., University of Melbourne; Regi strar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne Death certificate; M.B. Lewi s 'Bendigo, Victori a' in Hj storic public Buildings of Australia Vol.II, (Melbourne 1971); A. Sutherl and Victoria and Its Metropolis. Vol.II (Melbourne 1888); Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; J. Stacpoole, Colonial Architecture in New Zealand. (Wellington, 1974).

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VERCOE, J. (ÂŁ1.1854), was appointed to the positi on of Draftsman on 1 April 1854 in the Colonial Architect's Office, then in the Colonial Engineer's Office in Melbourne. His services were dispensed with on 30 Jun e 1855. B. Trethowan, The Public Wo rks Department in Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B. Arch., University of Melbourne.

VICKERS, Charles (fl.c1819-1883), a rchitec t, ha d arrived in Melbourne by 1853 from England where he claimed friendship w ith Sir Philip Egerton and Monckton Milnes, He established a private practice which he abandoned when he joined the Public Works Department on 21 May 1856 being appointed Draftsman, and then Clerk of Works and Draftsman as a permanent position from 25 May 1866. Vickers worked extensively on gaols and was al so resp onsible for furn itu re an d fittings in th e P.W.D.. He was reduced with compensation on 31 December 1868 from which time his private practice was revived. From this period dates his distinctive design for the Richmond Town Hall (1869-71). Between 1871 and 1876 he was in partnership with George Wharton (q.v.). In 1856 he became a member of the newly created Victorian Institute of Architects, and in that year he was runner up to [oseph Reed (q.v .) in the competition for the Bank of New South Wales in CoIl ins Street. He left Victoria in 1877. Vickers died at Wentworth-villa, Petersham, N.S.W., on 9 December 1883, aged 64. B. Trethowan, Th e Public Wo rks Department in Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., Un iversit y of Melbou rne ; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

VICKERY, Samuel King ston (ÂŁ1.1861-1888), civ il engi neer, was born in the parish of Creagh, county of Cork, attend ed Qu een 's Unive rs ity in Ireland where he studied civil engineering, and came to Victoria in 1861. He we nt into government service as an inspecting district surveyorand was still in service in 1888. He was a member of the Institute of Civil Engineers (London), a Fellow of the Victorian Institute of Surveying, and a member of the Royal Society of Victoria. A. Sutherland, Victoria and its Metrop olis, Vol. 2 (Melbourne 1888).

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VIVIAN, George (f1.1852-1862), civil engineer and architect, joined the Colonial Architect's Office in Melbourne on 30 October 1852 as an Acting Clerk of Works and Draftsman, remaining until 22 Jun e 1858 when he was dismissed and his position was taken by J.G. Knight (q.v .). Vivian's salary at the time of his dismissal was 2000 pounds, equivalent to the of Charles Pasley the Colonial Engineer. Vivian is credited with a design for the Asylum at Yarra Bend (with Frederick Kawereau (q.v.)) which incorporated three towers and was based on English designs for asylums at Colney Hatch and Hanwell.Although the design was not carried out, the administrative block of the present asylum seems based on the plan of Vivian and Kawereau. Between 1859 and 1862 Vivian was in private practice as a civil engineer and architect at the Temple Court building in Collins Street west. The high salary Vivian wa s recieving at the time he left the Public Works Department and the scant knowl edge of his practice makes him one of the enigmas of mid-century architecture in Victori a. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department in Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B. Arch., University of Melbourne.

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WAGNER, Louis (fl.1857-58), architect(?), in practice from an office at 41 Swanston Street, Melbourne. Architectural Index, University of Melbo urne.

WALKER, John (b.1825), contractor, was born at Falkirk, Stirlingshire, Scotland on 15 September 1825 and came to Victoria in 1852. He spen t some time at the gold diggings and some time wo rking in Melbourne and working for railway contractors, before in 1865 he went into partnership wi th William Halliday. As general contrac tors they erected the rail way bridge at Ech uca. Walke r ret urned from the bu siness in 1881 and in 1885 he became a councillor for the Victoria Ward in the Melbourne City Council. A. Sutherland, Victorja and jts Metro polis . Vo1.2. (Melbo urne 1888). WALKER, John (fl.1854-1863), architect and surveyor, w ith an office at 79 Elizabeth Street (1854), 35 Swanston Street (1855-57), then a t 66 Qu een Street, from 1858¡to 1862 and at 70 Queen Street in 1863. In 1855 he was surveyor to the Collingwood Fire Insurance Co. He attended the th ird meeting of the Victorian Institute of Arch itects on the 14 August 1856 although not officially invited . He called tend ers for a number of as yet unidentified bu ildings be tween 1855 and 1868. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

WALSH, Blanc y W. (f1.1854-1855), a dr aftsman in the Colonial Architects Office in 1854 but his services were dispensed with on the 30 June 1844. B. Treth owan, The Public Works Departmen t in Victoria 1851-1900, Research Report 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

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WARD, Sir Edward Wolstenhom (1823-1890) militar y engineer and deputy-master of the Royal Mint, Sydney, and then of the Melb ourne branch, was born on 17 August 1823 in Calcutta, India, son of John Bet ty Ward and Elinor, nee Erskine. He arrived in Sydney in 1855, returning bri efly to London in 1866, and on 13 October 1869 arrived in Melbourne. He supervised the de sign, construction an d setting up of the Melbourne brand of the Royal Mint on the site of the first Exhibition building. Two de signs for the Mint survive in the Public Records Office, one for the building as buil t and ano the r for a more ambitious project whoseferestration is afterthe manner of Barry's Lon don Reform Club. It is thought that he brought the more ambitious sche me wi th him fro m London and was responsible for its design. The drawings are signed by Comber and Ward. With the scheme as built the d rawings for the coining hall and workshops were prepared by Sam uel Merrett (q.v .) an d for the administrative building and guard houses by John J. Clark (q.v.). He returned to England in 1876, was promoted major -general in 1877, was created C.M.G. in 1874 and LC.M.G. in 1879. He died at his villa in Cannes, France on 5 Februar y 1890. P.J. Greville, 'Sir Edward Wol st enh olm Ward ' in Australia Djctjonary Biography. Vo1.6. (Melbourne 1976).

0

f

WEEKES , William Robert Howe (c.1797-1885), architec t and surveyor, the son of John Wilkes and his wife Mary, was born at Dublin, Ireland, and arrived in Victoria c.1843. He was in Syd ney in c.1840 where he married [ane Orr. He may also have bee n in Hobart before coming to Victoria wh ere he settled in Geelong as an architect. He became the first Town Surveyor to the Geelon g Corporat ion in 1850. Little is known of his architectural work which included a Church of England schoo l-ho use at Ashby (1849) and, possibly, a wool scouring building at breakwater (1849). In 1849 he won the competition for the Geelon g Hospital and Benevolent Asylum but work di d not p roceed as his scheme was considered impratical and Weekes wa s d ism issed as ar chitect. [arnes Blackburn (q.v.) claimed the design was a copy of a buil ding: Hobart. Weekes made a sketch of the Crow n Hotel at Ashby. He di ed aged eighty-eight on 27 Au gu st 1885 and was survived by four of his nine children. At the time of his death he was livin g in Skene Street, Newtown, Geelon g. L. Hudlem Architects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s. Research Report 1979,

B.Arch., Uni versity of Melbourne; Archives of the Geelong Hospital.

WEST FI ELD, Kennet (fl.1866), surveyor and cooper, had an office at 14 King Street, Melbourne, in 1866. Sands and McDougall, Directory, 1866.

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WHARTON, George (18221891), architect, surveyor and land agent, was born in 1822 in Sheffield, England, the son of Ge or ge Wharton , a steel manufacturer, and his wife Elizabeth nee Taylor. He was articl ed to an unknown architectural firm in Manchester, but after completing articles, at the age of 22, he came to Melbourne. On his arrival in 1843 he acquired an interest in the property Corinetta on ]im Crow Creek near present-day Daylesford. Wharton was known to the Melbourne architect Charles Laing (q.v.) who had arrived in 1841 from a practice in Ma nches ter, and Laing almost immediately asked Wharton to join his office. Laing had recentl y becom e Town Surveyor in Melbourne but with a right to private practice. Not surp risingly, Wharton is credited with some of the work coming from Laing's practice: the Theatre Royal, our Queen and Little Bourke Streets (1845, burnt down 1872) and St. Peter's Church of England, cm. Albert and Gisborne Streets, East Melbourne (1845). By 1848 Wharton had established his own architectural practice, although he seems also to ha ve been an ironmong er. His practice flourished even before the gold rushes of the early 1850s and w as based principally on domestic work and hotels, and included a house for T.B. Payne, the financier and land speculator, which was probably Marjtima (1850) an austere Regency survival design which stood in the vicinity of Leopold Street, South Yarra. He was also resp on sibl e for extensions to the Mechanics' institute in Collins Street, which included the ste ps and sho ps to Collins Street (1850/51), and for the Wesleyan congregations the Brunswick Str eet Ch apel, Fitzroy (1849-53), the Mission HOuse, in Collins Street (1850), and in Lonsdale Street, the Mission House and School Room (1850) both in coursed bluestone with brick reveals and arches which still survive. George Wharton's early work as a land surveyor, included the subdivision of the Fenwick estate in Kew (Boroondara), which int roduced a gr id of streets and half acre blocks into the 122.5 acres purchased by Nich olas Fenwick at the Crown Land sales in October 1851. He may have also done surveying work at Euroa wh ere he designed a hotel in 1851. In 1853 Wharton joined in partnersh ip w ith ]oseph Burns (q.v.) and the partnership continued until 1871. During these years many com missions for houses, shops, hotels, churches, and commercial and indu st rial bu ild ings were carried out but despite the large number of designs there are serious problems with id entifying and locating most of them. In 1871 Wharton joined with anoth er architect, Charles Vickers (q.v.) to form the partnership Wharton and Vickers w hich continued until 1874. Wharton then appears to have practised alone until aro und 1892 wh en his practice became Wharton, Down and Gibbins, but of these later partners nothing is known. Throughout his life Wharton was active in public affairs. An early instance is his membership of the exclusive Victorian Architects Asso iation, formed in May 1851, with the Colonial Architect Henry Ginn (q.v.) as its founding President. He later became secretary of the Victorian Institute of Architects, founded in 1856, and was vice-president of the Institute between 1876-78 and in 1880, and president in 1881 when he presented a paper 'The Architectural Profession with Suggestions for its Improvement' . Wharton was also active in the affairs of the Kew Municipality where he was for a time a borough councillor and the first Chairman of the Council (1870), and active in founding the Kew Literary Institute. Among his business interests he was a partner with lames Forbes in Forbes and Co., distillers of tar and asphalt (1869) and in real estate affairs with his brother-in-law Henry Hellican (from 1870). Wharton married Alice Catherine Hillican, sixteen yea rs his junior, at Hawthorn in 1869. Her father was a land and estate agent and Wharton may have come to know the family through his business activities in land su rvey ing . He was active in practice up until his death on 26 November 1891 at the age of sixty-nine, survived only by his wife as the couple did not have children. He is buried in the Boroondara Cemetery (Kew).

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M.C. Sheppard, George Wharton, Investigation Project 1980/ B.Arch., University of Melbourne, Architectural Ind ex, Uni versity of Melbourne.

WHITE, D. (fl. 1863)/ surveyor, had an office at 51 Queen Street, Melbourne, in 1863 and died in Derby STreet, East Collingwo od. Sands and McDou gall, Director y, 1863.

WHITE, Samuel (fI.1857-1863) draftsman, architectand clerk of works, was in the Public Works Department from which he resigned on 15 Octob er 1863. With Frederick Raweran (q.v.). White was Clerk of w orks for the Central Divisi on of Victoria in the P,W.D. As a clerk of works his name is assoica ted w ith the Wa rde n 's office o r Gold Office at Conolly (1859)/ Amhurst (1859)/ Court of Pet ty Session s, Swan Hill (1859)/ Keelor (1859)/ Amhurst (1859)/ Echuca (1859). The erection of the Gaol at Sandhurst (Bendigo) (1858)/ Maryborough (1854)/ Ararat (1859), .add itions to the Gaol at Castlemaine (1858) and work on the Lunatic Asylum at Yarra Bend (Kew) (1859). His initials appear on drawings for: All blocks at Bendigo (1858)/ Gao ler's and Wa rdens' Quarters, Bendigo (1860)/ Ararat (1860)/ Kilmore (1862)/ the Obser vator y in the Dom ain, Melbourne (1861), the Court House, Bendigo (1860)/ Steiglitz (1874)/ the latter indicating that white must have reentered the Department at some time after his resignation in 1863. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department in Victoria 1851-1900. Report 1975/ B.Arch., Univ ersity of Melbourne.

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Research


WIGGLESWORTH, John (c.1821-1892), ar chitect and su rveyor, born in London, and came to Victoria c.1852. Listed in private practice as an architect and surveyor in 1869 and at his death was recorded as a Government Surveyor. He died on 29 November 1892, living at Robinson's Road Hathorn. He was married at Stepney in London c.1844 to lane Bowding Hones Wilcox and had five children, four of w ho m su rv ived him. Nothing is known of his practice. Sands and McDougall, Pi rectory 1869; Registration of Birth's, Deaths and Marriages, Death Certificate.

WI LKIN SON, John (1837-1898) surveyo r, civil engineer and architect, the son of George Wilkinson, minister in the Church of England, and his wife Ellen, nee Lidwill, was born in Tifferary, Ireland. He came to Tasm ani a, c.1840, as a child, presumably with his parents, and then to Victoria some eighteen yea rs lat er c.1858. In 1863-64 he was listed as a surveyor at 143 [ohnson Street w est, Fitzroy. Nothing more is known of his practice. He died on 4 November 1898, aged sixty-o ne, at his resid ence in Princes Street, Kew, and was stated to be a civil engineer and a rch itect. He marriedLouisa Isabella Archdale at Taradale, Victoria, c.1867, and he was surviv ed by seven children. One son, Frederick John was living at Queenscliff at the time of his father's death. Sands and McD ougall , Di rec to ry 1863-64; Reg ist rar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate.

W ILLI AM S, H.A. (f1.1852-1 876), cler k of works and draftsman, was an Acti ng Clerk of Works for work done for the Mounted Police in 1852 in the Colonial Architect's Office, and in 1857 joined the supernumer ar y sta ff of the Public Wo rks Department. In 1859 he was a Draftsman in the Department and hi s duties included the design of buildings and making drawings and specificatins. As draftsm an Williams prepared the drawings of the Gold Office at Cunolly (1859), the Gold Wa rden's Offic e, Daylesford (1859), the working Drawings of the Ward wings (1864), the worksh ops (1867) and extensions (1473) at the Beechworth Asyl um and many sm all Police Qu arters and Lock-ups. He was clerk of works responsible for many public build ings; Warden 's Office and Gold Office, Duroll y (1859), Warden's Office, Dayle sford (1854), Co urt of Pe tty Sessions Gardiner (1859), Dan d enong (1859), Belvon (1859), Beech w orth Ga ol (1858) an d Powder Magazine (1859). With WilIiam Eades (q.v.) he was Clerk of Works for the Eastern District of the P.W.D. c.1860. B. Trethowan, The Public Wor ks Department in Victoria 1851-1900, Research Repo rt 1975, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

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WOODS, J.B. (fI.1853-1860), draftsman in the Colonial Architect's Office (then within the Colonial Engineer's Office) in 1853, as Assistant Engineer in 1854, Clerk of Works in 1855, Draftsman in 1855 and Clerk of Works in 1856. In 1856 he was appointed a permanent member of the newly created Public Works Department. In 1859 he took leave of absence and on 15 May 1860 was reduced having exceeded his leave of absence. It appears that Woods was occupied with the structural engineering aspects of the P.W.D. rather than the archi tectural. B. Trethowan, The Public Works Department in Victoria 1851-1900. Research Report 1975, B.Arch., Uni versity of Melbourne.

WRIGHT, George (fI.1849-54), auctioneer(?) called tenders for a two-storey building in Union Street, Geelong, in 1849, was in partnership with Waiter Sheridan in 1850-51, called tenders for Store and groom;s quarters in Henry Street, Geelong, in 1854. L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s. Research Report 1979,

B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

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WYATT, Frederick (c.1843-1878) architect and surveyor, was born in 1843 at Oxford, England, son of Thomas Wyatt (1807-80), architect, and his wife Sarah, nee Tredwell, and nephew of Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt (1820-77) architect. He arrived in Melbourne in the True BritQn in January 1871 aged 28 accompanied by his wife Mary nee Hayward aged 24 whom he had married in London in 1870. He immediately established himself in architectural practice with his office in Neave's Buildings, 62 Collins Street (1872-75). He was briefly in partnership with Lloyd Tayler (q.v .) during 1876-77, and in practice alone at 48 Queen Street in 1878. Wyatt;s practice centred on commissions from various parishes of the Church of England with some d esigns being for extensions and alterations to existing churches, and these may indicate hi s good connections for such sommissions involved Wyatt being chosen in place of the original architect of each building. Among his patrons he was regarded as 'almost without a rival in Au stralia in church architecture, of the Gothic and Early Gothic Styles' . His enthusia sm was al so admired for he was always ready to render to the clergy the invaluable aid of hi s advice and suggestions - whether a church was to be built in a poor district or a design was required for an alter cloth or a font'. His reputation must have been considerable for when a local competition for the design of St. Paul's Cathedral Melbourne was being considered 'his name was mentioned on all sides as that of the competitor most likely to be successful'. Such speculation came to nothing and the great English architect William Butterfield eventually -received the commission. Indeed the small number of known buildings associated with his name is somewhat at variance with his favourable reputation. His first work in Melbourne, began in 1873, was the addition to All Saints; St. Kilda of the transepts, chancel-aisle, chancel, and sanctuary, together with the altar and choir stalls which extended the original portion of nave and aisles designed by Nathaniel Billing in 1858. Wyatt;s additions are to sensitive response to the Billing design, although bolder and richer than the origionaI. He also madenational gothic additions (the apsidal sanctuary) and alterations to the unique Italianate design of Christ Church, Brunswick (1874-75). He also designed Holy Trinity Church at Bacchus Marsh (in association with Lloyd Tayler) (1876), and Priorswood (1878), the Parsonage at Sunbury, described' ... as almost unique for its prettiness and convenience'. His most substantial designs were the polychrome brick college buildings at Trinity College, University of Melbourne (1878), and the Bishop's Court, Ballarat (1878). Following the death of his wife, Wyatt married again, at Hathorn to Lizzie Hewitsm in 1875. He died after a short illness; perhaps from tuberculosis, at the early age of thirty five on 28 March 1878, survived by his second wife and young family, one son (aged 6) from .h is first marriage, and two babies (aged two and one) from his second. He was deeply mourned in the Anglican press and his death was a misfortune for the creative development of picturesgue gothic polychrome architecture in Victoria. Church Qf England Messenger. 13 April 1876, 13 April 1878; Argus, 30 March 1878; .Th e Illustrated Australian News. 23 January 1878, 3 October ,1878; Australasian Sketcher, 28 October ¡1876, 19 January 1878; Architectural Index, University of Melbourne; 'The Wyatt Family' in C. Colvin, . Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Melbourne, Death Certificate. WYLIE, - (fl 1853-1855) was a partner in the firm of Wylie and Biers, architects and surveyors with Henry Biers (q .v.), They had an office at llA Collins St West in 1853, in ~854 at 29 Bourke St East and 8~ Elizabeth St and in 1855 in Russell St. Their buildings included a cottage ornee at Gardmer for Adolphus Hailer, two villas in East Melbourne for David Barry and a warehouse and flour mill for W .F. Rucker. Architectural Index, University of Melbourne.

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YABSLEY, Thomas (fI.1853-1858), architect, in practice in Geelong, and believed to be the architect for Baswon Ban k, Geelong (1853). Of h is practice onl y six tender notices are known, the last being 1858. L. Huddle, Arch itects in Geelon g in the 1840s and 1850s. Research Report 1979,

B.Arch ., Un iversity of Melbo urne. YOUNG, George (1823- ), contractor, was born in Ayrshire, Scotland, went to England in 1843 and arrived in Melbourne on the lames Baines in February 1855 with his wife. He was at the gold Diggings at Forest Creek and Dunolly and in 1858 began a contracting business in Dunolly. IN the next year he moved his business to Raleigh Street, Windsor, Melbourne. His contracting firm erected the teleg raph line between Melbourne and Port Albert (1863), the Gong Gong water works near Ballarat, in association with McGuigar, (additions to the Ararat Lunatic Asylum, and other works in Victoria and New South Wales not yet known. IN 1866 he was elected to the Prahran Town Council and was Mayor from 1867. His private residence was Frogmore (c.1868) in Raleigh Street, Prahran, A. Sutherland, Victoria and its Metr op olis. Vo1.2. (Melbourne 1888).

YOUNG, John (c.1827- ), ar ch itect, in practice in Geelong from 1851, President of the Geelong Society of Architects, Engin eers an d Surveyor s (1844), and briefly in partnership with F.T. Hon ey (q.v.) between 1859-61. He may be related to RC. Young (q.v.), He seems to have had an extensive pra ctice, and, in add ition, was an instructor at the Technological School in 1870. He may have left Geelong c.1874, but was back in practice in 1880 as J. Young and Son. In 1856 he married, in Geelong, Anne Rainey Robertson who came from Tasmania. He may well be the same John Young, below who wen t to Arova and Rutherglen. L. Huddle, Archit ects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s. Research Report 1979, B.Arch., Uni ver sity of Melbourne.

YOUNG, John (fl.1849-1888), civil engineer, born in Scotland, came to Victoria in 1849 and was in government service, stationed in Geelong and responsible for work in the Western District, perhaps within the office of Clerk of Works for the Port Phillip District. He followed the Gold digging but returned to Geelong and practised as an architect and surveyor. He then became Shire Engin eer at Avoca. In the 1880s he went to Rutherglen as Shire Secretary and Engineer. He was married in Geelong and had three sons and a daughter. He may well have been the John Young listed above. A. Sutherland, Victoria and its Metropolis. Vo1.2. (Melbourne 1888).

YOUNG, John (fl.1851-1888) painter and hou se deco rator, came from London in 1851 and settled at Portland where he decorated Henry He nty's residence. He then settled in Ballarat, attracted by gold and increasing sp ecul at ion s. He was in business in Clunes for some sixteen years and in 1874 set up as a painter and house decorator in Horsham. He was married with four children. A. Sutherland, Victoria and its Metropolis. Vo1.2. (Melbourne 1888).

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YOUNG, Robert Coxon (£1.1858-60), town surveyo r in Geelong, and may be related to John Young (q.v.) L. Huddle, Architects in Geelong in the 1840s and 1850s. Research Report 1979, B.Arch., University of Melbourne.

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Profile for Graeme Butler

BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF AUSTRALIAN ARCHITECTS  

Draft biographies prepared by GEORGE TIBBITS ( 1933 – 2008) Faculty of Architecture and Building, University of Melbourne (date unknown, co...

BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF AUSTRALIAN ARCHITECTS  

Draft biographies prepared by GEORGE TIBBITS ( 1933 – 2008) Faculty of Architecture and Building, University of Melbourne (date unknown, co...

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