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Ageing in Humans Rever


Leigh Hedges & A


Te Na th is in sig (h ah ox in im

This article focuses on the prospective future of “reverse aging”. At the cellular level, telomere length shortening, and cellular senescence are two key hallmarks of the ageing process. Over the course of three months, subjects underwent repeated Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) sessions, and it was observed that telomere length increased by 20% in peripheral immune cells and decreased senescent cells by 10-37%. This experiment was the first to examine HBOT’s effect on telomere length and cellular senescence.

Definitions Telomeres: Caps at the end of each DNA strand to protect the chromosomes. Shorten with each cell division. Shortening of telomeres leads to cellular senescence. Cellular senescence: The killing of cells when reaching the limit of cellular division, dependent on telomeres. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT): Breathing in pure oxygen in a pressurized environment to stimulate oxygen release to cells and hyperoxic- hypoxic effect. Hypoxia Induced Factor (HIF- 𝛂𝛂𝛂𝛂): Turns on genes to activate blood vessel formation, proliferation, red blood cell formation. Antioxidant: Molecules which are stable enough to donate electrons to neutralize ROS. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS): Molecules containing oxygen with an electron deficiency which can easily react with other molecules, and damage nucleic acids, proteins and can cause cell death.

Objectives The aim of the primary study was to evaluate the effects of HBOT on telomere length and senescent cell concentrations in a normal, ageing adult population. Extrapolating from these findings, researchers could expand their understanding of the cellular processes of aging and how we could reverse this universal experience.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Chamber:

Methodology Thirty-five healthy adults aged sixty-four and older participated in the study. All medical conditions were considered and there were no changes in lifestyle, diet, or medication. The subjects completed sixty daily sessions five times a week over three months, each session was ninety minutes with five-minute breaks every twenty minutes. Blood samples were taken at the baseline, halfway, endpoint and 1-2 weeks after the last HBOT session.

Th in ge ag fir po Pr de se in in ce th fin HB in

rsed by Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

mo et al.

Anna Cuff, GPRC


elomere length changes in 4 immune cells (B, T-cytotoxic, T-helper, and atural Killer) increased over 20 percent using HBOT, with B cells having he most significant change. The significance of increasing immune cells that they directly increase the immune system response by fighting nfectious/harmful particles. Senescent cell changes decreased gnificantly with HBOT continuously even after the 30th session. HIF- 𝛂𝛂𝛂𝛂 hypoxia induced factor) increased at the 30th and 60th session. It induces hyperoxic- hypoxic (low oxygen- high oxygen) paradox, where high xygen (HBOT) can cause the same effect as low oxygen. Antioxidant ncrease has been shown to promote telomere lengthening, which are mportant to decrease reactive oxygen species


he universal human experience of ageing makes this research area nteresting and important to both the scientific community and the eneral population. Research done on the prospective future of “reverse geing” is of particular interest to the older population, who have rsthand experience with the effects of ageing, and the specific opulation of individuals with inherited disorders called progerias. rogerias are characterized by premature ageing and often premature eath. The most extreme case is Hutchinson-Gilford Syndrome where enescence begins immediately after birth and death comes before an ndividual's adolescence. Through observation, it had been found that ndividuals with progerias have decreased telomere length and decreased ell activity. Using HBOT could potentially cure these diseases or prolong he lives of individuals with progerias. For the general population, the ndings of this research could eventually translate to the general use of BOT to slow the physical process of ageing and prolong the lifespan of ndividuals.


In conclusion, the article indicates that HBOT may become common practice in the future of “reverse ageing”. The effects of this study will be elaborated on with later long-term follow ups but for now the article provides hope for those with telomere diseases, and an exciting look into the possible future of ageing. For the scientific community, this study may pioneer future research involving HBOT, and the concept of reverse ageing. For the general population, diseases related to senescence and telomere length, may be halted or reversed by the administration of HBOT to patients. References Primary Source: Hachmo, Y., Hadanny, A., Hamed, R.A, Daniel-Kotovsky, M., Catalogna, M., Fishlev, G., Lang, E., Polak, N., Doenyas, K., Friedman, M., Zemel, Y., Bechor, Y., Efrati, S. (2020). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases telomere length and decreases immunosenescence in isolated blood cells : a prospective trial. Ageing 2020, 12, 1-12.

Acknowledgements We would like to extend our sincere thanks to Shauna Henley and Jessie Zgurski for editing and proving constructive feedback on our presentation. We would also like to thank Taylor Doyer for organizing this year's Student Research Conference and providing us with this great opportunity. Thanks also to Kat Ormay and Marissa Rocca for taking the time to assist the researchers with the technicalities of the presentations. Lastly, we would also like to acknowledge the work that Breanna Gouschuk has done in promoting this event. Your unwavering support and assistance was instrumental in guiding us throughout this process. Thank you.

The Exploitation Consequences of Eco

Aleah Klein-Gebbinck, Gran Introduction of Topic •

• • •

I chose this topic because I think inequality is an interesting subject considering it is a broad subject and there are plenty of different avenues within the topic. From an ethical standpoint, child labor provokes the limitation of autonomy of a child, as well as hinders many positive opportunities. Researchers have contributed to this topic and conclude that child labor is detrimental in various ways to the child. UNICEF was the first public body to sign the Convention of the Rights for Children (1989) – concluding that children afflicted by child labor do indeed have rights and they are not solely used for labor.

Development • The lack of child labour laws in developing countries suggests negative impacts on children's general development. • Research suggests that child labour significantly disrupts and damages children’s development such as their emotional, physical, and mental health (Abdalla et al, 2018, pp. 23-25). • As found by Ibrahim et al (2018), child workers are at a high risk of experiencing abuse in working environments. The authors found that “62.5% of child laborers were subjected to abuse at their workplace” (p. 24).

Rates of A

Sexual Emotional Physical 0





Educational Prospects

Theoretical Framework: Dependency Theory

• Child labour is also associated with social and cultural barriers for children such as education. Poverty forces children to work instead of attending school. • Without a basic level of literacy, and numeral comprehension, the cycle of poverty can be difficult to break, which reinforces the cycle of poverty and stratification among social classes within and between countries. • Children in poor countries work instead of going to school so that they can economically provide for their families. • Not only are child labourers denied social and economic opportunities in their futures, but they are also at a high risk of physical, mental, and emotional detriments.

• Dependency theory can be used to explain how child labour is a consequence of economic globalization (Harvey, 1978, p.4). In addition to the relationship between inequality and economic globalization. • Economic globalization reinforces inequality between countries (i.e., developed vs developing) and within developing countries. • David Harvey (1978) argues dependency theory is a contradicting nature of which creates extensive inequalities between a developing and developed nation (Fields, 2014, p. 4). • While developing nations are dependent on developed nations for their economic sustainability, developed nations benefit from developing nation’s cheaper sources of labour, such as child labour. • Research finds that global trade has increased demand and pressure for developing countries to manufacture and produce goods and services for international markets. RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2019

Economic Demands • To meet its economic demands via trade with other countries, Indonesia uses child labour (Kis-Katos & Sparrow, 2011, pp. 724-725). Data shows that Indonesia has high numbers of child labour who work in agriculture and non-agriculture work such as factories (Nurhadi, 2015, p. 40). •

Poverty is the main reason why child labour is prevalent in Indonesia. As stated by Ali & Arabsheibani (2016): Poverty is undoubtedly a dominant factor in the use of child labour [in Indonesia]. The 1997–1998 economic crises were found to contribute to poverty among families, forcing more and more children in Indonesia to work to earn enough money to survive. In other words, poverty produces child labour, while child labour perpetuates poverty, which leads to future poverty (pp. 162-163).

of Child Labour: onomic Globalization

Student Research Conference 2021

nde Prairie Regional College Conclusion








• Economic globalization may offer more opportunities for developing nations to build and sustain their economics. However, due to economic and political instabilities, these countries are dependent on the economics of developed nations, which reinforces inequality between nations. • Indonesia is an example of a developing country that is dependent on developed countries as Canada and the United States for its economic sustainability. However, it is exploited for its cheaper labour such as child labour. • Poorer countries like Indonesia, child labourers experience detrimental effects on their social and physical well-being as a result of harsh working environments. Instead of going to school, children in developing nations work to support their families. • This highlights the disadvantages placed upon the children, in addition to contributing to the cycle of inequality. Although child labour brings short-term economic opportunities for economic growth among developing nations, it results in greater inequality and exploitation among children. • Overall, economic globalization reinforces inequality between nations and within poorer nations and exploits one of the most vulnerable groups, child labourers.

Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge Dr. Michael Holland for helping me with this project, in addition to Katalin Ormay for assisting me in creating this poster.

References Abdalla, Ibrahim et al. (2018). A Systematic Literature Review of the Impacts of Child Labor in Child’s Health in Low and Middle-Income Countries. Journal of Public Health, 41(1), 18-26. 28fae-cea1-4850-98e0-afbe129f1d3d%40sessionmgr101 Ali Abang binti, Haszelinna Dayang & Arabsheibani, Reza G. (2016). Child Labour in Indonesia: Supply-Side Determinants. Economics and Finance in Indonesia, 62(3), pp. 162-179. _Indonesia_Supply-Side_Determinants

Future Research & Considerations • Future research may want to consider the implications the role of child labour plays within our modern world and perhaps question the extent to which one is willing to participate in such exploitative behaviour, particularly concerning our consumer habits. • Further research should address the ideas of ethical consumerism and fair trade. The relationship between the role of the consumer and the supply chain leaves many questions open for future consideration. • We can support non-profit businesses such as Ten Thousand Villages to contribute to stopping child labour and to ensure that our money goes to a product that is ethically sourced and free of child labor! •

Fields, M. David. (2014). More on The Sociology of Development: Towards A Re-Articulation of Dependency Theory. Hampton Institute Press. ociology_of_Development_Towards_A_Rearticulation_of_Dependency_Theory Kis-Katos, Krisztina & Sparrow, Robert. (2011). Child Labour and Trade Liberalization in Indonesia. Journal of Human Resources, 46(4), 722-749. 4a96a-6eca-4518-aa03-271cd1d7bcd8%40sessionmgr4006 Nurhadi, N. (2015). Child Labour in Rural Indonesia: Child’s and Parents Perspective. University of York. %20-%20child%20labour%20in%20rural%20indonesia.pdf

The Benefits of Drawi

Rebecca Moug, Bachelo


Benefits of Drawing to Study Anatomy

Since the 16th century, diagrams and drawings of human anatomy and physiology have been used to demonstrate the function of body systems and their associated structures. Drawing and studying diagrams substantially increases memory retention and recall1, while increasing confident engagement and interactivity of anatomical concepts, compared to simply reading and writing2. The following will discuss the history of anatomical study in greater detail, the performance and relational benefits of using drawing to study anatomy, and how visual art has paved the way for technological advances in the health care field.

Increased Memory Retention • Drawing integrates kinesthetic and pictorial processing1 • The episodic memory of an elderly sample was comparable to that of young adults, after participants were instructed to recall words of objects they had drawn1 • Drawing anatomical diagrams helps students conceptualize threedimensional features that are learned through cadaver dissection2 • Using visual arts in anatomical study enhances acquisition and longterm retention of knowledge5

History of Anatomical Study 2nd Century: Anatomical study begins. Loose theories of anatomy based on animal dissection dominate the field. 16th Century: The Renaissance period invites artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci to bring anatomy into a mainstream culture3 17th Century: Anatomy theatres provide knowledge to the public through live dissections, demonstrating an integration of art and science4

Increased Student Engagement • Applying visually artistic methods to anatomical study serves the benefit of joyful engagement5 • Employing artistic methods may have an advantage in developing interpersonal skills, like communication and empathy6 A multi-dimensional approach to learning is created, thereby increasing student engagement and potential aiding those studying in healthcare fields to be more relational in their practice. 10

Today: Anatomical study reserved almost exclusively to post-secondary institutions and research hospitals.4

Self-Rated knowledge of anatomy (out of 10)

19th Century: Anatomy becomes a true science4. Public dissections are discontinued, excluding the public once again from engaging with the study.

Mean Score on SBA (out of 12)







9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0






Figure 2. Representation of Backhouse et al.’s (2016) results comparing the mean test scores and self-rated knowledge of anatomy before and after hosting a drawing workshop for a sample of medical students.

Figure 1. Leonardo da Vinci’s ‘Vitruvian Man’ (1490) Icon credit: Freepik


Figure 3. Leonardo da Vinci’s drawing of the human arm bones. Wikipedia.

ing to Study Anatomy

or of Science in Nursing


The Future of Anatomical Study •

Cadavers provide a realistic demonstration of the human body but they are expensive to maintain, and have the potential to desensitize health care students to the concept of death7 • The use of three-dimensional imaging and modeling has grown in popularity as it is interactive as well as cost-effective, like intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI)8

Student Research Conference 2021

The innovative integration of visual art and anatomical study introduced during the Renaissance period has had tremendous impact on the way we study anatomy today; more specifically, drawing to study anatomical concepts. Drawing and using other visual art methods for anatomical study does not just improve performance; it is a timeless integration of art and science that is imperative in helping students learn more effectively and ultimately, be more relational in their practice.

Discussion Personal Interest As a nursing student, I was required to take Anatomy and Physiology (NS1500), overseen by instructor Dr. Sean Irwin. The syllabus offered an opportunity to gain 5% of our course grade by submitting our study drawings. What started as an opportunity for extra marks ended in meticulous, colour-coded drawings that continuously invited me back to my notebook to study. I attribute my success in NS1500 to putting deliberate care and attention into my drawings.

Figure 5. Drawings of the arm bones (left) and upper leg bone (right) scanned from my NS1500: Anatomy & Physiology notebook.

Literature Cited 1.

2. 3. 4.

Figure 4. Drawings of the lower arm bones (left) and foot bones (right) scanned from my NS1500: Anatomy & Physiology notebook.



Limitations To explore the connection between drawing and academic performance, it was first suggested to compare NS1500 class averages from before the inclusion of bonus marks for drawing, versus afterward. After discussing this with Dr. Irwin, however, it was revealed that this addition to the syllabus had only been implemented two years ago. The difference between class averages, therefore, would not be significant enough to attribute drawing as the primary cause for an increased class average. Provided there is no change to the course syllabus, it would be worth comparing class averages in the future when there is more data to study.

7. 8.

Fernandes, M.A., Wammes, J.D., & Meade, M.E. (2018). The Surprisingly Powerful Influence of Drawing on Memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1-7. Gull, S.E. (2005). Embedding the humanities into medical education. Medical Education 2005: 39: 235-236. Borelli, M., Morgan, M., Leung, B. (2018). Should drawing be incorporated into the teaching of anatomy? Journal of Contemporary Medical Education, 6(2), 34-48. Boas, M. (1962). The Scientific Renaissance 1450-1630. Harper and Brothers. Klestinec, C. (2004). A History of Anatomy Theaters in Sixteenth-Century Padua. Journal of the History of Medicine, 59(3), 391-392. Backhouse, M., Fitzpatrick, M., Hutchinson, J., Thandi, C.S., Keenan, I.D. (2016). Improvements in anatomy knowledge when utilizing a novel cyclical “Observe-Reflect-DrawEdit-Repeat”. Anatomical Sciences Education, 10(1), 7-22. Gull, S.E. (2005). Embedding the humanities into medical education. Medical Education 2005: 39: 235-236. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.01974.x McLauchlan, J.C., & Patten, D. (2006). Anatomy teaching: ghosts of the past, present and future. Medical Education 2006; 40: 243-253. Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI).

Acknowledgements I would like to thank Dr. Sean Irwin for overseeing this work, as well as the Grande Prairie Regional College research committee for the opportunity to participate.

Copland and Tomasi: ”Woke” Progressivism in the 20th century: Defined as social Enlight

By: Andrew Abstract This presentation will look closely at the relationship between music and social politics during the 20th century and use two morally awakened composers (the American Aaron Copland and the French-Corsican Henri Tomasi) as case studies to claim that musical artists like those two are fellow travellers in the name of political progressivism even if no contact took place between them. Through an investigation of sociomusicological literature, it will be emphasized how their music alludes to socially conscious ideas and place Copland and Tomasi within the broader scheme of the moral plight of the artist. As we enter an age of growing unrest, social change and awakening to hard truths, the time has come at last to understand that these two bold concert music composers of the 20th century not only wrote music that has broad appeal, but also contains messages that are written to the tune of social Enlightenment.

(Sabuta, Creative Commons).

Copland: Radical-Revolutionary 1900 - 1991

Was deeply affected by the Depression in America and one of his mass songs (a song for the masses) “Into the Streets May First” (1934) calls for revolutionary action and solidarity among working folk in order to remedy their impoverished existence brought on by the economic crash of 1929. Was politically active in the Popular Front (group of radically inclined artists) during the 30s and 40s among other things. During the Red Scare, Copland’s composition Lincoln Portrait (1942) was denied a performance at Eisenhower’s inauguration (1953) due to growing suspicions of his ”communist” sympathies. He was also in 1953 interrogated during the McCarthy trials.

H th d p ti (1 m o fr

Politics of The Tender Land (1954) : Copland

(Rossi 170).

Thesis Tomasi and Copland can therefore be understood as an ideological mirror of each other as their accessible music expresses a major aspect of the progressivism of the last century. Henceforth, it will be understood how musical works created by socially aware composers like those two signify the artistic side of political progressivism in the 20th century.


(Crist 500).

The composition of this (TV) opera coincided with his political troubles that led to his trial before Joseph McCarthy. The Tender Land contains subtle but significant political references such as notions of solidarity (via folktunes), is critical of the ”us” vs. “them” theme present in this work (possible condemnation of anti-communist sentiment) and ultimately suggests a tender world broken by mistrust .

Th co ma me pla Ho art Alg as op co

Similarities between t

Both works are subtle in their opposition to social injustice but each can n in which each one was created. Furthermore, each opera can be read spe was occurring during their respective genesis (McCarthyism vs. Copland a by the music, revolves around a theme of social or political pressure and a

”tenment Artists of the 20th century in the form of ”politically conscious modernism”

SRC: 2021

w Richards Concluding Thoughts

Tomasi: Humanist & Anti-colonial 1901 -1971

(Rossi 157).

His humanism originated via an identification with Corsican folk songs hat express the soul of the Corsican people and their struggle for dignity. His politics evolved to encompass anti-colonial beliefs during the post-war period (ie: 1950s). Became politically outspoken during that ime by, for example, signing petitions against the French war in Algeria 1954-62) and the American one in Vietnam. His opera La Silence de la mer (1960), was censured from French airwaves due Tomasi’s opposition of French Imperalism in Algeria. Tomasi is also temporarily blacklisted rom French TV and radio (1960-62).

Politics of Le Silence de la mer (1960)

his opera was considered by Tomasi as a ondemnation of fascism and aladjustment. Specifically, it conveys a essage of anti-Nazism being as it takes ace during the Occupation in WWII. owever, this work can also be read as a tistic protest against the French war in geria and the American one in Vietnam, Tomasi himself admitted. Among the pera’s themes are conflicting loyalties and onscience vs. duty to a fascist State.

(Quesney, 405).

these works

nonetheless be considered politically subversive given the context ecifically as an artistic protest against the prevailing injustice that and French Imperialism vs. Tomasi). Finally, each narrative, driven a crisis of conscience.

From Copland’s radicalism during the 30s and 40s to Tomasi’s humanist and explicitly anti-Imperialist stance during the 50s and 60s, it has been proven that progressivism had a strong influence on both of them despite the fact that they never seemed to encounter each other. It is also clear that by studying the musical works that they composed during the time each was politically active, one can find the overarching theme of progressive social politics in such music. All things considered, Tomasi and Copland can thus be read as an ideological mirror of each other, despite being unacquainted.

References Crist, Elizabeth B. “Copland and the Politics of Americanism.” Aaron Copland and his World, edited by Coral J. Oja and Judith Tick, Princeton UP, 2005, pp. 277-306. Crist, Elizabeth B. “Copland and the Popular Front.” Journal of the American Musicological Society, vol. 56, no. 2, 2003. pp. 409-65. Music Periodicals Database, DOI: 10. 1525/jams.2003.56.2.409. Crist, Elizabeth B. “Mutual Responses in the Midst of an Era: Aaron Copland’s The Tender Land and Leonard Bernstein’s Candide.” The Journal of Musicology, vol. 23, no. 4, 2006. pp. 485-527. JSTOR: Dickstein, Morris. “Copland and American Populism in the 1930s.” Aaron Copland and his World, edited by Coral J. Oja and Judith Tick, Princeton UP, 2005, pp. 81-100. Fauser, Annegret. “Aaron Copland, Nadia Boulanger, and the making of an ‘American’ Composer.” The Musical Quarterly, vol. 89, no. 4, 2006. pp. 524-44. JSTOR: Jacono, Jean-Marie et Lionel Pons. “Avant Propos.” Henri Tomasi: Du lyrisme méditerranéen à la conscience révoltée, édité par Jean-Marie Jacono et Lionel Pons, Presses Universitaires de Provence, 2013, pp. 1-3. Quesney, Cécile. “Le Silence de la mer: un drame lyrique d’après Vercors.” Henri Tomasi: Du lyrisme méditerranéen à la conscience révoltée, édité par Jean-Marie Jacono et Lionel Pons, Presses Universitaires de Provence, 2013, pp. 404-15. Morelock, Bill. “Conscience vs. McCarthy: the political Aaron Copland.” Minnesota Public Radio, May 3, 2005, morelockb unmerican/. Rossi, Jérôme. “Henri Tomasi et le cinema: une stimulation féconde.” Henri Tomasi: Du lyrisme méditerranéen à la conscience révoltée, édité par Jean-Marie Jacono et Lionel Pons, Presses Universitaires de Provence, 2013, pp. 157-77. Sabuta. “BE023514.” Creative Commons, c9c-e6d4-4e72-be17-88a8d8f1fbe0. Accessed April 28, 2021. Solis, Michel et Claude Tomasi. “ ‘Mare Nostrum’: ombre et lumièe dans la vie et l’œuvre d’Henri Tomasi.” Henri Tomasi: Du lyrisme méditerranéen à la conscience révoltée, édité par Jean-Marie Jacono et Lionel Pons, Presses Universitaires de Provence, 2013, pp.101-17. Tomasi, Henri. “Dernières lettres d’Henri Tomasi à Jean Molinetti-1970.” Le site officiel Henri Tomasi, Association Henri Tomasi, https://www.henri-tomasi .fr/écrits/1970dernieres-lettres-dhenri-tomasi-a-jean-molinetti

Special thanks to Katalin Ormay (Library Technician) on the help with the Poster layout and to Dr. Carpenter (Musicology professor-Augustana Faculty of the U of A) for his supervision of this project these past few years.

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2nd Annual GPRC Student Research Conference Works  

GPRC held its 2nd annual Student Research Conference on May 7, 2021. This is a collection of the works created by the student researchers in...

2nd Annual GPRC Student Research Conference Works  

GPRC held its 2nd annual Student Research Conference on May 7, 2021. This is a collection of the works created by the student researchers in...

Profile for gprc_ab

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