an architectural overview of
Letter from the President Dear Friends: On the occasion of my inauguration as the eighth president of Fairfield University, I am pleased to share with you one of the University’s new publications, An Architectural Overview of Bellarmine Hall. When Mr. and Mrs. Walter B. Lashar had the house custom-built in 1921, they incorporated an array of styles and features they had seen and noted during their extensive travels abroad. Unfortunately, they lost the home they had called Hearthstone Hall to taxes during the Depression. In 1942, Fairfield’s founding Jesuits acquired the estate – five buildings on 105 acres – from the Town of Fairfield, with a $100 deposit on the $62,000 purchase price. Each two-page section herein features a photo of an originally furnished room, with a description of its key architectural features on the facing page. Also included is an invoice detailing the price paid for some of the furniture and draperies and, on the inside back cover, a key to the architectural terms used in this guide. As one who has spent a lifetime involved in the study of history, I hope you will enjoy coming to know a bit more about the history of a building so central to Fairfield University today. Sincerely,
Jeffrey P. von Arx, S.J. President
riginally the residence of a five-member family, and subsequently the on-campus home of Fairfield University’s Jesuit community, Bellarmine Hall has, since 1981, housed the office of the University President and other administrative departments. The 44-room mansion was designed and built for Mr. and Mrs. Walter B. Lashar in 1921, on the highest point of a 105-acre plot of land that included Walter and Aurelia Lashar a commanding view of Long Island Sound. They named their family home Hearthstone Hall, a reflection of its 13 fireplaces. Mr. Lashar was president of the highly profitable American Chain and Cable Company at a time when the United States was experiencing incredible growth and prosperity. Bridges, ships, and buildings were all in need of Mr. Lashar’s chains and cables. Mr. and Mrs. Lashar were world travelers and enjoyed choosing exterior and interior finishes based on styles they had observed while touring Europe and Asia. The rooms include a potpourri of decorative styles ranging from Tudor to Adam to chinoiserie. The interior was built off-site in sections by the Haydon Company of Bridgeport, Conn. These were then
brought to the hill and reassembled. Architects in Europe were employed as advisors on reproducing many of the decorative features of England’s great manor houses. Oak flooring in the house is, for the most part, laid in a French herringbone pattern, and most lighting fixtures and hardware are original to the house. From 1922 to 1929, Hearthstone Hall was the site of many elegant social gatherings. However, Mr. Lashar lost much of his fortune in the stock market crash and, as a result, the house was turned over to the Town of Fairfield. In March 1942, the New England Province of the Society of Jesus bought Hearthstone Hall and its acreage from the Town for $62,000. The Jesuits renamed the mansion, dedicating it as St. Robert Bellarmine Hall in honor of the 16th-century Jesuit theologian who became a cardinal and saint. Some rooms became classrooms for the newly chartered Fairfield College Preparatory School, while the rest of the mansion housed Jesuits. Prep classes ultimately moved to permanent facilities across campus, and the Fairfield Jesuit Community continued using Bellarmine Hall St. Robert Bellarmine, S.J. 1542-1601 as its residence until 1981.
he 44-room mansion originally known as Hearthstone Hall reflects the style of an English manor house. Built of Weymouth granite, its design is modified Tudor and Gothic, and typifies the many revival mansions built throughout the United States in the 1920s. Gargoyles poised at the main entrance and above windows on the building’s north, west, and south sides stare fiercely to ward off evil spirits. This hybrid architectural feature adds charm to the façade. The south side of the building features a stone terrace set between the wings formed by the dining room and solarium. Stone steps with carved newels and balusters lead down to a perennial garden, walled in by a low stone fence. To the west of the building, a Japanese garden built in the late 1920s features three bridges spanning several small pools, each cascading to another over properly placed stones. The garden includes several lanterns and statues, among them a miniature replica of Mount Fujiyama that had the capacity to give off smoke. The garden’s designer, Arthur Shurcliff, had previously recreated the gardens of Williamsburg, Va. The Lashars paid great attention to the landscaping and included a wide variety of trees to show off their home. Among these were: mugo-mugo trees from China, placed to the east and west of the stone driveway leading to the front doors; Kwansan and weeping cherry trees; Norway spruce; ginkgo; and in the Japanese garden area, a cedar of Lebanon. • Exterior: Weymouth granite.
• Windows: original to the house. • Roof: slate. • Gargoyles: perched at the upper corners of the front, west, and rear entrances. • Terrace: slate terrace facing south with small embedded garden. • Gardens: perennial in rear, surrounded by low stone wall; Japanese garden to the west, designed by world-famous landscape architect. • Landscaping: many unusual ornamental trees, including mugo-mugos from China.
Entrance and Vestibule
he Lashars discovered the motif for the nailstudded oak entrance doors at Blickling Hall (Norfolk, England), which stands on land that was owned by Ann Boleyn’s family during the reign of Henry VIII. The vestibule is of stone, and includes a stone cornice to the height of the circular-headed door’s spring line. To give interest to the walls, the Lashars introduced circular-headed niches set into each sidewall, similar to those in the entrance porch at Mapperton House (Dorset, England). This niche design dates to around 1618. The inner doors of the vestibule – of glass, wood, and wrought iron – are similar in design to doors in the cloister of Hatfield House (Hertfordshire), built about 1611. In the original doors, the fleur-de-lis ornaments were of wood, but here they have been reproduced in wrought iron. The hinges and locks, also wrought iron, reflect the English originals as well. Granite steps lead from the vestibule up to the center of the Main Hall. To the right and left, the hall becomes a beamed corridor, paneled in oak to a height of seven feet. Two large stone columns, copied from those in the Pillar Room of Bolsover Castle (Derbyshire, England), are its main feature. Their arches blend with six ornamental pilasters. A bronze lighting fixture in the form of an old sailing ship hangs in the corridor. The decorative metalwork wall sconces are original to the house as well. • Entrance Doors: nail-studded oak. • Walls: rough case plaster originally tinted a warm
gray; circular-headed sidewall niches to display sculpture. • Vestibule: barrel-vaulted and decorated with plaster flat-strap work of squares and circles. Various devices – portcullis, lion’s head, Tudor rose, thistle, brass lamp, and castle – are modeled in low relief within the squares and circles, and are painted in blue and gold. • Inner Doors: glass, wood, and wrought iron. • STEPS: granite steps lead to Main Hall. • Main Hall: beamed corridor, oak paneled. • Columns: of stone, copied from Bolsover Castle, Derbyshire, England. • Lighting: antique bronze lighting fixture in the form of an old sailing ship; wall sconces of decorative metalwork. • Floors: granite.
he staircase in the Main Hall is copied from The Charterhouse, London, which dates to before 1560. The balusters terminate in male and female forms, from which spring arches suggestive of rusticated stonework. The plaster ceiling above the stairwell, with its incredible detail, is modeled on one found in Loseley Hall (Surrey, England). The register plates in the sills of the landing windows are made of pierced brass, with wood-pierced register openings beneath them. At the second story level, carved oak arches separate the staircase hall from the second story hall. • Staircase: oak. • The balustrades: carved with male and female busts. • The newels: intricately carved motifs depicting battle equipment, musical instruments, exotic animals, mythical birds, flowers, and strap and ribbon patterns. • Stair landing: typical English manor house design. • Register plates: pierced brass.
• Columns and arches at top of stairwell: carved oak, typical English manor house design. • Stairwell ceiling: plaster with molded ribs terminating in fleur-de-lis and floral ornaments, bosses, leafwork at the intersections, and quaint figures of birds in diamond panels. • Lighting: the suspended star lamp, a particular favorite of Mrs. Lashar, added a 1920s touch.
The Great Hall
The Great Hall Room 115
he design of the Great Hall was inspired by English manor houses of the early 16th century. The rafters that divide this room into three bays frame the bowed, coffered oak ceiling and are supported on carved corbels and further strengthened by curved braces. One large window floods the room with light. It consists of 15 separate leaded windows, constructed in Tudor style with three rows of five windows each. The room’s paneling features an unusual linen-fold pattern – the earliest form of ornamental panel – styled to resemble a piece of symmetrically folded linen. An overhanging room above, lighted by five small leaded windows, was a musicians’ gallery, and was used when the Lashars entertained in the Great Hall. It also allowed the Lashars to determine which guests had arrived so they could plan their entrance down the main staircase. An entry on the second floor provided access to the gallery, but that access has now been removed.
• Musician’s gallery: overhangs east fireplace; used by musicians when the Lashars entertained. • Two fireplaces: hearths repeat Gothic shape of the ceiling. Like most others in the manor, the firewalls are faced with intricate patterns of brickwork in varied sizes. Their stone mantels and surrounds are carved with shields and interwoven patterns. • West fireplace: surrounded by the linen-fold paneling; reliefs of a Renaissance man and woman. • East fireplace: recessed under an overhanging area of Tudor-style half-timber and stucco.
• Entrance: accented by three pilastered and arched stone doorways. Floor is of stone paving.
• Ceiling: bowed and coffered oak, with intricate brackets of crowned kings.
• Paneling: unusual linen-fold pattern (the earliest form of ornamental panel).
• Principal rafters: divide ceiling into three bays, each supported by carved brackets and curved braces.
• Wainscot: oak, with carvings of grape clusters, leaves, vines, and Tudor roses. Copied from panels in Haddon Hall, Derbyshire.
• Windows: Tudor-style; 15 separate leaded windows in three rows of five windows each. • Double doors: oak, lead to stone terrace overlooking the expansive rear lawn and gardens.
• Spandrels: contain intricately carved pierced Gothic tracery of wood.
• Hardware: lighting fixtures, door locks, and hinges are original to the room. • Floor: stone.
The Dining Room
The Dining Room
Admission/Board Room Room 114
he scheme for this room – formerly the Lashars’ dining room – stems from the latter part of the 17th century, and reflects the school of Christopher Wren, one of England’s most famous architects. The rich walnut paneling is very different in design from the Main and Great Halls, with large decorative panels that lift to within a foot of the ceiling. The Hayden Furniture Company of New York, the interior decorator of Hearthstone Hall, commissioned a London architect to make drawings of rooms at Belton House (England) with permission of its owner, Earl Brownlow. Although this room was not reproduced exactly as at Belton, the details of the moldings and of the hardware on the doors are very similar. The large opening for the south window is treated with carved brackets and impost supporting the beam above. The details are copied from St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, Wren’s great masterpiece. • Paneling: richly decorated walnut, with dado around the lower part of the room and paneling above reaching in full height to the cornice. • Cornice around the room: reflects that in Kensington Palace. • Coved ceiling: oval band of fruit and flowers in the Grinling Gibbons manner. Floral borders were partly modeled with some leaves and flowers cast separately and inserted into pattern. Cartouches with marine motifs are on the central oval axis lines. • Fireplace mantel treatment: characteristic leaf work of the Wren period.
• Carved fruit and flower decoration: in the style of the School of Grinling Gibbons, famous woodcarver employed by Wren on most of his important work. Lower part of the mantel also typical of the Wren School — heavily molded variegated marble in what is known as the “bolection” molding, without shelf or frieze above. • Fireback: copied from a Charles II cast-iron version in Whitehall Palace. • Silver sconces at the mantel: original to the room. • Wall sconces: delicately carved wood, composed of drapery and festoons in character with the Grinling Gibbons carving of the period. • South windows: carved brackets and impost support the beam above and are copied from St. Paul’s Cathedral, London. The register openings are of carved wood, done in the Gibbons style. • Doors to the hall and pantry: classical molded architrave, with carved frieze and circular pediments. Original model in South Kensington Museum, England. • Door hardware: engraved locks copied from those at Belton House; bird motif from Lashar crest is introduced. • Floor: oak, laid in herringbone pattern.
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Conference Room Room 113
esigned as a private retreat area, the Tudor-style library’s unusual entrance separated it from the more social rooms of the house. A large oak structure, known as a corner porch, was a feature of many old houses and served as an entry passage that screened the user from view. The one pictured here (since removed) was copied from a home in Westmorland, England. The library’s primary feature is its heavy beam work, which not only carries the full width of the room in front of the windows, but also forms the recess for the bookshelf to its right. Other recesses are formed by bringing the upper wall – supported by heavy beams – out to the face of the bookcases and fireplace. The height of the room adds to the effect. The walls reflect the uneven texture of old plastering, which was meant to give an artistic effect. Stonework around the fireplace opening is Tudor – arched, molded, and carved. • Entrance: an entrance “porch” separated the library from the main corridor. Original is now in South Kensington Museum.
The entrance porch
• Walls: Tudor-style, uneven plastering and halfbeams. • Bookcases: three walls of recessed shelving backed by paneling and topped by heavy beam. • Fireplace: ornately carved and arched. The original firebacks, made in Sussex, England, of cast iron, protected the herringbone brickwork and also threw heat into the room.
• Mantel: early Renaissance style, in oak, with fluted pilasters and arched panels. • Ceiling: raised, with oak crossbeams. • Chandelier: original to house. • Windows: Tudor-style leaded windows. • Floor: oak, laid in irregular-width planks.
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President’s Reception Room Room 123
Entrance Suite – Office of the President Three rooms comprise the suite that is now the Office of the President: the entrance and reception room (west); the President’s office (south); and the Executive Assistant to the President’s office (north). During the Lashar tenure, these functioned respectively as an enclosed porch, a drawing room, and a reception room.
his large room, which the Lashars used as an “enclosed porch,” gives full play to color decoration on its walls and ceiling. Originally, the walls above the five-foot mark were decorated with Gothic scrollwork with quaint figures of the “chase” taken from the old castles in the Tyrol. The ceiling’s large wood crossbeams have smaller beams framed into them, and their sides and soffits are decorated in the French Renaissance manner. The mantel, similar to one in the 14th-century Cobham College (Kent, England), is an example of the hooded Gothic style, with molded jambs projecting to support the heavy stone lintel and sloping plaster hood above. The original raised and curved hearthstone gave importance to the fireplace and set off its accessories – the andirons and a triple-arched fireback. The latter (since removed) dates to late-17th century Dutch design that depicted scriptural subjects, in this case featuring Rebecca at the Well. A new hearthstone has since been installed. • Walls: originally featured Gothic scrollwork illustrating figures of the “chase.”
• Arched niche: on north wall over wrought iron heat outlet. The Lashars displayed sculpture in the niche. • Mantel: hooded Gothic style, with molded jambs projecting in corbel form to support the heavy stone lintel and sloping plaster hood above. • Firewall: brick backs and cheeks laid in herringbone and straight courses. • Ceiling: large wood crossbeams, with smaller beams framed into these, decorated in color in the French Renaissance manner. Cartouches on large beams feature painted landscapes; between these are birds and floral decoration. Smaller beams are divided into panels with lines, scroll ornaments, and floral sprays. • Windows: Palladian. • Door Hardware: wrought-iron hinges, handles, and locks are original to the house. • Floor: stone.
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The Drawing Room
The Drawing Room
The President’s Office Room 124
his room offers an excellent example of an early 17th-century paneled room. The difference between its plain wood paneling and the Great Hall’s linenfold carving illustrates the contrast between 17thand 16th-century design. Earlier panelwork was almost never the full height of the room, but this later style has been carried almost to the ceiling. The space above it is treated as a cove in plaster. The pilasters dividing the wainscot into bays were also a innovation of the day, and were often decorated with a finely carved strapwork design; the replications here can be found in a room at 17 Fleet Street, London. The cornice is copied from woodwork at St. John’s College, Oxford. Its dentil molding, bracketed frieze, and raised panel ornamentation also reflect the 17th century. The large stone mantel, richly carved, was copied from one in the ruined Donegal Castle, Ireland. In place of the Donegal coat-of-arms, the upper panels are carved with the coat-of-arms of Lashar and his wife. • Walls: early 17th-century paneling. • Cornice: dentil molding and bracketed frieze, ornamented with raised panels. Copied from St. John’s College, Oxford. • Mantel: stone, richly carved. Replicates one from Donegal Castle, Ireland. • Coved ceiling: plaster, richly ornamented, with circles and squares of molded ribs, sprays of flowers, oak trees, and oak leaves.
• Lintel across bay window: separates ceiling of room from that in bay – the latter being flat and lower than in main room, but ornamented in the same fashion. • Heat outlets: pierced flat balusters. • Oak double-doors: surrounded by arched, Tudor-style stonework. Spandrels in upper corners of doorframe show Lashars’ coats-of-arms. • Solarium: through south door, with an outdoor stone terrace adjacent. • Lighting fixtures, door hardware: original to the room, wrought in metal. • Floor: irregular-width planking in oak.
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The Reception Room
The Reception Room Office of Executive Assistant to the President Room 121
sed by the Lashars as a reception room, this office reflects the Adam style of decoration, an influence of the late 18th century. Robert and James Adam (17281784) came from a Scottish family of noted architects and their united influence was felt in the decorative arts. Besides designing exteriors and interiors of their buildings, they designed furniture, carpets, fire grates, door hardware, and so forth, to accent and blend with their architectural style. The cream-colored marble mantel is beautifully inlaid with accents of green marble. The carved frame above, surrounding the old Italian painting, is a characteristic Adam treatment. The painting is original to the house. Further reflecting the Adam style are the dado around the room, with its carved cap and base, the door trim with carved frieze and cornice, and the mahogany doors with richly carved moldings and finely veneered panels. The ceiling, of delicate ornamental plasterwork, is also classic Adam design. The cornice, with frieze ornamented with vases and honeysuckle, is copied from a door head in the South Kensington Museum.
of green marble. • Ceiling: delicate ornamental plasterwork. • Windows: carved, heart-shaped pilasters and cornice with ornamental lunette above. Heat registers of cast metal.
• Dado and door trim: carved in Adam style.
• Lighting fixtures: gilt and enamel.
• Carved painting frame: characteristic Adam treatment, surrounds an Italian painting original to room.
• Doors: mahogany moldings and veneered panels.
• Cornice: frieze ornamented with vases and honeysuckle. Copied from South Kensington Museum.
• Door hardware: specially made in England, scroll hardware and mortise locks replace bolt locks of earlier years. • Floor: oak, laid in herringbone pattern.
• Mantel: cream-colored marble, inlaid with accents
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The Dressing Room
Mrs. Lashar’s Dressing Room
• Chinoiserie décor.
Second Floor Family bedrooms, guest bedrooms, and servants’ quarters occupied the second and third floors. Several of the rooms still bear strong evidence of the Lashars’ choice of design.
Advancement Office Room 228
his room is a fine example of the lacquer work, or chinoiserie, which was much in vogue from 1680 to 1750. Growing trade with the East had brought more and more Chinese art to Europe, and shells of cabinets, clocks, and other pieces were frequently sent to China to be decorated by lacquerers there. This art form soon found ready imitators in Holland, France, and England. The wainscot from floor to ceiling is of a warm, biscuit or mustard-toned lacquer, with landscapes, pagodas, oriental figures, flowers, and foliage cleverly introduced. Parts of this detail stand out in heavy relief, adding richness to the effect. On the north wall, double doors with a pierced panel above open to reveal triple dressing mirrors that were lighted from above by an electrical fixture. The pierced panel served as a vent to the closet, and similar panels occur over other closet doors. Other doors in the room opened to large walk-in closets, lingerie drawers, hat and glove storage, and a safe containing Mrs. Lashar’s valuables and jewels. Another in the south wall leads to what was Mrs. Lashar’s solarium (today an office) with an expansive view of Long Island Sound.
• Wainscot: warm biscuit- or mustard-toned lacquer, with painted images cleverly introduced from floor to ceiling, many in raised relief. • Double doors: triplemirrored dressing area behind them. Pierced panel above served as a vent to closet. • Other doors: opened to large walk-in closets, lingerie drawers, hat and glove storage, a safe containing Mrs. Lashar’s valuables. • Solarium: through south door, offered an expansive view of Long Island Sound. • Door jambs and arched moldings: solid wood, carved in character with the period’s stone molding and held together by wooden pegs. • Lighting fixtures: decorated lacquer in keeping with décor. • Register plates: Chinese lattice design made of metal, finished to match woodwork. • Floor: oak, laid in herringbone pattern.
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The Lasharsâ€™ Bedroom
The Lashars’ Bedroom
Vice President for Advancement Room 225
ong before the middle of the 18th century, the value of stucco decoration for wall surfaces was fully realized by architects of the day. The decorative scheme could be successful, however, only if the architect and furniture maker worked in conjunction to ensure proper scale between the two elements. Craftsmen of the Georgian period, as reflected in this room, achieved excellent results. The walls above the dado are carried out in stucco and served as a suitable background for the Chippendale furniture the Lashars chose for their bedroom. The French influence is reflected in ornamental panels of the walls, with festoons of fruit and flowers above the arched openings and “drops” of fruit and flower decoration on the wide upright stiles. The cornice is in the same material and the lower members are of pendant form. This combination of Chinese detail and Louis XV leaf work is one of the characteristics of the Chippendale school, a style carried through in the wall lights and the mirror frame over the mantel. The arched opening to the passage is balanced by a similar shaped door opening on the southwest wall of the room that once led to a bathroom. The large openings to the windows are treated with classical ornamental architraves. The wood mantel combines Chinese lattice decoration with classical ornament. The facing is of Siena marble, with white linings, and the same colors are repeated in the paneled white marble hearth.
bedroom and dressing room: paneled in simple Georgian style. Four original architectural renderings of Hearthstone Hall, in pen, ink, and watercolor, are mounted in hall. • Walls: stucco above the dado; ornamental panels have French influence, with festoons of fruit and flowers above arched openings and “drops” of fruit and flower decoration on wide upright stiles. • Cornice: lower members take a pendant form. Its combination of Chinese detail and Louis XV leaf work is a characteristic of the Chippendale School. • Mantel: wood with Chinese lattice decoration combined with classical ornament; Siena marble facing with white linings and a white marble hearth. • Windows: large openings have classical ornamental architraves. • Register plates: Chinese lattice design, made in metal and painted in with the woodwork. • Floor: oak, laid in herringbone pattern.
• Entrance hall and passage between
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he $285,791 invoice at the left offers a window into the world of wealth enjoyed by the Lashar family during the 1920s, and shows the ways they made Hearthstone Hall a place they could call home. Included in this particular invoice are charges for plasterwork ($146,651); antique oriental rugs, hand-woven in Persia, Turkey, Kurdistan ($13,120); custom-made and antique furniture primarily of oak, mahogany, and walnut ($34,425); bedroom/solarium furniture (4 rooms; $16,695); nursery furniture ($1,515); and accessories for the home’s 13 fireplaces ($3,894). Of particular interest is the staggering amount spent on curtains – $15,780 for the main hall alone – in “1921 dollars,” no less. Sadly, the Lashars lost most of their reported $80 million fortune in the stock market crash of 1929.
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Key to architectural terms
Architrave: in classical design, the lowest member resting on a column (pages 11, 23)
Gothic: a style marked by windows with pointed arches, exposed framing timbers, and steep, vaulted roofs (page 3)
Baluster: the vertical post in a balustrade (pages 3, 7)
Impost: block, capital, or molding from which an arch springs (page 11)
Balustrade: the collection of rails and posts with a rail along the top that form the waist-height wall to the sides of stairs or to a terrace or balcony (page 7)
Lacquerwork: the layering of numerous coats of varnish, sanding in between coats to create a smooth, lustrous effect (page 21)
Boss: ornamental projecting block (page 7)
Lintel: a supporting piece found above a window or door, usually made of wood or stone (page 15)
Bowed: shaped like a bow (page 9)
Lunette: crescent-shaped area (page 19)
Brace: see â€œbracketâ€? (page 9)
Newel: upright post at the foot of a staircase or on a landing (page 7)
Bracket: projecting wall support, beneath a ceiling or overhang; in masonry, known as a corbel (page 9)
Pediment: a triangular, rounded, or otherwise shaped structure over a portico, door, window or niche, usually filled with ornamentation in the classical style (page 11)
Cartouche: ornate or ornamental frame (page 11) Chinoiserie: style of art or decoration, including colors and lacquerwork, reflecting Chinese style or motif (page 21) Coffered ceiling: ceiling with recessed panels (page 9) Corbel: similar to a bracket but more often made of stone; rises upward and outward from vertical surface (pages 9, 15) Cornice: a molded and projecting horizontal frame, often decorated, that crowns an architectural composition, frequently along the top of a wall (pages 5, 11, 17, 19, 23) Cove: architectural member with a concave cross-section; a rounded area where walls meet ceiling (pages 11, 17) Dado: lower part of an interior wall when specially decorated or faced (pages 11, 19, 23)
Pilaster: square column or pillar generally attached to a wall, from which it projects a third, forth, fifth or a sixth of its breadth (pages 9, 13, 17, 19) Portcullis: grating of iron hung over the gateway of a fortified place; often at the entrance to a castle after the drawbridge (page 5) Relief: mode of sculpture in which forms and figures protrude from or are carved into surrounding plane surface (pages 5, 9, 21) Rusticated: a facing of rough-surfaced masonry blocks with beveled or rebated edges that create pronounced joints (page 7) Soffit: underside of a part or member of a building, such as a beam, arch, eave, overhang, or dropped ceiling (page 15)
Dentil: Small projecting blocks, like teeth, beneath a cornice (page 17)
Spandrel: ornamental part of a wall adjoining an arch or below an upper-level window; the part of a porch facade that reflects the balustrade (pages 9, 17)
Fireback: decorative, upright cast iron screen inside hearth; used to reflect heat (pages 13, 15)
Stile: one of the vertical members of a frame or panel into which the secondary members are fitted (page 23)
Firewall: inside walls of a hearth, including back and cheeks (page 9)
Tracery: architectural ornamental work with branching lines, such as decorative openwork (page 9)
Frieze: sculptured or richly ornamented band that lies between the architrave and cornice of an entablature; found along the top of a classical building (pages 11, 17, 19) Gargoyle: a grotesquely carved figure, often projecting from a roof gutter to throw rainwater clear of a building (page 3) Georgian: a style of architecture that has refined and symmetrical features and a decorative crown; named after English royalty (pages 5, 23)
Tudor: features half-timbering, and facades dominated by one or more steeply pitched cross gables (pages 3, 5, 9, 13) Wainscot: lower three or four feet of an interior wall, usually finished differently from remainder of wall (pages 9, 17, 21)
This booklet is based on research done by the Rev. Charles F. Duffy, S.J. (1912-1992), who came to Fairfield Prep in 1945 and joined the University two years later. There he served first as bookstore supervisor and then as registrar until 1977. In retirement, Fr. Duffy spent hours and hours in the University Archives compiling information about Fairfieldâ€™s early days, including the 20-page, single-spaced document distilled herein. He also authored Volume I of The Chronicles of Fairfield University, published shortly before his death. Linda Gustavson â€™00, who graduated through University College with a degree in art history, further researched and edited this volume while working as publications assistant in the Office of Public Relations. Margaret Galeano designed the guide.
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