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ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN 2013 CORRECTIONAL SERVICES LOCAL GOVERNMENT PUBLIC SAFETY PUBLIC SECTOR WATER


Introduction What the GSA 2013 Environmental Scan is The purpose of the Government Skills Australia (GSA) 2013 Environmental Scan is to provide readers with a clear strategic understanding of existing and emerging skills shortages and the context for the continuous improvement of GSA’s training packages for the coming year. The scan will review factors currently impacting on workforce development within the government and community safety industries, and consider the responsiveness of training packages and the broader system. The shaping of policy to build the capacity of the Vocational Education and Training (VET) system to respond with timely, practical solutions to the identification of emerging trends is fundamental to realising the goals of the Australian Government. What sets this scan apart from other reports in the VET system is its capacity to operate as an early warning system to alert policy makers of potentially significant issues at a grassroots level, enabling early identification of those trends. Based on real-time industry views and intelligence gathered from across Australia, the scan is a concise, readable document containing a level of insight and predictive capabilities to inform the consideration of future directions in the VET system.

What the GSA 2013 Environmental Scan is not This scan does not reproduce existing data analysis or economic analysis found in a wide range of sources elsewhere. It is increasingly recognised by policy makers that historical data and analysis of past trends are not the most effective manner of predicting the future skills needs of the nation. The GSA 2013 Environmental Scan is not a strategic plan.

Data collection The GSA 2013 Environmental Scan draws on industry intelligence gathered during the period of February 2012 to December 2012. Information was collected via literature reviews, anecdotal feedback, workshops and a series of surveys. Three targeted surveys were developed and sent to the following groups: >> Industry Advisory Committees (IACs), the Jurisdictional Reference Group (JRG) and key stakeholders >> Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) with GSAendorsed training packages currently on scope >> Enterprises across the five government and community safety sectors that GSA represent. The enterprise survey formed the largest component of GSA data collection for the 2013 Environmental Scan. GSA received a total of 364 responses to our three surveys, with strong representation across all sectors in all states and territories. For more detailed information regarding the methodology, see Appendix A.

This Environmental Scan has been produced with assistance of funding provided by the Commonwealth Government. Developed by the Government and Community Safety Industry Skills Council.

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Government Skills Australia

Government Skills Australia Level 11, 147 Pirie Street, Adelaide, South Australia, 5000 T +61 8 8100 7400 F +61 8 8232 7444 E info@governmentskills.com.au www.governmentskills.com.au


Table Of Contents Introduction...........................................................2 Table Of Contents................................................ 3 Executive Summary.............................................4 1 LATEST INDUSTRY INTELLIGENCE.......................6 Industry overviews............................................................... 7 Current and emerging issues................................................... 13 Cross-sector issues............................................................. 17 Sector-specific issues........................................................... 19 2 IDENTIFIED WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT NEEDS.......................................... 34 Challenges, skill gaps and opportunities...................................... 35 CASE STUDIES........................................................... 43 Case study #1: the procurement initiative..................................... 44 Case study #2: overcoming an ageing workforce............................. 45 3 CURRENT IMPACT OF GSA TRAINING PACKAGES...........................................46 Utilisation of training packages................................................ 48 Enterprise Based Productivity Places Program and the National Workforce Development Fund............................... 59 Continuous improvement and review of training packages in 2012......... 60 Learner profiles.................................................................. 63

4 FUTURE DIRECTION FOR ENDORSED COMPONENTS OF TRAINING PACKAGES...........65 Continuous improvement activity.............................................. 66 A METHODOLOGY......................................................72 B LITERATURE CITED................................................ 73 Environmental Scan 2013

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Executive Summary

Government Skills Australia (GSA) is the national Industry Skills Council (ISC) for the government and community safety sectors, namely correctional services, local government, public safety, public sector and water. GSA is responsible for the continuous improvement of nationally-endorsed Vocational Education and Training (VET) training packages and the delivery of workforce development services to enterprises and organisations across these sectors. GSA recognises that the government and community safety sector is undergoing a period of intense change. The importance of recognising, embracing and adapting to these changes is critical to its future. The significance of this change process was highlighted at the inaugural GSA Conference, Change is the only constant: connect, collaborate and celebrate, which brought together key stakeholders from all industry sectors to discuss current issues and to collectively identify opportunities for improving training and addressing workforce needs. GSA is committed to providing quality services and products to assist the sector in dealing with current and future changes.

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In preparation for the 2013 Environmental Scan, GSA has undertaken broad, ongoing consultation with the government and community safety sectors throughout 2012 regarding their respective workforce development needs and related issues. GSA further extended its data collection in 2012 by tailoring three surveys to different areas of industry: Industry Advisory Committees, Jurisdictional Reference Groups and other peak bodies; registered training organisations; and enterprises. Further industry feedback was obtained via focussed workshops and interviews.


Priority issues for the 2013 Environmental Scan Ageing workforce The impending retirement of the ageing workforce is a common issue amongst organisations within the government and community safety sector. The loss of staff, and the associated corporate knowledge, has the potential to have a major impact on operations and productivity. Organisations are currently using initiatives to retain older workers via the use of flexible working arrangements, while also trying to recruit and train the next generation of workers. A key part of this process involves capturing the knowledge of older workers through formal mentoring and knowledge transfer processes.

New technologies The National Broadband Network (NBN) and the recent proliferation of mobile and tablet computers will have a major impact on operations across a wide range of organisations. Whilst there are clear benefits to the adoption of new technologies in terms of streamlined service provision and operational efficiency, these technologies must be used effectively and appropriately. To achieve this, significant training and up-skilling will be required, particularly where levels of computer literacy are currently low. The impact of new technologies will not only influence organisational operation, but will continue to change the way that training is delivered, with an increased use of e-learning and mobile learning. Again, whilst there is a clear opportunity for technology to improve training provision, it must be used appropriately and effectively to ensure maximum impact.

Increased professionalism within the sectors, requiring up-skilling A number of organisations reported a perception that community expectations are increasing. Coupled with the above-mentioned drive for efficiency, the workforce is now required to be more professional, versatile and highly-skilled. These skills not only relate to job-specific skills, but extend to communication skills, customer service and importantly, managerial and leadership skills.

VET sector reform The VET sector in Australia is in the process of undergoing significant change. This includes the review of standards for VET regulation by the National Skills Standards Council (NSSC), which has a major focus on ensuring quality training and assessment. The introduction of mandatory collection and reporting of total VET activity data from RTOs as of 1 January 2014 will introduce challenges, particularly for small and enterprise-based RTOs; however, improved data collection will provide more complete information for students, employers and training providers, and will inform policy making. The introduction of the unique student identifier will also enable students to track their training across the Australian VET system. These factors, and many others that are described within the 2013 Environmental Scan, are having a major impact on workforce development and training needs.

Providing more for less A common theme across the government and community safety sector is the need to provide more for less. Organisations are being forced to become more efficient in order to maintain, and at times, increase service provision in the face of tightening budgets, fewer resources and competition from private organisations. Some of the key drivers of increased service demand mentioned by survey respondents included population growth, increased frequency of natural disasters and extreme weather events, and greater consumer expectations. In order to provide more for less employers require an effective and productive workforce that is highly-skilled and often multi-skilled; however, training budgets are often not sufficient to meet all necessary training needs and many organisations within the government and community safety sector do not meet eligibility criteria for government funding programs.

Karen Taylor Chief Executive Officer

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Industry overviews Correctional services Within Australia’s justice system, the correctional services sector plays a major role in the management and supervision of offenders in both custodial and community-based corrections. Within the correctional services sector there is also the aim to reduce the risk of re-offence through services and programs focussed on successful reintegration [1]. Correctional facilities are typically managed by state and territory governments; however, a number of facilities are now managed privately in NSW, SA, WA, Vic and Qld [1]. The correctional services sector currently employs approximately 30,000 people. There were 114 custodial facilities across Australia as of 30 June 2012 [1]. There were also a number of privately-managed immigration detention centres under federal government direction. During the third quarter of 2012, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) indicated that there were 29,392 full-time prisoners in Australia and 54,511 persons in community-based corrections. This reflected an increase of 351 persons (1%) in full-time custody and a decrease of 34 persons (less than 1%) in communitybased corrections compared to 2011. Of the average daily number of full-time prisoners in Australia during the third quarter of 2012, 93% were male and 7% were female [2], while for community-based corrections, 82% were male and 18% were female. In total, GSA received 25 responses to our three surveys from the correctional services sector.

Enterprise survey respondent snapshot State/territory coverage

Qld, NSW, Vic, SA, WA, NT, ACT Regional distribution

71% 29% statewide

national

Staff numbers (% of respondents)

1-20 21-50 51-200 201-500 500+

0% 0% 0% 14% 86%

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Local government Local government is the third tier of government in Australia, responsible for providing a range of local services, including: >> infrastructure and property services >> provision and maintenance of recreational facilities >> health services, including water and food inspection and immunisation services >> community services >> building services, planning and development >> cultural facilities and services [3]. There are approximately 565 councils across Australia [4], the majority of which are regional or rural. The size of local councils is highly diverse; however, the average council population is 28,400 [3]. Local governments are funded through taxes (rates), user charges and federal/ state government grants. The local government sector employs approximately 192,500 persons in some 400 different occupations [5].

Enterprise survey respondent snapshot State/territory coverage

Qld, NSW, Vic, Tas, SA, WA, NT Regional distribution*

44% 31%

rural/remote

regional

27%

1%

Importantly, GSA data collection also identified that 57% of responding local councils have a volunteer workforce. For the majority (59%) of these councils, volunteers comprise less than 10% of the total workforce, with a large proportion of volunteers aged over 60 years. Volunteers served for less than two years at 24% of these councils, between two and four years at 48% of councils and for five to 10 years at 27% of councils.

metropolitan

GSA received 141 survey responses from the local government sector.

Staff numbers (% of respondents)

1%

national

1-20 21-50 51-200 201-500 500+

 

statewide

1% 4.5% 39.5% 35% 20%

* Some organisations indicated coverage across multiple regions

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Public safety The public safety sector, encompassing police, defence, fire, search and rescue (aquatic and land-based), emergency services and emergency management plays a key role in the preparation for, response to, and recovery from natural and man-made threats. The diverse nature of the public safety sector requires a highly-trained and responsive workforce capable of responding to threats, maintaining community safety and collaborating across agencies and jurisdictions. The fire sector encompasses rural, metropolitan, land management and aviation-based fire services. Organisations within the fire services industry are responsible for protecting the community from fire and other emergencies. This not only incorporates responding to fires, but also improving community preparedness and awareness of fire risk. There were 17,854 paid and 211,898 volunteer firefighters across Australia in 2011-12 [1]; however, this number is likely to be an under-representation, as fire management personnel (responsible for activities associated with the management of fire-prone public land including national parks, state parks and forests) are not included, nor are emergency services personnel operating within the resources sector. The emergency services sector incorporates the state emergency services (SES) and emergency management organisations. Emergency services are responsible for disaster preparedness, disaster awareness and the coordination of rescue, response and recovery. There are approximately 500 paid staff and over 25,000 volunteer staff within the SES. The Australian Emergency Management Volunteer Forum recently reported over 500,000 volunteers from all of their member organisations within the emergency management and response areas across Australia [6].

150,000 members across 310 clubs. In 2010-11, paid and volunteer lifeguards and lifesavers performed over 14,000 rescues across Australia [7]. The volunteer workforce is crucial to the operation of many agencies within the public safety sector. Volunteering is a strong tradition in Australia with over 6.4 million volunteers across the nation [8]. Recently, University of Adelaide researchers reported that the value of volunteers to Australia is over $200 billion [8]. Within the public safety sector, volunteers are seen as essential to providing the capacity needed to respond to many types of emergency, and complement the services that are fully funded by state and territory governments [6]. Eighty-seven per cent of respondents to our enterprise survey from the public safety sector indicated that their organisation has a volunteer workforce. There appears to be a very large variation in the reliance on volunteers across organisations, with one-quarter indicating that volunteers make up over 90% of their total workforce and a further one-quarter indicating that volunteers account for less than 10% of their workforce. Typically, SES, rural fire and emergency management agencies rely heavily on volunteers. The ages of volunteers ranged from under 20 to over 60 years; however, the most common age group was 40-49 years. The most common length of service for volunteers was between 10 and 15 years. In total, GSA received 64 responses to our three surveys from the public safety sector.

Police services, including state and territory police departments and the Australian Federal Police, are responsible for the provision of a safe and secure community environment. Roles performed by the police include responding to criminal offences and lifethreatening situations, provision of services to the judicial process, and the enforcement of road safety and traffic management. There were 67,156 operational and nonoperational police in Australia in 2011-12, with an average of 268 operational staff per 100,000 Australians [1]. The public safety sector also includes surf lifesaving, which is responsible for protecting Australia’s public swim centres, beaches and coastlines via patrols, education and training, and the promotion of health and fitness [7]. Surf Lifesaving Australia has over

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Enterprise survey respondent snapshot State/territory coverage

All states and territories Regional distribution*

18% 18%

rural/remote

regional

29% 71%

metropolitan

statewide

6% national

Staff numbers (% of respondents)

1-20 21-50 51-200 201-500 500+

8% 0% 23% 0% 69%

* Some organisations indicated coverage across multiple regions

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Defence The Australian Defence Force (ADF) consists of the Navy, Army, Air Force and members of the Australian Public Service (APS). The primary focus of the ADF is to, ‘protect and advance Australia’s strategic interests by providing military forces and supporting those forces in the defence of Australia and its strategic interests’ [9]. The ADF also played crucial roles in recent natural disaster responses in Australia and overseas, including the Queensland floods, the Victorian bushfires and the recent earthquakes in Japan and New Zealand. The ADF has approximately 58,000 military personnel, with just over 14,000 personnel in both the Navy and Air Force and approximately 30,000 in the Army. In addition, the ADF have over 20,000 reserves (with approximately 16,000 in the Army Reserves) and more than 22,000 civilian personnel [9]. There are over 350 defined career streams within Defence, each with designated patterns of education, training and experience. Many of these careers are directly comparable to careers in other industries. In 2012, the National Skills Standards Council (NSSC) endorsed the Defence Training Package (DEF12) which formally separated the Defence training material from the Public Safety Training Package. As such, the Defence sector has been in a transition phase from the Public Safety Training Package to the Defence Training Package throughout 2012. Within this Environmental Scan, information relevant to the Defence sector will be presented in conjunction with public safety information to reflect this transition period; however, where possible, Defence-specific information has been identified and presented separately to public safety information.


Public sector The public sector is comprised of federal and state/ territory governments, statutory bodies and stateowned corporations. The public sector employs over 1.6 million people according to recent data [5]. Public sector employees play a key role in the development, review and implementation of government policies and provide an array of services for the community. There is a diverse range of occupations within the public sector, spanning areas including education, health, policy, finance, police and emergency services. Traditionally, the public sector employs a higher proportion of women compared to other sectors. Women typically comprise greater than 60% of the public sector workforce in each state and territory, with recent data from Western Australia indicating that this figure is approaching 70% [10]. The public sector also tends to employ a higher number of graduates due to the analytical nature of the work. As discussed in detail within this Environmental Scan, the public sector is facing a number of significant workforce challenges in response to an ageing workforce and continued budgetary constraints. GSA received 76 survey responses from public sector agencies.

Enterprise survey respondent snapshot State/territory coverage

All states and territories Regional distribution*

13% 13%

rural/remote

regional

40% 40%

metropolitan

statewide

33% national

Staff numbers (% of respondents)

1-20 21-50 51-200 201-500 500+

8% 17% 0% 33% 42%

* Some organisations indicated coverage across multiple regions

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Water The water industry in Australia provides a range of critical services including the provision of drinking water, irrigation water and wastewater management. It has recently been estimated that the sector employs in excess of 80,000 staff; however, more accurate numbers have not been reported to date [11]. The water industry includes the major sectors of: >> water sourcing, treatment, supply and distribution >> wastewater collection and treatment, and reuse of stormwater, wastewater and bio-solids >> water quality management, monitoring and measurement [12]. The importance of the water industry to Australia was recently highlighted by a statement from the Water Industry Skills Taskforce (WIST): ‘Arguably the Australian Water Industry is the most significantly important industry in the country, not just in terms of its importance to the GDP but that it is critical to public health outcomes by providing clean and safe drinking water sanitation services to the population of Australia. These interactions are rarely recognised’ [13]. GSA has recently worked with the National Water Commission to develop the National Certification Framework for Operators of Potable Water Treatment Plants. This project was introduced to recognise public expectations for this role to be performed by suitably qualified operators. The expected implementation of this initiative will have a major impact on training requirements within the sector. The water industry has also recently submitted a proposal to the ABS and Statistics New Zealand to revise the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) codes for occupations related to the water industry. This proposal was initiated as the water industry is currently under-represented by the ANZSCO codes, with a lack of codes to reflect the array of occupations that are currently being performed. This considerable proposal aimed to dramatically improve the quality of statistical data collected and will initiate the development of an occupation and competency framework [11]. Preliminary feedback indicates that a small number of new occupations may be considered as part of the current ANZSCO review process. In total, GSA received 58 responses to our three surveys from the water sector.

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Enterprise survey respondent snapshot State/territory coverage

Qld, NSW, Vic, Tas, SA, WA, NT Regional distribution*

26% 56%

rural/remote

regional

24% 15%

metropolitan

statewide

6% national

Staff numbers (% of respondents)**

1-20 21-50 51-200 201-500 500+

3.5% 10% 38% 28% 17%

* Some organisations indicated coverage across multiple regions ** 3.5% of respondents did not disclose the size of their workforce


Current and emerging issues Across the five government and community safety sectors that GSA represent there are a variety of factors that will shape future workforce development needs. A number of these factors are macro-environmental, originating outside the control of the sectors but influencing operations within the sector. There are also a number of cross-sector issues that are affecting all five sectors in some way, and further issues that appear to be confined to one particular sector. Macro-environmental factors Ageing workforce In 2011, 38% of Australian workers were aged 45 years or above and it has been projected that this number will continue to increase [14]. The most recent ABS survey into the retirement intentions of the Australian workforce indicated that 40% of workers aged over 45 who intended to retire did not know when they would retire [15]. Of those that indicated a retirement age, 12% said that they would retire between 45 and 59 years of age, 28% indicated 60-64, 47% said 65-69, with 14% indicating that they would retire at the age of 70 or above. The average age of intended retirement was 62.9 years. The main factors influencing their decisions for retirement were financial security (38% of men and 34% of women), personal health (25% of men and women) and reaching the eligibility age for a pension (11% of men and 9% of women) [15]. Concerns regarding an ageing workforce were raised in survey responses from IAC/JRG members of all government and community safety sectors. In addition, 78% of respondents to the GSA enterprise survey across all sectors indicated that projected retirements would impact and shape workforce capability and skills within their organisation over the next five years. Significant concerns regarding the ageing workforce not only include the possible mass retirement of staff in the coming years, but also the associated loss of corporate knowledge that will eventuate. Cross-sector survey responses indicated that 28% of participating organisations that have experienced retention difficulties in the last 12 months considered retirements to be a major contributing factor. To address this issue,

flexible options for retaining older staff are being implemented, including part-time employment, transition to retirement arrangements and job sharing. Across the five government and community safety sectors that GSA represents, the most common flexible working arrangements being offered were part-time work (90% of respondents), time off in lieu (85%), variable start/ finish times (72%), working from home (64%), flexi-time (57%) and job sharing (56%). Another consideration for the management of the ageing workforce is the attraction and retention of young, skilled workers. The development of succession planning and recruitment strategies for young workers will play an important role in minimising the impact of projected retirements. Feedback from our five industry sectors indicated that 47% of organisations that responded to our survey have used formal succession planning initiatives as part of their workforce planning activities in the past 12 months.

Climate change and environmental issues Climate change and environmental considerations continue to influence the activities of all government and community safety sectors. Stakeholders from all sectors indicated that their organisations were implementing measures to address the impact of their activity on the environment. In the correctional services sector, 100% of survey respondents indicated that they are taking action to address climate change within their organisation, primarily via changes in work practices. A further example of the increased focus on environmental sustainability in the correctional services sector is the green focus of the Southern Queensland Correctional Centre, which

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was designed to include solar heating, lighting control systems, wastewater recycling, rainwater collection, timed air-conditioning and energy efficient lights [16].

"78% of respondents to the GSA enterprise survey across all sectors indicated that projected retirements would impact and shape workforce capability and skills within their organisation over the next five years." Sixty-two per cent of local government respondents indicated that climate change and environmental issues impacted on their organisational activities. Anecdotal feedback also indicated that local governments are playing important roles in waste management and environmental compliance and sustainability within their local areas. Of the councils that are actively responding to climate change and environmental issues, 76% indicated that they have changed their work practices to address the impact of their organisation on the environment. A further 67% indicated that they had initiated training in sustainable practices while 57% indicated that they have adopted new technologies. In addition, respondents from local government indicated that they have performed risk assessments and, in some instances, have created new positions to address climate change and sustainability issues. In the public safety sector, 54% of respondents reported that climate change and environmental issues were influencing work practices. Environmental issues are of particular concern to the public safety sector given the recent major natural disasters and extreme weather events across Australia. Of those who indicated that climate change had influenced their organisation, 100% indicated that this had led to changes in work practices, while 83% indicated that it had resulted in the use of new technologies. Within the public sector, 82% of respondents indicated that they are taking action to address the impact of

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Government Skills Australia

their organisation on the environment. Of these, 67% indicated that their organisation has changed their work practices, whilst 33% indicated that they have adopted new technologies. Examples of initiatives include the use of energy efficient air-conditioning and lighting, and the use of building management systems. One respondent indicated that their organisation has established a ‘green group’ to develop and implement new strategies. Climate change and environmental considerations are having a significant impact on the water sector, with 79% of respondents indicating that their organisation was taking action to address their impact on the environment. Eighty-three per cent of these respondents indicated that they had introduced training in sustainable practices for staff, whilst 78% of organisations had implemented operational changes. A further 74% of organisations reported that they have introduced new technologies within their workplace to reduce their impact on the environment. The increased scarcity of water has placed the onus on the water sector to effectively manage water resources. Water efficiency measures being introduced include desalination plants, dam and river management systems, stormwater harvesting projects, and water recycling. In a broader context, a recent survey of apprentices and trainees in the VET sector indicated that there was an increased focus on green skills in training courses [17]. In addition, the proportion of apprentices and trainees who felt that green skills were practiced in the workplace on a day-to-day basis had increased from 19% in 2008 to 45% in 2011. The most common considerations were avoiding hazardous materials where safer alternatives were available; and waste minimisation, recycling and reuse of materials. These findings highlight the increasing awareness of environmental issues.

Increased adoption of new technologies Feedback from IAC/JRG members indicated that broad emerging technological advances, such as the National Broadband Network (NBN) and the increased use of mobile technologies and tablet computers, will influence operations and service delivery within their sectors into the future. There are also a number of sector-specific technological advances that will influence operations, such as increased automation within the water sector and the use of social media networks. The effective use of social media is highlighted by the Project Eyewatch crime prevention strategy which was developed by the New South Wales Police Force using Facebook [18]. The benefits of social media as a platform for


communication were also highlighted during the Queensland floods, with the Brisbane City Council using Facebook and Twitter to provide trusted information to residents and to respond to questions [19]. The increased use of social media and internet websites can be harnessed by organisations to improve promotion, social interaction and provide a portal for service delivery; however, it was felt by some that the introduction of these technologies may cause a shift in the expectations of the public towards more responsive service provision and round-the-clock access to information. This will raise some new issues for the workforce in order to develop the necessary skills to handle the changes, while additional training in the use of new technologies may be required in many instances. The introduction and implementation of these new technologies and the NBN will play a key role in the streamlining of service provision, developing more user-driven services and reaching organisational efficiency targets. Across the government and community safety sectors, organisations have implemented a number of strategies to improve the adoption and effective use of new technologies, including the identification of staff that require computer literacy training; sending IT staff into the field to offer training and assistance; and using technology to improve knowledge transfer, information sharing and communication within the workforce. A further impact of the recent advances in technology will be felt in the provision of VET training. The National VET E-learning Strategy 2012-2015 will deliver improved e-learning opportunities as a result of the NBN rollout. The strategy aims to develop more e-learning material, support workforce development through innovative training solutions, and increase access and participation in e-learning [20].

VET sector reform The VET sector in Australia is in the process of undergoing significant change. As outlined by the NSSC, it is currently felt that the VET sector needs to focus on ensuring that VET standards and their regulation ensure high quality training that is outcome focussed, nationallyconsistent, streamlined and transparent [21]. It has been suggested that the sector needs to have increased industry engagement, increased productivity and greater integration with the tertiary education sector [21]. Recent changes to VET policy, including the introduction of a national regulator (Australian Skills Quality Authority, ASQA) and changes to reporting requirements, have introduced new challenges. Anecdotal feedback from industry has indicated that the greater reporting and compliance requirements are

seen as a significant challenge and workload burden for RTOs, particularly enterprise-based RTOs. When RTOs that are delivering GSA training packages were asked what barriers they currently faced in delivering training, 40% of respondents listed onerous administration and reporting requirements as a factor. Recently, the Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education (DIISRTE) undertook a regulatory impact assessment for the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Standing Council on Tertiary Education, Skills and Employment (SCOTESE) regarding the costs and benefits of collecting and publishing accredited VET training activity from all RTOs [22]. The collection of VET activity data, including enrolments, completions and student information, assists the government and the public in understanding the scale and capacity of the VET sector in addition to the skills being developed and acquired through VET. Previously, however, not all RTOs were required to submit data, resulting in an incomplete dataset. On 16 November 2012, SCOTESE agreed to the introduction of mandatory reporting across the VET sector as of 1 January 2014. This will allow the government to attain a complete picture of the VET system and be able to adapt and respond to skills shortages and demands; however, there may be additional costs and requirements for RTOs that are currently not reporting this data.

"broad emerging technological advances, such as the National Broadband Network (NBN) and the increased use of mobile technologies and tablet computers, will influence operations and service delivery" In relation to the impact of mandatory VET activity reporting, recent GSA data collection indicated that 41% of responding RTOs felt that mandatory reporting of VET activity would increase the cost of training to clients, due to IT costs and the costs associated with

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data collation and submission. In contrast, 45% of respondents felt that their costs would not increase as they had suitable systems already in place. Fourteen per cent of responding RTOs were unsure whether their costs would increase. In general, GSA data collection regarding mandatory VET activity reporting indicated that larger RTOs were typically already supplying Australian Vocational Education and Training Management Information Statistical Standard (AVETMISS) data and did not see any change in regulation as a burden to their organisation, whilst also acknowledging the benefits of such data collection. In contrast, smaller RTOs and enterprise RTOs felt that mandatory reporting may introduce additional burden, compliance difficulties and costs. In addition, the majority of responding RTOs indicated that the reporting should be kept simple and centralised, and that the information should be used in a manner that would be of noticeable benefit to industry. COAG recently proposed a series of objectives for future VET sector reform that formed the basis of the revised National Agreement for Skills and Workforce Development [23] and the new National Partnership Agreement on Skills Reform [24]. Some of the key areas of reform include: >> introducing a government-subsidised training place to at least the first Certificate III qualification for all working age Australians >> reducing upfront costs for students undertaking higher level qualifications >> developing independent validation of training provider assessments and implementing strategies which enable TAFEs to operate effectively in an environment of greater competition >> increasing access to information about courses, training providers and provider quality via the MySkills website >> supporting an additional 375,000 students over five years to complete their qualifications. Also improving enrolments and completions in highlevel skills and in key groups of disadvantaged students, including Indigenous Australians [25] [26] >> introducing a unique student identifier that will assist students to keep track of their qualifications and training as they up-skill [25]. The recent White Paper, Australia in the Asian Century, also highlighted plans for Australian VET to become more integrated, with the aim to build in-country relationships and develop complementary skills and qualification assessment and recognition [27]. The

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White Paper outlined plans for stronger connections to be developed between ISCs and comparable bodies in other countries in order to develop compatible skills standards and recognition arrangements to increase opportunities for employment across Asia [27]. In addition to the recent and proposed changes outlined above, the current NSSC review of the standards for the regulation of VET and the process of streamlining training packages will have an ongoing impact on industry. Feedback from the NSSC review process has indicated that there are some key areas of focus for the improvement of VET standards, these include: >> attention to high quality training and assessment outcomes, including requirements for skills in delivery and design of training and the use of industryvalidated assessment tools and processes >> encouragement and recognition of excellence in addition to meeting benchmarks for registration >> development of user-friendly standards to ensure clarity for all parties >> collection and publication of relevant RTO data that is easily accessible to employers and learners [28].

"the current NSSC review of the standards for the regulation of VET and the process of streamlining training packages will have an ongoing impact on industry"


Cross-sector issues GSA research and data collection activities have identified a series of common trends and issues across all five government and community safety sectors. These crosssector issues are summarised below. Drive towards more professionalism: up-skilling and multi-skilling Data from the ABS indicated that from 2001-11, the percentage of Australians aged 15-64 with a Certificate I qualification or higher increased from 47% to 57% [29]. This finding reflects anecdotal feedback from industry stakeholders that there is a move towards more professionalism within their sectors and subsequently a need for more training and up-skilling of staff. This up-skilling encompasses staff further developing the specialised skills that are required to perform their roles in addition to general professional skills, such as the use of new technologies. This is needed in order to equip staff with the necessary skills to handle the changing work environment and the drive for increased efficiency. Data from 2011 indicated that 3.2 million Australians were employed in occupations assessed at ANZSCO skill level 1 (commensurate to a Bachelor degree or higher) [14]. There were 2.9 million people employed in occupations assessed at skill levels 2 and 3 (equivalent to Certificate III and above). In further support of the anecdotal feedback that we received from survey respondents, data from the last five years has indicated that the largest levels of employment growth were seen in occupations assessed at skill level 1, with the lowest growth at skill level 5 (equivalent to Certificate I or compulsory secondary education). In 2002, approximately one-half of the workforce had postschool qualifications, a number that has now increased to approximately 63%. It is projected that over the next five years, almost 39% of new jobs will require employees with level 1 skills. A further 27% of new jobs in the next five years will require skill levels 2 or 3. It has also been noted that in some industries, Certificate III qualifications are emerging as the minimum requirement for entry level jobs [25]. Feedback has also indicated that multi-skilling of staff has increased in order to ensure versatility within the workforce to fill short-term gaps. It has been suggested that this should be given careful consideration in order to balance the need for versatility with the cost of multi-

skilling staff. If staff are not using these skills frequently it may not be cost effective to multi-skill and it may cause frustration for these staff members. Multi-skilling may also further increase expenditure for organisations if the additional training results in greater salary expectations and position reclassification.

Balancing service demand with budget cuts: ‘more for less’ Feedback received by GSA from IAC/JRG members representing the five government and community safety sectors indicated that there was an increased drive towards efficiency within organisations. This is needed in order to maintain, or even increase, service demand whilst simultaneously coping with reduced operational budgets. This concept of ‘more for less’ was considered a major concern for the sectors. Anecdotal feedback from within the government and community safety sector has indicated that organisations are currently addressing the issue of needing to produce more for less by: >> increasing their focus on internal planning and review processes to ensure the effective use of available funds and resources >> collaborating across organisations that are facing similar issues >> outsourcing duties where possible and appropriate >> increasing the use of technology where it can lead to improved productivity. A downstream effect of reduced budgets and increased efficiency targets is the impact on training and professional development of staff. Based on feedback from our enterprise survey, 16% of organisations indicated that their training budget decreased in the 2011-12 financial year compared to 2010-11, whilst a further 49% indicated that it remained the same. Forty-six per cent of respondents indicated that they felt that their current training budget was not sufficient to meet their required workforce training needs. In

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many organisations, sending staff to training will also require backfilling of their position, therefore incurring an additional expense. If shifts are not backfilled it may place additional pressure on short-term service provision or, in many instances, prevent training from taking place.

Competition with other sectors Anecdotal feedback from IAC/JRG members indicated that competition with other industries remains a key issue for the attraction and retention of staff. The mining and resources sector is still considered to be a key competitor for skilled and unskilled labour. Fifty-seven per cent of survey respondents from enterprises across all five government and community safety sectors indicated that they have had difficulty recruiting in the last 12 months (Table 1). Of these respondents, 39% indicated that the attractiveness of the resources sector was a factor, while 46% listed the attractiveness of ‘other’ sectors as a factor. Based on responses to our enterprise survey, it appears that most organisations expect this situation to become more pronounced, with 72% of respondents indicating that they anticipated

recruitment difficulties in the next five years. Again, competition with the resources sector (37%) and other sectors in general (54%) are considered to be major factors. In addition, 28% of survey respondents from industry indicated that they had experienced difficulty in retaining employees in the last 12 months. Once again, the attractiveness of the resources sector (35%) or other industries (50%) were major factors. In response to the issue of competition for labour, some common areas of focus to improve attraction and retention across the government and community safety sectors include: >> improved promotion of the sectors to school leavers and across the community to outline employment opportunities and discuss career pathways >> promotion of alternative employment arrangements such as part-time, flexible working arrangements and job sharing >> streamlined recruitment processes >> collaboration towards industry-wide development of attraction and retention strategies [30] [31].

Table 1. The proportion of survey respondents experiencing recruitment and retention issues across the five government and community safety sectors Correctional Local Services Government

Public Safety

Public Sector

Water

Total

Organisations that have had difficulty recruiting in the last 12 months

50%

59%

40%

69%

53%

57%

Organisations that anticipate recruitment challenges in the next five years

100%

74%

40%

85%

73%

72%

Organisations that have experienced difficulty retaining staff in the last 12 months

75%

29%

7%

50%

20%

28%

Results are based on responses to the GSA enterprise survey

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Sector-specific issues In addition to the cross-sector factors mentioned above that are influencing all of the government and community safety sectors, the following emerging trends and issues were identified during our research and data collection as being sector-specific. Where necessary, some of the key cross-sector issues mentioned earlier are also discussed in greater detail in the context of the relevant individual sector. Correctional services GSA data collection identified a number of key trends and factors that are likely to have an impact on the correctional services sector over the next five years. These include:

Balancing service demand with budget cuts: ‘more for less’ As mentioned earlier, in the last 12 months the number of prisoners in full-time custody has increased slightly [2]. In the last five years, the numbers of prisoners in full-time custody and community-based corrections have increased by 11% and 3% respectively [32]. This increase in prisoner numbers is coupled with reports of budget cuts within the sector. Significant restructuring has been reported within organisations in the sector, requiring staff to be up-skilled and multi-skilled. Sixtyseven per cent of respondents to our enterprise survey indicated that economic factors were expected to have an impact on the workforce needs of their organisation over the next five years.

of succession planning, up-skilling, attracting and retaining young employees and maintaining corporate knowledge. Labour shortages were cited by two-thirds of respondents as a potential issue for workforce capability in the coming five years. To further address this issue, some organisations indicated that they are implementing targeted recruitment campaigns.

Cost of training and the impact on service provision Feedback from members of the Correctional Services IAC indicated that there were a number of issues related to staff training. It was felt that recent budget cuts reduced the capacity to fund further training for staff. This finding is reflected in data collection from our enterprise survey which indicated that 25% of respondents experienced cuts to their training budget in the 2011-12 financial year. In addition, there were concerns over the time spent at training and away from short-term service provision in an environment of increasing service demand.

Ageing workforce

Drive towards more professionalism: up-skilling and multi-skilling

Sixty-seven per cent of respondents to our enterprise survey indicated that projected retirements will have an impact on workforce capability and skills over the next five years. Our survey data indicated that staff aged 5059 years comprised 21-30% of the workforce across all participating organisations, with those aged 40-49 making up 21-30% of the workforce for two-thirds of responding organisations. Workers aged 60 years and above accounted for 11-20% of the workforce for one-third of organisations that participated in GSA data collection.

Feedback from Correctional Services IAC members indicated that the drive within the industry towards more professionalism will necessitate the up-skilling of staff. There is also a need to identify emerging leaders within the sector and promote leadership and management training to ensure that suitable staff can follow a career path towards senior roles. This need for up-skilling and additional training is counteracted by reports of reduced training budgets and ineligibility for government funding to support training.

The concerns regarding the ageing workforce in the correctional services sector highlights the importance

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Resistance to change within the sector Among survey respondents from the Correctional Services IAC, there was the suggestion that resistance to change within the sector may prove to be a barrier to realising some of the emerging workforce development needs involving increased professionalism and up-skilling. It was indicated that greater leadership support for cultural change within the sector is needed in order to implement the required workforce development changes. In addition to the issues listed above, two-thirds of survey respondents from correctional services indicated that Work Health and Safety (WHS) legislation will have an impact on their workforce over the coming five years, while a further two-thirds indicated that new technologies will also have a major impact on their workforce and operations.

Attraction, recruitment and retention issues Fifty per cent of respondents to our enterprise survey indicated that they had experienced difficulties in recruiting over the last 12 months. Respondents cited a broad range of reasons for these difficulties; however, all respondents indicated that the image of the sector was a barrier. Furthermore, 100% of respondents indicated that they anticipate recruitment difficulties over the next five years. The reasons for these anticipated difficulties included the image of the correctional services sector (100% of respondents), the attractiveness of other industries (50%) and a lack of suitably skilled workers (50%). Two-thirds of respondents indicated that their organisation currently had a turnover rate of 11-15%. A further 33% indicated that their organisation had a turnover rate below 5%. Seventy-five per cent of respondents indicated that they had experienced difficulties in retaining staff in the past 12 months, a number much higher than the other government and community safety sectors. The most common reason for this retention difficulty was pending retirements within the workforce (67% of respondents).

Skills attainment and professional development All respondents to our enterprise survey indicated that the minimum entry requirement to an operations role within the correctional services sector is a Certificate III qualification. Certificate III was also listed as the minimum entry requirement for administration positions. Respondents indicated that management positions required either a Certificate IV or Diploma for entry, while

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there was a broad range of entry level requirements for executive roles, with respondents indicating that a Certificate IV, Vocational Graduate Certificate or Bachelor degree were required within their organisation. Whilst all respondents indicated that they obtain required skills via recruiting within Australia, 25% of respondents also indicated that they have recruited from overseas or would consider doing so in the future. Other common methods to obtain required skills were to train staff internally (50%) and to implement formal mentoring and coaching (50%). A number of barriers that organisations faced in undertaking training were identified via our surveys. All participating organisations cited that the main barrier to training was the lack of staff to backfill while others attend training. It was also indicated that there was a lack of time to dedicate to training due to current workloads (67%), and that training was too costly (67%).

"the concerns regarding the ageing workforce in the correctional services sector highlights the importance of succession planning" As mentioned earlier, one-quarter of responding organisations indicated that their training budget had decreased in the 2011-12 financial year compared to 2010-11. A further 25% indicated that their training budget had increased, while the remaining 50% indicated that their budget had remained the same. Importantly, only one-half of respondents from the correctional services sector indicated that their current budget was sufficient to meet their training needs. A wide range of professional development initiatives are being supported by organisations within the correctional services sectors (Table 2). All responding organisations offer the following opportunities: induction programs, conference attendance, nonaccredited training, on-the-job and off-the-job training, recognition of prior learning (RPL) processes, and apprenticeships, traineeships and cadetships.


Local government According to GSA survey data, the key trends and factors that are likely to have an impact on the local government sector over the next five years include:

Ageing workforce There is concern across the local government sector regarding the ageing workforce and the impact that impending retirements will have on corporate knowledge. Over 60% of survey respondents from the Local Government IAC listed the ageing workforce and upcoming retirement of baby boomers as a concern for the sector, while 84% of enterprise survey respondents indicated that projected retirements will be an issue over the next five years. As an example, recent data from Queensland indicated that almost 50% of their workforce is over 45 years of age, a number that has increased from 44% in 2007 [33]. To address the issue of projected retirements, respondents from the local government sector indicated that they were implementing a number of initiatives, including succession planning, up-skilling, job sharing, knowledge transfer processes, transition to retirement arrangements, flexible working arrangements, mentoring, youth employment strategies, phased retirements and increased traineeships, apprenticeships, cadetships and work experience placements.

Balancing service demand with budget cuts: ‘more for less’ Feedback from members of the Local Government IAC and recent reports [33] have suggested that there has been a devolution of roles and responsibilities from higher level governments which has increased the demand for services. Recent increases in service demand are also likely to be related to continued population growth. GSA data collection has also indicated that local governments are playing more of a regulatory role and have greater community expectations placed on them in the areas of waste management and environmental compliance. Fifty-five per cent of respondents listed changes in legislation and regulation as a factor that will impact on their organisation over the next five years. Councils are addressing this issue by updating their organisational plans, implementing additional training and ensuring frequent communication of these changes with staff. Forty-one per cent of respondents from local government indicated that economic pressures will impact on their organisation in the next five years. In light of current economic pressures, respondents

to our survey from local government indicated that they are implementing initiatives such as financial reviews, corporate business plans, internal training, organisational reviews and reviews of services. Respondents also indicated that they are attempting to increase the cost effectiveness of training by partnering with nearby councils.

Impact of new technologies Forty-six per cent of local government respondents indicated that new technologies will influence workforce capability and skills needs over the next five years. In order to adapt to the use of new technologies, local government respondents indicated that they have increased staff training and, in some instances, have increased IT budgets and employed dedicated IT support staff.

Labour shortages Based on our enterprise survey, 39% of respondents from local government indicated that labour shortages will be an issue for their council over the next five years. In response to this issue, local governments have attempted to improve retention by developing defined career paths for staff, investing in staff training and multi-skilling, and by offering job rotations and secondments. Local councils have also addressed the issue by increasing the use of labour hire, recruiting from overseas, restructuring, implementing succession planning initiatives and introducing apprenticeship, traineeship and cadetship programs.

Council amalgamations The prospect of local council amalgamations in a number of states is currently causing uncertainty within the sector. Thirty-three per cent of respondents to our enterprise survey indicated that amalgamation is an issue for their organisation. Anecdotal feedback indicated that this is having an impact on commitment to training and upskilling of staff due to uncertainty over whether these staff will remain with their current council. Amalgamations are likely to have long-term effects on council activity, with some Queensland councils recently lodging proposals to the boundaries commissioner for de-amalgamation [34].

Drive towards more professionalism: up-skilling and multi-skilling Feedback from the Local Government IAC indicated that the up-skilling of existing staff is required to equip workers with the skills needed to adapt to the changing roles that they must perform. Up-skilling of staff is also considered to be a key retention strategy for existing employees across the local government sector [33].

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WHS issues Thirty-five per cent of local councils that participated in our enterprise survey indicated that WHS issues will have an impact on their organisation over the next five years. To address the issues arising due to changing WHS legislation, respondents indicated that they are implementing initiatives such as cultural change programs, reviews of policies and procedures, and improvements to hazard identification and reporting systems. Some respondents also indicated that they have increased resourcing for WHS training and compliance activities and, in some instances, have employed dedicated WHS staff. In addition to the issues mentioned above, respondents from the local government sector indicated that the following key focus areas and priorities will impact on skills requirements over the next two to three years: >> asset management and maintenance >> infrastructure >> integrated and strategic planning >> legislative compliance >> population growth >> environmental sustainability and climate change >> leadership development >> customer service >> community engagement >> project management.

Attraction, recruitment and retention issues Fifty-nine per cent of respondents indicated that they had experienced recruitment difficulties over the last 12 months (Table 1). The most common reasons were salary competition (81%), a lack of suitably skilled workers (65%), the attractiveness of other industries (46%), the location of their organisation (44%) and the attractiveness of the resources sector (37%). In addition, 74% of respondents indicated that they anticipate further recruitment challenges over the coming five years. Interestingly, this indicates that organisations feel that recruitment will continue to become more difficult over the next five-year period. The main reasons for these expected recruitment difficulties over the next five years were similar to the above-mentioned reasons, with salary competition (81%), a lack of suitably skilled workers (70%), the attractiveness of other industries (58%), the location of their organisation (39%) and the attractiveness of

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Government Skills Australia

the resources sector (39%) listed as the main reasons once again, in addition to expected labour shortages (39%). These results highlight a general feeling across local government that there is a lack of skilled workers available and that competition with other sectors is having a major impact on recruitment. Anecdotal feedback also indicated that, in a number of regional locations, housing prices and cost of living factors made local government employment unattractive. Turnover rates of 6-10% were reported by 41% of respondents from local government for the 2011-12 financial year. A further 28% of respondents indicated that they had a turnover rate of 11-15%. These findings reflect recent Queensland data that reported a turnover rate of 9.95%, down from 12.63% in 2010 [33]. Twenty-nine per cent of local government respondents indicated that they had experienced retention difficulties in the last 12 months, with the most common reasons being the attractiveness of other industries (50%) and the resources sector (42%), inequitable remuneration (38%), a lack of resources (33%) and staff not feeling valued (33%). In Queensland, the number of councils that recruited overseas applicants doubled in the 12-month period to June 2012 [33], while GSA data collection indicated that 14% of respondents have recruited internationally or would consider doing so in the future. Competition with the resources sector is expected to cause ongoing attraction and retention issues for the local government sector. Recent research by the Local Government Association of Queensland indicated that 80% of councils in Queensland considered the competition of the resource and energy sectors as their key issue [33]. Interestingly, the proportion of responding councils that reported retention difficulties was much higher for rural and remote councils (41%), compared to metropolitan (11%) and regional (27%) councils. This suggests that location is a major factor in the retention difficulty. When councils were asked what they felt were major factors that contributed to their retention difficulties, no metropolitan councils listed location as a factor, while 14% of regional councils and 19% of rural and remote councils listed location as a considerable factor. These retention difficulties in rural and remote councils are also highlighted by the reported turnover rates among survey respondents. No metropolitan councils reported a turnover rate above 15%; however, 13% of regional and 31% of rural and remote councils reported a rate above 15%. Furthermore, 12% of responding councils from rural and remote locations reported a turnover rate above 30%.


Skills attainment and professional development The majority of respondents from local government (57%) indicated that the minimum requirement for entry into an executive level position within their organisation was a Bachelor degree. For management level positions, 47% of respondents indicated that a Bachelor degree was the minimum requirement, while a further 21% indicated a Diploma. Operations roles required Certificate I level qualifications for entry in 42% of responding organisations, with a further 24% requiring Certificate II. For administration positions, there was a relatively even spread amongst responding organisations that require Certificate I (31%), Certificate II (21%) and Certificate III (31%) level qualifications. For the volunteer workforce, it was identified that the entry level requirement for responding organisations was either internal non-accredited training (74%) or no training (21%). For 72% of responding organisations, it was indicated that non-accredited training was the highest level of training attainable for their volunteers. The main drivers for volunteer training were WHS compliance (76%) and organisational policy (68%).

"the proportion of responding councils that reported retention difficulties was much higher for rural and remote councils" A range of methods are being used within the local government sector to obtain required skills, the most common among our respondents were internal training (83%), external training (57%), formal mentoring and coaching of less experienced staff (52%), contracting (39%) and labour hire (38%). Ninety-eight per cent of local government respondents indicated that they have a training budget. Thirty-nine per cent indicated that this budget had increased in 2011-12 compared to 2010-11, while 13% indicated that their training budget had decreased. The remaining 48% indicated no change to their annual training budget. Interestingly, only 50% of respondents indicated that they felt that their training budget was sufficient to meet their required training needs. This further supports feedback from local government that the cost of training

is a major barrier. Some respondents indicated that their training budgets were sufficient to meet legislative compliance training but did not support professional development opportunities for staff. It was felt that the main barriers to training within the sector were the cost of training (58% of respondents), training availability (48%), a lack of time to undertake training due to workload pressure (47%), training budget constraints (44%) and a lack of staff available to backfill (31%). Interestingly, when responding councils were separated based on location, the cost (67%) and availability (67%) of training were listed as barriers more frequently for rural and remote councils compared to metropolitan (38% and 31%) and regional (56% and 37%) councils, highlighting the impact of location on training. Based on GSA data collection it appears that local councils offer a wide range of professional development opportunities to staff (Table 2). The most common activities included induction training (91%); apprenticeships, traineeships and cadetships (91%); conference attendance (89%); on-the-job training (87%); short external courses (81%); financial support for training (80%) and memberships to professional organisations (80%).

Public safety Based on GSA data collection, the following key trends and factors were identified that are likely to have an impact on the public safety sector over the next five years:

Increased scope of duty for workers and volunteers, requiring up-skilling Feedback from the Public Safety IAC has indicated that employees within the sector are increasingly being required to expand their scope of duty, requiring further up-skilling and multi-skilling. Some examples of this include the expansion of firefighter roles into the provision of emergency medical response and the expansion of the role of surf lifesavers from traditional beach activities to disaster response and large-scale search and rescue. Up-skilling and multi-skilling of staff will require additional training that will put further stress on already tightening training budgets while also placing pressure on short-term service provision while the training is being undertaken. The impact of these trends on the volunteer workforce was of particular note. It was indicated that volunteers increasingly needed more skill sets to perform their duties. Survey respondents indicated that the push towards the need for more specialised skills to perform roles placed limitations on the duties that volunteers could perform across an organisation, primarily due to training limitations and time spent away from service provision.

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Drive towards more professionalism within the workforce In addition to the above-mentioned areas where increased scope of duty is driving up-skilling, there is also the push for more professionalism within the sector that is influencing training needs. For example, the Australasian Police Professional Standards Council has recently implemented a practice standards model to develop consistent training standards across jurisdictions [18]. There is also a focus on leadership development within the police force and across the fire and emergency services sector, with many organisations currently working on capability frameworks tied to leadership development.

"the increased frequency of natural disasters and extreme weather events across Australia has contributed to increased service demand" Demand for increased accountability and interoperability amongst agencies Survey responses from a number of Public Safety IAC members indicated that staff within their organisations were required to collaborate with other agencies more frequently now than in the past, primarily in the context of emergency response. Feedback also indicated that there was a perception of more scrutiny being placed on agency performance and a sense of greater accountability. It was suggested that increased media focus and news coverage may be one driver of this trend, while more than 100 disaster-related inquiries have been conducted since 2000, further highlighting the focus on accountability within the sector [35].

Balancing service demand with budget cuts: ‘more for less’ In many areas within the public safety sector the increased frequency of natural disasters and extreme weather events across Australia has contributed to increased service demand. Sixty-two per cent of respondents to our enterprise survey indicated that growth in demand would influence their organisation over the next five years. Increasing populations in risk prone areas are also likely to continue to impact on

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Government Skills Australia

service demand into the future. In spite of the trend towards increased service demand, 69% of survey respondents indicated that economic factors would influence their organisation in the next five years, with some respondents indicating that budget cutbacks may impact on service provision. Further financial strain on public safety organisations stems from their inability to access many external funding programs for training due to current eligibility criteria. This issue affects both paid and volunteer personnel. In the Defence sector, the Strategic Reform Program has been initiated with the aim of delivering over $20 billion in cost reductions between 2009 and 2019 as part of the Force 2030 plan [36] [37]. Further savings are also being targeted through a reform of shared services, expected to reduce public service job growth by 1,000 positions over three years [36]. The Strategic Reform Program focussed on the three key themes of improved accountability, improved planning and enhanced productivity [38]. The cost savings associated with workforce reform initiatives up until 2019 will total approximately $3.3 billion [38]. These reforms include civilianising military support positions; converting contract positions to less expensive APS positions; and developing a streamlined business model [38].

Adhering to RTO compliance requirements Feedback from IAC members indicated that the introduction of new RTO compliance requirements was placing greater demands on enterprise RTOs within the sector. This was reflected by respondents to our RTO survey that were delivering the Public Safety Training Package, 65% of whom indicated that onerous compliance requirements were considered to be a barrier to delivery. Time spent meeting these requirements was seen to take resources away from service provision, placing extra strain on organisations with already limited resources.

Impact of new technologies The impact of new technologies was recognised by 77% of respondents as having the potential to impact on workforce capability and skills needs within their organisation. To address this issue, organisations are investigating ways to maximise the use of new technologies to meet operational needs and assessing training needs within their organisation.


Ageing workforce In relation to the public safety sector, issues with the ageing workforce were noted for both the paid and volunteer workforce and it was indicated that improved recruitment and retention strategies were required. It was also raised that the ageing operational workforce may seek more desk-based roles within their organisations. Feedback from our enterprise survey indicated that 46% of public safety respondents felt that the ageing workforce and the likelihood of future retirements would have an impact within their organisation. In response to the issue of the ageing workforce, public safety organisations indicated that they have commenced succession planning, transition to retirement arrangements, workforce forecasting and have implemented recruitment strategies.

Focus on WHS The majority of survey respondents from the Public Safety IAC indicated that recent national WHS harmonisation legislation has had an impact on the sector, influencing how organisations manage WHS and risk management policies and procedures. In addition, 54% of respondents to our enterprise survey indicated WHS issues were impacting their organisation. To address these WHS issues, organisations were establishing new processes and procedures and reviewing their training needs to ensure compliance. Furthermore, 54% of public safety respondents indicated that general changes in legislation and regulation will influence their workforce capability over the next five years. Respondents indicated that these changes will have an impact on their strategic planning and policy review processes and that they will direct future training needs.

Attraction, recruitment and retention issues Across the public safety organisations that responded to our enterprise survey, 40% indicated that they had experienced recruitment difficulties over the past 12 months (Table 1). The most cited reasons for these difficulties were the attractiveness of other industries (40%), the attractiveness of the resources sector in particular (40%) and labour shortages (40%). Similarly, 40% of respondents anticipated further recruitment challenges over the coming five years. The main reasons for these expected difficulties were salary competition (50%), labour shortages (50%), the attractiveness of other industries (33%) and the attractiveness of the resources sector in particular (33%). Interestingly, a smaller proportion

of survey respondents from the public safety sector reported recruitment difficulties compared to the other government and community safety sectors. Retention difficulties were only reported by 7% of responding organisations, a rate much lower than the other government and community safety sectors. Turnover rates below 5% were reported by 50% of organisations, with a further 25% reporting a rate of 6-10%. Again, these rates were lower compared to the other sectors. When public safety data was broken down into individual sectors, 50% of police respondents reported a turnover rate below 5%, as did 50% of respondents from the fire and rescue area. Eighty per cent of respondents from emergency services organisations reported a turnover rate of less than 5%. Recruitment and retention of volunteers was raised as a concern by Public Safety IAC members in their survey responses. The most common age group for volunteers was 40 to 49 years; however, one-half of respondents indicated that workers aged 50-59 years accounted for 11-20% of their volunteer workforce, with 40% of respondents indicating that a further 11-20% of their workforce was comprised of volunteers aged above 60. This indicated that the ageing volunteer workforce may be a concern for future retention.

Defence The ADF consider attraction, recruitment and retention of skilled employees as a major priority for 2012-13 [9]. It has been reported previously that the main reasons for leaving the ADF include location instability, impact on families, long separations, a lack of employment for spouses in remote locations, job dissatisfaction and the perception of career development limitations [37]. It was recently reported that competition from the mining sector was having an impact on retention within the Defence forces [39]. It was reported that 10-15% of those leaving the industry indicated that they were pursuing employment in the mining sector. Occupations such as electricians and engineers were listed as specific jobs that were affected by mining sector competition. Attraction and retention of women has also been identified as an issue in some areas of the ADF, with women comprising less than 10% of the Army as of 30 June 2011 [40].

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Skills attainment and professional development The entry level qualification requirements for an operational role varied widely among public safety survey respondents, spanning Certificate I (9%), Certificate II (36%), Certificate III (9%), Certificate IV (27%) and Diploma (18%). For entry into a police operations role, the minimum entry requirement is a Diploma, whilst for a fire operations role, a Certificate II qualification is required. Administration roles required either a Certificate I (33%), Certificate II (33%), Certificate III (17%) or a Certificate IV (17%). Entry level requirements for managers included Certificate IV (20%), Diploma (60%) or Advanced Diploma (20%), while, for executive level positions, the entry level requirement was a Certificate IV (17%), Diploma (17%), Advanced Diploma (33%) or higher level degree (33%). For the volunteer workforce, the entry level requirements were internal non-accredited training (42%), units of competency (17%) or no training (25%). For one-third of responding organisations, it was indicated that non-accredited training was the highest level of training attainable for their volunteers, while 42% indicated that Certificate III qualifications were achievable for volunteers. Ninety-three per cent of respondents from the public safety sector indicated that they obtained required skills by internal training, with a majority of agencies delivering training through their enterprise RTO. Further methods used to obtain required skills included external training (29%), group training (21%) and formal mentoring and coaching (21%). A further 21% of respondents indicated that they have recruited internationally or that they plan to do so in the future. Among public safety respondents, 21% indicated that their training budget decreased in the 201112 financial year compared to 2010-11. Thirty-six per cent indicated that their training budget had increased, while a further 43% indicated no change. Importantly, 57% of respondents indicated that they felt that their training budget was insufficient to meet their current training needs. When asked to consider the main barriers to undertaking training within their organisation, respondents cited cost (50%) and a lack of time to attend training due to workloads (50%) as the major reasons. Other common barriers identified were a lack of staff available to backfill (43%), an insufficient training budget (43%) and a lack of available training (36%). Public safety respondents indicated that their organisations offered a wide range of professional development opportunities for their staff (Table 2). The

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most common included induction training (100%), conference attendance (93%), accredited vocational training (93%), financial support for training (86%), informal learning (86%), RPL processes (86%), nonaccredited training (86%) and internal short training courses (86%).

Public sector GSA survey responses identified the following key trends and factors that are likely to have an impact on the public sector over the next five years:

Outsourcing of lower level jobs Feedback from members of the Public Sector JRG and other key stakeholders indicated that the use of contractors and labour hire was increasing. The use of labour hire and contractors is typically seen as a means to reduce expenditure associated with job entitlements and to ensure a more flexible workforce; however, a report by the Community and Public Sector Union has indicated that the use of labour hire may increase recruitment costs due to high staff turnover and it may sometimes involve payment of a commission to a labour hire company [41]. Other issues associated with the use of labour hire include a loss of corporate knowledge, a lack of continuity, less accountability and the potential for issues with the security of information.

"the need to provide more for less is a key focus for the public sector in light of recent budget cuts and efficiency targets in most states and territories" Balancing service demand with budget cuts: ‘more for less’ The need to provide more for less is a key focus for the public sector in light of recent budget cuts and efficiency targets in most states and territories. Sixty per cent of respondents to our enterprise survey from the public sector indicated that economic factors will influence workforce capability within their


organisation over the next five years. A further 50% indicated that redundancies will have an impact on their organisation, while 30% indicated that labour shortages will be an issue. Respondents indicated that these changes will trigger the need for structural reviews within their organisation and increase the need for workforce planning.

Ageing workforce The ageing workforce is a particular concern for the public sector. Eighty per cent of respondents to our enterprise survey indicated that projected retirements are an issue for their organisation. Recent data regarding public sector workforce age profiles are presented below:

In the current environment, public sector workers will be required to be more efficient and agencies will be required to continue to increase service provision with less staffing and resources. A summary of recent budget initiatives include:

>> Australian Public Service - 14.8% of the workforce were aged 55 or over [48]

>> Victoria - $1.9 billion in efficiency measures, including a reduction of 3,600 public servants across 2012 and 2013 [30]

>> New South Wales - 22.1% of the workforce were aged 55 years or over [49]

>> South Australia - a target for the reduction of 3,893 full-time equivalent (FTE) positions between 2012 and 2016 [42]

>> Tasmania - 23.8% of workers were aged 55 years or over [51]

>> Western Australia - a cap on FTE growth and a 2% government efficiency dividend for 2012-13 [43] >> New South Wales - a labour force cap targeting a reduction of 10,000 jobs over four years and continuing the drive towards 5,000 voluntary redundancies [44] >> Queensland - an aim to reduce the workforce by approximately 14,000 FTE positions as a result of fiscal repair measures [45] >> Tasmania - a target for a reduction in public sector jobs by 1,098 FTE in 2011-12 [46] >> Northern Territory - $72 million in operational savings for 2012-13 [47]. In light of these budgetary constraints, a challenge faced by organisations will be to continue to focus on workforce planning while maintaining service delivery standards and increasing service provision.

Drive towards more professionalism: up-skilling and multi-skilling In order for public sector agencies to continue to become more efficient, staff will be required to increase their levels of professionalism and training, and in many instances, become multi-skilled. Specialised skills will be required in addition to generic skills such as leadership and the use of new technologies. Furthermore, there is a need to develop competency frameworks for specialist occupations within a number of public sector organisations to ensure that workforce development initiatives are successfully implemented.

>> Victoria - 33% of the workforce were above 50 years of age [30]

>> Queensland - 20.1% were aged over 55 [50]

>> Australian Capital Territory - 43% of the workforce were aged 47 or over [52] >> South Australia - 22.9% of the workforce were aged 55 years and over [53] >> Western Australia - 23.1% of the workforce were aged 55 and over [10] >> Northern Territory - approximately 16-17% of women and 18-20% of men were aged 55 or over [54]. In response to the issue of the ageing public sector workforce, succession planning and strategies to maintain corporate knowledge are important focus areas. Respondents to our enterprise survey from the public sector indicated that succession planning; leadership development; handover procedures; information sharing forums; and mentoring and coaching programs were currently being used to address the issue of retirements.

Changes in legislation and regulation Eighty per cent of responding public sector agencies indicated that changes in legislation and regulation will impact on workforce capability over the coming five years. It was suggested that additional training would need to be performed to inform staff of relevant changes and to ensure compliance.

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1 LATEST INDUSTRY INTELLIGENCE

Impact of new technologies The introduction of new technologies was cited by 60% of respondents as a factor that will impact on workforce capability over the next five years. In-house training to up-skill and re-skill were identified as the key initiatives needed to adapt to these new technologies with business models also being reviewed. Respondents from the public sector also indicated that the following focus areas and priorities will impact on skills requirements over the next two to three years: >> environmental sustainability >> government reform >> improved customer service focus.

Attraction, recruitment and retention issues Sixty-nine per cent of respondents from the public sector indicated that they had experienced recruitment difficulties over the past year (Table 1). This was considerably higher than other government and community safety sectors. The most cited reasons were salary competition (88%), a lack of suitably skilled workers (75%), the attractiveness of other industries (63%), labour shortages (50%), and the attractiveness of the resources sector (38%). Interestingly, 85% of respondents felt that they would experience further recruitment challenges over the next five years, indicating an expectation that the current situation will continue to worsen. The main reasons for these anticipated recruitment difficulties included salary competition (78%), the attractiveness of other industries (56%), a lack of suitably skilled workers (56%), government policies (33%) and labour shortages (33%). Respondents from the public sector reported a range of turnover rates within their organisations. Forty-two per cent of respondents indicated a turnover rate of 1620%, while one-quarter of respondents reported a rate of 6-10%. Interestingly, despite concerns regarding the ageing workforce in the public sector, recent Victorian data indicated that separation rates for Victorian public sector employees in 2010-11 were greater in the 15-24 (12.6%) and 25-34 (12.5%) year age groups, compared to 55 years and above (10.2%) [30]. A recent Victorian survey conducted by the State Services Authority indicated that the Global Financial Crisis significantly delayed the retirement plans of approximately 40% of respondents. Anecdotal feedback from GSA survey respondents has also suggested that favourable superannuation benefits for older workers, employed prior to the more recent

28

Government Skills Australia

changes in superannuation packages, may also be enticing mature-aged workers to remain employed in the public sector in order to receive an additional benefit upon retirement. This is not seen in younger employees who are members of the now standard nine per cent superannuation schemes. It is therefore thought that these younger employees do not have the same disincentive to change employers. These comments are supported by the findings of the State Services Authority [30]. Some GSA survey respondents felt that this arrangement may prevent the development of younger employees. It appears that there is a fine line between maintaining the corporate knowledge and experience associated with mature-aged workers and providing young employees with the opportunity to develop skills. This highlights the importance of workforce planning. GSA data collection indicated that one-half of public sector respondents had experienced retention difficulties over the previous 12 months. The reasons for these difficulties were variable, with a number of factors cited; however, 33% of respondents indicated that the following factors all contributed to the issue: staff not feeling valued; a lack of training and development opportunities; under-utilisation of their skills; a lack of a career pathway; sub-standard facilities or systems; the lack of tenure; and the attractiveness of other industries. Importantly, the inability to retain staff not only impacts on corporate knowledge and workforce planning activities, but also on recruitment and training costs. Previous reports have suggested that the cost of hiring a worker is in the vicinity of $20,000 per employee [55], or 20-25% of their first year salary [10], with other reports citing up to 30% of the employee’s first year salary [55].

Skills attainment and professional development GSA data collection indicated that among respondents, the entry level training requirements for operations roles within the public sector were typically Certificate IV (80%), with some indicating Certificate III qualifications were required (20%). Forty per cent of respondents indicated that Certificate III qualifications were the entry level requirement for administration positions, with a further 20% of respondents each indicating that either a Certificate I or II qualification was required. Management level positions required either a Certificate IV (40%) or Bachelor degree (60%) amongst respondents, while for executive positions, again Certificate IV (20%) or a Bachelor degree (80%) were indicated as the entry level requirement.


The most common method used to obtain the required skills for the workforce was to conduct internal training, with 82% of respondents indicating that this approach was used. Thirty-six per cent indicated that they would send staff to external training to meet skill needs, while a further 36% indicated that they would use mentoring and coaching to increase skills within their workforce. Nine per cent of respondents indicated that they have recruited internationally or plan to do so in the future. Training budgets appeared to be an issue among public sector respondents, with no respondents reporting an increased training budget for 2011-12 compared to 2010-11. Sixty per cent of respondents indicated that their training budgets had remained the same while 40% reported a reduced training budget for 2011-12 compared to 2010-11. To further compound this issue, 60% of respondents reported that their current training budget does not adequately cover their desired training needs. As indicated by other sectors, it was suggested that training budgets rarely extend to professional development and typically covered basic compliance requirements. It was also indicated that cutbacks on non-essential travel were impacting on face-to-face training opportunities. Public sector agencies are often ineligible for government funding programs for training which further compounds the issues associated with training budgets. Across the participating public sector organisations, a wide range of professional development opportunities are still being offered to staff (Table 2). The most common included: conference attendance (83%), induction training (75%), internal training (75%), the provision of financial support for training (67%), graduate programs (67%), paid study leave (67%), and non-accredited training (67%). A broad range of barriers to training were cited amongst respondents from the public sector. The most common barriers identified were a lack of time to attend training due to workload (82%), limited training budget (64%), a lack of staff available to backfill (45%), the cost (36%) and availability (36%) of training, and that training was being considered as a lower organisational priority (36%).

Water GSA data collection identified the following trends and factors that are likely to have an impact on the water sector over the next five years:

Increased service demand: ‘more for less’ Feedback from IAC members indicated that the service demands of the water industry are moving towards an increased focus on environmental and health regulations. It was also highlighted that a greater focus on customer service was emerging and that customer expectations were increasing. Respondents from the water sector expected that service demand will continue to increase in accordance with population growth and water scarcity. These factors will drive a need for greater workforce productivity and efficiency.

Drive towards more professionalism: up-skilling and multi-skilling This move towards more efficiency and meeting increasing consumer expectations will require the industry to become more professional and will drive the need for up-skilling of the workforce. One specific focus area for up-skilling relates to the proposed requirement for the certification of drinking water operators. The possible implementation of this requirement, and other changes in legislation and regulation, were mentioned by a number of survey respondents, with 72% indicating that potential changes to legislation and regulation will have an impact on their organisation over the coming five years.

Ageing workforce Eighty-five per cent of responding Water IAC members listed the ageing workforce and upcoming retirements as an issue for the sector. Furthermore, 72% of respondents to our enterprise survey indicated that projected retirements will have an impact on workforce capability within their organisation over the coming five years. Further support for this data comes from recent studies into the water industry workforce in NSW regions, with 56% of staff in the New England region and in the Mid and North Coast regions of NSW aged 45 years and over [56] [57]. The issue of labour shortages was also raised by 38% of respondents to our enterprise survey.

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1 LATEST INDUSTRY INTELLIGENCE

Many respondents highlighted the importance of succession planning and the attraction of new employees to the sector as key workforce needs. In response to the issue of projected retirements, a number of respondents indicated that they had implemented strategies to address the issue, these included: >> the creation of transition to retirement roles >> formal and informal knowledge capture and skills transfer processes >> the return of retired workers on a casual basis >> formal mentoring programs >> succession planning >> retirement intention surveys to assist with planning >> part-time working opportunities >> graduate and trainee programs.

Impact of new technologies Sixty-two per cent of enterprise survey respondents indicated that new technologies will impact their organisation over the coming five years with more complex technologies now being used within the sector. Respondents indicated that additional training and education will be offered to assist staff in adapting to new technologies, including sending IT staff into the field to provide hands-on assistance. It was also suggested that pilot groups were being used during the adoption process, while some organisations were developing new IT strategies to adapt to the changing environment.

Focus on WHS Thirty-four per cent of respondents indicated that changes to WHS legislation will have an impact on their organisation. It was suggested that additional training and awareness sessions and reviews of operational strategies will be undertaken to address these changes. In addition to the issues mentioned above, respondents from the water sector indicated that the following focus areas and priorities will have an impact on skills requirements over the next two to three years: >> infrastructure >> customer service focus >> commercial development >> community engagement >> leadership development.

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Government Skills Australia

Attraction, recruitment and retention issues When asked about recruitment difficulties, 53% of respondents from the water sector indicated that they had experienced recruitment difficulties within their organisation over the previous 12 months (Table 1). The most cited reasons for these difficulties were salary competition (100% of respondents), a lack of suitably skilled workers (63%), location (56%), the attractiveness of the resources sector (44%) and the attractiveness of other industries (38%). In addition, 73% of respondents felt that they would experience recruitment difficulties over the next five years, citing similar reasons to those mentioned above, including salary competition (81%), a lack of suitably skilled workers (62%), location (48%), the attractiveness of other industries (48%) and the attractiveness of the resources sector (38%). Interestingly, 100% of organisations that were from rural or remote locations indicated that they anticipate future recruitment difficulties, a higher proportion compared to metropolitan and regional organisations. Sixty-three per cent of these rural and remote organisations listed the location of their organisation as a major contributing factor to their anticipated recruitment difficulties. The majority of respondents (53%) indicated that the turnover rate within their organisation was between 6% and 10%. This figure is in agreement with that reported in the Australian Water Association’s (AWA) National Water Skills Audit [58]. Twenty-seven per cent of respondents reported a turnover rate below 5%, with the remainder reporting a rate of 11-15%. Only 20% of respondents indicated that they had experienced retention difficulties within the last 12 months. A range of reasons for these difficulties were cited, with the attractiveness of other industries (83%) the most common. Other reasons included the attractiveness of the resources sector (67%), inequitable remuneration (50%), staff not feeling valued (33%), a lack of training opportunities (33%), a lack of direction (33%), a lack of clear career pathways (33%) and pending retirements (33%). The two-speed economy has had a pronounced effect on the water sector. Reportedly, larger metropolitan water utilities across most parts of Australia do not appear to have major issues with attracting applicants; however, regional areas currently experience significant recruitment problems [13]. Data provided by WIST indicated that large metropolitan-based enterprises experienced turnover rates of 6-8%; however, in some regional areas, 30% staff turnover has been reported [13]. The mining boom and associated wage pressures have been reported as the key driver of these


observations. GSA data collection did not identify a clear trend towards higher turnover rates in rural or remote locations; however, a higher percentage (22%) of respondents from regional or rural/remote locations indicated that their organisation had experienced retention difficulties compared to metropolitan organisations (0%).

Skills attainment and professional development Among respondents from the water industry, the minimum entry level qualification for an operations role was typically a Certificate II (40%) or Certificate III (44%). For administration roles, the minimum qualification was either Certificate I (14%), Certificate II (19%), Certificate III (57%) or Certificate IV (10%). The most common entry level requirements for management positions were a Diploma (21%) or Bachelor degree (54%), while for executive level positions, the most common requirements were either a Bachelor degree (63%) or a postgraduate degree (29%). In order to obtain the required skills, 83% conduct internal training while 60% reported that they use external training. A further 47% suggested that they contract work out, while 37% implement formal mentoring and coaching programs to up-skill staff. Twenty per cent of respondents indicated that they have recruited internationally or that they plan to do so in the future.

As was the case for other sectors, organisations within the water sector offer a wide array of professional development opportunities to staff (Table 2). Some of the most common activities were induction training (97%), external short training courses (93%), conference attendance (90%), on-the-job training (90%), financial support for training (86%) and apprenticeships, traineeships and cadetships (86%). The most common barriers to training among participating water organisations included a lack of time to attend training due to workload (43%), availability of training (43%), cost (39%) and the lack of available funding (29%). Interestingly, 25% of respondents felt that there were no barriers to training. This number is considerably higher than other sectors. These results support the findings of the National Water Skills Audit that cited the availability of training (due to location) and the cost of training as major barriers [58]. The impact of location on training delivery was highlighted by our finding that 63% of respondents from rural or remote locations listed ‘availability of training’ as a major barrier compared to 33% of metropolitan and 39% of regional respondents.

"the service demands of the water industry are moving towards an increased focus on environmental and health regulations" In regard to training budgets, 48% of respondents from the water sector indicated that their training budget had not changed in 2011-12 compared to 2010-11, with 14% indicating a decrease. The remainder indicated that their training budgets had increased in the previous 12 months. Seventy-nine per cent of respondents felt that their training budget was adequate to meet their needs. This was the highest level across all sectors. Some respondents indicated that the training budget covered legislative compliance but did not extend to professional development opportunities for staff.

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1 LATEST INDUSTRY INTELLIGENCE

Figure 1. The most common barriers to undertaking training across all five government and community safety sectors, as indicated by respondents to the GSA enterprise survey.

Figure 2. The main factors that will impact and shape workforce capability and skills over the next five years across all five government and community safety sectors, as indicated by respondents to the GSA enterprise survey. 78%

50% No time for training due to workload

Projected retirements 43%

52% Cost of training

Economic factors 36%

45% Availability of training

WHS issues 24%

13% Training not considered relevant

Growth in demand

16%

4%

Not aware of training opportunities

Reduction in demand 8%

32% Staff not available to backfill

Re-deployment 12%

18% Training needs not yet identified

Redundancies 60%

13% No coordinated approach to training

Legislation/Regulation 54%

42% Limited training budget/funding

Impact of new technologies 26%

4% Not meeting organisational needs

Amalgamation 10%

7% Considered a poor return on investment 16% Staff are reluctant to undertake training

Climate change 4% Alternative energies 38%

5% Training is a low priority 15%

Labour shortages 2%

No barriers

Privatisation

Percentage of respondents

Percentage of respondents

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Government Skills Australia


Table 2. Professional development initiatives supported by organisations across the five government and community safety sectors Correctional Services

Local Government

Public Safety

Public Sector

Water

% of organisations offering the initiative Induction training

100

91

100

75

97

Financial support for training

75

80

86

67

86

Graduate program

50

28

57

67

62

Paid study leave

75

73

64

67

79

Reward & recognition systems

50

32

43

33

62

Workplace mentoring

75

54

79

42

59

Professional memberships

50

80

57

58

76

Conference attendance

100

89

93

83

90

Subscriptions to journals & publications

75

59

64

50

66

Informal learning

50

64

86

42

62

Recognition of prior learning processes

100

44

86

25

66

Accredited vocational training

75

69

93

25

79

Non-accredited training

100

65

86

67

76

Licensing or regulatory training

50

69

64

8

79

Apprenticeship, traineeship or cadetship

100

91

36

42

86

Short course (internal)

75

62

86

75

62

Short course (external)

75

81

71

50

93

University studies

75

75

79

58

76

On the job training

100

87

79

50

90

Off the job training

100

48

50

33

45

Results are based on responses to the GSA enterprise survey

Table 3. Training budget information across the five government and community safety sectors Correctional Services

Local Government

Public Safety

Public Sector

Water

Has your 2011-12 training budget increased compared to 2010-11? (% of respondents) Increased

25

39

36

0

38

Decreased

25

13

21

40

14

Remained the same

50

48

43

60

48

Is your training budget sufficient to meet your training needs? (% of respondents) Yes

50

50

43

40

79

No

50

50

57

60

21

Results are based on responses to the GSA enterprise survey

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IDENTIFIED WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT NEEDS

Government Skills Australia


Challenges, skill gaps and opportunities As indicated earlier, the five government and community safety sectors are currently faced with a number of workforce development challenges, many of which are common across all five sectors. These challenges include the ageing workforce, competition from other sectors and the need for up-skilling of staff. Whilst working towards addressing these challenges, organisations are also focussing on changing work practices as a result of environmental considerations, emerging technologies, funding cuts and efficiency targets. Below is a summary of current and emerging skills gaps for each sector and an overview of current and proposed strategies to improve skill levels and address skills shortages. Correctional services Current and emerging skill gaps Respondents indicated that they have experienced particular difficulty in retaining and recruiting correctional officers over the last 12 months, with one respondent highlighting Aboriginal and regional correctional officer recruitment as a particular issue. This trend is expected to continue, with respondents also indicating that they anticipate recruitment challenges for correctional officers over the coming five-year period. The 2012 Environmental Scan also identified labour demand in the areas of senior management and psychologists. Whilst there was insufficient data to conclusively indicate that this trend is continuing, these areas were again recognised by some respondents.

In addition to the skills shortages identified by our enterprise survey, IAC members also suggested that skills in the following areas were becoming increasingly required: >> dealing with an ageing prisoner population >> mental health issues >> community-based monitoring. Fifty per cent of respondents from the correctional services sector indicated that they encountered language, literacy and numeracy (LLN) gaps within their organisation. It was commented that this was sometimes observed in new custodial recruits.

Strategies to address skill shortages and boost skill levels Respondents from the correctional services sector indicated that the most common workforce planning activities being performed were workforce forecasting (75% of respondents), career development and succession planning (75%), and training needs analyses (75%). A further 50% indicated that they had formal planning and development strategies integrated with their business plan.

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2 IDENTIFIED WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT NEEDS

An increase in e-learning options for correctional services training delivery is seen as a strategy to improve the availability and quality of training. The use of online learning options may reduce the time away from frontline services. Implementation of more online learning options will need to take into account considerations of computer access and security; training design; allocation of time to complete training; and support and recognition for its use [59].

"an increase in e-learning options for correctional services training delivery is seen as a strategy to improve the availability and quality of training" GSA survey feedback indicated that the lack of staff access to computers during work hours was seen as a major barrier to the implementation of e-learning within the sector. Recent survey data from Corrective Services NSW indicated that the majority of respondents had little to no experience with the use of e-learning tools; however, of those that had used the currently available e-learning tools, 94.5% of respondents indicated that they found the materials useful, 72% indicated that they were easy to access, and 92% indicated that they would use more of these materials if they were available [59].

Local government Current and emerging skill gaps Roles that organisations have experienced difficulty in recruiting for in the last 12 months include: >> environmental health officers >> engineers >> finance and accounting staff >> tradespeople, including plumbers, mechanics and electricians >> building surveyors >> IT specialists >> planners.

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Government Skills Australia

In addition to the above list, identified via the GSA enterprise survey, other recent reports have identified shortages in the following occupations: plant operators, civil works foremen, managers and childcare staff [33] [60]. The 2011-12 Skills Shortage List indicated shortages for surveyors, engineers, plumbers and electricians, which aligns with GSA data collection [61]. Roles that GSA survey respondents anticipate recruitment difficulties for over the coming five years include: >> environmental health officers >> engineers >> finance and accounting staff >> tradespeople >> building surveyors >> IT specialists >> planners >> managers. In addition to the roles listed above, the Local Government Association of Queensland also recently identified that plant operators, project managers, HR personnel, asset managers, records management personnel and WHS personnel were likely to experience increased demand up until 2015 [33]. Survey respondents from local government indicated that they had experienced retention difficulties with a number of the above-mentioned roles, particularly engineers, planners, surveyors, environmental health officers, accountants and tradespeople. Outdoor workers, customer service staff and plant operators were also listed. Within the local government sector, 47% of survey respondents indicated that there were LLN issues within their organisation. Respondents expanded on this to indicate that the issues were primarily observed amongst the outdoor workforce. This feedback is supported by data from the Local Government Association of Queensland which indicated that there are approximately 1,000 workers (2.5% of the local government workforce in Queensland) with LLN issues [33]. Outdoor workers comprised approximately twothirds of this number. Feedback has indicated that these gaps in knowledge may have an impact on workplace communication, capacity to understand written instructions and efficiency in the use of new technologies to complete work-related duties.


Strategies to address skill shortages and boost skill levels GSA data collection indicated that a wide range of workforce planning initiatives have been undertaken within local councils across Australia. Fifty-one per cent of responding councils have a formal planning and development strategy that is integrated with their organisational business plan, whilst 71% have performed a training needs analysis. Other common workforce planning activities included career development and succession planning (45%), workforce forecasting (44%) and reviews of job design (44%). A recent report by the Australian Centre of Excellence for Local Government (ACELG) highlighted the key challenges for workforce planning in local government moving forward, these included: >> further high level support and commitment >> the need to collect detailed and complete data >> long-term mentoring and support for the integration of workforce planning into broader planning processes [60]. To address the need for improved data collection, ACELG have implemented the collection of National Minimum Data Sets (NMDS), now called the Australian Local Government Workforce and Employment Census. The aim of this initiative is to provide nationally-consistent data on local governments and to provide information that will be useful for workforce development strategies [62]. To further address skills shortages, a number of other local government organisations have outlined potential attraction and retention strategies, including: >> improved promotion and awareness of local government as an employer of choice >> strategies to recruit and train young workers, including work experience, cadetships, scholarships and collaborations with local schools and higher education providers >> innovative recruitment strategies involving social media >> transition arrangements for older workers >> up-skilling existing employees >> flexible working arrangements, including working from home and providing leave to fulfil community responsibilities such as volunteering >> job redesign >> mentoring programs

>> collaboration with other councils to provide greater career progression opportunities (e.g. via secondments) [33] [60]. These strategies support GSA data collection which indicated that a range of initiatives were being implemented within the local government sector including succession planning, up-skilling, knowledge transfer processes, transition to retirement arrangements, flexible working arrangements, mentoring, youth employment strategies, phased retirements and increased apprenticeships, traineeships and cadetships. Recent NSW local government data indicated that among their survey respondents, only 1.5% of staff were currently undertaking an apprenticeship [63]. This figure included 1.1% in metropolitan councils and 2% in regional councils. Numbers were slightly higher in smaller councils, with a 2.5% apprenticeship rate in councils of less than 200 employees. This number decreased to 1.1% in councils with 200-500 employees, with a figure of 1.5% for councils with over 500 employees.

"within the local government sector, 47% of survey respondents indicated that there were LLN issues within their organisation" Distance learning and e-learning options have the potential to be of benefit to local councils, particularly those that are geographically isolated. The opportunity for distance learning and e-learning to have an increased role in local government training is highlighted by a recent ACELG report, which indicated that one-half of the 900 respondents to their survey reported that they used e-learning, with almost two-thirds of those rating their experience as ‘good’ or ‘very good’ [64]. In local government, e-learning has the potential to offer greater availability and flexibility to councils; however, the report noted that there are a number of difficulties still associated with e-learning including the initial cost to develop resources, set up the necessary systems and acquire the necessary skills. Issues for the learner also include a lack of face-to-face interaction and a perception that e-learning is often too theoretical, not challenging enough and often not relevant to job roles [64].

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2 IDENTIFIED WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT NEEDS

Public safety Current and emerging skill gaps Limited responses were received from the public safety sector regarding roles that they have experienced difficulty in recruiting for in the last 12 months; however, roles that were mentioned included: >> volunteer and auxiliary firefighters >> business analysts >> police recruits in some states >> customer service operators >> clinical psychologists >> rotary-wing pilots >> RTO compliance officers. Respondents indicated that they anticipated recruitment difficulties to continue in a number of the above-mentioned roles. In addition, respondents indicated that they anticipated recruitment difficulties for administration and non-uniformed police roles, science roles, operations and incident management, and mechanical technician roles.

For the volunteer workforce, a number of strategies are being implemented to improve attraction and retention. In 2012, COAG directed a review of the National Action Plan for the Attraction, Support and Retention of Emergency Management Volunteers 2009 [65] [66]. This led to the publication of a revised National Emergency Management Volunteer Action Plan (NEMVAP 2012) [67], with the aim to ensure that, ‘emergency management volunteers will continue to be available, well prepared, appropriately trained, equipped and resourced to help their communities build disaster resilience, including disaster response and recovery capability into the future.’ The NEMVAP 2012 proposed a series of workforce development strategies aimed at attraction and retention. The action plan recognised the ageing volunteer workforce as an issue and has a specific focus area concentrated on targeting youth and culturally and linguistically diverse participation in emergency management volunteering [67]. One example of this is the introduction of school-based cadet programs, such as that seen in the NSW SES [68]. Other strategies proposed in the NEMVAP 2012 included: >> improved leadership training

Forty-three per cent of respondents from the public safety sector had identified LLN issues within their organisation. Some felt that there was an increase in LLN issues among new recruits, while it was also mentioned that issues may be more prevalent in the volunteer workforce. A number of respondents indicated that LLN was not an issue within their workforce. This is likely to be due to screening during the recruitment process.

>> a review of barriers to the portability of qualifications

Defence

In addition, two recent reports focussed on the attraction and retention of young volunteers in particular [68] [69]. It was suggested that word of mouth and media/social media campaigns that focussed on the unique experiences of emergency management volunteers would be desirable strategies. These strategies could promote youth volunteering as an opportunity to:

In relation to Defence, it has been reported that there are shortages of electricians and engineers [39]. These skills are also in demand in the resources sector, resulting in competition for skilled workers for the Defence industry [39].

Strategies to address skill shortages and boost skill levels GSA data collection indicated that 77% of respondents from the public safety sector had formal workforce planning and development strategies that were integrated with their organisation’s business plan. Other common workforce planning activities being performed included career development and succession planning (54%), workforce forecasting (46%), review of job design (46%), workforce gap analyses (38%) and training needs analyses (38%).

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Government Skills Australia

>> implementation of alternative learning approaches >> raising community awareness of the value of volunteers >> providing more support towards attraction and retention >> improving recognition and reward for volunteers [67].

>> meet other people >> gain skills training and life experience >> present unique challenges >> offer opportunities for travel >> provide a sense of achievement.


It was felt that youth would be more likely to join an organisation that had a large young volunteer workforce and was seen as a place where young people could strive to hold prominent positions [68]. Proposed strategies to improve the attraction and retention of young volunteers included: >> the introduction of youth development officers and mentors >> consideration of work/life integration >> potential job opportunities >> more opportunities to develop into leadership roles >> opportunities for professional development and accredited training >> streamlined joining procedures >> professional development plans for youths >> flexibility to allow youths to balance other work and study demands [68] [69]. Recently, the NSW SES has introduced strategies to improve youth attraction and retention including the introduction of youth consultative groups, the creation of awards for young volunteers, a review of policy for 16 and 17 year-old volunteers that restricts overnight stays, and the use of online technologies and social networking to assist in recruitment and training [68]. Recommendations from the National Emergency Management Volunteers Summit 2011 included support strategies such as a focus on restructuring training in order to minimise time constraints on volunteers; providing organisations with support to meet training compliance requirements; and investigating ways to offset out-of-pocket expenses for volunteers [65]. In addition, individual states have implemented programs to recognise and reward volunteers as part of a larger recruitment and retention strategy. For example, South Australia has developed the Volunteer and Employer Recognition and Support Program to recognise the efforts of emergency service volunteers [70], with comparable programs in some other states.

Defence There is a focus on recruitment of women into the Army to address the current shortage. Recently, the Army announced a plan to increase the number of women by 600 within two years to improve the proportion of women to 12% [39]. Plans have also been developed to increase the recruitment of Indigenous Australians and workers with disabilities [40]. As part of Force 2030, which is the plan for a stronger Defence Force, the ADF has introduced the Vision for People in Defence 2015, which focusses on developing the people capacity that is needed to achieve Force 2030 targets [71]. The broad scope of this vision is to increase the underlying community support for the consideration of Defence as a career; attract and recruit the required share of the available talent pool; retain critical people; and have the confidence of the Australian Government that Defence is delivering the required people capability on a consistent, sustainable and affordable basis [71]. Some of the specific strategies that have been implemented include: >> improvements to pay scales >> new youth engagement strategies >> the Defence Home Ownership Assistance Scheme >> career and talent management programs to develop career pathways and identify training needs [40] [71]. Additionally, in May 2012, Defence established the Defence People Group to assist in delivering sustainable people capability as outlined in the Vision for People in Defence 2015. The Defence People Group includes divisions to focus on people capability, policy and culture, people solutions and people systems [72].

"training in leadership was identified as being in demand by more RTOs than were currently delivering it, possibly suggesting a need for greater delivery in this area"

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2 IDENTIFIED WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT NEEDS

Public sector Current and emerging skill gaps In the last 12 months, survey respondents have experienced recruitment difficulties in the following areas: >> psychologists >> social workers >> IT professionals >> human resources staff >> scientists >> engineers >> procurement roles >> finance and accounting roles >> teachers/lecturers. The 2011-12 Skills Shortage List also indicated shortages for engineers, which aligns with GSA data collection [61]. Respondents from the public sector anticipated that recruitment difficulties would continue for the following roles over the next five years: >> psychologists >> social workers >> IT professionals >> human resources staff >> scientists >> procurement roles. Public sector respondents indicated that they had experienced difficulty in retaining staff across many of the above-mentioned roles over the last 12 months. Whilst fewer responses were received, anecdotal feedback indicated that recruitment difficulties were also experienced for entry level administration roles, middle management roles, physiotherapists and disability service officers. GSA data collection aligned with areas of shortage identified by the Victorian State Services Authority [30], particularly in the areas of engineering, ICT and science. The Victorian State Services Authority also identified shortages in the areas of infrastructure project management, health and aged care, and economics. Issues relating to LLN were not as great among survey respondents from the public sector compared to some of the other sectors, with 36% of respondents having

40

Government Skills Australia

identified LLN issues within their workforce. It was indicated that the issues were primarily with written communication and were more prevalent amongst those with English as their second language.

"workforce development is a major issue for the public sector with the pending retirements of ageing workers and the need to provide more efficient service delivery" Strategies to address skill shortages and boost skill levels Eighty-two per cent of respondents from the public sector indicated that their organisation had developed strategies within their business plan to formalise workforce planning and development. A further 55% indicated that they had performed training needs analyses, with 45% having performed a workforce gap analysis. Forty-five per cent of respondents indicated that they had a focus on career development and succession planning within their workforce. Within the Victorian public sector, recent research indicated that 47% of responding organisations were attempting to improve their relationship with the tertiary education sector as a means to address labour shortages in their workforce. In addition, 49% of respondents indicated that they had developed initiatives to support supplementary study and transition to employment as a means to appropriately skill potential entrants into their workforce [30]. Workforce development is a major issue for the public sector with the pending retirements of ageing workers and the need to provide more efficient service delivery. Whilst there is a clear need to address workforce planning and development within the public sector, recent Victorian data suggests that this is often considered to be a low priority within organisations. The State Services Authority report that, in 2011, only 40% of respondents in the Victorian public sector indicated that they had taken steps towards incorporating workforce planning into policy development and


business planning activities [30]. In addition, only 19% of responding organisations indicated that they had systems to evaluate the performance of workforce strategies. The main reasons for the lack of workforce development activity included a lack of accountability and appetite to want to make a change; time pressure due to everyday work demands; a lack of capability and skills in workforce development planning; and uncertainty and a lack of confidence in where to begin the process [30]. It is likely that many of these factors are consistent across other states and territories. A number of state public sector commissions and equivalent bodies have undertaken work in response to the workforce challenges in their jurisdictions, with the nature of the response being dictated by the legislated function and roles of their office. For example, in keeping with its mandate, the State Services Authority in Victoria has responded to its research findings by developing resource materials to assist public sector organisations implement workforce management best practice. In other jurisdictions, key areas of focus include attracting a skilled workforce; improving recruitment processes; retaining valued employees; building capacity; providing leadership; meeting regional needs; and ensuring efficiency and flexibility [73]. Attraction and retention programs across the public sector will be crucial to address the issues mentioned earlier regarding the ageing workforce and competition with other sectors. As an example, in WA, the main initiatives that were implemented to assist with attraction and retention were: >> promotion and implementation of flexible employment arrangements >> initial and follow-up induction processes >> creation of supportive and flexible organisational culture >> simplified and improved recruitment and selection processes [10]. GSA data collection has indicated that these initiatives, and a host of others, are being implemented across the public sector nationally.

Water Current and emerging skill gaps In the last 12 months, survey respondents from the water industry experienced difficulties attracting workers in the following areas: >> engineers >> water treatment plant operators >> water quality specialists >> asset managers >> electricians >> project managers >> IT specialists. In addition to the roles identified by GSA data collection, a recent report by the NSW Public Sector Industry Training Advisory Body (ITAB) identified recruitment difficulties for the following roles across the New England and NSW Mid and North Coast regions: >> engineers >> tradespeople (electricians and fitters) >> qualified and experienced water and sewerage operators [56] [57]. GSA data collection indicated that water industry organisations expect recruitment challenges to continue in the following roles for the next five years: >> engineers >> water treatment plant operators >> water quality specialists >> IT specialists. In addition to the roles identified by GSA, the AWA National Water Skills Audit identified the following roles as likely to be in demand over the five-year period from 2011: >> civil engineers >> CEO, senior, corporate and divisional managers >> IT staff >> water treatment operators >> asset maintenance and construction workers [58]. GSA data collection indicated that organisations were experiencing difficulties retaining engineers and operations staff. In line with GSA data collection, a recent report by the NSW Public Sector ITAB identified retention difficulties for the following roles across the New England and NSW Mid and North Coast regions: >> engineers >> water and sewerage operators >> managerial/professional roles [56] [57].

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2 IDENTIFIED WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT NEEDS

The NSW ITAB have also identified a series of general and water industry-specific training areas in demand across New England and the NSW Mid and North Coast regions. These included: >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >>

leadership people management performance management asset management stakeholder engagement project management report writing environmental management potable water quality management water legislation, regulation and policy maintenance management fluoridisation SCADA/Telemetry [56] [57].

"the first steps towards improving workforce development within the water industry must involve acknowledging its importance " The demand for leadership training identified above corresponds with data from the National Water Skills Audit indicating that, among their respondents, leadership training was the main training priority, followed by Certificate III in Water Operations, WHS training and training related to new equipment and new processes [58]. GSA data collection reflected the level of importance being placed on the need for leadership training within the water sector. One-third of respondents from the water sector indicated that they had identified LLN issues within their organisation. Some of the main issues involved technical staff not being able to understand written instructions and older workers being unfamiliar with new technologies and having poor computer literacy. It was indicated that, in some instances, poor literacy was preventing further training.

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Government Skills Australia

Strategies to address skill shortages and boost skill levels Among respondents from the water sector, 73% indicated that they have a formal workforce planning and development strategy that was integrated within their organisation’s business plan. To support GSA data collection, the National Water Skills Audit indicated that the majority of respondents either had developed, or were in the process of developing, a workforce plan [58]. In addition, GSA data collection indicated that 77% of responding organisations have performed a training needs analysis, 47% have conducted workforce forecasting while another 47% have implemented succession planning initiatives. A further 43% of respondents had undergone a review of job design and 40% have performed a workforce gap analysis. Anecdotal feedback from the Water IAC indicated that the first steps towards improving workforce development within the water industry must involve acknowledging its importance and educating organisations in how to go about workforce planning and development. The implementation of industrywide attraction and retention programs are seen as a means to improve the profile of the industry and to work collaboratively to offset competition with other sectors. Organisations have also indicated that they have implemented strategies including mentoring programs, job rotations and secondary school programs. Recently, the NSW Public Sector ITAB listed a range of potential strategies to improve recruitment, retention and workforce skills in the New England and NSW Mid and North Coast regions that are likely to be relevant across the water industry in general, particularly in other regional areas. These included: >> targeting female and young workers >> utilising the skills and experience of the ageing workforce via mentoring programs >> having larger councils share skill development opportunities with smaller councils >> initiating regional recruitment campaigns >> introducing job rotation and job sharing among councils >> negotiating local service delivery of training across regional groups of councils [56] [57].


case studies

Workforce development case studies: a look into the impact of workforce development activity During the 2011-12 financial year, GSA’s workforce development team conducted workforce development audits across a range of sectors and industries, primarily assisting organisations with their preparations to apply for funding opportunities available under the Skills Connect program. These audits were also helpful in the acquisition of workforce data that organisations need in order to conduct workforce planning and development, ultimately enabling organisations to implement targeted recruitment, training and retention strategies. Environmental Scan 2013

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case studies

Case study #1: the procurement initiative State Procurement Board (SA) In 2008, the State Procurement Board (SA) identified workforce issues and opportunities for improvement in procurement capability across government. Principally, these related to the little recognition given to procurement as a profession. Study options were limited, and what was available offered no articulation to nationally-recognised programs or links to career pathways. As a result, the field experienced poor employee retention and low study uptake and completion rates. To strengthen capability and address growing concerns associated with policy compliance and procurement practices, the Board adopted a strategic approach. A capability framework was developed, with agencies cooperating to contribute their views on the current training system. In 2009, the Board engaged GSA to undertake a skills survey, which identified the skills needed to support the capability requirements of the workforce. Importantly, it also clarified procurement as a skills shortage industry.

"I'm very excited by these qualifications because they validate the 10 years I've worked in procurement, and they're something I can use to independently demonstrate my skills." Kelly Tattersall Director, Procurement and Grants Department for Communities and Social Inclusion

Results GSA, in consultation with state and national agencies, went on to develop the new Procurement & Contracting qualifications, which were subsequently endorsed and formed part of the Public Sector Training Package. The Board expected 98 people to complete a qualification in 2012, and another 62 will commence in 2013. The Board has also developed a workshop-based Targeted Procurement Training Program, which has experienced unparalleled success since being introduced in 2010, with 15 agencies involved and demand for places consistently outstripping supply at every level. The programs have served to advance skills across agencies and raised the profile of this ‘new’ profession more broadly. “Along with GSA we’ve been able to lead the way in the recognition of procurement as a profession, and there is now a commitment to these qualifications across government. The program has led the way for similar arrangements in other states and the updated qualifications have been recognised by the Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply Australia.” Richard Puplett Senior Project Officer, Capability Development Department of Treasury and Finance

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Government Skills Skills Australia Australia Government


Case study #2: overcoming an ageing workforce Coffs Harbour Water The demand for workforce development at Coffs Harbour Water was highlighted in a training needs analysis conducted in 2011 by the New South Wales Public Sector Industry Training Advisory Body (PSITAB). Coffs Harbour is one of 14 councils on the mid and north coasts of New South Wales covered in the report, which found that 19% of water industry employees were 55 or older (and would be retiring within the next five to 10 years), and 56% were 45 or older.

"We realised we would struggle as skills walked out the door over the next five years, and there would be an even bigger problem in 10 years." Adam Wilson Manager Water Treatment, Coffs Harbour Water Ensuring that they are well-prepared to meet current and future workforce challenges, Coffs Harbour Water has embedded a culture of training and professional development, providing a ready qualified pool of labour to draw upon when positions become available. Indicative of success is that all water and wastewater employees are involved in some form of training, over and above mandatory compliance requirements.

Workforce development initiatives Performance management: The training needs of every employee are assessed and the opportunity to up-skill offered as part of the process. Succession planning: Employees who may be suitable and have an interest in working in the area are developed, with training and opportunities to act in the role. Mentoring: Every new employee is mentored under an informal mentoring program, with older employees showing a keen interest in young employees coming through. Emerging leaders program: Targeted aspiring managers and supervisors are offered training and work placement opportunities. Recruitment: Initiatives include highlighting the diversity of roles and career opportunities in the water industry and traineeships for school leavers. Apprenticeships/traineeships: Coffs Harbour Water employs four trade apprentices and two trainees funded by the council. A trainee placement in the Language, Literacy and Numeracy Program (LLNP) and an Indigenous trainee attracts additional funding from the NSW State Government. Due to the extent and overall success of these initiatives, Coffs Harbour Water has been awarded the 2012 GSA Excellence Award for Innovative Workforce Development. “Young Keegan came in off the street with a pair of steel-capped boots, which was about the sum of his knowledge of the water industry. One of our senior operators took him under his wing and is teaching him everything he knows, and Keegan is now well on his way to becoming a very good operator.� Adam Wilson Manager Water Treatment, Coffs Harbour Water

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3 46

CURRENT IMPACT OF GSA TRAINING PACKAGES

Government Skills Australia


GSA has the responsibility to manage, maintain and continuously improve the six nationally-accredited VET training packages representing the government and community safety sector. GSA is responsible for the following training packages: >> DEF12 - Defence Training Package

To address the shortage of suitably qualified and experienced trainers, GSA workshops highlighted a number of solutions that are currently being used, including:

>> LGA04 - Local Government Training Package

>> developing training and assessment networks

>> PUA12 - Public Safety Training Package

>> auspicing arrangements

>> PSP12 - Public Sector Training Package

>> contracting trainers

>> NWP07 - Water Training Package.

>> developing in-house training capabilities within their workforce

>> CSC12 - Correctional Services Training Package

GSA received 121 responses to our RTO survey. Across all sectors, RTOs identified the following issues as the main barriers that they currently faced in delivering GSAendorsed training packages: >> availability of resources to support the delivery of training (48% of respondents) >> availability of suitably qualified and experienced trainers and assessors (44%) >> onerous administration and compliance requirements (40%) >> a lack of funding to develop their own resources (40%) >> a lack of demand for the relevant training package (30%). Anecdotal feedback also indicated that there was a perception that many organisations were not supportive of training due to the time taken to attend training, its perceived value, and the perceived return on investment. In order to address these issues, anecdotal feedback collected by GSA suggested that some focus areas could include: >> more training delivery in regional areas >> demonstration of return on investment >> more efficient and timely RPL processes >> the use of assessment tasks that are more relevant to the workplace.

>> using mature-aged workers who are looking to reduce their workload to deliver training. To address the lack of time and funding to develop resources, respondents indicated that they were: >> collaborating more extensively and sharing resources (particularly across government agencies) >> partnering with industry >> using students to develop resources as part of their assessment. From an industry perspective, respondents to our enterprise survey across all five government and community safety sectors indicated that the main barriers to training were cost (52%) and a lack of time to attend training due to workload (50%). Twentytwo per cent of respondents indicated that they did not access any external funding to assist with the costs of training, with 40% of these indicating that the difficulty of the application process was the main reason. A further 40% of respondents cited a lack of awareness of the funding opportunities as the reason that they had not applied for funding. Recent Australian Government initiatives that may begin to address this issue include the introduction of rolling funding arrangements for programs such as the National Workforce Development Fund (NWDF), where there are now no set closing dates for funding and applications can be submitted year round; and the Skills Connect service, which aims to assist organisations with workforce planning and the identification of appropriate funding programs for all sectors [74].

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3 CURRENT IMPACT OF GSA TRAINING PACKAGES

Utilisation of training packages Correctional services CSC12 is delivered by a mixture of enterprise, public and private RTOs across Australia. GSA data collection indicated that the most accessed qualifications are the Certificate III and IV in Correctional Practice. This data supports that collected by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER); however, the actual numbers of commencements and completions for these qualifications are likely to be much higher than that presented in the NCVER dataset as a large portion of corrections training is provided by enterprise RTOs. Additionally, our data collection indicated that the Diploma of Correctional Administration qualification is also being utilised within the sector, which is not currently reflected in NCVER data. All respondents to our enterprise survey from the correctional services sector reported that they utilise the Correctional Services Training Package. It was indicated that the package is predominantly used for staff retention (100%) and up-skilling (75%). Respondents indicated that they access training through enterprise RTOs (100%), TAFEs (50%) and private RTOs (25%). In addition to the Correctional Services Training Package, respondents indicated that the Business Services, Community Services, Health, Public Safety, Public Sector and Training and Education Training Packages were being used. General feedback from IAC members indicated that the CSC Training Package was considered to be currently meeting industry needs. State and territory government funding for training was utilised by all survey respondents from the correctional services sector, while two-thirds indicated that they access Australian Government funding. Respondents indicated that User Choice, Enterprise-Based Productivity Places Program (EBPPP) and state-based Productivity Places Program (PPP) funding had been accessed to support training.

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Government Skills Australia

RTO survey respondent snapshot Location

WA, SA, Vic, NSW, NT Regional coverage

40% 20%

metropolitan

regional

0%

40%

rural/remote

national

RTO type

60% enterprise RTO 40% private RTO Delivery locations

WA, Vic, SA, NT


Local government LGA04 is delivered by RTOs across metropolitan, regional and rural areas. GSA data collection indicated that the most common qualifications on scope were Certificate II, III and IV level qualifications. NCVER data indicated that Certificate III and IV were the most common qualifications accessed within LGA04, which supported GSA data collection. When RTOs were asked what barriers they currently face in offering LGA04 training, the most common responses were: >> a lack of funding to develop their own resources (89% of respondents) >> availability of suitably qualified and experienced trainers and assessors (89%) >> availability of resources to support training delivery (67%) >> limited access to e-learning (56%)

A recent ACELG report regarding e-learning within local government also highlighted a number of potential benefits for RTOs delivering e-learning, including: >> lower ongoing costs for course provision, after the initial higher costs >> increased flexibility for small or large class sizes >> opportunities to offer new visually stimulating course content [64]. One example of the potential benefits of e-learning in local government is the introduction of the Learning Through Experience e-learning resource for Certificate III in Local Government, developed by Great Southern Institute of Technology. This e-learning resource has been trialled successfully within the Shire of Ravensthorpe. The main features of the resource include: >> learning and completion based on realistic and authentic challenges designed around real-life local government scenarios

>> demand for the training package (56%)

>> work colleague characters in the scenario giving information and assistance

>> the training package was not considered commercially viable (44%).

>> a library of resource materials such as staff manuals, mirroring those in real-life local governments.

Respondents to our RTO survey also raised a number of issues that they were currently facing in implementing e-learning, these included:

The resource also includes voice and video communication to establish ‘virtual classroom’ environments throughout the course. A streamlined assessment submission platform has also been implemented. Feedback has indicated that the Learning Through Experience resource is an example of how e-learning can be used to provide a stimulating and relevant training experience that may reduce the time and cost impacts of training, particularly in regional and remote locations. Great Southern Institute of Technology received the 2012 GSA Excellence Award for Industry and RTO Collaboration to recognise this innovative resource.

>> computer literacy of the target audience for some qualifications and a reluctance by some staff to use e-learning >> a lack of access to computers for some staff >> a lack of experienced trainers >> the cost to develop resources was not considered commercially viable >> a lack of suitable and available e-learning resources >> reliability issues with e-learning and ICT infrastructure.

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3 CURRENT IMPACT OF GSA TRAINING PACKAGES

Local Government IAC feedback indicated that there was a relatively low level of awareness of the LGA04 package across the sector and that raising the awareness of LGA04 would be of benefit. This supports data collection from our enterprise survey which indicated that only 65% of respondents from local government utilised the Local Government Training Package. Interestingly, 29% indicated that no training packages were used. A number of respondents indicated that other qualifications are often preferred in order to provide a more generic and transferable qualification. A number of other training packages were being used amongst respondents, including: >> Agriculture, Horticulture and Conservation and Land Management >> Business Services >> Financial Services >> Public Safety >> Public Sector >> Resources and Infrastructure >> Sport, Fitness and Recreation >> Water. Respondents that were not using the Local Government Training Package cited the following reasons: other training packages were more relevant (47%), the content was not meeting their needs (32%), they were not aware of it (32%), and there was a lack of training providers within their region (21%). For rural and remote councils, the issues of training provider availability and LGA04 awareness appear to be more prevalent, with 30% of participating rural and remote councils indicating that the lack of RTOs in their region was a major barrier and 50% indicating that they were not aware of the training package. Additional feedback received by members of the Local Government IAC indicated that the time taken to secure funding for training, enrol and then commence training was also seen as a barrier to staff training. Enterprise survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to utilise the Local Government Training Package if the content was more relevant to their workplace (50%), there was greater funding availability (50%), and if they knew more about it (39%). Local government respondents indicated that the above-mentioned training packages were primarily used to up-skill staff (92%), assist in staff retention (56%), assist in the development of training program content (48%), comply with licensing requirements (48%), and to support their succession planning framework (40%).

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Government Skills Australia

Local councils indicated that they accessed this training primarily via private RTOs (92%) and TAFEs (71%), with a further 10% indicating that training was provided via an enterprise RTO. Where external RTOs were used, respondents indicated that the driving reasons for RTO selection were accessibility (85%), method of delivery (69%), past experience (69%), cost (54%) and reputation (38%). Forty-six per cent of respondents indicated that the process of finding a suitable RTO was ‘straightforward’; however, a further 46% indicated that they had minor difficulties, with 8% reporting that the experience was ‘difficult’. Sixtynine per cent of respondents who were using external RTOs indicated that they had a positive experience with the RTO, with a further 15% indicating a ‘very positive’ experience. Fifteen per cent of respondents indicated that they have had an average experience. Within the local government sector, 71% of respondents indicated that they utilised Australian Government funding for training, while 62% of respondents indicated that they utilised funding from state or territory governments. Sixteen per cent of respondents indicated that they were not utilising external funding for training. A lack of awareness of funding opportunities was the most common response among those that were not accessing external funding, with one-half of the respondents citing this as the reason. Twentyfive per cent of respondents listed ineligibility as a barrier to accessing external funding, while a further 25% perceived a lack of need. The following funding programs had been accessed within the local government sector: Australian Apprenticeships, NWDF, Workplace English Language and Literacy (WELL), Strategic Skills Program (SSP), User Choice, Home and Community Care (HACC), Certificate III reimbursement programs, Critical Skills Investment Fund, Regional Partnership Program, Existing Worker, Skills Gap, Skills For All, EBPPP, state-based PPP, Strategic Investment Fund (SIF), Investing in Experience and the Indigenous Education and Training Program. Overall, 40% of respondents felt that training had produced a ‘notable’ improvement in staff skills and productivity, with a further 35% indicating that it had produced a ‘small’ improvement. Only 3% of respondents indicated that, in their view, training had no impact on staff skills or productivity.


RTO survey respondent snapshot Location

Qld, NSW, Vic, Tas, SA, WA Regional coverage

36% 50%

metropolitan

regional

7%

7%

rural/remote

national

RTO type

57% private RTO 43% public RTO Delivery locations

All states and territories

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3 CURRENT IMPACT OF GSA TRAINING PACKAGES

Public safety The Public Safety Training Package is delivered by a range of RTO types; however, the majority of the respondents to our survey were enterprise RTOs. Private RTOs, public RTOs and adult community education providers also contributed. The majority of respondents were metropolitan-based; however, regional and ruralbased RTOs were also represented. Respondents represented all states and territories. The training areas that were delivered by the highest number of responding RTOs were: >> aquatic search and rescue >> community safety >> emergency communications centre operations >> emergency management >> firefighting >> leadership >> policing

services. This reflects the substantial amount of training being performed annually within the public safety sector that may not be captured in national data sets. When RTOs were asked what barriers they currently face in offering public safety training, the most common responses were: >> onerous administration and compliance regulations (65% of respondents) >> availability of suitably qualified and experienced trainers and assessors (53%) >> availability of resources to support training delivery (44%) >> a lack of funding to develop their own resources (26%) >> the training package was not meeting industry needs (24%). RTO survey respondents also raised a number of issues that they were currently facing in implementing e-learning, these included:

>> search and rescue

>> a lack of funding and resources to develop training materials

>> SES operations

>> internet access and speed issues in some areas

>> workplace emergency response.

>> the lack of a robust Learning Management System (LMS), and the cost associated with the purchase of an LMS

The training areas that were reported to be the most in demand were: >> aquatic search and rescue >> community safety >> emergency communications centre operations >> emergency management >> firefighting >> leadership >> search and rescue >> workplace emergency response. Training in leadership was identified as being in demand by more RTOs than were currently delivering it, possibly suggesting a need for greater delivery in this area. GSA data collection identified a substantial amount of non-accredited training being performed within the public safety sector. This training covered a broad range of areas from general administration, HR management and leadership training, to specialised operational training for firefighters, police, surf lifesavers and emergency service personnel. Completions for standalone units of competency were extremely high within the public safety sector, particularly in the areas of firefighting, surf lifesaving and emergency

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Government Skills Australia

>> computer literacy issues in some areas >> potential IT security and capacity issues. Public Safety IAC feedback indicated that whilst the Public Safety Training Package was considered reasonably effective, some gaps were emerging that need review, such as in the community safety, emergency management, evacuation, risk management and workplace emergency response areas. Enterprise survey data collection indicated that 83% of responding organisations utilised the Public Safety Training Package. It was also reported that a number of other training packages were being used to meet their requirements. These other packages included: >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >>

Business Services Community Services Construction, Plumbing and Services Health Local Government Public Sector Resources and Infrastructure Sport, Fitness and Recreation Training and Education Transport and Logistics.


RTO survey respondent snapshot Location

Delivery locations

All states and territories

All states and territories

Regional coverage

Sector coverage

55% 22.5%

metropolitan

regional

7.5% 15% rural/remote

national

47% Industry-wide 42% Fire 29% Police 24% SES 13% Defence

RTO type

Training delivered

51% enterprise RTO 26% private RTO 18% public RTO 2.5% adult community education provider 2.5% partner with an RTO

72% full qualifications 28% nationallyendorsed skill sets 67% units of competency 36% non-accredited training

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3 CURRENT IMPACT OF GSA TRAINING PACKAGES

It was highlighted by a number of respondents that the diversity of the sector requires the importation of units from other training packages. Where the Public Safety Training Package was not being used, respondents cited the lack of flexibility and cost of compliance as reasons. IAC members also suggested that the speed with which new units of competency were endorsed is impacting on training within the sector. Respondents to our enterprise survey indicated that training packages were being used to develop training program content (100% of respondents), facilitate RPL (64%), to up-skill staff (64%) and to identify training needs and skills gaps (55%). All respondents within the public safety sector indicated that they accessed training via enterprise RTOs, while external private RTOs (45%) and TAFEs (45%) were also used when needed. External funding for training was not currently being utilised by 54% of respondents from the public safety sector. While 31% of respondents indicated that they accessed funding from either state and territory governments or the Australian Government. Funding accessed included EBPPP, state-based PPP, and apprenticeships and traineeships through the User Choice program and Apprenticeships Australia. Where external funding was not being utilised, the main reason cited was the difficulty of the application process (67%). A further 33% of respondents indicated that they could not meet the submission timeframes. Interestingly, 38% of respondents felt that training had produced a notable increase in staff skills and productivity, with 15% indicating a ‘small change’ and 23% indicating no change. Other respondents felt that it was too early to determine the impact at this stage.

Public sector Private, public and enterprise RTOs were all strongly represented among our survey respondents in the public sector. The majority of respondents to our RTO survey were metropolitan-based; however, regional, rural and nationally-based RTOs were represented. Among the responding RTOs, qualifications from the following competency fields were being delivered the most frequently: Ethics and Accountability; Working in Government; Legislation and Compliance; Occupational Health and Safety; Financial Services; Government Service Delivery; Management; Project Management; Policy; and Procurement and Contract Management. When RTOs were asked what barriers they currently face in offering the Public Sector Training Package, the most common responses were: >> availability of resources to support training delivery (59% of respondents) >> a lack of funding to develop their own resources (47%) >> demand for the training package (38%) >> availability of suitably qualified and experienced trainers and assessors (32%) >> other training packages were being used (24%) >> onerous administration and compliance regulations (24%). RTO survey respondents also raised a number of issues that they were currently facing in implementing e-learning, these included:

Defence

>> a lack of experienced people to develop and deliver e-learning resources

Defence training is predominantly delivered by the Army, Navy, Air Force and Defence Learning Services Network. A major development for Defence training was the recent endorsement of DEF12 by the NSSC in February 2012. This separated the Defence training material from the Public Safety Training Package, which was recognised as the largest national training package. The size of the Public Safety Training Package resulted in long review and updating processes, which conflicted with the requirement that Defence training should be dynamic and open to rapid continuous improvement in order to meet evolving operational needs. Defence is committed to an ongoing relationship with the public safety sector and continues to engage with public safety peak bodies and the IAC.

>> a lack of funding to develop resources.

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Government Skills Australia

Interestingly, only 45% of respondents to our enterprise survey from the public sector indicated that they used the Public Sector Training Package. This finding supports feedback from Public Sector JRG members and other key stakeholders who indicated that the Business Services Training Package was often used within the public sector as it is seen to provide more accessible and transferable qualifications that can be contextualised to suit the needs of the public sector. It was suggested that this apparent duplication with the Business Services Training Package should be addressed. GSA survey respondents indicated that a number of other training


packages were currently being used within the public sector, these included: >> Business Services >> Community Services >> Construction, Plumbing and Services >> Correctional Services >> Financial Services >> Resources and Infrastructure >> Training and Education

RTO survey respondent snapshot Location

Qld, NSW, Vic, SA, WA, ACT

>> Water. Respondents that were not using the Public Sector Training Package indicated that the main reasons were that they were not aware of it or that it was not meeting their needs. It was suggested that they would be more encouraged to use the training package if the content was more relevant to the workplace and if there were more RTOs available with the package on scope. Respondents to our enterprise survey indicated that the previously-mentioned training packages are predominantly used for up-skilling (83%), staff retention (67%), to provide training program content (67%) and for performance management (67%). Training was accessed through a range of provider types including private RTOs (57%), enterprise RTOs (43%) and TAFEs (29%). Where an external RTO was being used, respondents indicated that cost and past experience were the main reasons for selecting their provider. Fifty-six per cent of respondents indicated that they did not currently access external funding for training. The main reason cited for not accessing external funding was the perception that the application process was too difficult. Other reasons included ineligibility, a lack of awareness, or the inability to meet the timeframe for submission. Of those that did access external funding, state (33%) and national (33%) funding programs were being utilised. Respondents indicated that apprenticeship, traineeship and cadetship funding was accessed, in addition to the Skills for All program in South Australia. When asked if they felt that training had increased productivity and staff skill levels, 33% of respondents indicated a small improvement, while a further 33% indicated a ‘notable’ increase. Respondents suggested that outcomes could be further improved if the training was better aligned to organisational needs, while further improvement in the quality of providers was also suggested.

Regional coverage

64.5% 10% metropolitan

2%

rural/remote

regional

23.5% national

RTO type

23.5% enterprise RTO 43% private RTO 27.5% public RTO 2% partner with an RTO Delivery locations

All states and territories

Environmental Scan 2013

55


3 CURRENT IMPACT OF GSA TRAINING PACKAGES

Water

>> availability of suitably qualified and experienced trainers and assessors (30%)

Respondents to the GSA RTO survey that deliver NWP07 training included public, private and enterprise RTOs in addition to a small number of adult community education providers and not-for-profit organisations. NWP07 training providers span metropolitan, regional and rural locations.

>> demand for the training package (20%)

Based on respondents to our RTO survey, Certificate II, III and IV in Water Operations are the most frequently delivered qualifications. The most common specialisation streams being delivered by respondents are Water Treatment, Wastewater Treatment, Dams/ Catchments/Reservoir, Wastewater Collection, and Water Distribution and Reticulation. In addition to the NCVER commencement and completion data, GSA data collection identified a high number of completions for units of competency within the NWP07 package, indicating that there is a substantial amount of NWP07 training being performed in addition to full qualifications.

>> the need to develop additional skill sets (20%). One respondent expanded on their responses to outline that location is a barrier to delivery in some areas, indicating that it is not commercially viable to deliver to small cohorts in rural areas. Interestingly, in addition to the above barriers being identified, 30% of respondents indicated that they did not currently face any barriers in offering NWP07. RTO survey respondents also raised a number of issues that they were currently facing in implementing e-learning, these included: >> a lack of understanding about e-learning and how to develop e-learning resources >> a lack of funding to implement e-learning options and to develop ICT infrastructure to support e-learning.

In 2010, the National Water Commission funded the development of the National Water Learning Resources by GSA, in consultation with industry. These products provide a suite of resources aligned to qualifications from NWP07 and can be purchased by RTOs through GSA. Based on GSA survey responses from RTOs with NWP07 on scope, one-third indicated that they have purchased all of the Certificate II, III and IV National Water Learning Resources, whilst 44% had not purchased any of these resources. The remaining respondents had purchased a subset of the resources. Seventy-eight per cent of respondents indicated that they would consider purchasing updated versions of the National Water Learning Resources.

Among respondents to our enterprise survey from the water sector, 92% indicated that their organisation utilised the Water Training Package. Other training packages being used within the water sector include:

When RTOs were asked what barriers they face in offering NWP07 training, the responses were much more varied compared to the other government and community safety sectors, with the most common barriers being listed by only 30% of respondents. The most common responses were:

>> Training and Education.

>> a lack of funding to develop their own resources (30% of respondents) >> limited access to e-learning (30%) >> onerous administration and compliance regulations (30%) >> availability of resources to support training delivery (30%)

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Government Skills Australia

>> Business Services >> Electrotechnology >> Electricity Supply Industry >> Laboratory Operations >> Local Government >> Public Sector >> Resources and Infrastructure

Respondents indicated that the training packages were used for up-skilling (88% of respondents), training program content (58%), staff retention (54%), to meet compliance regulations (50%), to facilitate RPL (46%) and to identify training needs and skills gaps (42%). GSA data collection from participating organisations indicated that 95% used Certificate III in Water Operations qualifications, with Certificate IV (77%), Certificate II (59%) and Diploma (36%) in Water Operations qualifications also highly utilised among respondents. Among those that were using NWP07, the main reasons for choosing it were relevance to the workplace (100%), water-specific content (86%), the advantage of a nationally-recognised qualification (64%), and the ability to contextualise to their workplace (59%).


Seventy-five per cent of respondents indicated that they accessed training via external private RTOs, while 63% used TAFEs and 8% also accessed training via an enterprise RTO. Where external RTOs were used, the most common reasons for selection were accessibility (69%), method of delivery (69%) and past experience with that RTO (62%). Interestingly, 54% of respondents who used an external RTO indicated that they found the process of finding a suitable RTO difficult, with a further 23% reporting a ‘minor difficulty’ and only 23% indicating that the process was straightforward. Fiftyfour per cent of respondents who used external RTOs indicated that they had an ‘average’ experience with training delivery, 38% reported a ‘positive’ experience, with 8% citing a ‘very positive’ experience. A number of respondents indicated that the external RTO that they used had poor quality trainers and training coordination, and that the material was not delivered adequately. Interestingly, some success stories were identified where the organisation worked with the RTO to identify specific needs and improve delivery. Water IAC feedback indicated that the training package was largely considered as effective in meeting industry needs; however, it was indicated that some units should be reviewed for relevancy and currency. It was also highlighted that there is a need to develop specified skill sets within the Water Training Package. Interestingly, among respondents to our enterprise survey, only 24% indicated that the content of NWP07 required review. External funding for training provided by the Australian Government and state/territory governments was accessed by 63% and 50% of respondents from the water sector respectively. Funding programs utilised included EBPPP, NWDF, WELL, User Choice, Existing Worker, state-based PPP, Skills Fund, Australian Apprenticeships and SIF. Of those that were not accessing external funding, the most common reasons were a lack of awareness, a lack of time, ineligibility and the difficulty of the application process. Only 8% of respondents felt that the training that had been conducted had no impact on staff skills and productivity. Nineteen per cent noted a small change, while 54% identified a ‘notable increase’ in skills and productivity. Four per cent reported a ‘dramatic increase’, while 12% felt that it was too early to tell. It was felt that training outcomes could be further improved by providing more external funding to support training, by having more providers with the capacity to deliver training in geographically isolated areas, and by applying the training to the workplace.

RTO survey respondent snapshot Location

WA, Vic, Qld, NSW Regional coverage

45.5% 45.5% metropolitan

9%

rural/remote

regional

0% national

RTO type

18% enterprise RTO 27% private RTO 36% public RTO 9% adult community education provider Delivery locations

Qld, NSW, Vic, Tas, SA, WA, NT

Environmental Scan 2013

57


3 CURRENT IMPACT OF GSA TRAINING PACKAGES

Table 4. Registered training organisations with GSA training package qualifications and/or units on scope as of January 2013 Code

Training package

Number of RTOs

CSC

Correctional Services

19

DEF

Defence

7

LGA

Local Government

70

PUA

Public Safety

304

PSP

Public Sector

196

NWP

Water

45

Source: training.gov.au

The national data sets collected by NCVER are helpful in providing indications of trends and participation in GSA training packages; however, the data does not fully reflect the true uptake of these training packages. The majority of training in many of the sectors covered by GSA does not attract government training funds, but are funded from operational budgets. NCVER data is only collected from public providers and therefore covers publicly funded positions exclusively. As such, the data presented below under-represents actual training numbers as this data does not reflect private or enterprise-based positions which constitute a large percentage of RTOs delivering training from GSA training packages.

Table 5. Publicly funded training numbers 2012 – apprentices and trainees ‘in training’ and ‘completion’ as of 30 June 2012 Code

Training package

Persons in training 2012

Persons in training 2011

CSC

Learner Learner completions 2012* completions 2011^

Correctional Services

413

335

195

315

LGA

Local Government

485

406

180

202

PUA

Public Safety

271

393

205

172

PSP

Public Sector

1447

1171

411

726

NWP

Water

1314

998

466

568

Source: National Centre for Vocational Education and Research (NCVER) *Completions at 30 June 2012 ^Completions at 30 June 2011 Note: Defence Training Package data not available Excluding the public safety sector, which had a 31% decrease in participation, each of the other sectors appeared to have experienced an increase in students enrolled in publicly funded training over the last 12 months (CSC: 23%; LGA: 19%; PSP: 24%; NWP: 32%; Table 5). Student completion numbers were considerably lower for correctional services,

local government, public sector and water compared to 2011 numbers, with only public safety having increased in 2012. Table 6 indicates the qualification levels being utilised from GSA training packages via publicly funded training.

Table 6. Australian Qualifications Framework levels persons in publicly funded training from GSA training packages 2012 Code

Training package

Certificate I/II

Certificate III

Certificate IV

Diploma / Adv Diploma

CSC

Correctional Services

0

360

52

0

LGA

Local Government

20

208

251

5

PUA

Public Safety

2

224

12

34

PSP

Public Sector

29

382

429

606

NWP

Water

118

1055

122

19

Source: National Centre for Vocational Education and Research (NCVER). GSA interpretation of NCVER data Note: Defence Training Package data not available

58

Government Skills Australia


Enterprise Based Productivity Places Program and the National Workforce Development Fund The most in demand qualifications applied for over the last three years via the EBPPP and NWDF are outlined below. Public sector applicants and volunteers are not eligible for the NWDF; therefore, there has been no change to data for the public sector qualifications, and a reduced level of applications from the rest of the

government and community safety sectors. In 2012, the government opened up the NWDF to be available on a rolling basis, with applications able to be submitted on a continual basis until all funding available for the financial year has been allocated.

Table 7. Qualifications in demand by GSA sector, based on EBPPP and NWDF applications over 2010-12 Correctional Services

Local Government

Public Safety

Public Sector

Water

Certificate IV in Correctional Practice (209)

Certificate IV in Frontline Management (504)

Certificate IV in Public Safety (Firefighting Supervision) (561)

Certificate IV in Frontline Management (444)

Certificate III in Water Operations (379)

Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (181)

Diploma of Management (377)

Certificate III in Public Safety (Firefighting and Emergency Operations) (389)

Diploma of Management (327)

Certificate IV in Frontline Management (259)

Certificate IV Security & Risk Management (130)

Diploma of Project Management (331)

Diploma of Public Safety (Firefighting Management) (226)

Certificate IV in Government (299)

Certificate IV in Water Operations (241)

Certificate IV in Frontline Management (107)

Certificate IV in Project Management (280)

Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (208)

Diploma of Government (229)

Diploma of Water Operations (204)

Diploma of Correctional Services (84)

Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (224)

Diploma of Management (182)

Certificate IV in Government (Project Management) (214)

Diploma of Management (160)

Diploma of Management (72)

Certificate III in Local Government (Operational Works) (193)

Certificate IV in Government (156)

Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (209)

Certificate IV in Project Management (109)

Certificate IV in Government (56)

Certificate IV in Local Government (Planning) (190)

Advanced Diploma of Public Safety (Firefighting Management) (124)

Certificate III in Government (149)

Diploma of Project Management (107)

Certificate IV Customer Service (45)

Certificate IV in Local Government (165)

Certificate IV in Frontline Management (98)

Diploma of Government (Project Management) (148)

Certificate III in Customer Contact (77)

Advanced Diploma of Correctional Practice (40)

Diploma of Local Government (Planning) (161)

Certificate III in Public Safety (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Policing) (41)

Certificate IV in Project Management (105)

Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (73)

Certificate III in Government (20)

Certificate IV in Government (133)

Diploma of Government (Human Resource Management) (40)

Diploma of Project Management (70)

Certificate IV in Customer Contact (59)

Environmental Scan 2013

59


3 CURRENT IMPACT OF GSA TRAINING PACKAGES

Continuous improvement and review of training packages in 2012 During 2012, GSA became responsible for a sixth training package with the creation of the Defence Training Package (DEF12). This was created by the separation of the Defence material from the Public Safety Training Package in response to industry needs, producing two smaller, more manageable packages which are able to be more responsive to industry needs and better positioned to commence streamlining. In addition, GSA finalised work on three new releases of training packages (CSC12, PSP12 and PUA12) and three

new versions of training packages (LGA04 V3, NWP07 V3 and DEF12 V2). This positions all GSA packages well to commence work on the adoption of the streamlined training package model now that the new standards have been endorsed. It is anticipated that this work will commence in earnest in early 2013. Throughout 2012, work on a range of new and revised units has taken place across GSA’s training packages as discussed in Table 8.

Table 8. Changes to GSA training packages during 2012 Code

Training package

Summary of continuous improvement activity in 2012

CSC12

Correctional Services

Reviewed qualifications (3): >> CSC20112 Certificate II in Justice Services >> CSC40112 Certificate IV in Correctional Practice >> CSC60112 Advanced Diploma of Correctional Management Updated qualifications (2): >> CSC30112 Certificate III in Correctional Practice >> CSC50112 Diploma of Correctional Administration Reviewed units of competency (73) Revised units of competency (12): >> CSCINT402A Assist offender to change behaviour >> CSCOFM203A Maintain the health, safety and welfare of offenders >> CSCOFM301A Protect the safety and welfare of vulnerable offenders >> CSCOFM305A Supervise offenders >> CSCOFM306A Supervise offenders in the community >> CSCOFM308A Promote cooperative behaviour >> CSCORG303A Conduct interviews >> CSCORG601A Provide leadership in justice services >> CSCSAS201A Maintain security >> CSCSAS301A Maintain security system >> CSCSAS306A Manage conflict through negotiation >> CSCSAS403A Provide emergency response to dangerous incidents

60

Government Skills Australia


Code

Training package

Summary of continuous improvement activity in 2012 New units of competency (8): >> CSCITL501 Manage human sources >> CSCITL502 Analyse information >> CSCITL503 Produce and review standard intelligence products >> CSCOFM310 Provide responsible care to people with mental health problems/conditions >> CSCOFM311 Supervise female offenders >> CSCOFM405 Manage high risk offenders >> CSCORG304 Work effectively with culturally diverse offenders and colleagues >> CSCORG509 Manage effective workplace relationships New imported units of competency: >> 2 x units from TLI10 package: >> TLI1051A Operate commercial vehicle >> TLI2010A Apply fatigue management strategies >> Review and update of all superseded imported units of competency Removed qualifications (2): >> CSC30207 Certificate III in Correctional Practice (Custodial) >> CSC30307 Certificate III in Correctional Practice (Community) ISC upgrade to CSC12 V1.1 >> CSCSAS201A: Range statement edited >> CSCSAS301A: Range statement edited >> CSCORG601A: Unit Descriptor, Element 3 wording, Required Skills and Knowledge wording edited >> 10 Imported units updated

LGA04 V3

Local Government

>> Removal of LGA50304 Diploma of Local Government (Land Management), replaced as a specialist elective stream in the new Diploma of Local Government LGA50712 >> Removal of the Building Certifiers and Assessors Skill Set, replaced as a specialist elective stream in the new Diploma of Local Government LGA50712 >> A new qualification – Diploma of Local Government, comprising 6 specialist elective streams >> A new unit of competency – Perform the role of an elected member >> A new skill set – Elected Members Skill Set

Environmental Scan 2013

61


3 CURRENT IMPACT OF GSA TRAINING PACKAGES

Code

Training package

Summary of continuous improvement activity in 2012

PUA12

Public Safety

>> Release of new Training Package >> Removal of all Defence Sector material (now contained in DEF12 Defence Training Package) >> Removal of all Fire Sector material pending final agreement with Fire Sector stakeholders >> Removal of duplicate Search and Rescue and Operations units of competency >> New skill sets for Police Sector >> All qualifications reformatted for consistency ISC upgrade to PUA12 V1.1 >> Editorial and typographical corrections

PSP12

Public Sector

>> A new qualification - Certificate IV in Government, comprising 1 general stream and 5 specialist elective streams >> 8 revised Diploma level qualifications – written to allow for selection of the most appropriate OHS units for each qualification >> 4 new Procurement and Contracting units of competency >> 18 revised and 11 upgraded Road Transport units of competency (including WPI and REG units), 3 new Road Transport qualifications >> 5 revised qualifications – re-written to address flexibility in packaging rules arrangements >> 3 replacement units of competency – written and coded to replace imported elective PUA units >> 2 new skill sets

NWP07 V3

Water

>> Addition of Advanced Diploma of Water Engineering Design, including 10 new units of competency >> 9 new units of competency added to Diploma of Water Operations to create pathways to the new Advanced Diploma >> 3 new entry level units of competency

DEF12 V2

Defence

Defence material separated from PUA00 Training Package to form Defence Training Package (DEF12) Version 2 of DEF12 >> 8 new qualifications - Explosive Ordnance (2), Enterprise Architecture (1), Evaluations (1), Psychological Support (1), Military Land Operations (2), and Work Health Safety (1) >> 9 revised qualifications - Defence Public Affairs (4), Military Land Engineering (2), Defence Paralegal Services (2), and Work Health Safety (1) >> 9 removed qualifications - Armoured Operations (2), Artillery Operations (2), Infantry Operations (2), Regional Surveillance Operations (1), Defence Policing (1), and Defence Chaplaincy (1) >> 43 new units of competency to support the new qualifications >> 34 revised units in support of the new and revised qualifications >> 24 deleted units of competency >> 4 new skill sets – Defence Policing, Defence Chaplaincy, Heavy Vehicle Recovery, and Enter Confined Space

62

Government Skills Australia


Learner profiles The following discussion is based on data from NCVER (Table 9) which identifies VET apprentices and trainees undertaking publicly funded training. This is therefore a limited profile of learners within the government and community safety sector.

Indigenous Australians accounted for 11% of students, while approximately 4% of students were from a nonEnglish speaking background. Less than 1% of students indicated that they had a disability. All students undertaking publicly funded PUA training were studying full-time.

Correctional services

Public sector

Seventy-two per cent of students undertaking publicly funded training in correctional services were male. The majority of students (63%) were aged 25-44, with only 12% aged 24 years or below. Thirty-six per cent of students already held a Certificate III or IV level qualification prior to commencing training, with 47% reporting that their highest level of education was Year 12 or lower.

PSP was the only government and community safety sector training package to have higher numbers of females undertaking study (62%) compared to males (38%). Forty-seven per cent of students were aged 25-44 years, with a further 27% aged 20-24. Seventeen per cent of students were aged 45 years or above, while 8% were aged 19 years or below. The 35% of students studying PSP qualifications aged 24 years or below was the highest number across all five sectors. A large proportion of students (52%) held a bachelor degree or higher prior to undertaking PSP qualifications. This proportion was considerably higher than the other government and community safety sectors. Thirtytwo per cent of students cited Year 12 or less as their highest level of prior education.

Indigenous Australians comprised less than 4% of total students, while approximately 8% came from non-English speaking backgrounds. Less than 1% of students indicated that they had a disability. The majority of students (78%) were studying full-time, with no school-based students undertaking CSC training.

Local government Males comprised 74% of the total number of students undertaking LGA qualifications. Forty-six per cent of students were aged 25-44 years, with 16% aged less than 24, and 38% aged 45 years or over. The majority of students (61%) reported that Year 12 or below was their highest level of education. This number was higher than any other government and community safety sector. A further 32% held Certificate III or IV level qualifications prior to undertaking their current study. Indigenous Australians, and students with a disability, each comprised approximately 3% of total student numbers, while students from a non-English speaking background made up approximately 5% of all students. Full-time study was being undertaken by 90% of students, while 3% were school-based.

Public safety Eighty-eight per cent of students undertaking PUA qualifications were male. Students aged 25-44 years made up 85% of total student numbers, with a further 12% aged 24 years or below. Only 3% of students were aged 45 years or above. Twenty-four per cent of students already held a bachelor degree or higher prior to undertaking PUA training, while a further 38% held Certificate III or IV qualifications. Twenty-nine per cent of students had Year 12 qualifications or less as their highest prior level of education.

Approximately 3% of students had a disability, while approximately 11% were Indigenous Australians. Approximately 15% of students indicated that they came from non-English speaking backgrounds, the highest proportion across the five sectors. Eighty-four per cent of students were studying full-time, while less than 1% were school-based.

Water Over 97% of students undertaking training in NWP qualifications were male, which reflects the traditional belief that the water industry is male dominated. Less than 13% of students were aged 24 or below, with almost 46% aged 25-44 years. Approximately 42% of students were aged 45 years or above. This proportion was higher than the other government and community safety training packages. Fifty-four per cent of students had Year 12 or lower as their highest previous level of education, with a further 38% holding Certificate III or IV level qualifications. Less than 4% of students were Indigenous Australians, while less than 2% came from non-English speaking backgrounds. Students with disabilities made up less than 2% of the total students undertaking NWP training. Nearly all students were studying full-time, with approximately 1% studying part-time, and less than 1% studying as school-based apprentices.

Environmental Scan 2013

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3 CURRENT IMPACT OF GSA TRAINING PACKAGES

Table 14. VET apprentices and trainees undertaking publicly funded training from GSA training packages at the year ending 30 June 2012 Correctional Services CSC

Local Govt LGA

19 years & under

2

36

20 to 24 years

48

25 to 44 years 45 years & over

Public Safety PUA

Public Sector PSP

Water NWP

TOTAL

2

122

57

219

43

30

388

112

621

260

222

231

686

599

1998

103

183

9

250

546

1091

Age

Sex Male

297

356

239

552

1281

2725

Female

116

128

32

895

33

1204

Previous highest education level Bachelor degree or above

32

8

65

748

18

871

Diploma, adv diploma or associate degree

32

17

24

43

36

152

Certificate III or IV

148

154

103

171

501

1077

Certificate I or II

6

8

1

14

41

70

Non-award course

0

0

0

0

1

1

Year 12

99

123

61

286

267

836

Year 11 or lower or did not go to school

96

174

17

181

448

916

Not known

0

1

0

4

1

6

Indigenous status Indigenous

16

16

31

151

47

261

Not Indigenous

383

467

238

1272

1243

3603

Not known

14

2

2

23

24

65

Disability With a disability

3

13

2

46

24

88

Without a disability

393

469

269

1383

1283

3797

Not known

16

3

0

17

7

43

English (main language spoken at home) English

358

454

257

1188

1281

3538

Non-English

33

24

12

219

23

311

Not known

21

6

2

39

10

78

271

1216

1298

3546

0

231

16

382

Study mode Full-time

324

437

Part-time

88

47

School-based status School-based Not school-based

0

15

0

4

4

23

412

469

271

1442

1310

3904

Source: National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) Note: Defence Training Package data not available

64

Government Skills Australia


4

FUTURE DIRECTION FOR ENDORSED COMPONENTS OF TRAINING PACKAGES Environmental Scan 2013

65


4 FUTURE DIRECTION FOR ENDORSED COMPONENTS OF TRAINING PACKAGES

GSA’s short to medium term focus is on the commencement of streamlining of training packages. Significant planning during 2012 positions GSA well to commence work in early 2013 now that a number of external enablers are in place. All material will be reviewed to ensure that it is still current, appropriate and required. In consultation with industry, material will then be adapted and developed to ensure simpler, clearer information is available to users. Reducing duplication, simplifying qualifications and increasing flexibility through the provision of more specialist streams attached to generic qualifications will be a key focus.

Continuous improvement activity During 2012, DIISRTE changed the timelines for the submission of ISC annual Continuous Improvement Plans from February to August, commencing August 2013. As such, the 2012 GSA Continuous Improvement Plan remains current at the time of publication for the 2013 Environmental Scan. Most work identified in this plan has now been completed and dates have been updated in the table below to reflect this.

66

Government Skills Australia

Work has commenced on the development of the 2013-14 GSA Continuous Improvement Plan, which will be actioned in concert with streamlining work. This will be available to stakeholders and customers in mid 2013 and will feature in the 2014 Environmental Scan.


Brief summary of change

Industry imperatives/ rationale for change

Date submitted to NSSC

Date endorsed by NSSC or ISC upgrade

Date made public through Training.gov.au

CSC07 Correctional Services Training Package Specialist pathways for Intelligence Officers have been developed and will be put up for endorsement in early 2012.

Identified through CSC07 review scoping report, GSA online feedback register, and IAC feedback.

March 2012

April 2012

April 2012

A range of new units have been developed and approved by the IAC ready for endorsement in 2012 on the following subjects:

Identified through CSC07 review scoping report, GSA online feedback register, and IAC feedback.

March 2012

April 2012

April 2012

Eleven existing units of competency were updated including range statements, to cover identified gaps and emerging needs.

Identified through CSC07 review scoping report, GSA online feedback register, and IAC feedback.

March 2012

April 2012

April 2012

Two new elective units were imported from TLI07.

Identified through CSC07 review scoping report, GSA online feedback register, and IAC feedback.

March 2012

April 2012

April 2012

Updated imported units of competency.

Standard Training Package Continuous Improvement activity.

March 2012

April 2012

April 2012

>> Dealing with high risk offenders >> Managing female offenders >> Dealing with mentally ill offenders.

Environmental Scan 2013

67


4 FUTURE DIRECTION FOR ENDORSED COMPONENTS OF TRAINING PACKAGES

Brief summary of change

Industry imperatives/ rationale for change

Date submitted to NSSC

Date endorsed by NSSC or ISC upgrade

Date made public through Training.gov.au

LGA04 Local Government Training Package Potential development of skill sets for Local Government Emergency Management, Elected Council Officer and Rates Revenue Clerks. Initial development work has commenced but low enrolments in workshops have slowed down the progress on this activity.

Feedback from industry indicated a need for skill sets for emergency management and elected council officers. Data collected through the GSA Workforce Development Branch indicated a need to strengthen the skills of Rates Revenue Clerks.

Skill sets deferred for consideration during streamlining.

Generic Diploma qualification.

Need identified as a result of feedback from industry and GSA research project.

July 2012

September 2012

September 2012

Review of qualifications/units of competency in LGA04.

Based on GSA research project.

July 2012

September 2012

September 2012

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Government Skills Australia


Brief summary of change

Industry imperatives/ rationale for change

Date submitted to NSSC

Date endorsed by NSSC or ISC upgrade

Date made public through Training.gov.au

May 2012

August 2012

August 2012

PUA00 Public Safety Training Package Complete review of the PUA00 Public Safety Training Package: >> Development of new occupational outcomes as identified by the industry sectors.

PUA00 has not been completely reviewed since its initial endorsement in 2000. While continuous improvement has been conducted, all material needs to be reviewed to reflect occupational changes and also comply with new policy.

(conditions placed on Fire Sector material)

All sectors have identified occupational standards that need to be agreed and endorsed as part of PUA00. Significant events such as bushfires and severe weather have highlighted the need for coordination across jurisdictions and state and territory boundaries. This has resulted in the development of nationally agreed operations standards. The Defence Sector has indicated that they believe the sector will be better served by having a separate training package. The Police Sector has indicated that the current model is not meeting their needs. Creation of 6 units of competency for Shoreline Oil Spill Response.

The Australian Maritime Safety Authority identified the need for consistent and endorsed competency standards for this area.

May 2012

August 2012

August 2012

Development of qualifications for Biosecurity Emergency Response.

The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and other biosecurity industry stakeholders identified the need for qualification packaging at Certificate III and IV levels to address occupation pathways and lead into higher education level emergency management qualifications.

May 2012

August 2012

August 2012

Creation of Defence Training Package.

GSA was approached by defence to create a separate Defence Training Package due to size and complexity of PUA00. This will allow the training package to be more responsive to industry needs and improve timeliness of response. Content development is largely self-funded.

January 2012

February 2012

February 2012

Environmental Scan 2013

69


4 FUTURE DIRECTION FOR ENDORSED COMPONENTS OF TRAINING PACKAGES

Brief summary of change

Industry imperatives/ rationale for change

Date submitted to NSSC

Date endorsed by NSSC or ISC upgrade

Date made public through Training.gov.au

PSP04 Public Sector Training Package Specialist procurement and contracting units.

Need identified during the development of other procurement qualifications in 2010.

September 2012

October 2012

October 2012

Certificate IV in Government (Human Resources).

Need identified during development of Workplace Relations and as a result of workforce development audits.

July 2012

October 2012

October 2012

OHS units in core of qualifications – review level and content – requires recoding of large proportion of current qualification.

RTOs report implementation difficulty now that OHS has become a specialist rather than generalist role in government.

July 2012

October 2012

October 2012

Diploma of Government (Heavy Transport Regulation).

New National Heavy Transport Regulation.

July 2012

October 2012

October 2012

Diploma of Government (Investigation).

Address three deleted imported PUA units (in V8 of the TP) present in core units of this qualification. Need identified through industry feedback. These units have been deleted from the PUA TP, and no equivalent is identified in the mapping document.

July 2012

October 2012

October 2012

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Brief summary of change

Industry imperatives/ rationale for change

Date submitted to NSSC

Date endorsed by NSSC or ISC upgrade

Date made public through Training.gov.au

NWP07 Water Training Package Full review of NWP07 including functional analysis of water operators.

Concern that ANZSCO job descriptors do not reflect current industry job roles and by extension NWP qualifications. Also issues specifically with required skills/ knowledge, number of units at all levels, higher levels for trade waste units, and inclusion of emerging technology information.

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A METHODOLOGY GSA developed the 2013 Environmental Scan based on data collected from a wide range of sources. >> A detailed literature review was undertaken to identify current policy information and workforce data >> Three targeted surveys were distributed to key industry stakeholders in order to collect extensive data from a number of different perspectives. Our surveys targeted the following three areas: >> Industry Advisory Committees, the Jurisdictional Reference Groups and key stakeholders >> RTOs with GSA-endorsed training packages on their scope >> Enterprises across the five government and community safety sectors that GSA represent

>> Where necessary, phone conversations or face-to-face meetings were held with key industry stakeholders who could not respond to the online surveys >> Workshops were held during the GSA Conference, Change is the only constant: connect, collaborate and celebrate, to discuss current trends and issues >> Data validation was performed at various stages throughout the Environmental Scan development process. Preliminary findings were presented at IAC/JRG forums and early drafts were validated by key industry stakeholders. GSA acknowledges the contributions from all individuals and organisations that provided information to assist in the preparation of the 2013 Environmental Scan.

Abbreviations used in the 2013 EScan ABS Australian Bureau of Statistics

LLN Language, literacy and numeracy

ACELG Australian Centre of Excellence for Local Government

LMS Learning Management System

ADF Australian Defence Force

NCVER National Centre for Vocational Education Research

ANZSCO

Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations

APS Australian Public Service

NBN National Broadband Network

NEMVAP

National Emergency Management Volunteer Action Plan

ASQA Australian Skills Quality Authority

NMDS National Minimum Data Set

AVETMISS Australian Vocational Education and Training Management Information Statistical Standard

NSSC National Skills Standards Council

AWA Australian Water Association COAG Council of Australian Governments CSC12 Correctional Services Training Package DAFF Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

NWDF National Workforce Development Fund NWP07 Water Training Package PPP Productivity Places Program PSP12 Public Sector Training Package PUA12 Public Safety Training Package RPL Recognition of prior learning

DEF12

Defence Training Package

RTO Registered Training Organisation

DIISRTE

Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education

SCOTESE

Standing Council on Tertiary Education, Skills and Employment

EBPPP Enterprise-Based Productivity Places Program

SES State Emergency Service

FTE Full-time equivalent

SSP Strategic Skills Program

GSA Government Skills Australia

TAFE Technical and Further Education

HACC Home and Community Care

TP Training Package

IAC Industry Advisory Committee

VET Vocational Education and Training

ISC Industry Skills Council

WELL Workplace English Language and Literacy

ITAB Industry Training Advisory Body

WHS Work health and safety

JRG Jurisdictional Reference Group

WIST Water Industry Skills Taskforce

LGA04 Local Government Training Package

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SIF Strategic Investment Fund


B LITERATURE CITED [1]

Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, “Report on Government Services Volume 1: Early Childhood, Education and Training, Justice, Emergency Management,” 2013.

[2]

Australian Bureau of Statistics, “4512.0 - Corrective Services, Australia, September 2012,” 2012.

[3]

Australian Local Government Association, “Australian Local Government Association: About ALGA,” 2012. [Online]. Available: http://alga.asn.au/?ID=42&Menu=41,81. [Accessed 8 October 2012].

[4]

Australian Centre of Excellence for Local Government, “Fact Sheet 1: Basic Facts About Australian Local Government,” 2012.

[5]

Australian Bureau of Statistics, “6248.0.55.002 - Employment and Earnings, Public Sector, Australia, 2011-12,” 2012.

[6]

Australian Emergency Management Volunteer Forum, “Australian Emergency Management Volunteer Forum,” [Online]. Available: http://www.aemvf.org.au/who-we-are. [Accessed 10 October 2012].

[7]

Surf Lifesaving Australia, “About Surf Lifesaving Australia,” [Online]. Available: http://sls.com.au/who-we-are. [Accessed 13 December 2012].

[8]

The University of Adelaide, “University News and Events: Volunteers Worth More to Australia Than Mining,” 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.adelaide.edu.au/news/news55621.html. [Accessed 16 October 2012].

[9]

Department of Defence, “Defence Portfolio Budget Statements 2012-13,” 2012.

[10] Western Australia Public Sector Commission, “State of the Sector Report 2012,” 2012. [11] Water Services Association of Australia, “Proposal for an Australian and New Zealand Water Industry Revision of the ANZSCO Codes First Edition: August 2012,” 2012. [12] Government Skills Australia, “2012 Environmental Scan,” 2012. [13] Water Industry Skills Taskforce, “Australia’s Skills and Workforce Development Needs: A Response to the Discussion Paper by the Water Industry Skills Taskforce,” 2012. [14] Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, “Australian Jobs,” 2012. [15] Australian Bureau of Statistics, “Retirement and Retirement Intentions, Australia, July 2010 to June 2011,” 2011. [16] Queensland Government, “Delivering Justice: Improving Corrections. Queensland Corrective Services Framework for Reform 2010-2014,” 2010. [17] Dusseldorp Skills Forum, “Gen Green Survey 2011: Australian Apprentices’ and Trainees’ Experience of Skills and Sustainability in 2011,” 2011. [18] The Standing Council on Police and Emergency Management, “Directions in Australia New Zealand Policing 2012-2015,” 2012. [19] Brisbane City Council, “Brisbane Flood January 2011: Independent Review of Brisbane City Council’s Response,” 2011. [20] Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education, “National VET E-learning Strategy 2012-2015,” 2012. [21] National Skills Standards Council, “Review of the Standards for the Regulation of Vocational Education and Training: Consultation Paper, June 2012,” 2012. [22] Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education, “Total VET Activity Data Collection: COAG Consultation Regulation Impact Statement,” 2012. [23] Council of Australian Governments, “National Agreement for Skills and Workforce Development,” 2012. [24] Council of Australian Governments, “National Partnership Agreement on Skills Reform,” 2012.

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B LITERATURE CITED

[25] Australian Government, “Skills for All Australians: National Reforms to Skill More Australians and Achieve a More Competitive, Dynamic Economy,” 2012. [26] Council of Australian Governments, “Skills and Training,” [Online]. Available: http://www.coag.gov.au/skills_and_training. [Accessed 8 October 2012]. [27] Australian Government, “Australia in the Asian Century: White Paper, October 2012,” 2012. [28] National Skills Standards Council, “Review of the Standards for the Regulation of Vocational Education and Training: Analysis of Submissions,” 2012. [29] Australian Bureau of Statistics, “4102.0 - Australian Social Trends September 2012. The Right Person for the Right Job: The Relevance of Qualifications to Employment,” 2012. [30] State Services Authority, “Workforce Planning Risks and Challenges in the Victorian Public Sector: Update Report 2011,” 2012. [31] Electrical, Utilities and Public Administration Training Council Inc, “Industry Workforce Development Plan 2011,” 2011. [32] Australian Bureau of Statistics, “4512.0 - Corrective Services, Australia, September 2007,” 2007. [33] Local Government Association of Queensland, “Industry Skills and Workforce Development Report: 2012. Current and Future Skills Needs within the Queensland Local Government Sector,” 2012. [34] Brisbane Times, “Queensland Councils Referred for Demergers,” 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/queensland-councilsreferred-for-demergers-20120918-263ew.html. [Accessed 8 October 2012]. [35] B. Beccari, “Casus Calamitas: Disaster Risk, Mitigation and Resilience,” [Online]. Available: https://casuscalamitas.wordpress.com/2012/12/16/disaster-inquiries-inaustralia/?goback=.gde_3456295_member_196663864. [Accessed 10 January 2013]. [36] Department of Defence, “Defence Annual Report: 2010-2011. Volume 1: Department of Defence,” 2011. [37] Department of Defence, “Defence White Paper 2009. Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030,” 2009. [38] Department of Defence, “The Strategic Reform Program: Delivering Force 2030,” 2009. [39] The Advertiser, “Defence Staff Flock to Miners,” 2012. [40] Department of Defence, “Defence Annual Report 2010-2011. Section 5: Appendices,” 2011. [41] Community and Public Sector Union, “CPSU Submission: ACTU Inquiry into Insecure Work,” 2012. [42] Government of South Australia, “2012-13 Budget Paper 1: Budget Overview. Strong Foundations. Stronger Future,” 2012. [43] Government of Western Australia, “2012-13 Budget Fact Sheet,” 2012. [44] NSW Government, “Building for the Future: Budget Overview,” 2012. [45] Queensland Government, “State Budget 2012-13: Budget Strategy and Outlook, Budget Paper no. 2,” 2012. [46] Government of Tasmania, “Tasmanian Budget 2012-13: The Budget and Our Economy,” 2012. [47] Northern Territory Government, “2012-13 Mini Budget,” 2012. [48] Australian Public Service Commission, “State of the Services Report: State of the Services Series 2011-12,” 2012. [49] NSW Public Service Commission, “The NSW Public Sector Workforce: A 2011 Snapshot and Snapshot Tables,” 2012. [50] Queensland Public Service Commission, “Queensland Public Service Workforce Characteristics 2011-12,” 2012. [51] State Service Commissioner Tasmania, “Annual Report 2011-12,” 2012.

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[52] ACT Chief Minister and Cabinet Directorate, “ACT Public Service Workforce Profile 2010-2011,” 2012. [53] Government of South Australia, “South Australian Public Sector Workforce Information - June 2011,” 2011. [54] Office of the Commissioner for Public Employment, “State of the Service Report 2011-12,” 2012. [55] R. Ranasinghe and J. Spoehr, “The Workforce Retention Dividend: Valuing Knowledge and Skill in the Public Sector Workforce,” Australian Workplace Innovation and Social Research Centre, The University of Adelaide, 2012. [56] J. James, “Training Needs of Local Government Water Industry Employees on the Mid Coast and North Coast of NSW,” NSW Public Sector Industry Training Advisory Body, 2012. [57] J. James, “Training Needs of Local Government Water Industry Employees in the New England Region of NSW,” NSW Public Sector Industry Training Advisory Body, 2012. [58] Australian Water Association, “National Water Skills Audit Report,” 2011. [59] M. Reason, “Enabling the Effective Take-up of E-learning by Custodial Officers,” National Centre for Vocational Education Research, 2011. [60] Australian Centre of Excellence for Local Government, “Workforce Planning and Development: Capacity Building Opportunities,” 2012. [61] Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, “Skills Shortage List, Australia 2011-12,” 2012. [62] Australian Centre of Excellence for Local Government, “Project Plan 2009-2014,” 2009. [63] United Services Union, “NSW Local Government Next Generation of Employees Report,” 2012. [64] Australian Centre of Excellence for Local Government, “E-Learning in Local Government,” 2012. [65] Attorney-General’s Department, “Summary of Achievements: Stocktake Against Priority Actions Identified in the National Action Plan for the Attraction, Support and Retention of Emergency Management Volunteers, 2009,” 2012. [66] Attorney-General’s Department, “National Action Plan for the Attraction, Support and Retention of Emergency Management Volunteers, 2009,” 2009. [67] Attorney-General’s Department, “National Emergency Management Volunteer Action Plan, 2012,” 2012. [68] T. Burns, “Future Boosting: Attracting, Retaining and Developing Young Volunteers,” Presented at the AFAC & Bushfire CRC Conference, 2012. [69] J. Gouldbourn, “Young Leaders in Emergency Management,” Presented at the AFAC & Bushfire CRC Conference, 2012. [70] Government of South Australia, South Australian Fire and Emergency Services Commission, “Volunteer Initiatives,” 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.safecom.sa.gov. au/site/initiatives_reviews/volunteer_initiatives.jsp. [Accessed 11 October 2012]. [71] Department of Defence, “People in Defence: Generating the Capability for the Future Force,” 2009. [72] Department of Defence, “Department of Defence: About the Defence People Group,” 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.defence.gov.au/dpe/Index.htm. [Accessed 18 October 2012]. [73] Western Australia Public Sector Commission, “Strategic Directions for the Public Sector Workforce 2009-2014,” 2009. [74] Australian Government, “Australian Government Skills Connect,” 2012. [Online]. Available: http://skillsconnect.gov.au/. [Accessed 28 November 2012].

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Escan 2013  

The purpose of the Government Skills Australia (GSA) 2013 Environmental Scan is to provide readers with a clear strategic understanding of e...

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