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Gamal Osman `

Arch-152.10/ Notes

Prof. Anthony Caradonna


Section 1 History Notes Up to the Midterm. Byzantine and Ottoman Architecture Isidore and Anthemius, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, 537 Basilica Cistern, Istanbul, 6th century Sinan, Mihrimah Sultan Mosque, Istanbul, 1565 Amcazade Koprulu Pasa Yalisi, Istanbul, 1699 Sinan, Suleymaniye Complex, Istanbul, 1557 Sinan, Maglova Aqueduct, 1562 St. Vitale, Ravenna, 548 Vocabulary: pendentives, ekphrasis The Architectures of Imperial China, Korea and Japan Japan Naiku [Inner Precinct], Ise Shrine, Ujiyamada, Mia Prefecture, Kofun Period Horyuji Temple Complex, Nara Prefect, Asuka Period Storehouse [Shosoin], Todaji Temple, Nara Period Nandaimon [Great South Gate], Todaji Temple, Kamakura Period Imperial Palace, Kyoto, Heian Period Garden, Ryoanji Monastery, Kyoto, Muromachi Period Castle [Egret’s Castle], Himeji, Hyogo Prefecture, Azuchi-Momoyama Period Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto Prefecture, Edo Period

China Forbidden City, or Purple Forbidden City, Beijing, begun 1405 Temple of Heaven, Beijing, 1530-1889 Typical Beijing courtyard house, 15th-19th centuries The Garden of a Humble Administrator, Suzhou, 1506-21 KOREA Changdeokgung Palace, Seoul, begun 1405, periodically rebuilt after fires Donggwold, scroll painting of Changdeokgung Palace, c.1826-30 Typical yangban rural estate Early Medieval to Gothic Architecture Old St Peters, Rome, Italy, 318-22 St. Etienne west front, Caen, France, 1068-1120 Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, 1194-1230 Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England, 1220 The Early Renaissance and the Origins of Perspective Filippo Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral, Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, 1420-36. Filippo Brunelleschi, Church of San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy, begun 1421 Leon Battista Alberti, Palazzo Rucellai, Florence, Italy, 1455-70 Leon Battista Alberti, S. Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, 1460-67 Leon Battista Alberti, S. Andrea, Mantua, Italy, 1470-81 Donato Bramante, Tempietto, at monastery of S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome, Italy, 1504


Section 2 History Notes from the Midterm Up to the last lecture. The High Renaissance and Mannerism Raphael, Villa Madama, Rome, 1516-20 Giulio Romano, Palazzo del Te, Mantua, 1524-34 Michelangelo, Laurentian Library, Florence, 1524-34 Michelangelo, St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, begin 1546 Andrea Palladio, Villa Rotunda, Vicenza, Italy, 1550-69 Andrea Palladio, S. Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, Italy, 1570 The Baroque -Baroque Rome, Pope Sixtus the Fifth -Francesco Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, 1638-67. -Gianlorenzo Bernini, St. Peter’s Piazza, Vatican, Rome, 1656 Rococo, the Enlightenment and the End of the Monarchy in France -Germain Boffrand, Salon de la Princesse, Hotel de Soubise, Paris, begun 1732 -Johann Balthasar Neumann, Church of the Vierzehnheiligen, near Staffelstein, Germany, 1743-72 -Claude Perrault, eastern facade of the Louvre, 1668-70 -Andre Le Notre, Gardens of Versailles, begun 1661 -Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Palais de Versailles, Versailles, 1661-1708 -Louis Le Vau, Hotel Lambert, Paris, 1642-44 -Antoine Le Pautre, Hotel de Beauvais, Paris, 1652-55

-Charles Eisen: Frontispiece for Marc-Antoine Laugier’s Essay on Architecture, 1755 -Etienne-Louis Boullee, Cenotaph to Sir Isaac Newton (project), 1784 (unbuilt) -Jacques-Germain Soufflot, St. Genevieve (Pantheon), Paris, 1757-89 Enlightenment II: Utopia and Dystopia -Pierre Patte, Competition entry for Monuments Erected to the Glory of Louis XV, Paris, 1765 -Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, Plan for the Ideal City of Chaux, ca. 1804 -Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, France, 1775-78 -Jeremy Bentham, Panoptican, c.1791 (unbuilt) -Giovanni Batista Piranesi, Carceri Print Series, 1760 (unbuilt) -Sebastien Le Pestre Vauban, fortifications for outposts on the German border, 1680s and 1690s -Guerville, proposed plan for Pondicherry, India, 1763 -Alexandre de Batz (illustrator), “Temple of Savages,” Louisiana, USA, 1732 Neoclassicism and the Sublime in England -Robert & James Adam, Syon House, greater London, 1762-64 -Robert & James Adam, The Adelphi, London, 1768-72 -John Soane, Bank Stock Office, Bank of England, 1792-93 -John Soane, House for himself, London, 1812-37 The Spread of Islamic Architecture -Great Mosque of al-Mutavakil, Samarra, 849 -Alhambra, Granada, Spain, 13th-14th centuries -The Great Mosque of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain, 833-988 -Taj Mahal, Agra, India, 1631 -Tomb of Ismail, Bukhara, Uzbekistan, 900 -Great Mosque in Djenne, Mali, 1907


SECTION

1


Another good example to look at is the Basilica of San Vitale. (547)Italy [also involves Byzantine Art]


Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris 1163 Paris, France

CathĂŠdrale SaintPierre de Beauvais Beauvais, northern France (1247)

Reims Cathedral 1211 Reims, France


The West (Europe) The individual, An inner moral compass Parcival

Greece The individual, Subject to Fate Prometheus

The Middle East (the Levant) The society. As above, so below. Job

India Identity with the infinite. The Buddha Conforming to ones role. Arjuna

China The flow of nature The Tao Te Ching Social


On the dome Brunelleschi used brick due to its light weight as to stone to example.


Palazzo Rucellai


Key Buildings: Raphael, Villa Madama, Rome, 1516-20 Giulio Romano, Palazzo del Te, Mantua, 1524-34


Michelangelo, Laurentian Library, Florence, 1524-34 Michelangelo, St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, begin 1546 Andrea Palladio, Villa Rotunda, Vicenza, Italy, 1550-69 Andrea Palladio, S. Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, Italy, 1570

St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome


Villa Madama


Florence, Italy!


Renaissance Ideals Archetype Centralized plan dwelling New Villa Type: elevated Piano Noble / Symmetry Places Human in Center of Universe Pantheon as dwelling: Residential Temple: Anthropocentric 5 axis: NSEW + Vertical Conquest of Space Time Application of Roman Antiquity Vitruvian / Humanism – contemplation + study Temple Front + Classical


Orders Central Drum Dome Space - Axis Mundi 4 Facades face and anchor house to landscape Abstraction + Simple Cubic Geometries Use of Harmonic pythagorean proportions plan to elevation Ground Floor Services / Piano Nobile / Upper flrs BRs.

Villa Capra Rotondo

Palladio classed the building as a "palazzo" rather than a villa. To describe the villa, as a whole, as a 'rotonda' is technically incorrect, as the building is not circular (It has an imaginary circle) but rather the intersection of a square with a cross. Niether Palladio nor the owner had a chance to see the villa complete.


Palladio classed the building as a "palazzo" rather than a villa. To describe the villa, as a whole, as a 'rotonda' is technically incorrect, as the building is not circular (It has an imaginary circle) but rather the intersection of a square with a cross. Niether Palladio nor the owner had a chance to see the villa complete. The church is a Basilica in a classical renaissance style. A white marble gleams faรงade gives the building its own mark. Setting on the edge of the island it is a mark above the blue water that any eye can not miss. The interior of the church is very bright with massive engaged columns and pilasters on undecorated, white-surfaced walls. The interior combines a long basilican nave with a cruciform plan with transepts.


Another good example to look at is the Basilica of San Vitale. (547)Italy [also involves Byzantine Art]


Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris 1163 Paris, France

CathĂŠdrale SaintPierre de Beauvais Beauvais, northern France (1247)

Reims Cathedral 1211 Reims, France


The West (Europe) The individual, An inner moral compass Parcival

Greece The individual, Subject to Fate Prometheus

The Middle East (the Levant) The society. As above, so below. Job

India Identity with the infinite. The Buddha Conforming to ones role. Arjuna

China The flow of nature The Tao Te Ching Social


On the dome Brunelleschi used brick due to its light weight as to stone to example.


Palazzo Rucellai


Key Buildings: Raphael, Villa Madama, Rome, 1516-20 Giulio Romano, Palazzo del Te, Mantua, 1524-34


Michelangelo, Laurentian Library, Florence, 1524-34 Michelangelo, St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, begin 1546 Andrea Palladio, Villa Rotunda, Vicenza, Italy, 1550-69 Andrea Palladio, S. Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, Italy, 1570

St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome


Villa Madama


Florence, Italy!


Renaissance Ideals Archetype Centralized plan dwelling New Villa Type: elevated Piano Noble / Symmetry Places Human in Center of Universe Pantheon as dwelling: Residential Temple: Anthropocentric 5 axis: NSEW + Vertical Conquest of Space Time Application of Roman Antiquity Vitruvian / Humanism – contemplation + study Temple Front + Classical


Orders Central Drum Dome Space - Axis Mundi 4 Facades face and anchor house to landscape Abstraction + Simple Cubic Geometries Use of Harmonic pythagorean proportions plan to elevation Ground Floor Services / Piano Nobile / Upper flrs BRs.

Villa Capra Rotondo

Palladio classed the building as a "palazzo" rather than a villa. To describe the villa, as a whole, as a 'rotonda' is technically incorrect, as the building is not circular (It has an imaginary circle) but rather the intersection of a square with a cross. Niether Palladio nor the owner had a chance to see the villa complete.


Palladio classed the building as a "palazzo" rather than a villa. To describe the villa, as a whole, as a 'rotonda' is technically incorrect, as the building is not circular (It has an imaginary circle) but rather the intersection of a square with a cross. Niether Palladio nor the owner had a chance to see the villa complete. The church is a Basilica in a classical renaissance style. A white marble gleams faรงade gives the building its own mark. Setting on the edge of the island it is a mark above the blue water that any eye can not miss. The interior of the church is very bright with massive engaged columns and pilasters on undecorated, white-surfaced walls. The interior combines a long basilican nave with a cruciform plan with transepts.


SECTION

2


St. Peter Basilica/List of Architects

-Donato Bramante (1444 – 11 March 1514) was an Italian architect, who introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design executed by Michelangelo. His Tempietto (San Pietro in Montorio) marked the beginning of the High Renaissance in Rome (1502) when Alexander VI appointed him to build a sanctuary that allegedly marked the spot where Peter was crucified. -Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (1483 –1520), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (1475 –1564), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance. Considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci. -Carlo Maderno (1556 –1629) was a Swiss-Italian architect, born in Ticino, who is remembered as one of the fathers of Baroque architecture. -Gian Lorenzo Bernini (or Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo) (1598 –1680) was an Italian artist, sculptor -Vignola ( 1507-1573) was one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism. His two great masterpieces are the Villa Farnese at Caprarola and the Jesuits' Church of the Gesù in Rome. “The three architects who spread the Italian Renaissance style throughout Western Europe are Vignola, Serlio and Palladio.” -Giacomo della Porta (c. 1533 – 1602) was an Italian architect and sculptor. -Baldassare Tommaso Peruzzi (7 March 1481 – 6 January 1536) was an Italian architect and painter. He was a painter of frescoes in the Cappella San Giovanni (Chapel of St. John the Baptist) in the Duomo of Siena. His son Giovanni Sallustio was also an architect. -Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (April 12, 1484 – August 3, 1546) An Italian architect active during the Renaissance. Sangallo was born in Florence. His grandfather Francesco Giamberti was a woodworker, and his uncles Giuliano and Antonio da Sangallo were noted architects of the time.

-Maerten van Heemskerck or Marten Jacobsz Heemskerk van Veen (1 June 1498 – 1 October 1574) was a Dutch portrait and religious painter, especially known for his depictions of the Wonders of the World. -Friar Giovanni Giocondo, (1433 – 1515) was an Italian friar, architect, antiquary, archaeologist, and classical scholar. He built bridges and planned fortifications for Treviso, acting as architect engineer, and head-builder during the construction. -Carlo Fontana (1634 or 1638–1714) was an Italian architect, who was in part responsible for the classicizing direction taken by Late Baroque Roman architecture. He became a draughtsman for the architectural plans of Pietro da Cortona, Carlo Rainaldi, and Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Bernini employed him for nearly a decade in diverse projects.


Baroque Rome Architect: An exiled Religious Leader who had developed ideas for reorganizing Rome before he became Pope Sixtus V Date: 1585 Important Facts/history: The first of its kind produced plans for Rome to organize the whole city around important key points in space. This established a framework for future development that is visible in Rome today. The first key point which is an obelisk was constructed at the front of Saint Peter’s Square, a second obelisk was placed at Piazza del Popolo. Then to provide a visual anchor and structure for future development Pope Sixtus V placed four fountains at each corner of the intersection of the Strada Pia and the Strada Felic. That also marked the path between Santa Mari a Maggiore and the San Trinita dei Monti for future development along both streets. Elements of Architecture: a system of radial avenues. Structure: Varies but mostly made out of stone. Operation System: Urban design; Renaissance replanning of Rome by Pope Sixtus V.

Baroque Rome


San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane Architect: Francesco Borromini Date: 1638-67 Location & Site Content: Rome, Italy. “at the Four Fountains�. Located with a cloister next to it. Important Facts/history: The undulating movements and sculptural effects are characteristic of Baroque architecture eventhough they are used with a different approach in here. And Unlike other projects, here Borromini eliminated the corner in architecture. Also, the giant order used on the fcade does not serve to unify the two stories. Instead each story is equally important with contrasting elements in each story Elements of Architecture: Corinthian columns, windows that also frame a variety of sculptures, pendentives, an oval coffered dome and two altars on the cross axis. Structure: Stone. Operation System: A Baroque church, part of a monastery. Now it is a Catholic Church.

San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane


St. Peter’s Piazza Architect: Gianlorenzo Bernini Date: 1656-57 Location & Site Content: Located directly in front of St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City, the papal enclave surrounded by Rome. Important Facts/history: The first structre to enclose an open space, it was designed as a forecourt “so that the greatest number of people could see the Pope give his blessing, either from the middle of the façade of the church or from a window in the Vatican Palace” (Norwich 1975 p 175). Elements of Architecture: Tuscan colonnades and a central obelisk “At the center of the ovato tondo stands an Egyptian obelisk of red granite”. Structure: Variety of stone types. Operation System: A Baroque church, part of a monastery. Now it is a Catholic Church.

1. Colonnades & 140 Statues 2. The Passetto 3. Alexander VII Coat of Arms 4. The Fountains (8m high) 5. The Obelisk (25.31m high) 6. Centro del Colonnato 7. Sundial Markers 8. Papal Water Fountain 9. John Paul II Shot Here 10. Bronze Doors 11. Entrance to Charlemagne Wing 13. Apostolic Palace 15. Statue of St. Peter 16. Statue of St. Paul 19. Mater Ecclesiae 20. Paul VI Hall 21. Arch of the Bells Entrance 24. Loggia of the Blessings 26. Obelisk Marker 29. The Sacristy & Treasury 31. Sistine Chapel 32. Dome of St. Peter’s

St. Peter’s Piazza


Salon de la Princesse Architect: Germain Boffrand Date: Begun 1732 Location & Site Content: Hotel de Soubise, Paris. Important Facts/history: A complete Interoir of the rococo style that epitomizes the primary qualities of it. The Rococo work was reaching for more than the structure of the building, It was centrally concerned with the total design of a space and emotional experience. Elements of Architecture: Gilded carvings, mirror-glass and paintings. Light is a major element in the design. Being bright in particular. Along with sculptress, small sculptures, tapestries and applied furniture that “pick up the rhythms and design motifs of the architectural ornament thereby reinforcing the sense of uniform aesthetic.� Structure/Materials: Operation System: Built for the Prince and Princess de Soubise.

Salon de la Princesse


Church of the Vierzehnheiligen Architect: Johann Balthasar Neumann Date: 1743-72 Location & Site Content: Vierzehnheiligen, Germany. Important Facts/history:Late Baroque or Rococo style architecture. The inner walls define ovals and circles, its piers vanish into the decorated planes of the ceiling, an altar stands triumphant. With colossal columns and pilasters along with a series of oval baldachins, two systems here are being combined, a biaxial organism and that of a a conventional Latin cross. Elements of Architecture: Colossal columns and pilasters along with a series of oval baldachins, intense sculptured interoir. Unlike other churches of the same style daylight plays an essential role in here. Structure: Masonary, Lime stone. Operation System: Church.

Church of the Vierzehnheiligen


Eastern facade of the Louvre Architect: Claude Perrault Date: 1668-70 Location & Site Content: Palais du Louvre, Paris. Important Facts/history: An imporant design that marks the French Architectural Classicism in a barque manner. As a typical solution of the French classicism, the facade is divided into five parts. Elements of Architecture: Paired Corinthian columns, a central pedimented triumphal arch, and Italian balustrades. Structure: Stone. Operation System: The actual seat of power in France built for Louis XIV.

Eastern facade of the Louvre Eastern facade of the Louvre


Gardens of Versailles Architect: Andre Le Notre Date: begun 1661 Location & Site Content: Situated to the west of du ch창teau de Versailles, In France. Important Facts/history: Elements of Architecture: French Garden style. A network of hydraulics. Structure: Meticulous manicured lawns, parterres of flowers, and sculptures that are the fountains and stone pavment. Operation System: To act as an urben design.

Gardens of Versailles


Palais de Versailles Architect: Louis Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart Date: 1661-1708 Location & Site Content: France. Important Facts/history: Among the most famous rooms in the palace are the Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors; 1678–89) and the other Grands Appartements (State Rooms) and, the royal hall. Elements of Architecture: Pedintive ceiling, open plans, site gardens. Interoir decoration Italian influences, particularly that of Pietro da Cortona. Balustrade and pilasters. Structure: Stone. Operation System: A royal château. Former royal goverment center. A museum today.

Palais de Versailles


Hotel Lambert Architect: Louis Le Vau Date: 1642-44 Location & Site Content: At the tip of the テ四e Saint-Louis in the heart of Paris. Important Facts/history: Not like the usual, here the entrance is being private, pushed in a way to give a shape for the rest of the design. The garden is not an over looked element but rather to finish the block. Elements of Architecture: The entrance gives onto the central square courtyard, around which the hテエtel was built. A wing extends to the right at the rear, embracing a walled garden . Operation System: It was built originally for the financier Jean-Baptiste Lambert.

Hotel Lambert


Hotel de Beauvais Architect: Antoine Le Pautre Date: 1652-55 Location & Site Content: Paris. Elements of Architecture: French Baroque style design. The faรงade uses vertical bands of rusticated stone and horizontal moldings instead of orders to define major lines. The plan follows a strict symmetry on a very irregular site. Mezzanine windows here relate diractly to the high Renaissance in Rome. Structure: Stone. Operation System: Private for Catherine Beauvais.

Hotel de Beauvais


Frontispiece for Marc-Antoine Laugier’s Essay on Architecture Architect: Charles Eisen Date: 1755 “Allegorical engraving of the Vitruvian primitive hut” Important Facts/history: “The theory states that Ancient Greek temples owed their form to the earliest habitations erected by man.” The horizontal beam is being supported by tree trunks planted upright in the ground and the roof was sloped to shed rainwater. This was the inspiration behind the basic Doric order. “It was sought to be the ideal principle for architecture or any structure at the time. Laugier believed it was the standard form which all architecture embodied.”

Frontispiece for Marc-Antoine Laugier’s Essay on Architecture


Cenotaph to Sir Isaac Newton (project) Architect: Etienne-Louis Boullee Date: 1784 Location & Site Content: Not build, imaginary design “Sublime spirit! Vast and profound genius! Divine being! Accept the homage of my weak talents... Oh, Newton!” Etienne-Louis Boullee Elements of Architecture: A Dome! A combination of large simple masses free from any superfluous decoration. During the night a huge and otherworldly light hangs, flooding the sphere, as sunlight. Along the top half of the sphere’s edges, apertures in the stone allow light in, in pins, creating starlight when there is daylight. So the interoir effect is a day during the night and night during the day. Operation System: Cenotaph

Cenotaph to Sir Isaac Newton (project)


St. Genevieve (Pantheon) Architect: Jacques-Germain Soufflot Date: 1757-89 Location & Site Content: Paris. Important Facts/history: One of the early examples of neoclassicism, the façade is being modeled on the Pantheon in Rome. Also the dome owes some of its character to Bramante’s “Tempietto”. Elements of Architecture: Gothic windows, pendentive dome, latin cross floor plan, Corinthian columns, portico columns and a crypt. Structure: Stone, also the dome is made out of stone along iron cramps and covered with lead sheathing. Operation System: Originally when built it was a church dedicated to St. Genevieve after many changes, now functions as a secular mausoleum.


Plan for the Ideal City of Chaux Architect: Claude-Nicolas Ledoux Date: 1804 Location & Site Content: Important Facts/history: The plan appears to be the borders of the kingdom a city in a new style, for which he made several successive plans. In these “urban fictions” Ledoux closes the Salt works’ circle and he makes the centre of an imaginary city out of it. Ledoux enhances gradually his great urban project through other buildings, explaining their functioning, designing their catalogue, and setting up their plan. Operation System: Urban fictoins/ City plan.

Plan for the Ideal City of Chaux


Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans Architect: Claude-Nicolas Ledoux Date: 1775-78 Location & Site Content: Arc-et-Senans, France. Important Facts/history: This harmony lies firstly in the air and the sun. The cosmic vision is provided by the shape of the Salt works, which looks like a sundial. The shape must be “pure as the one of the Sun during its journey� says the architect. Coming up from nature the entrance extends outward. The work is an important example of an early Enlightenment project in which the architect based his design on a philosophy that favored arranging buildings according to a rational geometry and a hierarchical relation between the parts of the project. Elements of Architecture: Sloped Roofs, corinthian columns and solid walls for the building along with the site gardens that were a major element in which the project is orgnized aound. Operation System: Economical organisation and social living.

Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans


Panoptican Architect: Jeremy Bentham Date: 1791 Location & Site Content: Unbuilt Important Facts/history: Instead of surounding the prisoners, here they are actully surounding a single guard so that he can have a full view on all of them. Giving then the feeling that they are being always watched. Important design that services the military movment. Elements of Architecture: Windows, columns and walls. Operation System: Prison house.

Panoptican


Carceri Print Series

Carceri Print Series

Date:The series begun 1745 Elements: Highkly emotive drawings of prisons with their reseding spaces, light and shade. Inspiratoin: ‘Etching and engraving’ as well as the visual diversity of the city architecture,

Giovanni Batista Piranesi, Carceri d’invenzione (Prison series), 1761

Giovanni Batista Piranesi, Carceri d’invenzione, 1761


fortifications for outposts Architect: Sébastien Le Pestre Vauban Known for his Contributions to military engineering and fortifications Date: 1680’s and 1690’s Location & Site Content: The German border Important Facts/history: A new systematic design as to improve the city’s army approach. The design is parallel series of trenches (said to have been suggested by the practice of the Turks at Candia in 1668) dates from the siege of Maastricht, and in principle remained until the 20th century the standard method of attacking a fortress.

Sébastien Le Pestre Vauban. Improvements to fortifications for Arras, Spain. 1668

fortifications for outposts


proposed plan for Pondicherry Architect: Guerville Date: 1763 Location & Site Content: Indea Important Facts/history: The only french city in Indea. As entering to the machinary age, the plan here were suring for military services. Trying to maximize the safety of the city, allowing for more shooting area as a source of output and less intake area. Elements of Architecture: Wall gates and water element (the lakes surrounding the city) Operation System: City planing.

proposed plan for Pondicherry


Temple of Savages

Temple of Savages

Architect: Alexandre de Batz, Date: 1732 Location & Site Content: Tunica villages in India? Important Facts/history: A temple with a sacred fire where priests conducted rituals to maintain positive relations with spiritual beings. The fire was important element for the Tunicas as they saw it as a spiritual force the represent the Sun which is a female deity. Elements of Architecture: Posts, horizantal cane stalks, conical roof framework of wood poles and clay for the walls.

Du Pratz, Funeral Procession in Histoire de Louisiane, c. 1751

Alexandre de Batz, "Temple des sauvages." Louisiana, 1732


Syon House Architect: James Adam Date: 1762-64 Location & Site Content: Brentford, UK (Near London) Important Facts/history: This project shows how Adam developed from an initial use of monumental Roman forms to the more innovative graphic décor for which he is primarily remembered. Note that the central rotunda shown in plan was never constructed. The main space of the House ‘reveals Adam’s mastery of monumental Roman forms.’ Style of Architecture: Mainly It can be Neo-classical style; however, the house is filled with couple different styles including huge influence of the Romane anitguity. -Coving also: Romantic, Picturesque, Baroque and Mannerist styles and a dash of Gothic in found in the house gallery.

Syon House


The Adelphi Architect: Robert and James Adam Date: 1768-72 Location & Site Content: London Important Facts/history: The design comprised of townhouses joined and articulated to resemble a royal or aristocratic palace. Overlooks the wharf with no intention to act as a part of it but rather as a part of the capitalism. Operation System: Apartments building.

The Adelphi


Bank Stock Office, Bank of England Architect: John Soane reconstructed by Robert Taylor Date: 1791-1833 Location & Site Content: London Important Facts/history: Buried spaces within the complex, with the light coming from above rather than the wall trough windows. Making a huge construction becomes seen light. Same concept follows with the detailing of the central vault that takes a primitivist ornament and ‘vestigal’ order in which the reduced frieze and capital become one continuous element.

Bank Stock Office, Bank of England


The Great Mosque of al-Mutavakil Architect: Unown Date: 849 Location & Site Content: Samarra, Irag Important Facts/history: Unlike other mosques here the minaret is placed along the main axis out side the mosque, something that is not seen in any other Islamic mosque. At one time this was the largest of its kind. Elements of Architecture: The art and architecture of the mosque was influential; stucco carvings within the mosque in floral and geometric designs represent early Islamic decoration. Operation System: Islamic worship house.

The Great Mosque of al-Mutavakil


The Great Mosque of Cordoba Architect: Unkown Date: 833-988 Location & Site Content: Cordoba, Spain. It is build over the ruins of a Roman warehouse and reuses pre-Islamic elements. Important Facts/history: The design is to have independent element “Columns� layout to act and form an independent whole. Everything is directed to the Mihrab, which is also position on the site to be facing Mecca. The structure can be added onto without substantial morphological transformation. It is believed to be in a way using algebra to confine the geometries. Elements of Architecture: Mihrab, doubled arches between the columns to rise the hight og the building, domes and polylobed arches. Structure: Stone and brick. Operation System: A religous building where the Muslims gather to pray.


Alhambra Architect: Uknown Date: 1333-13914 Location & Site Content: Granada, Spain Important Facts/history: The Alhambra’s Islamic palace was built for the last Muslim emirs in Spain and its court of the Nasrid dynasty. Today, the Alhambra Palace is the most visible evidence of the Nasrid dynasty which was the last Arab Muslim dynasty in Spain. Elements of Architecture: The decorations within the palaces typified the remains of Moorish dominion within Spain and ushered in the last great period of Andalusian art in Granada. With little of the Byzantine influence of contemporary Abassid architecture. Calliphal horseshoe arch, the Almohad sebka, the Almoravid palm, and also stilted arches and muqarnas (stalactite ceiling decorations) that were sort of not seen before. -Columns and muqarnas appear in several chambers, and the interiors of numerous palaces are decorated with arabesques and calligraphy.


Taj Mahal Architect: Uknown “was entrusted to a board of architects under imperial supervision, including Abd ul-Karim Ma’mur Khan, Makramat Khan, and Ustad Ahmad Lahauri. Lahauri is generally considered to be the principal designer” by wikipedia Date: 1631 Location & Site Content: India. In memory of the Emperor Shah Jahan’s third wife. Important Facts/history: “Crown pf Palaces” “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage” Elements of Architecture: The architecture of the Taj combines elements from Islamic, Persian, Ottoman Turkish and Indian architectural styles. Its mark is the marbale used on the facade on the design. Structure: Operation System: A Mausoleum “Tomb”

Taj Mahal


Great Mosque in Djenne Architect: UNKNOWN Date: 1907 Location & Site Content: DJENNE, MALI Important Facts/history: A large banco or adobe building that is considered by many architects to be one of the greatest achievements of the Sudano-Sahelian architectural style As well as being the centre of the community of DjennĂŠ, it is one of the most famous landmarks in Africa. Structure: Sun-baked earth bricks and coated with plaster that gives the building its smooth sculpted look. And bundle of rodier for the decoration on the facade. Operation System: Islamic worship house and a a center for the community.

Great Mosque in Djenne


Arch-152.10/ Spring-14


GamalOsman_PrattHist152 FinalKeyBuildings