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The undertaking of the three training in the higher morality, in the higher thought, in the higher insight.

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The Agriculture Thus have I heard, Once a certain oceasion the Exalted One was staying among the Sakyans near Kapilavatthu, in Banyan Park. Then the Exalted One addressed the monks, saying: "Monks" "Yes Lord" replied those monks to the Exalted One. The Exalted One said this: "Monks, these three preliminar-

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t*¾r[my@dw b'´ E å ukrm& 'kw, d ygarmu©csKyq f &mawmf(pDr)H t*¾r[m*E¬0gpuy@dw b'´ EåaZmwdu(M.A) 'kw, d ygarmu©csKyq f &mawmf(ynm) tbd"r®myd#ur[mXme? XmerSL;^ygarmu©q&mawmf t*¾r[m*E¬0gpuy@dw a'guw f mb'´ Eåax&dE´(Ph.D) yd#uwfqidk &f mygVpd mayXme? XmerSL;^ygarmu©q&mawmf t*¾r[m*E¬0gpuy@dw b'´ Eåy@dwmbd0o H (M.A) okwå Eåy#d uwfr[mXme? XmerSL;^ygarmu©q&mawmf r[m*E¬0gpuy@dw b'´ Eåork e(M.A) EkdifiHa&;OD;wnfcsuf (4)&yf Ak'a¨ 'oemjyefyh mG ;a&;ynmXme? XmerSL;^ygarmu©q&mawmf EkdifiHawmfwnfNidrfa&;? &yf&Gmat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh t*¾r[m*E¬0gpu y@dw a'guw f mb'´ EÅynm0Ho(Ph.D) w&m; Oya' pkd;rkd;a&; trsKd;om;jyefvnf pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&; armfueG ;f xde;f q&mawmf ckdifrmonfh zJGYpnf;yHk tajccHOya'opfjzpfay:vma&; pmwnf;csKyf jzpfay:vmonfh zJGYpnf;yHktajccHOya'opfEiS t hf nD acwfrzD YGH NzKd ;wk;d wufaomEkdifiHawmfopfwpf&yf r[mo'¨ra® Zmwdu"Z wuúov dk o f Qio f &D d wnfaqmufa&; ("r®mp&d,? bDat) pD;yGm;a&;OD;wnfcsuf (4)&yf pkdufysKd;a&;ukdtajccHí tjcm;pD;yGm;a&;u@rsm;ukv d nf; pmwnf ; tzJG Y ? jynfpkd;? "r®xufukd bufpHkzHGUNzdK;wkd;wufatmif wnfaqmufa&; pDrHa&;&m? NzKd ;rmrm aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf yDjyifpGmjzpfay:vma&; jynfwiG ;f ? jynfyrStwwfynmESit hf &if;tES;D rsm; zdwaf c:í xk wf wf a0 ol pD;yGm;a&;zHYG NzKd ;wk;d wufatmif wnfaqmufa&; wifp;dk (NrJ -04266) vIid Mf unfjzL "r®0&D pmaywku d Ef iS hf EkdifiHawmfpD;yGm;a&;wpf&yfvHk;ukd zefwD;Ekid rf pI rG ;f tm;onf 'D*spw f ,fpmMunfw h u dk f EkdifiHawmfESifhwkdif;&if;om; jynfolwkdY\vuf0,fwGif&Sda&; tjyif t qif uG e f y sLwm vlrIa&;OD;wnfcsuf (4)&yf rk;d Bu;D ? NzKd ;NzKd ;Zmjcnf? jrwfE;dk ykid f wpfrsK;d om;vH;k \ pdw"f mwfEiS hf tusiphf m&dwjå rifhrm;a&; trsKd;*kPf? Zmwd*kPfjrifhrm;a&;ESifh ,Ofaus;rItarG jzefYcsda&; tESprf sm;? trsK;d om;a&;vu©Pmrsm;raysmufysuaf tmif vIid Mf unfjzL"r®0&D pmaywku d f xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufa&; rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwf &Sifoefxufjrufa&; zke;f - 0980 23992? 0950 01401? 01-507208 jynfolYoabmxm; jynfytm;ukd;ykqdef½kd;tqkd;jrif0g'Drsm;tm;qefYusifMu Ekid if aH wmf wnfNird af t;csr;f a&;ESihf Ekid if aH wmfw;dk wufa&;ukd aESmifh,SufzsufqD;olrsm;tm; qefYusifMu Ek d i f i H a wmf \ jynf w G i f ; a&;uk d 0if a &muf p G u f z uf aESmifh,Sufaom jynfyEkdifiHrsm;tm; qefYusifMu jynfwGif;? jynfytzsuform;rsm;tm; bHk&efoltjzpf owfrSwfacsrIef;Mu

- wpfrsK;d om;vH;k use;f rmBuchH idk af &;ESiyhf nm&nfjrifrh m;a&;

Address Hlaing Kyi Phyu Dhamma Vira Publishing House Head Office: Blk (1), Rm(R6), Myanmar InfoTech, Hlaing Ts, Yangon. Branch Office: No. 50, 2nd Fl. Bank St, Kyauktada Ts, Yangon. Ph: 0980 23992 , 0950 01401 e-Mail - dhammavira@gmail.com

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EDITORIAL "r®0D&onf "r®opömudk ñTefjyonf/

3

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WE LIVE WITH DHAMMA KNOWLEDGE

4

"r®0D&onf t"r®w&m;z,f&Sm;Edkif&ef jzpfonf/

tjynfjynfqdkif&max&0g max&0g'' Ak'¨omoemjyKwuúodkvf ygarmu©csKyf q&mawmfbk&m;BuD; t*¾r[my@dw? t*¾r[m*E¦0gpuy@dw a'gufwm t&SifeE´rmvmbd0Ho(Ph.D) a[mMum;csD ; jr§ i h f a wmf r l t yf a om

jzpfEkdifwm ESifh rjzpfEkdifwm w&m;a'oemawmf (,cif t ywf r S t quf ) vl w d k Y \ trl t usif h r sm;ES i f h y wf o uf í jzpf E d k i f w mES i f h r jzpf E d k i f w m aemufwpfcjk zpfEikd w f meJY rjzpfEikd w f mu bmvJ? avmuvlawG rSm vlawG&JUp½dkufqdkwm&Sdw,f/ p½dkufqdkwm olwdkY&JUtrltusihfawGudk ajymwm? trltusihf[m aumif;wJhtrltusihf&Sdw,fç qdk;wJhtrltusihf &Sdw,f/ aumif;wJhtrltusihfudk okp½dkufvkdYac:w,f? raumif;wJhtrl tusihf? qdk;wJhtrltusihfudk 'kp½dkufvdkYac:w,fayhg/ ygVdpmayu okp&d wç 'kpö&dw- aumif;pGmusihftyfwJhtusihfç raumif;ojzihf usihftyfwJh tusihf? rSefrSefuefuefusihfwJhtusihfç rSm;rSm;,Gif;,Gif;usihfwJhtusihfvdkY qdkw,f/ okp½dkufç 'kp½dkufqdkNyD; 'DvdkcGJxm;w,f/ xdkokp½dkufç 'kp½dkufcGJjcm;wJhtcg pdwfxJu BuHawG;wJh okp½kduf &Sdw,fç pdwfxJu BuHawG;wJh 'ku½dkuf&Sdw,f/ EIwfuajymwJh okp½dkuf&Sd w,fç EIwfuajymwJh 'kp½dkuf&Sdw,f/ udk,fxdvufa&mufvkyfwJh okp½dkuf &Sw d ,f ç ud, k x f v d ufa&mufvyk w f hJ 'kp½du k &f w dS ,f/ vlawGrmS - ]pdwu f awG;w,f? EIwu f ajymw,f? ud, k x f v d ufa&mufvyk w f ,f} qdw k hJ tvkyef YJ ywfoufNyD;awmh tJ'Dvdk oHk;rsdK;cGJNyD;awmh taumif;tqdk;udk Munhfyg/ tJ'Dvdk taumif;tqdk;udkcGJMunhfNyD; jzpfEdkifwmeJYrjzpfEdkifwmudk qifjcif pOf;pm;&rSm/ qdyk gpd-Yk raem'kp½du k w f ?hJ b,f[mawGukd raem'kp½du k f ac:wm wke;f qd&k if tbdZÑm- olrsm;ypön;f udk ud, k yfh pön;f jzpfzt Ykd wGuf BuaH wG;wJh avmb? 'g pdwfxJrSmjzpfwmaemf/ ]]'Dvl 'ku©a&mufoGm;ygap? tusdK;rJh jzpfoGm;ygap}} vdkY trkef;w&m;udk &ifxJrSmyGm;NyD;awmh vlwpfa,muf&JU ysufpD;&mysufpD;aMumif;udk a'goeJYBuHawG;wmu Asmyg'? uH uH\ tusdK;w&m;udk jiif;y,fwmu rdpäm'd|d? uHudk vufrcHbl;ç wrvGefb0 qdkwm vufrcHbl;ç ukodkvfuH tukodkvfuH&JU tusdK;qdkwmudk vufrcH bl;? jiif;y,fwJh rdpäm'd|d/ tJ'D 3- rsdK;udk raem'kp½dkufvdkYac:w,f/ pdwfeJYjyKvkyfwJhç tusihfqdk;wJh/ tJ'DpdwfxJrSmjzpfay:vmwJhtusifhqdk;udk jrwfpGmbk&m;u tJ'Dtusihfqdk;&JU vdkcsifp&m? ESpfoufp&m? jrwfEdk;p&m aumif;wJh tusdK;w&m;qdkwm rjzpfEdkifbl;wJh/ qdv k w kd mu ]]'kp½du k w f &m;u aumif;usKd ;xkwv f yk w f ,fqw kd m rjzpfEikd b f ;l / jzpfEikd w f mu 'kp½du k w f &m;u qd;k usKd ;udo k m xkwv f yk w f ,f/ tJ'gu jzpfEdkifwm/}} vlwpfa,muf 'kp½dkufawGvkyfNyD;awmh BuD;yGm;wdk;wufaewm 'kp½du k af Mumifh Bu;D yGm;wd;k wufw,fvYkd vlawGu xifaumif;xifvrd rhf ,f/

'g 'kp½dkufaMumihf BuD;yGm;aewmr[kwfbl;/ twdwfb0u olvkyfcJhwJh ukodkvfuHu tusdK;ay;aewm/ ukodkvfuH&JUtusdK;udk cHpm;&wm/ vHkYv 0D&d,&JUtusdK;udk cHpm;&wm/ 'kp½dkufu b,fawmhrS aumif;usdK;csrf;om ray;Edik b f ;l / tJ'gaMumifrh Ykd 'kp½du k &f UJ qd;k usKd ;qdw k myJjzpfEikd w f ,f? 'kp½du k &f UJ aumif;usdK;qdkwm rjzpfEdkifbl;wJh/ ]]jzpfEdkifw,f? rjzpfEdkifbl;}} qdkwm vHk;0aocsmaygufajymwJh pum;/ ]]jzpfcsijf zpfr,f? rjzpfcsirf jzpfb;l }} vdYk ajymwmr[kwb f ;l / jzpfEikd f wmeJY rjzpfEdkifbl;vdkYajymwm/ tjzpfEdkifbl;qdkwmu impossible? jzpfEikd f w,fqdkwmu possible/ aumif;Ny?D pdwef yYJ wfoufNy;D awmh tusiafh umif;qdw k m bmvJ/ olrsm;ypönf;udk udk,hfypönf;jzpfatmif b,fawmhrS avmbeJYrBuHrawG; bl;/ 'Dvkd BuHawG;rIrS a&Smifw,f- tebdZÑm/ trkef;w&m;udk tajccH NyD;awmh olwpfyg;ysufvdkysufpD; ]'Dvl 'ku©a&mufygap} qdkwJhtawG;rsdK; b,fawmhrS rawG;bl;/ ]aumif;usKd ;csr;f omawGjzpfygap} qdw k hJ tawG;rsKd ; yJawG;w,f- tAsmyg'/ uHuHtusdK;udk ,HkMunfw,f? vufcHw,for®m'd|d? tJ'DoHk;rsdK;udk raemokp½dkufvdkYac:w,f/ pdwfxJrSmjzpfwJh tusihfaumif;oHk;rsdK;vdkYac:w,f/ tJ'DpdwfxJrSmjzpfwJh tusihfaumif;oHk;rsdK;[m qdk;usdK;ay;w,f qdkwm rjzpfEdkifbl;/ aumif;usdK;ay;w,fqdkwmom jzpfEdkifw,f/ olwdkY&JU qdk;usdK;[m rjzpfEdkifbl;/ olwdkY&JUaumif;usdK;om jzpfEdkifw,f/ 'gvnf; jzpfEdkifwmeJYrjzpfEdkifwm/ xdt Yk wlyJ EIwef yYJ wfoufNy;D awmh tusiq fh ;kd ç EIwef yYJ wfoufNy;D awmh tusihfaumif;? EIwfeJYywfoufwJh tusihfqdk;qdkwm vdrfajymw,fç wpfOD;eJYwpfOD;rwnhfatmif ukef;wkdufw,fç qJw,fç tusdK;r&SdwJhpum; awGudkajymw,f/ tJ'gudk 0pD'kp½dkufvdkYac:wmyJ/ tJ'D ]]0pD'kp½dkufu aumif;usdK;csrf;omay;w,fqdkwm rjzpfEdkifbl;? raumif;usdK;ay;w,fqdk wmomjzpfEdkifw,f/}} qdkvdkwmu 0pD'kp½dkuf&JUtusdK;[m qdk;usdK;om jzpf&r,f? taumif;b,fawmhrS rvmbl;vdkY 'Dvdkajymwm/ EIwef yYJ wfoufwhJ tusiafh umif;uawmh vdrrf ajymbl;? rSew f m yJajymw,f? ukef;rwdkufbl;? nDñGwfatmif aphpyfay;w,f/ rqJbl;? ,Ofaus;wJhpum;eJYajymw,f/ tusdK;r&SdwJhpum;awG rajymbl;? tusdK;&Sd wJhpum;awGajymw,f/ 'g EIwfeJYywfoufwJhtusihfaumif;/ tJ'D ]]EIwfeJY ywfoufwJhtusihfaumif;&JU raumif;usdK;qdkwm rjzpfEdkifbl;wJh? EIwfeJY ywfoufwJh tusihfaumif;&JU tusdK;[m aumif;usdK;om jzpfEdkifw,f}}


WE LIVE WITH DHAMMA KNOWLEDGE

5

"r®0D&onf Ak'¨w&m;jzifh avmuudk apmihfa&Smuf&efjzpfonf/ wJ h / 'gvnf ; jzpf E d k i f w meJ Y r jzpf E d k i f w mud k jrwf p G m bk & m;a[mxm;wm? aemuf wpf c k u udk,fxdvufa&mufvkyfwJhtusihfaumif;eJYtusifhqdk;/ tusihfqdk; qdkwm bmvJ? owå0gawG&JU toufukd ud, k x f v d ufa&mufowfw,f? olrsm;ypön;f udk rw&m;ojzihf ud, k x f v d ufa&muf,w l ,f? olwpfyg; om;r,m; rusL;vGef&r,hf yk*¾dKvfawGeJY usL;vGefw,f? umr*kPfeJYywfouf NyD;awmh azmufjyefw,f? 'gudktusihfqdk;vdkYajymw,f/ tJ'Dae&mrSm umarokrdpämpm& vdkY vlawGajymavh&SdMu w,f/ trsdK;om;awGrSm rdpämpm& jzpfzdkYtwGuf trsdK;orD; 20 &Sdw,f/ trsdK;orD; 20 udk usrf;*efawGu b,fvkdajymvJ¿ trsdK;tpm; cGJMunhf &atmif/ 0dok'¨g½Hkq&mawmfBuD;u tusOf;csKyftvuFmuav;vkyfxm; w,f/ ]]rmç yd? rmyd? beJYbm? nmç a*gç "Hç oç om}} wJh/ trsdK; orD; 10- a,muf/ rm d mqdkwm rmwk&u©dwm- tar&JUtkyfxdef;rIatmuf rSm&SdwJh trsdK;orD;/ yd qdw k m ydw&k u©w umarok r d p ä m pm& taz&JUapmifah &SmufraI tmuf rSm&SdwJh trsdK;orD;/ tJ'gawGeJY usL;vGefvdkY&Sd&if jzpfw,f/ rmyd- rmwmydwk&u©dwm tar? taz ESpfa,mufpvHk;u xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufw,f? rdbtpHk&SdwJh trsdK;orD;? wpfcgwpfavus awmh tarom&Sdw,f ?tazr&Sdbl;? tazom&Sdw,f tarr&Sdbl;/ beJY bm- b*ded&u©dwm? bmwk&u©dwm tudkawGarmifawG&JU xdef;odrf; apmifha&SmufcH&wm? tpfrç nDrawG&JU xdef;odrf;apmifha&SmufrIatmufrSm &Sdwm/ nm- nmwd&u©dwm- tar? taz nDtudk armifESrawG r&Sdbl;qdk&if aqGrsdK;awGu xdef;odrf;apmifha&SmufwJh trsdK;orD;/ a*g- a*gwå&u©dwm- aqGawGrsdK;awGr&Sdbl;qdk&if tEG,fwlawGu apmifha&Smuf wm? jrefrmjynfrmS tEG,w f q l w kd m odyfr&Sdbl;? wjcm;vlrsdK;awGrSmawmh surname vdkYac:wJh trnfawG&Sdw,f/ rsdK;½dk;ayhg/ rsdK;½dk;upNyD; tpOf tquf xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufwm/ "H"r®&u©dwm- w&m;usihfazmfawG u xdef;odrf;apmifha&SmufwJh trsdK;orD;/ aemufq,fa,mufu vufxyfxm;wJh trsdK;orD;awGudkajym wm/ vif&Sdr,m;udk ajymwm/ aemufNyD;awmh 'DtrsdK;orD;eJY rusL;vGef &bl;vdkY Oya''Pf csrSwfNyD;awmhxm;wJh trsdK;orD;/ tJ'grsdK;awGeJY azmufjyefvdkY&Sd&if umarokrdpämpm&uH xdkufw,f/ "ç qefç abmç y? Moç Moç "? ur®ç 'gç rk[m- 'DtrsdK; orD;awGu taMumif;wpfckckeJY tdrfaxmifjyKxm;wJh trsdK;orD;awG/ tJ'D trsdK;orD;awGu 10- a,muf/ rdbponfwdkY&JU apmifha&SmufrIatmufrSm &SdwJh trsdK;orD;awGu 10- a,muf/ aygif;vdkufwJhtcg trsdK;orD; 20/ tJ'D 20- eJY azmufjyefwJha,mufsm;onf umarokrdpämpm& rI usL;vGefwmyJ/ 'Dvdkajymwm? tao;pdwfawmh rajymawmhbl;/ tJ'Dvdk um,'kp½dkuf- 'Dum,uHeJY ywfoufwJhtusihfqdk; rdrd oEÅmefrSm&SdNyDqdkvdkY&Sd&if xdktusihfqdk;&JU aumif;usdK;csrf;omqdkwm rjzpfEdkif bl;wJh/ xdktusihfqdk;&JU qdk;usdK;om jzpfEdkifw,fwJh/ jzpfEdkifwmeJY rjzpfEdkif wm/ 'gjzihf um,uHeJYywfoufwJh aumif;wJhtusihfum,okp½dkuf qdkwm bmvJqdkvdkY&Sd&if ygPmwdygw u a&Smifw,f/ t'dEém'ge u a&Smifw,f/ umarokrdpämpm& u a&Smifw,f/ tJ'Dvdk a&SmifMuOf rIu aumif;usdK;csrf;omudk jzpfay:apEdkifw,f? raumif;usdK;ay;w,fqdk wm rjzpfEdkifbl;wJh/ jrwfpmG bk&m;u 'kp½du k f 10- yg;eJyY wfoufNy;D awmh ]aumif;usKd ; qd;k usKd ;qdw k m "r®e, d mravmued,mr obm0twkdif; owfrSwfxm; csuf twkdif;yJ&Sdw,f/ ]ajymif;vGJ azmufjyefNyD;awmh 'kp½dkufu aumif;usdK; udk xkwfvkyfw,f? okp½dkufu qdkusdK;udk xkwfvkyfw,fqdkwm vkH;0rjzpf Ed k i f b l ; ?} ]ok p ½d k u f u aumif ; usd K ;csrf ; om ay;w,f q d k w mjzpf E d k i f w ,f ? 'k p ½d k u f u aumif;usdK;csrf;omay;w,fqdkwm rjzpfEdkifbl;?] ]'kp½dkufu qdk;usdK;ay;w,fqkdwm jzpfEdkifw,f? okp½dkufu qdk;usdK;ay;w,fqdkwm rjzpfEdkifbl;} wJh/ jrwfpGmbk&m;u jzpfEdkifwmeJY rjzpfEdkifwm (qufvufazmfjyygrnf) 'Dvdka[mw,f/

Ak'*¨ w D u d m q&mawmf OD;oDvmpm&

(½kd;rwdrf r[matmifajrausmif;) yÍö o w bd u © K 0w¦ K Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf om0w¦djynf aZw0efausmif;awmfü aeawmfrlaomtcg ur®|mef;pD;jzef;aom &[ef;ig;&mwdo Yk nf tn§m rS a<uusaom rkav;yef;yGihfwdkYukdjrifí igwdkY vnf; udavomrS vGwfatmifjyKukeftHh[k atmufarhMuonfwGif bk&m;&Sifonf *E¨uk#D wkdufawmfrS a&mifjcnfawmfvTwfvsuf ]]0ód um 0d, ykyæged}} paom *gxmukd a[mawmfrl onf/ &[ef;ig;&mwdo Yk nf y#dorÇ'd gywå &[EÅm jzpfukef\/ 0ódum 0d, ykyæged? r'´0ged yrkÍöwd/ {0H &m*Íö a'goÍö? 0dyÜrkaÍöx bdu©a0g/ jref r muAsm rkd;a&qGwfzsef; rkav;yef;rSm? yGihfNyD;cP n§mrSvGwfum? &[ef;rsm;vnf; xkdenf;wlpGm? pGefYvTwfMu &m*ça'goçarm[/ As the fasmine creeper sheds its withered flowers, even os, O bhikkhus, should you totally cast off lust ans hatred.

pum;ajy/ / tkd &[ef;wdkY- rkd;a&qGwfzsef;? rkav;yef;yifonf &ihaf &mfuek af om tyGiw hf u Ykd dk rdrdrSD&m tn§ma<uuRwf pGefYvTwfukefouJhodkY xked nf;tvm; oif&[ef;rsm;vnf; wyfruf&m* jypfa'gowdkYukd ukefpifatmif pGefYvTwfMuukef avmh/


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

6

"r®0D&onf Nidrf;csrf;aompdwfjzpfwnf&ef &Gnf&G,fonf/

r8¾&Spfjzm omoem (2) rk H & G m aeZm

(,cif t ywf r S t quf ) (3) or® m tmZD 0 r*¾ i f or®mtmZD0r*¾ijf zpfatmif um,uH oH;k yg;ESifh 0pDuaH v;yg;wdrYk S a&SmifMuOfí touf arG;0rf;aMumif;rIjyK&rnf/ t&ufa&mif;jcif;? vufeufa&mif;jcif;? rl;,pfaq;0g;rsm; a&mif;csjcif;? jynhw f efqmrsm; arG;í [dkw,f? Zdrfcef;? rdkw,f? {nhf&dyfom? wnf ; cd k a qmif ponf r sm;wnf a xmif u m toufarG;jcif;wdo Yk nfvnf; or®mtmZD0r[kwf ay/ (i) orm"d r *¾ i f (3) yg; or®m0g,mr r*¾if or®m0g,mr r*¾ifjzpf&ef or®yÜ"mef w&m; vHkYvav;yg;ESihfjynhfpHk&rnf/ or®yÜ"mef w&m;av;yg;rSm(u) OyÜEémeH ygyumeH y[mem, 0g,marm- (jzpfNy;D aom tukov kd w f &m;rsm;udk y,fowfz,f&Sm;ypfEdkifatmif tm;xkwfjcif;? vHkYvjyKjcif;) (c) tElyÜEémeH ygyumeH tElyÜg'g, 0g,marm- (rjzpfao;aom tukodkvfw&m; rsm; jzpfay:rvmap&ef tm;xkwfjcif;? vHkYvjyK jcif;) (*) tElyÜEémeH ukovmeH OyÜg'g, 0g,marm- (rjzpfao;aom ukodkvfw&m;rsm; jzpfay:vmap&ef tm;xkwfjcif;? vHkYvjyKjcif;) (C) OyÜEmé eH ukovmeH bda,smbm 0g, 0g,marm- (jzpfay:vmaom ukodkvf w&m;rsm; wd k ; yG m ;atmif tm;xk w f j cif ; ? vHkYvjyKjcif;) wdkY jzpfavonf/ (2) or® m owd r *¾ i f or®mowdr*¾ifjzpf&ef owdy|mef

w&m;av;yg;wdu Yk kd yGm;rsm;tm;xkw&f rnf/ owd y|mefw&m;av;yg;(u) um,mElyóemowdy|mef(cE¨mudk,fESihfywfoufaom ½kyfw&m;rsm;udk owduyfí ½IrSwfyGm;rsm;jcif;) (c) a0'emEl y óemowd y |mef (cHpm;rIa0'emw&m;rsm;udk owduyfí ½IrSwf yGm;rsm;jcif;) (*) pdwåmElyóemowdy|mef- (pdwf jzpfpOfrsm;udk ½IrSwfyGm;rsm;jcif;) (C) "r®mElyóem owdy|mef- (½ky?f emrfwGJaeaom "r®obm0rsm;udk owduyfí ½IrSwfqifjcifyGm;rsm;jcif;) wdkYjzpfayonf/ (u) um,mEl y óemowd y |mef um,mElyóemowdy|mefwGif0ifav? xGufavudk owduyfvsuf ½IrSwf&aom ]tmemyge yAÁ}? oGm;jcif;? &yfjcif;? xdik jf cif;? avsmif;pufjcif;..[kqt kd yfaom £&d ,mykxf (t&d,mykwf r[kwfyg) av;yg;wdkYü rjywfrvyf ½SLrSwf&jcif;- ]£&d,myxyAÁ}/ a&SUwnhw f nho f o Ykd mG ;&müvnf;aumif;aemufzufodkY jyefvnfqkwf&müvnf;aumif;? ynmÓPfjzihf qifjcifrjywf½IrSwf&jcif;/ a&SUwl½IodkY Munfh&müvnf;aumif;eHab;odkY apmif;iJhí Munhf½I&müvnf;aumif;? ynmÓPfjzihf qifjcifrjywf ½IrSwf&jcif;qefYxm;aomvufudk auG;ñGwf&mü vnf;aumif;- auG;xm;aom vuf? ajcudk qef Y w ef ; &müvnf ; aumif ; ? ynmÓPf j zih f qifjcifrjywf ½IrSwf&jcif; 'kuk#fac: ESpfxyf ouFe;f ? oydw?f ouFe;f aqmif&müvnf;aumif;? pm;&m? aomuf&m? cJ&m? vsu&f müvnf;aumif;? usiBf u;D ç usiif ,fpeG &Yf müvnf;aumif;? oGm;&m? &yfwHh&m? xkdif&m? tdyf&m? Edk;&m? pum;ajym&m? pum;rajym wdww f w d q f w d q f w d af epOftcgrsm; üvnf;aumif;? ynmÓPfjzihf qifjcifrjywf ½IrSwftyfaom ]oyÜZnyAÁ}/ pufqkwf&GH&SmzG,fjzpfaomqHyif? arT;n§i;f ? vufonf;ç ajconf;? oGm;? ta&xl? ta&yg;? (qHyifup ta&xl ta&;yg;tqkH;&Sd wpyOöu) tom;? taMum? t½d k ; ? ½d k ; wG i f ;

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DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf vkHhvjynfh0jcif;ESifh wnfMunf&J&ifhjcif;ukd jyqkdonf/

7

&Sief E´u&JU om0uig;&m &S i f Ó P (zsmyH k )

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u b0aygif;rsm;pGmu taygif;tazmfjzpfcw hJ m aMumifhyg/ &SifeE´uç uvnf; 'Dbdu©LeDrig;&m [m ol Y & J U b0aygif ; rsm;pG m oH o &mc&D ; rS m tvkyt f auR;rawGjzpfcw hJ modaew,f/ 'Dawmh olt Y vSnu fh svYkd w&m;oGm;a[m&if olv Y t kd jrif ÓPf&aewJh yk*¾dKvfawGu../ ]]&Sief E´uwdrYk sm; ckxufxd 'Dbu d L© eDr awGeYJ qufo, G af ewke;f ygvm;..}} vdYk awG;jrif oGm;rSm odyf&Sufw,f/ olu olbdu©LeDrawGudk w&m;a[m&r,ht f vSnu fh sw&hJ ufa&muf&if.. ]]t&Sib f &k m;..tmeE´m? wynhaf wmf 'DuaeY ouFe;f csKypf &m&Sv d ?Ykd oydwzf w k pf &mawG &S d v d k Y wjcm;oG m ;yg&ap}} vd k Y a vQmuf N yD ; a&Smifz,faew,f/ w&m;a[mr<ubl;/ wpfaeYusawmh bk&m;u nDawmf tmeE´mudk]]&Sit f meE´m..eufjzef bduL© eDawGukd w&m;a[mzdkY b,folYtvSnfhusovJ..}} vdkY ar;vkdufawmh nDawmftmeE´mu... ]]rSev f yS gbk&m;..oHCmawmh a[mMu wm ukefygNyD..&SifeE´utvSnhfyJ usefygawmh w,f/ 'gayr,hf olu ra[mcsifbl;bk&m;..}} vdaYk vQmufxm;vku d w f mayhg/ tJ't D cg bk&m;u ]]b,frvJ..eE´u..oGm;ac:acs}} vdcYk ikd ;f awmh nDawmftmeE´mu &Sief E´uudk oGm;ac:&w,f? &SifeE´ua&mufvmwmeJYbk&m;u]]eE´u- eufjzef bduL© eDrawGausmif; oGm;NyD; w&m;a[macs..}} vdkY bk&m;u jywf jywfom;om; rdeMYf um;vku d af wmh &Sief E´u 0efcH &awmh w mayh g / 'D v d k e J Y aemuf a eY u sawmh om0w¬jd ynfqrG ;f cHNy;D jyefvmwmeJY w&m;a[mzdYk bdu©LeDrawGqD <uoGm;w,f/ &SifeE´u <uvmwmvnf;jrifa&m? bdu©LeDrig;&mwdkY 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omayhg..]]wdkY

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DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

8

"r®0D&onf vlrsKd;ra&G;? bmomra&G;? avmuom;tm;vkH;twGufjzpfonf/

arwåmw&m;ESihf,SOfum opömw&m;eJYaeyg tyÜ r m' Mobmo-oxk H

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DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf avmuD avmukwå&mtusKd;ESpfyg;twGuf jzpfonf/ w&m;u ork',opömygwJ/h w&m;ud, k t f m;jzihf wPSmvdq Yk Mkd uwJh ]avmb} ygyJ/ b0opfrsm;udk xyf r H j zpf a y:apwJ h vuf o nf [ mol y gyJ / 'DwPSmawGudk umrwPSm? b0wPSm? 0db0 wPSmvdkY oHk;rsdK;jyxm;ygw,f/ vdk&if;tcsKyfu awmh vdck siw f yfrufjcif;avmbvdyYk J qdyk g&ap/ wpfrsdK;csJUajym&r,fqdk&if avmb? a'go? arm[? rme? 'd|d tp&SdMuwJh pdwfudk ylyefapwwf? ESyd pf ufnpfErG ;f apwwfwhJ udav omw&m;qd;k awGukd wk;d yGm;atmifjyKral ejcif;[m rqH;k Edik w f b hJ 0awG qufumqufumjzpfatmif vkyf,laeMuwmygyJ/ 'Duad vomw&m; qdk;awG[m vufcH vomw&m;qd odrf;ydkufxm;wJh owå0g&JUoEÅmefrSm rD;uJhodkY tNrJavmifuRrf;aewwfvdkY rD;eJYoP²mefwl aMumif; q&mawmfBuD;u Oyrmav;ay;cJh wmygyJ / rD;&JUobm0[mvnf; avmifpm&Sv d Qif &Sdoavmuf rukefrcsif; avmifNrdKifwwfwJh oabmaMumih f cE¨ m qd k w J h a vmif p mwk H ; BuD ; &&S d a eorQ ud a vomtyl r D ; BuD ; awG u quf v uf a vmif N rd K uf a erS m yg/ yk x k Z Of r S e f orQ owå 0 gtm;vH k ; [m cE¨ m awG b ,f v d k yif a jymif ; apOD ; awmh ud a vomrD ; awmuf awG u quf v uf a vmif u Rrf ; jcif ; ab;u ruif ; jywf E d k i f y gbl ; / opö m taeeJ Y q d k & if ork ' ,opö m ? 'k u © o pö m 'D E S p f y g;ud k csKyf Nid r f ; atmif rvk y f E d k i f o rQawmh oH o &m vnf a eMu&OD ; rS m ygyJ / 'hgaMumihfyif jrwfAk'¨u arwåmpsmef rSmyif "r®obm0jzpfpOfrsm;twdkif; 0rf;ajrmuf jcif; (ygarmZÆ) aMumifh ESpfoufjcif; (yDwd) jzpf&rI? ESpfoufaomoabm (yDwd) aMumifh Nidrf;csrf;jcif; (yó'¨d) jzpf&rI? Nidrf;csrf;jcif; (yó'¨)d aMumihv f nf; csr;f omrI (okc) cHpm;ae &½HkrQjzihf auseyfa&mihf&JraeMubJ tyÜempsmef txd xlaxmifxm;wJh orm"dtm;udk tajccH vsuf qufvufyGm;rsm;NyD;aemuf 0dyóem vrf;pOfoYkd wpfqihw f ufvrS ;f apvdak omaMumihf ]'d|Íö...tp&Sad om *gxmjzihf tckvq kd ufvuf a[mMum;awmfrlcJhwmygyJ/ oEÅo d ck vdq Yk &kd wJh edAmÁ efcsr;f omonf om csrf;omwumwdkYwGif ppfrSefaomcsrf;om jzpfvdkY edAÁmefodkYrsufarSmufjyKEdkifa&;onfom vdk&if;tESpfjzpfygw,f/ ñT e f ; -arwå m ok w f - y&d w f B uD ; ed ó ,opf (quf v uf a zmf j yygrnf )

pmrsuf E S m 7 rS tcg EGm;qdkwJhtrlt&mjzpfEdkifao;&JUvm;..}} ]]rjzpfEdkifawmhygbl;..bk&m;}} ]]b,fvdkenf;eJYrS jyefNyD;uyfvdkYpyfvdkY EGm;qdw k hJ owå0gyHo k P²mef? [efyefBu;D ay:xGuf vmzdkY&m &Sdao;vm;..}} ]]r&Sdawmhygbl; bk&m;}} ]]aocsm&JUvm; bdu©LeDrwdkY..}} ]]aocsmygw,f bk&m;}} ]]bd u © L eD r wd k Y . .'D o abmobm0 twkdif;bJ rSwfxm;Mu/ oifwdkYonfum;qdkvdkY&Sd &if..tjyifbuf tm,weawGu- ½ly? o'´? *E¨? &o? azm|AÁ? "r®-qdkwJh ckeujyxm;wJh tjyif b uf a jcmuf c k u EG m ;aoaumif & J U ta&cG H e J Y w l w ,f ? [k w f & J U vm;..}} ]]rSeyf gh bk&m;}} ]]pu©K? aomw? Cme? Zd0mS ? um,? re- qdkwJh ajcmufckaom twGif;tm,we awGu EGm;aumifBuD;eJY wlw,fvdkY rSwfxm;? tv,f rS m Nid w G , f a ewJ h a Mumao;? aMumrudk;&mu bmeJYwlvJqdk&if wPSmeJY wlw,f..[kwf&JUvm;}} ]]bmeJYwlygvdrhf bdu©LeDrwdkY..}} ]]wPSmeJYwlygw,f..t&Sifbk&m;}} ]]'Dawmhum..om;vS;D "m;eJY 'DtaMum awGukd jzwfvu kd w f t hJ cg bduL© eDrwdYk EGm;aumif BuD; jyefjzpfzdkY&m jrifao;&JUvm;..}} ]]rjrifawmhygbl; bk&m;}} ]]aumif;NyD...'Dawmh bdu©LeDrwdkY w&m;½I r S w f u swJ h t cg 'D r *f - wnf ; [l a om aAmZÑif w &m;awG e J Y 'D a Mumao;aMumreJ Y qufoG,faewJh wPSmudk oifwdkYjzwfMu&r,f? oabmayguf&JUvm;..}}

]]oabmaygufygw,fbk&m;..}} ]]tJ'Dvdk wPSmudk aAmZÑifw&m;"m; eJY jzwfvkdufwJhtcgusawmh&if? bdu©LeDrawG aomwmyefwnfEdkifw,f? ou'g*grfwnfEdkif w,f? tem*grfwnfEdkifw,f...aemufqHk; &[EÅmjzpfEdkifw,f..[kwf&JUvm;/}} ]][kwfygw,f..bk&m;}} ]]at;..wPSmudk bdu©LeDrwdkYjzpfwJh jzwftm;tay:rlwnfNy;D jzpfMu&rSmayhg? [kwNf yD vm;..}} ]]rSeyf gh bk&m;..}} ]]wPSmudk..wynhfawmfwdkY b,fvdk jzwfMu&rSmvJbk&m;.. trdefY&Sdawmfrlyg..}} bd u © L eD r wd k Y . .a[m'D rS m ]]aumif ; NyD . .bd tqif;udkawGUNyDqdkygawmh..tJ'DvdkawGUwJh tcg 'D t qif ; ½l y g½H k [ m ted p ö v m;.. ed p ö v m;? igar;w,f . .oif w d k Y b,f v d k ajzMuvJ . ..}} ]]ted p ö y gbk & m;..}} ]]at;..'Dvq kd akd wmh..tedp?ö rNrb J ;l qdkwJh..'Dw&m;[m 'ku©vm;? okcvm;..}} ]]'kuy© gbk&m;..}} ]]'Dawmhum..tJ'D tedpö? 'ku©om jzpfwJhw&m;[m ighudk..igh[m..ihgOpöm..vdkY qdEk ikd yf gh rvm;..bduL© eDrwd.Yk ./}} ]]rqdkEdkifygbl;..t&Sifjrwfbk&m;}} (quf v uf a zmf j yygrnf / ) &S i f Ó P (zsmyH k ) pmud k ; - (rd a xG ; awmf a *gwrD E S i f h bd u © L eD r ig;&m uRwfwrf;0ifyHk) oHa0*uxm- rdk;ukwfq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;

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DHAMMA VIRA FOR YOUTHS

10

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BuD;? avScwpfrwfyJvkdcsifw,f}} ]]qk H ; atmif e m;axmif M unf h y gOD ; 'umawmf ? uk e f ; ay:rS m aeae? a&ay:rS m aeae NrKd U rS m aeae &G m rS m aeae a'go w&m;uk d a&S U rxm;ygeJ Y ? uk d , h f p d w f u k d twwf E k d i f q k H ; xd e f ; csKyf q if j cif N yD ; awmh aeyg 'umawmf } } ]]'Dw&m;[m avScwpfrwfay;wm vm;}} ]]rSefayw,f 'umawmf}} ]]rvk d c sif b l ; ? tck a vS c ay;prf ; &aohBuD;}} ]]w&m;pum;ukd avSp;D cvkYd owfrw S f yg 'umawmf}} ]]rvkdcsifbl;? 'Davmufawmif;wm awmif ray;wJh&aohBuD; uJuGm}} a'goukad &SUxm;onhf t0g&d,ydwm wpfa,muf ajymajymqkq d dk &aohBu;D ukd wGe;f vSJ Ny;D vufo;D ESix fh ;dk awmhonf/ xkt d csed f uk, d 0f ef t&ift h rmBu;D ESifh ZeD;jzpfou l xrif;vmydcYk u dk f jzpfonhftwGuf &aohBuD;ukd olYa,musfm; vufoD;pGrf;jyoaeonfukd awGU&onhftcg ajymqkdwm;jrpfawmhonf/ ]]a,musfm; rvkyfeJY? 'g &Sifbk&if ukd;uG,fwJh&aohBuD;&Sihf}} ]]atmifr,f 'Daumifruyg &aoh bufu umqD;umqD;eJY awmuf- aumifr uJ[m..}} ]]tm; em..emvku d w f m.. trav; ukd,fusKd;eJygNyD&SifwdkY...}} tqkH;wGif w&m;ojzihf ajymqkdqkH;r cJ h o nh f bk & m;tavmif ; awmf & aoh B uD ; tm; vufo;D pGr;f jyorIEiS fh t0g&d,ydwmwpfa,muf &Sifbk&ifBuD;\tjypfay;jcif;ukd cHvkduf&onf/ ab;xGufqkd;usKd;taeESihf ZeD;jzpfol\ukd,f0ef yg ysufusoGm;cJhonf/ þZmwfawmfyg om"uukd axmuf qí w&m;ojzihf ajymqkdqkH;rol w&m;a[m "r®uxduwdkYtm; jypfrSm;rdygu ,ck ypöKyÜef b0üyifvQif 'Pfq,fyg;xJrS wpfyg;yg;ukd awGUBuKHcHpm;&NyD; wefjyefoufa&mufrIqkd;usKd; udk ay;pGrf;EkdifygaMumif; owdjyKum qifjcif oihfvSygaypG/ (10) 'g,um (aus;Zl ; &S i f ) rd r d w d k Y u k d ay;urf ; axmuf y H h a om yk*K¾ v d u f dk ygVdvdk ]'g,um} [kac:onf/ ay;urf; axmufyHhonf [lonfh pum;&yfü rdrdwdkYtm; auR;arG;zl;ol? tvkyftudkif&&Sdatmif tul tnDay;ol? tcuftcJ&Sdonhftcg ulnDcJhol?


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf rdrdudk,fudk apmifha&SmufEdkif&eftwGuf jzpfonf/ oma&;ema&;? ½kH;udpöwdkYü ukd,ftm; pdwftm; wdkYjzihf ulnDcJholrSpí ,kwfpGtqkH; rdrd&Smae onhf tdrfwpftdrftm; ñTefjyol (odkY) vdyfpm ajymjyol tm;vkH;onf aus;Zl;&Sifyk*¾Kdvfrsm;yif jzpfMuonf/ ZmwfawmfxJwGif tavmif;awmf aus;rif;onf olrSDckdpm;aomufaexkdifcJhonhf opfyifudkyifvQif aus;Zl;&Siftjzpf owfrSwf onhftaMumif; rSwfom;cJh&onf/ olawmf aumif;wdkY\ pdwfxm;ESvkH;om;um; MunfnKd zG,f twk,zl , G f tm;usz, G &f m aumif;vSygbd/ þavmuBuD;twGif; rSDwif;aexkdif Muonhfolrsm;pGmteuf wpfcsKdUaomolrsm;\ pdwfxm;um; nHhzsif;vS\/ tESDyk*¾Kdvf qif;&J 'kua© &mufpOfu aiGt&if;tES;D xkwaf y;cJo h nf/ xkrd w d af qGxw k af y;onhf t&if;tES;D ESifh Bu;D yGm; vmonhftcg xkdaiGxkwfay;onhfaus;Zl;&Sif ukdyif jyefíwdkufckdufawmhonf/ þodkYaompdwfxm;rsKd;um; vlyDo onhf vlwpfa,mufwGif r&Sdoihf r&Sdxkdufonhf nHzh si;f onhpf w d x f m;rsK;d omjzpfonf/ þodaYk om vlpm;rsKd;ukdvnf; avmuyef;csDum;xJwGif cg;oD ; pG m awG U jrif & wwf y g\/ þod k Y a om vlpm;rsKd;&SdaomaMumihfomvQif ]]aus;Zl;&SdrS aus;pGyfonf}} [lonhfpum;ykH ay:aygufcJh& jcif;jzpfonf/ rdrdwdkYonf rlvwef;tqihfü oif Mum;cJ h & zl ; onh f ]]aus;Zl ; od w wf v G e f ; onh f icif n Kd } } [l o nh f jref r mpmoif c ef ; pmuk d rMumcP jyefvnfzwf½Iay;&ef txl;ta&; BuD ; vS a Mumif ; tpOf o wd c syf o ih f M uonf / þuJ h o d k Y jyef v nf r oif M um; rzwf ½ I y grl rjypfrSm;oihf rjypfrSm;xkdufonhf aus;Zl;&Sifukd jyefvnfjypfrSm;wwfonhf aus;Zl;uef;onhf vlpm&if;wGif yg0ifaumif; yg0ifoGm;ayvdrhf rnf/ þuJ h o d k Y yg0if o G m ;rd c J h y gvQif tavmif;awmfaus;rif;ESihf icifnKdwdkY\ ysuf &nfjyK avSmifajymifuJh&JUjcif;ukd oifcH&rnfu aocsmvS\/ cifyGef;BuD;q,fyg;wGif wpfyg; tygt0ifjzpfonhf aus;Zl;&Sifukd jypfrSm;rdonhf qkd;usKd; tb,frQBuD;rm;í tb,frQ qif;&J 'kua© &muf&onfqjdk cif;ukd atmufygZmwfawmf u taumif;qk;H oufaojyaernfum; aocsm vSawmhonf/ i&J u k d B uKd u f rk q k d ; rk d u f ]wkdif;rodvQifawmh Am&mPoD? rif; rod v Qif jA[® ' wf } [l o nh f p um;ES i h f t nD

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xkdpOfu jA[®'wfrif;BuD; Am&mPoDjynfukd tk y f p d k ; awmf r l p Of u mvjzpf o nf / bk & m; tavmif;awmfonf xkdpOfu oDv0em*&mZm trnf & S d a om qif r if ; jzpf c J h o nf / wpf a eY Am&mPoDjynfrS rkqkd;wpfa,muf awmvnf xGufcJh&mrS [dr0EÅmawmBuD;xJü rsufpdvnf vrf;rSm;avawmhonf/ rkqkd;vnf; pdk;&drfaMumufvefYpGmjzihf idka<u;aeonf/ rkqkd;ikdoHukd bk&m;tavmif; awmfqifrif;Mum;&onhftcg oem;Muifem vSonhftwGuf rkqkd;&Sd&modkY wpfaumifwnf; xGufvmonf/ rkqkd;onf qifrif;ukdawGUonhf tcg aMumufvefNY y;D xGuaf jy;onf/ aemufq;Hk ü rkqkd;onf qifrif;olYukd u,fwif&efvmrSef; odrS xGufrajy;awmhbJ taMumif;pkHukd ajymjy cJhonf/ qifrif;vnf; rkqkd;ukd olaexkdif&m t&yfoaYkd c:oGm;Ny;D opfo;D ponhf tpm;tpm wdu Yk dk auR;arG;apmihaf &Smufxm;onf/ aemufq;Hk wGif rkqkd;ukd ausmukef;ay:wifí Am&mPoD a&TNrKdUodkYjyef&mvrf;twdkif; vkdufydkYay;NyD; rdrd aeonhfae&mudkvnf; rnfolYukdrQ ajymrjy&ef rSmMum;vkdufavonf/ rk q k d ; rk d u f u m; aus;Zl ; arh a vNyD / Am&mPoDodkY jyefa&mufonhftcg qifpG,f 0,fonhfolwdkYtm; ]qifpG,f,lrnfavm} [k ar;&m ta&mif;t0,fjzpfoGm;onhftwGuf [dr0EÅmodkY qifpG,f,l&ef 'kwd,tBudrf xGuf vmcJhonf/ qifrif;xHa&mufí taMumif;&if; ukd ar;onht f cg aus;Zl;rodwwfonhf rkq;dk rku d f vnf;qifpG,fwpfykdif;ukd vkdcsifívmyg onf [k jyefajzvkdufonf/ bk&m;tavmif; awmfqifrif;onfvnf; rkq;dk ukd oem;u½kPm oufonhftwGuf rkqkd;wGif toihfygvmonhf vTjzihjf zwf,cl idk ;f onf/ rkq;dk tm;vnf; qifp, G f ay;vku d &f onht f aMumif;ukd þodYk ajymqkv d u dk f onf/

]]toifrkqkd; igonf oifhtm;ay; vdkufonhf tpG,fukd rESpfoufír[kwf? þ tpG,fxuf wefzkd;&Sdaom oAÁnKwÓPfukd &vkdíom &nfoefí vSL'gef;jcif;jzpfonf}} rkqkd;rkdufvnf; Am&mPoDodkYjyefvm NyD; qifpG,fa&mif;&orQaiGwdkYjzihf okH;pGJaexkdif cJh&mrS aiGukefoGm;onhftcg qifrif;xHvmNyD; tpG,af wmif;jyefonf/ þodYk tpG,af wmif;zef rsm;vG e f ; vS o jzih f qif r if ; ü tpG , f & if ; rQ usefavawmhonf/ rkqkd;rkdufum; avmb&r®ufBuD;rm; vS\/ rdrt d m; auR;arG;ay;urf;cJzh ;l onfh aus;Zl; ukdrSraxmufn§mawmhbJ qifrif;wGif usef&Sd aeonhf tpG,f&if;ukdyg vTjzihf &uf&ufpuf puf jzwf , l a vawmh o nf / qif r if ; vnf ; rkq;dk rku d \ f vufcsuaf Mumifh a0'emukd jyif;xef pGm cHpm;ae&if;uyif toufaooGm;&&Sm avawmhonf/ tjyefvrf;c&D;wGif jzpfonf/ ,kwrf m onhfpdwfxm;ESihf aus;Zl;&Siftm; jypfrSm;apmf um;cJ h o nh f rk q k d ; rk d u f t m; tavmif ; awmf qifrif;uom oufn§maomfvnf; r[myx0D ajrBu;D u vufrcHawmhay/ ESpo f ed ;f av;aomif; txk&Sdaom ajrBuD;onf ESpfjzmuGJoGm;NyD; ,kwfrmonhfrkqkd;rkdufukd t0Dpdi&JodkY qGJcsoGm; ygavawmhonf/ xkdYaMumifh bk&m;tp auR;arG;ay; urf;cJhzl;onhf aus;Zl;&SiftqkH; q,fyg;aom cifyGef;BuD;wdkYukd rjypfrSm;rdMuap&ef tpOftNrJ ESvkH;oGif;qifjciftyfvS\/ þodYk qifjcifEkdif &eftwGuf aus;Zl;BuD;rm;vSonhf cifyGef;BuD; q,fyg;taMumif;ukd odxm;&efvnf; vkdtyf vS \ / þuJ h o d k Y od & S d q if j cif E k d i f M uap&ef &nfoefí þpmpkukd a&;om;vkdufjcif;om jzpfyg\/ pd M w&H o D ñT e f ; ig;&mig;q,f e d y gwf a wmf

pmrsuf E S m 10 rS avmuü tvGefjyKEdkifaomtrIudkjyK\/ xdkol onf aemufumvü aus;ZljyKonfrlvnf; jzpfap? aus;Zl;rjyKonfrlvnf;jzpfap? pifppf ylaZmfjcif;udk cHxdkuf\[lí jzpfygw,f/ "r®rdwfaqG wlav;? wlrav;wdkYa&/ 'DwpfywfrmS rdwaf qG&UJ oabmw&m;? vu©PmawGudk &SmazGazmfjya&;om;xm;wmrdkY rdrdwdkY&JUb0a&SUa&;twGuf taygif;toif;udk

a&G;cs,faygif;oif;wwfMuvdrfhr,fvdkY arQmfvihf rdygw,f/ aumif;usdK;jyKaom rdwfaqGaumif;? rdwfaqGppfawGeJY awGUBuHKEdkifMuygapvdkYvnf; qE´jyKvkdufygw,fuG,f/ usrf ; ud k ; ig;&mh i g;q,f e d y gwf a wmf rsd K ;jrih f (atmif v H )


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

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"r®0D&onf vlrsKd;ra&G; bmomra&G;? vlom;rsKd;EG,ftm;vHk;twGuf jzpfonf/

tbd"r®mw&m;awmfudk avhvmylaZmfjcif;(5) armif r sKd ; xG e f ; (jrif ; NcH )

tbd"r®mw&m;udk toHk;cs tbd "r® m jzpf a pEk d i f a om pmwpf a yG U tawG U wpf c suf [ l a om pum;&yf u d k avh v m wif j yjcif ; pmwpfayGU tawGUwpfcsuf[laom pum;&yfudk a&S;q&mawmfBuD;rsm; tqdk&Sdaom pum;[k qkdyg\/ pmwpfayGUtawGUwpfcsuf [laom pum;udk wdkuf½dkuft"dyÜg,f,lygu pmwpfayGU pmwpf y d k ' f a vh v moif , l & aom tod x uf 0d y óemur® | mef ; tm;xk w f o jzih f ]tawG U wpf c suf } jrif o d & aom or® m 'd | d u yd k í tusKd;&Sdonf[k ,lqEkdifygonf/ rnfonfhw&m;pum;rqdk tvHk;pHk rS e f a om (Absolute truth) w&m;rS m opöm(4)yg; w&m;jzpfyg\/ usefw&m;pum;wdkY rS m ( Partial truth) ½I a xmih f a jymif ; vQif t,ltq ajymif;Ekdifaom oabm&SdaMumif; avhvmawGUEkid yf gonf/ pmwpfayGU tawGUwpfcsufudk ½Iaxmihf(1) rS avh v mjcif ; v,fwDq&mawmfBuD;\ ax½kyÜwdå udk ½kyfjrifoHMum;wGif em;axmif&Munhf½I&yg \/ od o ih f o nf u d k a &G ; í wif j yxm;ojzih f xda&mufaom jyuGufrsm;udk awGU&yg\/ owdjyKqifjcifrdonfrSm q&mawmf BuD ; \ wynh f & if ; ynmwwf r sm;jzpf a om v,f w D y @d w q&mOD ; armif B uD ; ? yk y Ü g ; OD;ausmf&ifwdkYrSm pmwpfayGUEkdifatmif oif,l EkdifMuaomfvnf; ]]rmwk*gr tawGUwpfcsuf}} ESihfawGUaomtcg vljyefawmfynm&Sdrsm;tjzpf ajymif;vJukefMuyg\/ þ½IaxmihfrSMunhfvQif ]pmwpf a yG U tawG U wpf c suf } ud k t"d y Ü g ,f aumuf & mwG i f pmud k od ½ H k o uf o uf o m oif,lxm;NyD; pmay"r®\ vrf;ñTef;csufESihf tnD usihfBuHtm;xkwfjcif;r&Sdygu umr*kPf tm½HkawmxJ jzwfoef;&aomtcg tawGU wpfcsufaMumihf pmwpfayGUudk arh&ufMuay awmhrnf[k qifjcif&yg\/

tawGUwpfcsuftwGuf jrwfAk'¨ay;cJh aom umuG , f a q; t*FkwådK&fygVdawmfjrefrmjyef pm (96) ]]yxra,mZD0okw}f } wGiaf vhvmEkid yf gonf/ ol & J a umif ; (5)rsKd ; (u) y|rol & J a umif ; / &ef o l w yf wuf v maomaMumih f jzpfaom ]jrLrIe}f xkukd jrifumrQjzihf r&yfwnfEikd f ppfajrjyifodkY rqif;0Hhawmhyg/ (c) 'kwd,ol&Jaumif; / &efolwyf\ ]tvHzsm;} udkjrifumrQ jzihf r&yfwnfEidk ?f ppfajrjyifoYkd rqif;0Hah wmhyg/ (*) wwd , ol & J a umif ; / &efow l yf\ ]us,af vmifajrmufjrm;} aom toHudkMum;umrQjzihf r&yfwnfEkdif? ppfajrjyifodkY rqif;0Hhawmhyg/ (C) pwkw¬ol&Jaumif; / &ef o l w yf \ xd k ; ck w f y k w f c wf j cif ; aMumihf yifyef;\? ysufpD;jcif;odkYa&muf\/ (i) yÍörol&Jaumif; / &efolwdkufcdkufrIudk BuHUBuHUcHvsuf xdkppfajrüatmifjrifrI&um tkyfpdk;aeEkdifol/ ol & J a umif ; (5)rsKd ; OyrmES i h f &[ef ; b0 tEÅ & m,f , S O f j yjcif ; (u) y|rol & J a umif ; \ usqH k ; cef ; þrnf a om &G m ed * H k ; ürd e f ; rBuD ; onfvnf;aumif;? rdef;rysKdonfvnf;aumif; tqif;vS\? ½IcsifzG,f&Sd\/ pdwfMunfvif zG , f & S d \ ? vG e f u J a om tqif ; o@mef E S i h f jynhfpHk\[k (owif;)Mum;\/ xdkowif;Mum; umrQjzihf &[ef;onfqkwfepf\? jrwfaom tusiu fh rkd usiEhf idk ?f odum© tm;enf;rIukd xifpmG jyKívlxGufav\/ þonfrSm jrLrIefxkjrifí usqHk;&aom Oyrmwnf;/ (c) 'k w d , ol & J a umif ; \ usqH k ; cef ; ½IcsifzG,fvnf;&Sd? tqif;o@mefu vnf;vS pdwfMunfvifzG,f&Sdaom rdef;rBuD; onfvnf;aumif;? rdef;rysKdonfvnf;aumif; &Sd\/ xdkoludk &[ef;onf udk,fwkdifjrifzl;\/

xd k t cg &[ef ; onf jrwf a om tusih f u d k rusihfEkdif/ odu©mtm;enf;rIudk xifpGmjyKí vlxGufav\/ þonfrSm tvHrsm;udk jrifum rQjzihf usqHk;&aom Oyrmjzpf\/ (*) wwd , ol & J a umif ; \ usqH k ; cef ; wpfyg;wnf; w&m;tvkyfvkyfae aom &[ef;xHodkY rmwk*gronfuyfvm\/ NyHK;íjy\/ ajr§mufyihfívnf; pum;qdk\/ jyif;pGmvnf; &,farm\/ ajymifavSmifrIvnf; jyKwwf\/ þodkYawGUBuHK&aomtcg &[ef; onf jrwfaomtusihfudk rusihfEkdif? odu©m tm;enf ; rI u d k x if p G m jyKí vl x G u f a v\/ þonfrSm us,favmifajrmufjrm;aom toH aMumihf usqHk;&aom Oyrmyifjzpf\/ (C) pwk w ¬ o l & J a umif ; usqH k ; cef ; wpfyg;wnf; w&m;tvkyfvkyfae aom &[ef;xHodkY rmwk*gronf csOf;uyfvm NyD; teD;uyfxdkifae\/ teD;üuyfítdyf\/ zdpD;vTrf;rdk;\/ xdkuJhodkY awGUBuHK&aom &[ef; onf jrwfaomtusihfudkrusihfEkdif? odu©mtm; enf;rIudkxifpGmjyKí vlxGufav\/ þonf rSm &efol\ xdk;ypfykwfcwfjcif;aMumihf usqHk;& aom Oyrmjzpf\/ (i) yÍö r ol & J a umif ; atmif y G J c H j cif ; ur®|mef;0dyóemw&m;tvkyf vkyf aeaom &[ef;xHoYkd rmwk*gronf uyfvm\/ teD;uyfxikd \ f / teD;uyftyd \ f ? zdp;D vTr;f rd;k \/ þtajctaeESiBfh uKH aomf &[ef;onf rmwk*gr udk pGefYcGmvsuf tvdk&Sd&modkYzJcGmoGm;\/ (1) ae&m/ awmopfyif&if;? awmifacsmuf? awmifacgif;? ocsØKif;? awmtkyf? vGifjyif? aumuf½;kd yH[ k al om qdwNf ird &f mausmif;üae\/ (2) aexd k i f y H k / xuf 0 ,f z G J U acG N yD ; ud k , f h u d k ajzmihfrwfpGmxm;í (ur®|mef;) odkY a&S;½I owd udkjzpfapvsufxdkif\/ (3) w&m;ESvHk;oGif;yHk (uu) þOyg'geu©E¨m (5)yg;[laom avmu ü rufarmjcif;? tbdZÑmudky,fí tbdZÑmuif; aompdwfjzihfae\/


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf t&G,foHk;yg; &[ef;&Sifvltm;vHk;twGuf jzpfonf/ (cc) ysufpD;apvdkaom a'goudky,fí rysuf pD;apvdkaom pdwf&Sdonfjzpfí cyfodrf;aom owå0gwd\ Yk tusK;d pD;yGm;udk vdv k m;vsuf ae\/ (**) av;vHxikd ;f rd;fI jcif; xderd'u ¨ ykd ,fí tvif; a&mifrSwfjcif;&Sdonfjzpfí ae\/ (CC) O'¨pö? ukuúKpöwnf;[laom ysHUvGihfrIESihf aemifw wpfzef ylyefrIrSuif;atmifae\/ (ii) ,HkrSm;jcif;? 0dpdudpämrS vGefajrmufae\/ (pp) ynmudktm;enf;apaom eD0&P 5 yg;rS uif;vGwfatmifae\/ (qq) pwkw¬psmefOayu©mjzihfae\/ (4) tmo0u© , ÓPf o d k Y a&S U ½I a pjcif ; (uu) &[ef ; onf wnf M unf v wf a omf ? pdwfpifMu,fjzLpifvwfaomf? npfnL;jcif;uif; vwfaomf? El;nHhvwfaomf? tmoa0gw&m; wdkYudk ukefapaom tmo0u©,ÓPftvdkYiSm pdwfudk a&SU½IñGwfap\/ (cc) xdktcg opöm(4)yg;udkod\/ (**) xdktcg tmoa0gw&m; (4)yg;udk od\/ tmoa0gw&m;wdkYjzpfaMumif;udkod\/ tmo a0gw&m;csKyf&m edAÁmefudkod\/ tmoa0g w&m; csKyf&medAÁmefa&mufaMumif; tusihfudk od\/ (5) vGwfajrmufjcif;ESihf atmifyGJ&ol&Jaumif; (uu) &[ef;\ pdwfonf umrmo0? b0go 0? 'd|mo0? t0dZÆmo0rS vGwfajrmuf\/ vGwfajrmuf NyD;aomf vGwfajrmufNyD[k odaom ÓPfjzpfay:\/ (cc) y#doaE¨aerIukefNyD? jrwfaomtusihfudk usifhNyD;NyD? (r*f) udpöjyKNyD;NyD? (r*f) udpötvdkYiSm wpfyg;aom jyKzG,fudpör&Sd[k od\/ þonf um; atmiftyfNyD;aom ppfajrjyifü vTrf;rdk;í aeaom yÍörol&aJ umif; trsK;d tpm;yifwnf;/ yÍörol&Jaumif;jzpfatmif BudK;pm; tm;xkwjf cif;onfyif ]tawGUwpfcsu}f twGuf jrwfAk'¨ay;awmfrlcJhaom umuG,faq;jzpfyg \/ xd k Y a Mumif h tawG U wpf c suf a &S m if E k d i f z d k Y enf;vrf;rsm;udk pmwpfayGUxJwiG f &Smxm;oihyf g \/ umuG,af q;&Smrxm;Ekid yf gu ]&ifqikd v f Qif zifxdkifarh} arhaom b0odkY usqif;Ekdifyg\/ ½Iaxmifh (2) pmwpfayGUtawGUwpfcsufESihf BuHKaomfvnf; jrefrmwdkY\ Ak'¨omoem0if orkdif; wGif armfueG ;f xd;k avmufonfh jzpfpOfwpf&yfonf awmifzv D mq&mawmfvufxufwiG f BuKH awGUcJh &ygonf/ &Sifbk&ifonf awmifzDvmq&m awmfudk pmayusrf;*ef ESHUpyfaom yk*¾dKvfudk 2 rsKd ; 2 cG t vd k & S d \ / yxrtrsKd ; tpm;rS m rmwk*grESihf zsm;a,mif;ojzihf vlxGuf&vQif

ynm&S d trwf B uD ; cef Y í eef ; wG i f ; a&;wG i f toHk;cs&ef 'kwd, trsKd;tpm;rSm rmwk*grESihf zsm;a,mif ; í r&ojzih f vl r xG u f c J h a omf omoemhwHcGefozG,f MunfndK&efjzpfygonf/ tvGefacsmarmvSyaom vHkri,f wpfa,mufonf tusÐvHkcsnfrsm; pkwfNyJvsuf ]q&mawmf u,fygbk&m; wynhfawmfraemuf udk rk'def;wEÅawGvdkufaevdkYyg[k nae ae0if &Dwa&mwGif q&mawmfausmif;teD;odkY a&muf vmcJhonf/ q&mawmfu rD;zdkacsmif (rD;wif; ukwf)ü aecGihfjyK\/ nOfheufaomf w[D;[D; nnf ; nL\/ rD ; zd k a csmif t vif ; a&mif j zih f q&mawmf tm½Hkysufjym;avmufaom nHhouf &m t*Fg½dIufzdkBuD;i,fwdkYudkjy\/ q&mawmf pdwfAavmifql\/ odkYaomf q&mawmfonf tbd"r®mpmwpfayGUwGifygaom (yawm') pdwf ud k rrS e f r uef b uf r oG m ;bJ rS e f w J h b uf oGm;atmif xdef;ausmif;wwfaom tarm[ apwodufudk EdI;qGawmfrl\/ x&HwGif xdk;xm; aom "m;armufjzifh ajcovH;k udk cwfqwfqwf ckwfvdkuf\/ a0'emay:vm\/ xdka0'emudk a0'em Ekyóemjzihf ½Iíaevdu k \ f / rde;f ri,f u q&mawmfudk &Sdcdk;awmif;yefNyD; jyefoGm;\/ xdkYaemuf &Sifbk&ifu ausmif;odkYvmNyD; q&m awmfudkar;\/ tvGefqmavmifaom yk*¾dKvf [m a&SUrSma&mufvmwJh xrif;yGJudk rpm;bJ aeEkdifEkdifygYrvm;ar;\/ q&mawmfu tJ'D tar;udkajzzdkY a&uef&Sd&modkY &Sifbk&ifudk ac: oGm;\/ igonf xdknu oDvxdef;Ekdifygu þ"m;armuf o nf a&uef w pf b uf u rf ; od k Y ul;oGm;ygap? oDvysufcJhygu a&üepfjrKyfyg ap[k opömqdu k m ajcovH;k udk 'Pf&apcJah om "m;armuf u d k a&uef x J y pf c svd k u f y g\/ "m;armuf o nf a&uef \ wpf z uf u rf ; od k Y ul;oGm;yg\/ ,ckxd "m;armuful;uefonf ppfudkif;awmif ajrmufbufteD; um;vrf; ab;wGif&Sdyg\/ þonfrSm tbd"r®mw&m;udk vufawGUtoH;k csaom q&mawmf\ pmwpfayGU tawGUwpfcsufudk a&SmifEkdifjcif;jzpfygonf/ MunfndKzG,faumif;aypG/ ½Iaxmihf(3)tawGUwpfcsufrS pmwpfayGUodkY vrf;twdik ;f avQmufvmaom &[ef; tm; a,musfm;wpfa,mufuar;\/ ]t&Sif bk&m;vrf;rSm rdef;rwpfa,mufawGUygovm;} [lí q&mawmfu rdef;rvm;bmvm; igrod? t½d;k pk wpfcak wmhomG ;aewmawGU\[k wkejYf yef rdefYMum;yg\/ a,musfm;\ tawGUwpfcsufonf rdef;r[laom todom&Sd\/

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&[ef ; \tawG U wpf c suf r S o nf pmwpfayGUqDokdY cE¨m=tpkta0;? cE¨m 5 yg;jzpfysufaeonf rSwyg;bmrQr&Sd? tm,we= uHaMumihfjzpfaom yom'½kyfwdkY onf tm½H'k gG &wdu k q f ikd v f Qif odr0I Ó d Pfpw d u f kd jzpf a ponf h o abm? ysuf a ponf h o abmrS wyg; bmrQr&Sd/ "mwf= yx0D(rmoabm? aysmhoabm)t½dk;pk rSmvJ rmoabmaysmhoabm&Sd\/ tmayg= yx0Dpka0;&mü zGJUpnf;oabm ,dkpD; oabmtaxmuftyHhjyK\/ awaZm=yloabm? {oabm&Sd\/ 0ga,m= wGef;uefvIyf&Sm;oabm&Sd\/ "mwf 4 yg;jzpfysufrSwyg; bmrQr&Sd/ opö m = ypö K yÜ e f c E¨ m &jcif ; onf 'k u © o pö m ? twdwfu cE¨m&zkdYtaMumif;cHoabmonf ork', opöm? cE¨mwdkY\ csKyfjcif;oabmonf eda&m" opöm? cE¨mcsKyf&modkYa&mufaMumif; tusifhrSefonf r*¾opöm? y#dpöorkyÜg'f= opöm 4 yg; rodaom t0dZÆm aMumihf cE¨m&rI ocFg&udkjyKpk\/ ocFg&aMumihf y#doaE¨0dnmPfjzpf&\/ y#doaE¨0dnmPf aMumihf emrf½kyf? emrfaMumifhzó? zóaMumihf a0'em? a0'emaMumihf wPSm? wPSmaMumihf Oyg'gef? Oyg'gefaMumifh ur®b0? ur®b0 aMumihfZmwd Z&m r&P aomu y&da'0 'ku© a'greó Oyg,mowdkYjzpfMu\/ taMumif; tusKd ; quf oH o &mvnf o nf h o abm w&m;rSwyg; bmrQr&Sd okn? þoH o &mvnf a paom oabm w&m;BuD; &yfap&ef oDveJYy,f? orm"deJYy,f? ynmeJY y,f&rnfjzpf\/ tqihq f ihaf om oDv? tqihq f ifah om orm"d? tqihq f ihaf om ynm ESifhjynhfpHkap&ef pmwpfayGUqDodkY a&mufoGm;\/ pmwpfayGUxJrSm tajz&Smvdkufawmh ]tokb onm t|du ur®|mef;udk ESvHk;oGif;íMunhf vdkuf&m rdef;r rawGU t½dk;pkom awGUawmh\/ xdkYaMumifh vdktyfaom tbd"r®m pmwpfayGUrS (ynmow¦) ynmvufeufudk &Smxm;EkdifygvQif tawGUwpfcsufudkatmifjrif pGm &ifqdkifEkdifygrnf/ ½I a 'gif h ( 4) zóES i h f , S O f a om pmwpf a yG U rS zóed a &m"tawG U wpf c suf o d k Y &Sifom&dykMwm\ wynhf omraP i,f y@dw trnf&yg\/ udk&ify@dwonf qGr;f cHomG ;pOf v,fxo J Ykd ajrmif;oG,í f a&oGi;f aeaom v,form;rsm;? opfom;udk vdkovdk a&Gvsuf vSnf;bD;? vSnf;wH vkyfaeMuonfh


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

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"r®0D&onf pdwfzdpD;rI uif;a0;aponf/

vuform;rsm;? oHxnfut kd ylay;Ny;D aygufjym; "m;? ud&d,m vkyfaeMuaom yef;yJorm;rsm;? jrm;wefukd rD;uifíajzmihaf y;aeaom rkq;kd rsm; udk jrifawGU&\/ q&mt&Sifudkar;\? v,fxJ oGif;aoma&? opfom;? oHxnf? jrm;wefwdkYrSm pdwf&Sdovm;[líjzpf\/ q&m&Sifu pdwfr&Sd[k ajz\/ pdwfr&Sdaom t&mrsm;udkyif vdkovdk ajzmihfEkdifaomf pdwf&SdaomigYtwGuf pdwfudk ajzmihEf idk &f rnf[k qifjcifyg\/ þqifjcifÓPf onf pmwpfayGUru odawmfral om ynmt&m ü {w'*f&onfh t&Sifom&dykwå&m\ tajzrS &cJhyg\/ zóESifh,SOfaom pmwpfayGUtod[k qdkaomf qDavsmfyg\/ tbd"r®mw&m;ü yg0if aom aombP apwoduf(19)vHk;rS um,kZk uwm? pdwåKZkuwm (pdwfeJY apwodufudk ajzmihfapjcif;)yifjzpfyg\/ xdktodudk tajccH vsuf ausmif;jyefw&m;tm;xkwf&m zóed a&m"g a0'emed a &m"g? wPS m ed a &m"g ponfjzihf qifhuJcsKyfjcif; oabmudk½Ijrifvsuf rGef;rwnfh rD (4)r*f(4)zdkvf &awmfrlyg\/ þonfrmS zóESi, fh OS af om pmwpfayGUrS zó eda&m" tawGUwpfcsufodkY vSrf;wufcJhaom om"ujzpfyg\/ NcHKiHkoHk;oyfí wifjyvdkonfrSm Ak'¨ omoemawmf \ tEÅ d r &nf r S e f ; csuf r S m rysufpD;aom pdwf\ vGwfajrmufjcif;jzpfyg\/ odrt I &m ynmodum© ü udavomwdu Yk kd y,fEidk f aom ynm? xdkrSwqifh ynda`E´(tpdk;w&odrI)? ynmAd k v f ( rwk e f r vI y f o d r I ) xd k r S w pf q ih f ynmow¦ (ynmvufeuf) jziht f aESmiht f ,Suf oHo, 0dpdudpämrsm; y,f&Sm;EkdifzdkY pmwpfayGU (y&d,wd)å trSev f ykd g\/ xdt Yk wl wPSmeda&m"g edAmÁ ef[o l nfEiS t fh nD wPSmcsKy&f m edAmÁ efwnf; [laom ]tawGUwpfcsuf} qDodkY a&mufzdkYvnf; vdkyg\/ xdkYaMumihf y&d,wdåESihf y#dywdåonf cG J j cm;í r&aumif ; aom oabm&S d o jzih f pmwpfayGUwGif r&yfbJ oHo&mrSvw G af jrmuf&m tawG U wpf c suf q D o d k Y O D ; wnf o ih f y gaMumif ; avhvmylaZmf&if; wifjytyfygonf/ armif r sKd ; xG e f ; (jrif ; NcH ) rS D j irf ;

0ufusm; Oyrm

aZmf n Kd a t;(ausmif ; uk e f ; ) rdrdukd,fwkdifu avmfrmazmufjym; a[m&rf;aomhorG ;f rIr&Sad omfvnf; wpfcgwpf&H ü oufoufrJhapmfum;jcif;cH&wwfygonf/ xk d t cgrsKd ; ü tod w &m;jzih f owd x m;í onf;cHEkdifrIr&Sdygu rjzpfoihfwmawG jzpfoGm; Ekdifygonf/ tukodkvfqkdonfrSm ul;pufvG,f ygonf/ uif;atmifaeonhw f idk f rywfoufcsif ygbJvsuf ywfouf&wwfygonf/ vlawmfawmfrsm;rsm;onf b0wpf auGUwGif xku d o hJ aYkd omtjzpfrsK;d ukd BuKzH ;l Murnf omjzpfygonf/ rdrdwdkYonf xkdtcgrsKd;ü rnfuJh odkY &ifqkdifajz&Sif;cJhMuygoenf;/ tEkenf;jzihf vm;? tMurf ; enf ; jzih f v m;/ rS e f u ef a om enf;vrf;ukda&m &SmazGawGU&SdcJhMuyg\vm;/ þuJ h o d k Y atmuf w ef ; usaom tjyKtrl r sKd ; jzih f wd k u f c k d u f x k d ; ES u f v mygu? atmuf w ef ; usaom enf ; vrf ; jzih f o m (trsm;tm;jzih f ) &if q k d i f w k e f Y j yef ajz&S i f ; avh & S d M uygonf / oif a umif ; vQif uREf k y f rqk d ; ygqk d o vd k yg;uk d u f v Qif em;jyef u k d u f &ef y J BuH r d M uygvd r f h r nf / &ef o l u tif t m;ao;vQif a wmh tEkenf;jzihfjzpfap? tMurf;enf;jzihfjzpfap vG,u f pl mG ESrd ef if;Ekid yf grnf/ tm;Bu;D aom&efol jzpfygu rw&m;rSef;odaomfvnf; i,fygvkd taewwf&ygawmhonf/ 'gonf onf;cHjcif; tppfr[kwf/ rEkdif Ekdifíonf;cH&jcif;yif jzpf ygonf/ wpfcsKUd Muawmh &efot Yl iftm;ukd rSerf eS f uefuefrokH;oyfEkdifbJ tefwkrdí t½IH;BuD; ½IH;Mu&ygonf/ pdwfrxdef;Ekdifí tMurf;zuf ESdrfeif;cJhaomf a'go\ab;xGufqkd;usKd;tjzpf &mZ'Pfoihf&ygvdrfhrnf/ ]]&ef a tmif a omol o nf &ef u k d yGm;aponfrnf\? ½IH;edrhfaomolonf qif;&J &\/ xkdYaMumihf igonf atmifjcif; ½IH;jcif; uk d y ,f ? pd w f a t;csrf ; ompG m aeayth H } } ]]tMuifyk*¾Kdvfonf rdrdu tiftm; &Sdvsuf tm;r&Sdaomyk*¾Kdvfukd rn§Of;qJrlí onf ; cH u mae\/ xk d y k * ¾ K d v f u k d jrwf a om yk * ¾ K d v f [ l í ol a wmf a umif ; wd k Y u csD ; usL; 1/ r,f v rk t bd " r® m oif w ef ; rS Muuk e f \ / tm;enf ; aomyk * ¾ K d v f o nf u m; xk w f a om pmayrsm; tNrJ o nf ; cH & ay\/}} 2/ "r® o *F P D j ref r mjyef tbd " Z r[m&|*k ½ k ? tbd " Z 3/ t*F k w å d K &f j ref r mjyef t*¾r[m o'¨r®aZmwdu b'´EÅ y@dwod&D

a&T[oFmq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;\ vufa&;awmf jzifh csD;jr§ihfaom qkH;rpmrsm;rS aumufEkwf azmfjyjcif;jzpfygonf/ vlwidk ;f vlwidk ;f rSwo f m; vkdufemoifhaom Mo0g'rsm;jzpfygonf/ ]][m- 'grsKd ; vmapmf u m;vd k Y a wmh b,fcHrSmvJ? wdkYu pdefac:&if wdrfay:txd vkdufr,fuG? pdefac:&if bGmrcwfbl;uG}} þodkY rkdufpdwfarG;í vlrkdufESihf wkzuf,SOfNyKdifvQif rdrdvnf; vlrkdufESihf rjcm;awmhygNyD/ tu,fí rdrdtm; vlaMumufBuD;? EGm;BuD; [k qkdvmjim;tHh/ tusKd;ESihftjypfukd qifjcifodwwfolonf onf;cHíom aeoihf vSyg\/ cyf½kdif;½kdif;qkd&aomf olrsm;acs;pm; wkdif; rdrdu vkdufrpm;rd&ef vGefpGmta&;BuD;vS ygonf/ þpum;ukd xif&mS ;atmifcsUJ yg OD;rnf/ 0uf w pf a umif o nf rpif r sm;uk d tqrwefpm;aomufí olYwpfukd,fvkH;vnf; rpifjzihf vdrf;usHNyD;aemuf usm;ukd ppfwkduf ukdufcJrnf[k BuHpnfvsuf]]tkd-usm;? ppfxkd;vdkvQif vmcJh? ighukd aMumufí aemufqkwfrajy;ESihf}} [k pdefac: onf/ xkdtcg usm;u]]tkd- 0uf? oifonf pufqkyfzG,f ykyfaomtarG;&Sd\/ raumif;aomteHYvIdif\/ tu,fí igeJpY pfx;dk vkad omqE´&adS evQif oifyJ tEkid , f o l mG ;yg/ igonf oifEiS rfh wdu k cf u dk v f ydk g}} [k pufqkyf&GHU&SmpGm jyefajymvsuf a&SmifvTJ oGm;aMumif;jzihf 0dbpä&ojy,k*frSm zwf&zl;yg onf/ xkdYaMumihfrSwf&efrSm- rdrdukd vlaMumufBuD;[k xifvQif vnf; xifygap/ vlrkdufESihf tefwkzufNyKdifí xdyw f u dk &f ifqidk rf u I dk a&Smif&mS ;vku d yf gu tusK;d r,kwEf idk af wmhyg/ aZmf n Kd a t;(ausmif ; uk e f ; )


DHAMMA DEW "r®0D&onf csrf;ajrhaysmf&TifrItwGuf jzpfap&onf/

17

v,fxGefenf;yrm arwåmyGm;rsm;ykH oD w mOD ; (jref r mpm) arwåmqdo k nfukd cspcf ifjcif;[k teufziG q hf Mkd uygonf/ okcw d 'kuw d© owå0gtrsm;udk rdru d , kd u f rkd rd cd spcf ifouJo h Ykd cspcf ifjcif;jzpfonf/ arwåmonf a'goAsmyg'rsm;aomolwdkY\ pifMu,faMumif; vrf;aumif;vrf;jrwf0o d 'k rd¨ *¾jzpfonf/ a'goAsmyg'uif;vdu k arwåmudk yGm;rsm;Muonf/ v,f x G e f e nf ; yrm arwå m yG m ;Mu&yH k arwåmydkYoMu&mwGif awmifolv,form;wdkY v,fajrudk xGef,ufjyKpkMuonhfenf;pepfyrm arwåmydkY? yGm;rsm;Mu&monf/ v,fxeG Mf uaom awmifov l ,form;wdo Yk nf v,f,majrudk pwifxGef,ufMu&mü xGefoGm;x,foGm;wpfckpm wpfckpmrSonf wjznf;jznf;wdk;íwdk;í xGef,ufMu&ouJhodkY? arwåmydkYoyGm;rsm;Mu&m wGifvnf;? tykdif;tjcm;enf;enf;upí wjznf;jznf;wdk;csJUum? wpfqihf wpfqihfwkd;wufyGm;rsm;ydkYoMu&rnf[k qdkayonf/ arwåmydkYoyGm;rsm;Mu&mü OD;pGmyxr aetdrfwpftdrf&SdvlESihf owå0gwdt Yk m; tm½Hjk yKí? arwåmpdww f nfwn hH ufanmacsmajyoGm;atmif ydkYo&ygrnf/ xdkrSwpfqihfwpfqihfwufí? 2? 3? 4? 5? 6? 7? 8? 9? 10 [lonhf vrf;wpfck? &yfuGufwpfck? &Gmwpf0uf? &GmBuD;wpf&Gm? NrdKUwpfNrdKU? NrdKUe,fwpfck? c½dkifwpfck? wdkif;wpfck? jynfe,fwpfck? xdkrS EdkifiHawmf wpf0ef; ponfwdkYrS urÇmtESHY? pMu0Vmwpfckwdkifatmif wdk;í? csJUí yGm;rsm;ydkYoMu&rnfjzpfygonf/ xdkrSwpfzefwdk;csJUí xdkxdkpMu0VmwdkYü wnfaeorQ &S&d o dS rQowå0gteEÅwt Ykd m;&nfp;l í arwåmydo Yk yGm;rsm;Mu& rnf[k ck'e´ u d m,f0if tbd"r®y#d u"r®o*FPyD gVdawmfEiS fh ¤if;t|uxm wdkYwGif a[mawmfrlygonf/ arwå m tBud r f B ud r f t zef z ef y d k Y o jcif ; arwåmwnf;[laom cspcf ifMuifemonhpf w d af pwemudk wpfO;D rSwpfOD;? wpfOD;rStrsm;xHodkY ydkYoyGm;rsm;Muonhftcg? (1) oaAÁowåm ta0&ma[mEÅK- owå0gcyfodrf; ab;&efNidrf;Muygap/ (2) oaAÁowåm tAsmyZÆma[mEÅK- owå0gcyfodrf;wdkY pdk;&drfaMumifhMuuif;Nidrf;Muygap/ (3) oaAÁowåm teDCma[mEÅK- owå0gcyfodrf;wdkY qif;&J'ku©uif;Nidrf; Muygap/ (4) oaAÁowåm okct d wåmeH y&d[&EÅK- owå0gcyford ;f wdo Yk nf udk,fpdwfESpfjzm at;csrf;om,mMuygapownf; ponfjzihf tBudrfBudrf tcgtcg tzefwvJvJ yGm;rsm;ydkYojcif;jzpfonf/ þodkY arwåmapwemudk tBudrfBudrftcgcg ydkYovmaomtcg jrwfpGmbk&m;ñTefjyawmfrlygaom jA[®0d[m&w&m;av;yg;pvHk; tBuHK; 0ifvmonfjzpfí? aomuAsmyg'uif;Nidrf;NyD; pifMu,faMumif;jzpfaom olawmfaumif;wdkYavQmufvSrf;&mvrf;aumif;vrf;jrwf 0dok'¨dr*¾vrf; aMumif;ay:wGif rdru d , kd w f idk yf g avQmufvrS ;f aeavNy[ D k tbd"r®myd#u awmfü a[mawmfrlygonf/ arwå m yG m ;rsm;jcif ; jzih f jA[® 0 d [ m&av;yg;jzpf y H k arwåmydkYoyGm;rsm;jcif;jzifh jA[®0d[m&av;yg; 0dok'¨dr*¾jzpf aMumif; qdkufa&mufaMumif;udk þodkYa[mawmfrlygonf/ (1) arwåmonf a'goAsmyg'rsm;aomol\ pifMu,faMumif;

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DHAMMA DEW

18

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ESihf tvkyfrrSefrdaomfvnf; pdwf"mwfjyKjyifí pmoif&jcif;jzpfayonf/ tarhom;&[ef;onf pmayoifMum;&eftwGuf NrKd Uay:wufcg pmoif w d k u f B uD ; rsm;üae&ayNyD / touf u m;BuD ; pm0grBuD ; ojzih f udk&ifi,fwdkYtMum; uav;uvm;eJY tajy;tvTm; pmusufae&onfh tcg i,fi,fu pmoif&eftusKd;ray;aom b0a[mif;u uHtusKd; ay; wa&;a&;jzihf rausreyfjzpfae&onf/ odkYaomfvnf; BudK;pm;yg vQif OD;usnfayGUawmiftwufaygufao;onf[k tarhcE¨mtwGuf tm;cJí oif,l&avonf/ xdkodkYpmoif&mrS awGUBuHKcJh&aom cHpm;csufrsm;aMumihf tarh xHa&;onfh tarhedAÁmefwHcg;yGihfapvdkjcif;jzihf b0rSwfwrf;av; a&;cJh avonf/

a&BuD;qihfjrKwf 0g;tdrfpkwfESihf xkwfay:vlae rdk;aqGavwdkuf a&vdIif;½dkufí uif;rdkufa`rGqdk; awGUwwfrsKd;rdkY &efrsKd;axGaxG pdwfawGav& pm;&jyefaomf qefeDausmfESihf tazmfz½Hk a&vHkjyKwfjyKwf okwfokwfpm;& þb0um; okcb,frSm&Sdrnfenf;/ (&[ef;crnf;awmf) tarh e d A Á m ef w H c g;yG i h f a p tarum; aevdkYraumif;? trl;? tarm? tarha&m*grsm; udk;vvG,fum cHpm;aepOf aeYpOfjyKpkvkyfauR; apmihfa&Smufay;vsuf toufESpfq,f q,fvrSmzGm; odYk t0if tarhtm; txufpmoma&;xm;vsuf xGucf mG oGm;um &[ef; tarhom;wJh orPac: jyK&Smaom tarhom;wpfOD;\ ESvHk;om;½dkufcwfoH jzpf&yfrSefaywnf;/ NrKd Uay:odw Yk uf taronf igonf arG;xm;tarhom;rSm þpma&;om;vsuf awmif a 0S ;wpfbufESihf tarhtwGuf rarhrw&m; "ar®mo"aq;tajy;&Smvsuf tarhxH tajy; pmusufoaemf jyefvmum wdkufauR;rnfh tarhom;udk 'ku©a0'em atmihftD;cHvsuf toufausmf arQmfvihfae&Smonf/ tcgaESmif;cJhvfdkY tarhom;onf tarudkjrwfEdk;\/ tarhtem;u wpfz0g;rS b0a[mif;0dyguf emcsufuay: rcGmvdkygacs/ c&D;oGm;í tdrfjyefvmvQif tarhrsufESm&Tif&Tifjrif&rS emcsufay:ol b0ifat;wwfonf/ tarc&D;oGm;vQif qm;rygaom [if;vsmpm;& tarhom; onhfyrm aygYysufysuf jzpfaewwfonf/ wpfavmuvHk;&Sd trsKd;orD; raerem; usufvdkYaysmf rsm;wGif tarum; tem;vnfqHk;? aus;Zl;trsm;qHk;? tepfemtcHqHk; ynmawmftoihfwwfvQif tarjzpfonfudk tarhom;odxm;av\/ tusihfjrwfudkwJharQmf tarhtem;u rcGmcsifaomfvnf; tarh'ku©Nidrf;at;a&; tusihfjrwfvQif tarhaus;Zl; twGuf rarhw&m;&Smvsuf tarhtm; rarhw&m;jzihf aus;Zl;qyfvdkjcif; a&S;OD;qyfvkdYazmf aMumifh xGufcGm&ygonftar/ aus;Zl;azmfvQif rarhw&m;ESihf b0'ku©rsKd;pHk tukeftvHk;pHkrS xGufajrmufvdkaom tarhom; tarhedAÁmefwHcg;yGihfapaomf/ cifAsmvnf; rarhaom tyÜrm' owdw&m; vufudkifxm;vsuf &[ef; tarhtwGuf rarhw&m;jzihf aus;Zl;a<u; ay;qyfvdkaom b0jzihf BuKd ;pm;tm;xkwaf eonf/ odaYk omfvnf; ]]vlttdyrf ufjrifouJh tarh o m; &[ef;uav; y&d,wfpmayrsm; oifMum;aepOfu tarh odkY}} tdyfrufwGif jrifawGUcHpm;&orQ rajymwwfaomaMumihf b,foludk twGuf rarhw&m;jzihf edAÁmefwHcg;yGihfapvdkonfudk xkwfEIwfa&;om; rS jyefajym rjyEkdifjzpfae&onf/ tm;xkwfvQif NyD;NyD[k xifcJhaomfvnf; y&d,wftajccH ryg cJhjcif;jzpfayonf/ tarh t wG u f arQmf v ih f c suf ojzihf (Ówy&dnm todr&Sdojzihf) rdrdtm;xkwf&rnfhvrf; A&rf;Awm Nidrf;csrf;&dyfNrHK yef;aygif;pHkESihf rSef;um avQmufaeí c&D;raygufjzpfae&Smavonf/ þtwdkif;qdkyg &*HkNrdKifv,f awawmife,fodkY vQif tarhtm; rarhw&m;a[mzdkY a0vma0;jzpf&acsrnf/ oHk;xnfouFef; oydwfxrf;vQuf xdkodkYjzpfí tdyfrufonfudk ajymjyEkdif&eftwGuf pum;ajym awmvrf;wavQmuf &GmpOfa&mufvdkY wwf&efvdkvmacsNyD/ usihfpOfvrf; rsufrSef;wef;zdkYtwGuf y&d,wfw&m; pdwfaemufAsmuif; ÓPfr*fvif;í pmayrsm;udk oifMum;zdkY&ef tBuHay:vmavonf/ tarhom;cifrsm arQmfjcif;rsm;pGm rdrmwmodkY tm;xkwv f o kd nfh qE´jynh0f ap&eftwGuf ynmoifwwfc&hJ ayNy/D 0goem


DHAMMA DEW "r®0D&onf t&G,foHk;yg;vlom;tm;vHk;twGuf jzpfonf/ aocsmuse jrwf"r®jzihf ay;iSa0csif igYpdwfpOfonf b,fwGifb,fa&GU b,faeYusrS jynhf&vdrhfrnfenf;/ tarhtwGuf jrwfw&m;jzihfaus;Zl;a<u; ay;qyfcsifvdkaom aMumihf arQmfvifhjcif;rsm;pGm &&SdcJh&avonf/ þuJhodkYyif tarhom;&[ef;onf y&dowf pcef;udk &yfem;cJh um y#dywdåtusihfvrf;odkY vSrf;avawmhonf/ udk,fwkdifrarhw&m;jzihf ½IyGm;BudK;pm;&avonf/ tarhtwGufrsm;vnf; rarhw&m;jzihf tar udk,fwdkif tm;xkwfapzdkYvnf; BudK;pm;&jyefonf/ taronfvnf; tarhom; &[ef;tusifh pcef;awGeYJ tarhxH jyefvmNy;D enf;ay;rnfukd usiBfh uyH mG ;csií f arQmv f ihv f suaf eonf/ tarh om;&[ef;twGufvnf; tppt&m&m jynhfpHkpGmjzihf csrf;csrf;omom aeEkdifa&; ausmif;? ouFef;? qGrf;? aq;ypönf;av;jzm BudKwifumpDpOfvdkY yDjyifpGm om;zdkYta&; jyKjyifaqmif&Gufay;xm;aewJh tarwnf;/ &ufvESpfawG Mumavaomf wpfaeYwGif tarhom; &[ef; tarhxjH yefvmayNy/D tarum; cgwdik ;f vdrk [kwaf wmh/ touft&G,Bf u;D vdYk rsurf eS w f yfcg NyKH ;ae&SmaygY/ auomqHyifrsm;uvnf; jzLjzLazG; tarh td r f u av;uvnf ; ½d k i f ½ d k i f awm*Ek d i f z sm;rS m aqmuf í xm;? tarhcE¨mud, k t f rd u f av;uvJ ,d;k ,d;k ½dik ½f ikd ?f tdr½f ikd u f u kd sm;axmufay; cE¨m½dkifudk awmifa0S;ay;vsuf tarhom;&[ef;em;uyfvsuf ]tar b,fw&m;yGm;&rvJ} [ktm;cJxm;oavmuf avQmufavonf/ tarhom;&[ef;onf tarh&Gmausmif;wGif w&m;pcef;zGihfum ur®|mef;w&m;rsm; jyoay;avonf/ a,m*Dtrsm;vnf; w&m;0iftm; xkwfaeMuonf/ tarvnf; BudK;BudK;pm;pm; yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfaeawmh onf/ xdw k &m;pcef;wGif tm;xkw&f aomenf;vrf;um; owdy|mefw&m; omwnf;/ tarhtm;vnf; rarhw&m; tm;xkwfapcJhonf/ tm½HkrSeforQudk rarhjcif;onf raovrf;odkYoGm;aom c&D;jzpf onf/ rao&m edAÁmefodkY a&mufaMumif; wpfvrf;armif;jzpfonf/ rarh jcif;onf ,ckypöKyÜefüyif raooljzpf\/ aemiftem*wftwGufvnf; rao&efp&H,lxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ rarhjcif;onf pdk;&drfylaqG; idka<u;jcif; paom udavoma&m*gtaygif;rS vGwfajrmufvsuf r*faygufzdkvf0if edAÁmefjrifonftxd avQmufvSrf;&rnfh vrf;aumif; vrf;jrwfBuD;jzpf onf/ tar/ tm½HkcHpm;&mwdkif;ü rarhaomowdjzihf trSwfrdaeaomf xif&Sm;&Sdonfh oabmw&m;udk rodr&Sdododaernfjzpfonf/ tm½HkrSef rdjcif;onf t&Sdt&Sdtwdkif; odcGihfomojzihf tarhaysmufvQuf tawGU aygufaponf/ tar/ rlvur®|mef;taejzihf 0ifavxGufavwdkY rdrdESmoD;zsm; odrYk [kwf EIwcf rf;zsm;wdu k cf u kd f xdawGUoGm;onfukd odoad y;ae½Hrk Q ½Irw S f ay;ygav tar/ þodjYk zihf um,a0'em? pdw"å r®tm½H[ k o l rQ rarhaom tm;jzihf ½IrSwfay;&ef tarhtm; tarhom; wGef;tm;ay; ½IrSwfaponf/ tarhonf þw&m;udt k arhom;rsm;udk jrwfE;kd ovd?k jrwfE;kd xm; ygav? tarum; om;udkjrwfEdk;ojzihf om;utarhudk aus;Zl;jyefqyfo vdk þw&m;udk tarjrwfE;kd u w&m;utarhuakd us;Zl;jyefqyfygvdrrfh nf/ taronf om;udktcsdef&SdorQ rarhovdk w&m;udkrarhygavESihf tarum; w&m;udk om;vdkrarhvQif tarhom;rsm;ESihfawGUygvdrhfrnf tar/

19

taronf tarhom;av;rsm; y#doaE¨aepOfu om;av; twGuf tEÅ&m,fjzpfrnfpdk;í tyl? tpyf? tcg;ponfrsm;udk rdrdBudKuf onfjzpfap? rBudKufonfjzpfap? owdjzihfqifjcifí pm;aomuf&? a&SmifMuOf&? toGm;tvm taetxdkif? tvkyftudkif? tukef;tuG ttdyu f rusef owdjzihq f ifjcifí a&SmifMuOf&avonf/ xdo k t Ykd arhom; y#doaE¨aeonfrSm (9)vausmf (10)vjzpf&onf/ þuJhodkYyif tarhcE¨mudk,fwGif tmemygeówd(owdy|mef) w&m; y#doaE¨paeonfjzpfí xdkowdw&m;av;twGuf tEÅ&m,f jzpfrnfukd pd;k &dru f m tpm;taomuf? toGm;tvm? taetxdik f ttdyf ponfrsm;udk rarhaom owdw&m;jzihf vkyu f ikd pf m;aomufygav/ w&m; tEÅ&m,fjzpfaprnft h vkyrf sm;udk a&SmifMuOfygav/ tusK;d aus;Zl;rsm;rnfh tvkyfudkvkyfygav tar/ odkYrSom tarh\w&m; y#doaE¨om;uav; BuD;xGm;&ihfrm csrf;ompGm&Sdayrnf/ udk,ft*Fg jynhfpHkpGmjzpf&rnf/ tpm;? toGm;? tvkyrf sm; ra&SmifyJ arG;zGm;vmaomom;onf qGt H usK;d uef;vsuf vlpOf rrDwwfjzpf&wwfonf/ xdkUaMumihf taronf tarhom;oaEÅudk vG,x f m;apmihaf &SmufouJo h Ykd rarhw&m;oaE¨ukd vG,x f m;apmihaf &Smuf ygav tar&,f/ xdkodkYjrwfEdk;,k, apmihfa&SmufygvQif rarhom; rarhw&m; av;csrf;csrf;omom tEÅ&m,fuif;pGmjzihf w&m;vlpOfrD w&m;ÓPf&nf xuf tarhtwGuf tm;udk;&rnfh rarhom; tarhtm;tusKd;rsm;atmif tarha<u; tausay;qyfrnfh rarhom;av; arG;zGm;ay;ygvdrhfrnfom wnf;/ tarhom;av;rsm; zGm;jrifaomtcgü tarcifAsm; a,musfm; azmifpD;? rdef;rrD;ae qdk½dk;pum;twdkif; aoab;ESihf teD;uyfqHk; &ifqdkif Mu&í ]ao&rnfavm? &Sif&rnfavm} [kawG;awmum armMu&NyD/ aorif;ESifh oltEdik f ud, k t f Ekid f tNyKd iu f su J ek v f suf toufukd aorif;xH aygifESH tyfESif;í cufcJpGmzGm;jrif&avonf/ ]rD;aeonfrdef;r? wpfaeYoHk;wef? ajrokomef? a&T½kyfemrf cygowJh}} qdkpum;t& wpfaeYoHk;BudrfrQ okómefajra&mufae&onf/ þodkYjzihf tarhom;twGuf toufay;í oufpGefYBudK;yrf;pGm jzihf tarum; arG;zGm;ay;ojzihf vlYb0odkY tarhom;a&mufvm&ouJh odkYyif tar\ rarhw&m;oaE¨om;onfvnf; MumjrihfpGmvG,fxm;um rarhowdy#doaE¨ro S nf rarhowdÓPfvb Yl 0odYk zGm;ajrmufa&;twGuf vnf; tarhtoufESihfaorif;ppfcif;vsuf oufpGefYBudK;yrf;pGmjzihf owd orÜZnvlb Y 0rarhw&m;udk zGm;jrifay;vdu k yf gavuG,f tar&,f/ rarh w&m;udktm;xkwf&mü aorif;xH touftyfESH&wmrsKd;r[kwfbJ aorif;udk ppfcif;jcif;rsKd;omjzpfygonf tar/ (quf v uf a zmf j yygrnf ) pmrsuf E S m 16 rS (3) tusdK;pD;yGm;rjzpfxGef;jcif;/ (4) pnf;pdrfOpömysufpD;jcif;/ (5) tNcHt&HtausmftapmrJhjcif;/ (6) rdwfaqGtaygif;toif;uif;rJhjcif;/ (7) aemufb0wGif tyg,fvm;&jcif;/ oD w mOD ; (jref r mpm)


THE 'LEDI' DHAMMA ON BODHIPAKKIYA DIPANI

20

"r®0D&onf tarGaumif;ay;Edkif&eftwGuf jzpfonf/

rHk&GmNrdK hr[mv,fwDwdkuf? u

aus;Zl;&Sif v,fwDq

a&;om;jyKpka

aAm"dyu

THE BODHIPAK O THE MANUAL OF THE FACTORS by Maha-thera Ledi- Saya-daw,

TRANSLATED into English by U Sein Nyo (,cif t ywf r S t quf )

tukodkvfü OyÜEé- tEkyÜEécGJyHk t"dyÜm,fum;- oHo&mü usifvnfíaeMuukefaom owå0g taygif;wdkY\ oEÅmefü1/ OyÜEétukodkvf? 2/ tEkyÜEé tukodkvf- [lí ESpfyg;pD &Sdukef\/ 1/ OyÜEétukodkvfqdkonfum;- twdwf tukodkvfç ypöKyÜef tukov kd q f o kd wnf;/ a&S;a&S;aom urÇmtqufquf b0tqufquf wdrYk S ,aeYxufwidk af tmif rdu k rf mS ;jyKusií fh vmcJah om tukov dk af [mif; pkç 'kp½dkufa[mif;pk raumif;pkqdkvdkonf/ xdktwdwftukodkvfonf tyg,fi&Jü y#doaE¨tusKd ;udk ay;cGi&hf í tcsi;f cyford ;f ukeNf ird ;f avNy;D aom tukov kd u f aH [mif;pkvnf;&S\ d / y#doaE¨ukd tusKd ;ay;cGirhf &ao; í xdyk *k Kd¾ vo f EÅmefwiG f b0rsm;pGm urÇmtqufquf pdwx f çJ ESv;kH xJrmS tNrJyg&Sdíaeaom tukodkvfuHa[mif;pkvnf;&Sd\/ ouúm,'d|dwif; vif; &SdaeMuukefaom vlç ewfç jA[®m owå0gwdkYtm; wa,muf wa,mufaom olrSmyif t0DpdodkY usa&muf&ef a<u;a[mif;ç NrDa[mif; tukodkvfuHtaygif; teEÅyg&SdíaeMu\/ <uif;aom i&J? <uif;aom tyg,fwo Ykd Ykd usa&muf&ef uHa[mif;wdv Yk nf; teEÅyg&Sí d aeMu\/ þodYk uHajrmufNy;D jzpfvsuf y#doaE¨tusKd ;udk ay;cGirfh &ao;í tcGiu fh akd pmifh pm;um tpOfyg&SdíaeMuaom tukodkvf'kp½dkufa[mif;pkudk þt&mü OyÜEq é o kd wnf;/ xdkOyÜEétukodkvf 'kp½dkufuHa[mif;wdkYonf ouúm,'d|drSm wG,w f mMuuke\ f / ouúm,'d|&d adS eorQumvywfv;kH tusKd ;ray;&vQif wckaom uHa[mif;rQ aysmufysufonf[lír&Sdav/ tMuiftcgü tewåvu©Pmudk aumif;pGmxifjrifí ouúm,'d|cd sKyq f ;kH \/ xdt k cgü xdkOyÜEéjzpfaom tukodkvfa[mif;wdkYonf tEljrLrQ t<uif;tusefr&Sd ukerf í l tukeu f , G af ysmufMuuke\ f / xdyk *k Kd¾ vo f nf xdb k 0rSpí aemif tem*wfoHo&mü uHa[mif;twGufESihf tyg,frIudk tdyfrufwGifrQ rBuHK& avNyD/

(Continue from last week) Uppanna and Anuppanna Akusala Kammas In the personality of every being wandering in samsa-ra (round of rebirths), there are two kinds of akusala kammas (unwholesome volitional actions) namely, 1. Uppanna akusala kamma, and 2. Anuppanna akusala kamma. Uppanna akusala kamma means past and present akusala kammas. They comprise unwholesome volitional actions committed in the interminable series of past world-cycles and past lives. Among these akusala kammas, there are some that have spent themselves by having produced rebirths in the apa-ya-lokas. There are others that await the opportunity of producing rebirths in the apa-ya- lokas and thus constitue potentialities to rebirth in the apa-ya-lokas that accompany beings from world-cycle to world-cycle and from life to life. Every being in whom sa-kkaya-dit.t.hi (Personality-belief) resides, be he a human being, or a deva, or a bra-hma, possesses an infinitely large store of such past debts, so to say, consisting of akusala kammas (unwholesome volitional actions) that have in them the potentiality of producing rebirths in the other apa-ya-lokas. These past kammas which await a favourable opportunity for producing rebirth resultants and which accompany beings from life to life until and which accompany beings from life to life until they are expended, are called uppanna. These past uppanna akusala kammas have their roots in sa-kkaya-dit.t.hi (Personality-belife).As long as sa-kkaya-dit.t.hi exists, they are not expended without prodcing resultants. There is no case of past kamma expending itself without producing due resultants. But when with insight into the Anatta lakkahan.a (Characteristic of Impersonality), one rids oneself of sa-kkayadit.t.hi (Personality-belief), from that instant, all the uppanna akusala kammas lose their potentiality and disappear from the store of past akusala kammas. From that existence, one will no longer become subject to rebirth in the apa-ya-lokas in future samsara even in one's dreams. Anuppanna akusala kammas means future akusala


THE 'LEDI' DHAMMA ON BODHIPAKKIYA DIPANI "r®0D&onf avmuom;tm;vkH;\ ta&;t&mjzpfonf/

21

usrf;jyKtausmf urÇmausmf

q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;

awmfrlaom

u©, d 'DyeD

KKHIYA DIPANI R S LEADING TO ENLIGHTENMENT y Aggamaha-pan.d.ita, D. Litt.

o Tun, Late of The Indian Civil Service. 2/ tEkyEÜ é tukov kd q f o kd nfum;- tem*wftukov kd w f nf;/ ,ckb0wGif aemufcPrSpí b0tqufquf rdu k u f u G &f w dS idk ;f wGiw f iG f rdkufrJ arSmufrSm;í oGm;OD;rnhf tukodkvfopfç 'kp½dkufopfç trdkufopfç trSm;opf teEÅwu Ykd kd tEkyEÜ q é o kd wnf;/ xdt k ukov kd f 'kp½du k o f pfç trSm; opfwo Ykd nf wa,mufwa,mufaomoltm; wb0 wb0rSmyif teEÅ teEÅjzpfEikd \ f / xdt k EkyEÜ t é ukov kd 'f pk ½du k f trdu k cf yford ;f wdo Yk nfvnf; ouúm,'d|rd S xGuMf uuke\ f / ouúm,'d|rd S aygufzmG ;Muuke\ f / tMuif tcgü ouúm,'d|dcsKyfqHk;\/ xdktcgü xdkyk*¾dKvfoEÅmefwGif xdktEkyÜEé jzpfaom tukodkvfuHopfwdkYonf tEkjrLrQ t<uif;tusefr&Sdukefrlí tuk e f c sKyf N id r f ; Muuk e f \ / xd k o EÅ m ef ü aemuf c Pç aemuf b 0ç aemufurÇm tqufqufwdkYü w&HwqpfrQ jzpfvmjcif;r&Sdonfudk csKyNf y;D rIqo kd wnf;/ xdyk *k Kd¾ vo f nf xdck PrSpí aemifterw*¾oo H &mü ygPmwdygwuH- tp&Sdaom tukodkvf'kp½dkuf trdkuftrSm;rIrsm;udk tdyfrufwGifrQ rBuHK& avNyD/ ouúm,'d|d &Sad eMuukeo f nf&adS omf av;uRe;f aoXfeif; pMum rif;wdkYonfvnf; i&JrD;awG a&SUaemufwcGifvHk;n§yfí aebdouJhodkY xdOk yÜEçé tEkyEÜ é tukov kd Ef pS &f yfun kd y§ í f avSmifíaeuke\ f / tylaumif Bu;D oufoufwo Ykd mwnf;/ ewfjynfajcmufxyf ewfrif;ç odMum;rif;Bu;D ? ½lyç t½lyjA[®mBuD;wdkYonfvnf; xdkYtwl tylaumifBuD;awGomwnf;/ i&JBuKd ;ç i&JveG çf tyg,fBuKd ;ç tyg,fveG f wif;vif;ESifh tusO;f tMuyfae& aom olwdkYomwnf;/ oHo&m0JMoCBuD;ü epform;ç rGef;orm;wdkYom wnf;/ jrKyform;ç arsmorm;wdkYomwnf;/ terw*¾oo H &mwGif tvGeaf wGUBuKH cv J aS om bk&m;omoem udk ajr§mfMu&ukefonf? awmihfwMu&ukefonfum; jzpfav&m&mtpOfyg í a&SUwcGiv f ;kH aemufwcGiv f ;kH 0dik ;f tHak vSmifny§ í f aeukeaf om xdOk yÜEçé tEkyÜEétukodkvf i&JrD;wdkY\ wcgwnf;NyD; csKyfNidrf;jcif;[laomtcGihfduk tvGet f vd&k MdS uukeo f nfjzpfí bk&m;omoemü ajrm§ Mf u&uke\ f ? awmifw h Mu&ukef\/ bk&m;omoemESihf awGUBuHKMuaomolwdkYonfvnf; xdkb0 wGif xdOk yÜEçé tEkyEÜ é tukov kd f i&Jr;D wdu Yk kd taoowfrI tvkyw f pfcu k kd

kammas. Beginning with the next instant in this life, all the new evil and unwholesome acts that one commits whenever opportunity occurs in the course of this present life and in the succession of lives that are to follow, are called anuppanna. These new akusala duccarita kammas (evil and unwholesome volitional actions) that one can commit even during a single lifetime can be infinite in number. All these anuppanna akusala kammas have their origin in sakka-ya-dit.t.hi. If at any time sakka-ya-dit.t.hi disappears, all the new anuppanna akusala kammas also disappear, even at that instant, from the personality of the beings concerned, leaving no residue. Here, "disappear" means that there will be no occasion, starting from the next instant, in future succession of lives and future succession of world-cycles, when new akusala kammas are perpetrated. Throughout future anamatagga samsa-ra (beginningless round of rebirths), those beings will not commit, even in their dreams, any akusala kamma (unwholesome volitional action) such as pa-na-tipa-ta (killing any living being). If sakka-yadit.t.hi remains, even though the being is a Universal Monarch exercising sway over the whole universe, he is, as it were, sandwiched between hell-fires in front and hell-fires at the back, and is thus hedged in between the two akusala kammas of uppanna and anuppanna and anuppanna. He is thus purely a creature of hell-heat. Similarly, the kings of the devalokas, Sakka, the king of the Tavatimsadeva-loka, the Brahma-s of the Rupa and Arupa Brahma--lokas, are all purely creatures of hell-heat. They are creatures that are hitched on to the chains of hell and the apaya regions. In the great whirlpool of samsa-ra, they are purely creatures who drift or sink. In the infinitely long sam.sa-ra, beings have to cultivated the desire for encountering a Buddha Sa-sana, which is an extremely difficult achievement. Hedged in as they are, from before and behind, by the hell-fires of uppanna and anuppanna akusala kammas, they have to cultivate earnestly the desire to extinguish those fires once and for all. Hence, those beings who do encounter Buddha Sa-sanas, have to make the extinguishing of the hellfires of uppanna and anuppanna their sole task for their future


THE 'LEDI' DHAMMA ON BODHIPAKKIYA DIPANI

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"r®0D&onf oEdÅokcodkY a&S;½Ijy|mef;onf/

om udk,fusdK;ç udk,fpD;yGm; jyKvkyfMu&ukef\/ xdkOyÜEéç tEkyÜEétukodkvf ESp&f yfwu Ykd kd taoowfrq I o kd nfvnf; ouúm,'d|ad ovQif xdt k ukov kd f ESpf&yfwdkYvnf; tukefaoukefawmhonf/ xdt k ukov kd Ef pS &f yf aoNird ;f Ny;D aom 0domcgç temxydPf tp&Sd ukeaf om toacs, F s teEÅrsm;vSpmG ukeaf om bHpk OfpaH omwmyef jzpfol ewfç vlç jA[®m taygif;wdkYonfum;- ouúm,'d|d csKyfNidrf;aomem&DrSp í 0J M oCoH o &mü epf r I ç rG e f ; rI ç jrKyf r I ç arsmrI w d k Y r S uRwfvGwfMuavukef\/ oOyg'daoo y&dedAÁmefwGif;odkY a&mufMuav ukef\/ b0rsm;pGm urÇmrsm;pGm oHo&mü usifvnfíoGm;Muukef aomfvnf; avmuDbo kH çl avmuDbo kH m;r[kwMf uukeNf y/D bHpk Ofpt H &d,m avmukwå&mbHkolç avmukwå&mbHkom;wdkYaywnf;/ (þum;- aomwmyefy*k Kd¾ vw f Ykd uRwv f w G Mf uaom OyÜEçé tEkyEÜ é tukodkvfESpf&yfwdkYudk jyqdkcsufwnf;/) tuk o d k v f ü OyÜ E é ç tEk y Ü E é c G J c Pf ; t>ruf N yD ; \/ ukodkvfü OyÜEéç tEkyÜEécGJenf; ukodkvfü OyÜEéç tEkyÜEécGJcPf;udk oDvç orm"dç ynm[laom omoem 3- yg;? oDv0dok'¨dç pdwå0dok'¨dç 'd|d0dok'¨dç ucFg0dw&P0dok'¨dç r*¾gr*¾ÓP'óe 0dok'¨dç y#dy'gÓP'óe 0dok'¨dç avmukwå&ÓP 'óe 0dok'¨d[laom 0dok'¨dckepfyg;wdkYudk tpOfrSD;í jyqkdaytHh/ aMumuf v ef Y z G , f & m oH o &m þoHo&mBu;D onf tvGeaf Mumufz, G ?f vefzY , G af umif;vS\qdkonfrSmvnf; 'd|dtarSmuftrSm;BuD;vQif t&if;&Sdaom jyqdkcJhNyD;aom OyÜEçé tEkyEÜ -é 'kp½du k f trdu k t f rJwt Ykd wGuyf ifwnf;/ þoHo&mBu;D onf ck&d mr&Sçd ud;k &mr&Sçd yke;f atmif;&mr&Sq d o kd nfrmS vnf; xd'k |d t d arSmuftrSm; 'kp½dkuftrdkuftrJwdkY\ twGufyifwnf;/ xdk'd|dtarSmuftrSm; csKyfNidrf; cJhvQif ta[mif;topf 'kp½dkuftrdkuftrJ tukefcsKyfNidrf;vQif xdkolrSm tyg,foo H &mBu;D tNy;D vGwNf ird ;f \/ jrihjf rwfaom vlb Y 0ç ewfb0ç jA[®mh b0wdkYom usef&Sdukef\/ xdkYaMumifh tyg,foHo&mBuD;ESifhwuG OyÜEéç tEkyÜEéjzpfaom 'kp½dkuftopfta[mif;wdkYudk waygif;wnf; wvHk;wnf; wcsufwnf; uRwfvGwfapjcif;iSm bk&m;omoemudk ajr§mfMu? awmihfwMu&onfESifh tnD ,ckawGUBuKH íaeMuqJtcg xd'k |d t d arSmuftrSm;Bu;D udk taoowf Muukef&m\/ xdk'd|donf owå0gwdkY\oEÅmefü tcdkuftwefYoHk;yg;[k qdt k yfaom bHo k ;kH qihçf bHo k ;kH xyftaeESifh wnfae\/ 0Dwu d rú bHw k pfqihçf y&d,k|me bHkwpfqihfç tEko,bHkwpfqihfç þum;- ouúm,'d|dbHk oH;k qihw f nf;/ Edik if o H ;kH &yfvnf; qd&k \/ 'd|Md urf;ç 'd|v d wfç 'd|Ed -k oH;k rsKd ;[l vdk? þt&mü 'd|d\ om;ç ajr;jzpfMuukefaom 'kp½dkufq,fyg;wdkYudk 'd|dütwGif;0ifjyKí qdkaytHh/ 1/ 0Dwu d rú 'd|Md urf;qdo k nfum;- tukov kd f um,uHupd çö 0pD uHudpöESifh x<uaomif;usef;aom 'd|dwnf;/ 2/ y&d,k|me'd|dvwfqdkonfum;- raem'Gm&üom yGufyGuf qlx<uaom 'd|dwnf;/ 3/ tEko,'d|Ed q k o kd nfum;- um,uHç 0pDuçH raemuH[al om uHoHk;yg;taeESihf vIyf&Sm;x<ujcif;r&Sdrlí terw*¾oHo&mcE¨mtpOfü tNrJtedpöxm0& udef;0yfwnfaxmifíaeaom 'd|dwnf;/ (qufvufazmfjyygrnf/)

welfare. The task of extinguishing the akusala kammas of uppanna and anuppanna consists of ridding oneself of sakkaya-ditthi and no more. If sakka-ya-dit.t.hi is uprooted, the two akusala kammas (unwholesome voltional actions) are entirely extinguished. "Bon-sin-san" Sota-pannas, like Visa-kha- and Anathapin.d.ika, who are infinetly numerous among humans, devas, and brahma-s, are beings who have obtained release from the state of sinking and drifting in the great whirlppl of samsara (round of rebirths) from the moment sa-kkaya-dit.t.hi was uprooted. They are beings who have attained the first stage of Nibba-na called sa-upadisesa Nibba-na (Nibba-na with the five constituent groups of existence remaining.) Although they are liable to wander in the round of rebirths for many more lives and many more world-cycles, they are no longer worldly beings. Having become "Bon-sin san" Ariyas (Noble Ones). they are beings of the lokuttara (Supramundane Sphere). Here ends the part showing uppanna and anuppanna akusala kammas from which Sota-pannas have obtained their release. Uppanna and Anuppanna Kusala Kammas I shall now show the division of kusala kammas (wholesome volitional actions) into uppanna and anuppanna, first with reference to the three Sasanas of s1la (Morality), sama-dhi (Concentration) and pañña (Wisdom) and second with reference to the seven visuddhis of s1la-visuddhi, citta-visuddhi, dit.t.hivisuddhi, kankha- -vitaran.a-visuddhi, magga- magga-ña- nadassana-visuddhi, pat.ipada- ña- na-dassana-visuddhi and lokuttara-ña-na-dassana-visuddhi. When it is said that samsa-ra (round of rebirths) is very terrifying, it is becuse of the duccaritas (evil deeds) of uppanna and anuppanna which have dit.t.hi (Wrong Views) as their root. When it is said that there is no hiding place, no haven, nowhere on which one can depend, it is because of the self-same duccaritas and dit.t.hi. When dit. t. hi is extinguished, both old and new duccaritas are also extinguished. When old and new duccaritas are extinguished, release from the samsa-ra of apa-ya-lokas is attained, and only exalted stages in the states of humans, deva-s, and Brahmas, remain. Since beings have to cultuvate the desire for an encounter with a Buddha-Sasa-na in order to secure release from the apa-ya samsa-ra together with old and new duccaritas, now taht they have encountered a Buddha Sasa-na in this existence, it behoves them to make the attempt of extinguishing the great evil of dit.t.hi. Ditthi is established in beings in three layers, viz: V1tikkama, Pariyut.t.ha-na, Anusaya These layers are the realm of sakkaya-dit.t.hi. They may be called coarse, middling, and fine dit.t.hi. I shall now show how the offspring of dit.t.hi, the ten duccaritas, enter into ditthi. 1. The coarse dit.t.hi of vitikkama comprises the akusala kammas committed through overt acts and speech. 2. The middling dit.t.hi of pariyut.t.ha-na comprises the evils that occur in thoughts. 3. Anusaya dit.t.hi is the evil that lies latent in the personalities of beings throughtout anamatagga sam.sa-ra though it may not yet result in manifestations of acts, speech or thoughts. (To be continue)


TALKS ABOUT THE DHAMMA "r®0D&onf Ak'¨\"r®w&m;awmf tppftrSefxGef;um;jyefhyGm;&efjzpfonf/

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jrefrmEkdifiHawmfa'ot&yf&yfwdkY ü t&n0goDawm&yfrSDvsufaeavh&Sdawmfrlaom

r[maAm"dNrdKifq&mawmf 0e0goDaO,s"r®omrdr[max&f a&;om;pD & if a wmf r l a o omm "ar® m 0g'uxm

omoemawmfBu;D \ a&aomufjrpfo;kH oG,f (omoemtyd k i f ; ) (,cif t ywf r S t quf ) pd w f r ajymif ; u ½k y f a umif ; rysuf xd k r S w f t m;rS w f c suf w d k Y quf w d k u f u svmavaomtcg pdwfvnf;rajymif;vJ? edrdwfvnf; rajymif;vJawmhNyD/ xdkrQru xdkedrdwf \ ta&miftqif;yg rajymif;vJawmhygNyD/ b,fESpfBudrfMunhfMunhf wpfax&mwnf; rdaeonf/ b,f a vmuf M umMumMunh f M unh f wpf a x&mwnf ; ud k &Sdaeonf/ 0g&ifh*Dwynm&SifwdkY\ wD;uGufvuf rajymif;awmhonfh yrmom/ wD;vHk;wdkufxm;aom qdkif;tzGJU t&GJUtapmif; rajymif;awmh onfyh rmom/ rSwftm; rSwfcsuf pGrf;yum; xufjrufvmvQifum;wnftm;[laom orm"dAv kd v f nf; tiftm;xufjruf &ihu f suf vmcJhNyD/ odtm;[laom ynmAdkvfvnf; tiftm;xufjruf todoGuf í vmcJhNyD/ ,Hktm;[laom o'¨gAdkvfvnf; tiftm;xufjruf MunfoGuf ívmcJhNyD/ &Jwif;tm;[laom 0D&, d Adv k v f nf; tiftm;xufjruf wd;k wuf ívmcJhNyD/ xdkAdkvfpHktukefjynhf tm;csif;nDvmaomtcgwGifrlum; rodum; aemufqkwf todum; a&SUwdk;vsufuvnf;aumif;? rodum;aemufqkwf owdum; a&SUwdk;vsufuvnf;aumif;? t,HkrSm;um; aemufqkwf? t,HkrSefonf a&SUwdk;vsufu vnf;aumif; aysmhnHhpdwfum; aemufqkwf &Jwif;pdwfum; a&SUwdk;vsufu vnf;aumif; ysHUvGihfpdwfum; aemufqkwf pnf;vHk;pdwfum; a&SUwdk;vsufu vnf;aumif; olYwmESihfolY[m us&mus&m toD;oD;ae&m,lrdMuacsNyD/ ½kyfemrfjzpfysuf ½IuGufum; ¤if;wdkYtydkifpD;xm;&m ppfajr wnf;/ xdk½IuGufwGif;&Sd xdodac: ½kyfemrfESpfyg;wdkYonfum;.... aordefYao'Pf tcscHxm;&aom w&m;cHESpfOD; pufwdkifxuf 0,f aeom;wus xdkifvsufu aordefYemcHaeonfhyrm

pufcvkwjf zKwcf sed u f kd Nird o f ufpmG apmihq f ikd ;f vsuu f tm;i,f rcsd nd§K;&Daeonfhyrm £a`E´&pGmjzihfom wufcsnfoufcsnf vIyf&Sm;jyaeMuyg\/ þae&m&Sd ½kyef mrfEpS yf g;wd\ Yk olw Y mESio fh cl í JG tvkyv f yk af eMu yHkonfum; atmufydkif;&Sd emr½ky y&dapä'ÓPf (emrf½kyfESpfyg; uGJjym; pGm odjrif&aom ÓPf) wkef;uxuf tqrsm;pGm omvGefaom tod jzihf uGJjym;pGm jrifodae&awmh\/ rdrdvufudkifjyKxm;aom tedpöponfh vu©Pmtcsufrsm; onfvnf; atmufatmufÓPfpOfrsm;wke;f uxuf tqrsm;pGm omvGef aom todjzihf jrifodcGihf &aeawmh\/ rSwftm;BuD;aemufrS uyfíygvmaom odtm;BuD;uvnf; tmPmyg;uGufom;\ vufwGif;rS"m; &mZ0wfom;tay:odkY csufaumif; apmihfqdkif;aeonhfyrm ckwfydkif;&ef csdefqaeonfhyrm oGuv f ufpmG vdu k yf gvsuu f a&SUwd;k í wd;k ívnf; csO;f uyfae \/ wHkYvsuf qíqívnf; oHk;oyfae\/ rsufjcnfrjywf uyfí uyf ívnf; owfrSwfae\/ xdkpOf.... useAf v kd rf sm;onfvnf; wpfvrS ;f csi;f wpfvrS ;f csi;f a&SUwd;k vm aeMuNyD/ ,HkMunfrIonf tjrifMunfapjcif;jzihf csKyfudkifay;xm;NyD/ wnfMunfrIonf rvIyfr,Suf apaomtm;jzihf csKyfudkifay; xm;NyD/ &Jwif;rIonf aemufrqkwf apaomtm;jzihf csKyfudkifay;xm; vdkufNyD/ ¤if;wdkY vufwGif;&Sd xdod\ todonfum;.... Oyrmum; awmwGif;wpfae&m0,f Muufwnfpm;aom rkqdk; onf... ñGwfuGif;wdkYudkvnf; tzHkzHktxyfxyf 0dkif;ywfapNyD/ rdrdudkif Muuf,Ofudkvnf; ppfaMunm[ef wGefoHay;apNyD/ e,fMuufudk ppfjrm;tem;odkY wdk;vmap\/ xdkpOf.... e,f&SifMuufonfvnf; e,fuRHvmol {nhfMuufudk cGyfxkwf ypf&ef cGef;wHkYzef wGefoHay;um a'garmjzihf ysHusvm\/ xdkESpfaumif apmifvsufu &efjzpf&ef [efjyifaeMuNyD.... xd k t csd e f xd k t cg&S d ab;NcH M um;rS acsmif ; Munh f a eaom Muufrkqdk;\ aZmrsKd;yrmwnf;/


TALKS ABOUT THE DHAMMA

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"r®0D&onf ]oDv? orm"d? ynm} twGuf jzpfonf/

tuyf o nf w pf o uf tjywf u m;wpf c suf xdkodkY.... Adkvfig;yg;wdkY nDnmpGm 0dkif;&Hvsufu ydkifavmufaom tuGuf ydkifavmufaomae&modkY a&muf&Sdvmaom tcgwGifum; owdtm;udk tul,lxm;aom todtm;onf EG,fBudK;udk wdceJygatmif jzwfawmufcsvdkufonfh yrm þrSmbufurf;udk pHkuefvsuf [dkrSmbufurf; ul;wwfoGm; onfhyrm ½Iuu G w f iG ;f &Sd ½ky"f mwfemrf"mwfrsm;udk jywfawmufapvdu k Nf y/D xdkjywfawmufoGm;ygonfudkvnf; tydkifod odvdkuf&NyD/ jywfawmufrIaMumihf Nidrf;at;oGm;ygonfudkvnf; tydkifod odcGihf&vdkufNyD/ xdkjywfawmufNidrf;at;jcif;\ aemufodkYum;.... igYu, kd if gydik f txifuyfaeaom 'd|rd mS tjrpfuRwyf goGm;&acs Ny/D tjrifr&Sif;rI wif;vif;jzpfaeaom t,HkrSm;vnf; vGihfpifyg oGm;&acsNyD/ odkYaMumihf.... igpGJESihfwuGaom 'd|drSeforQwdkYonfvnf;aumif;? &wemoHk; yg;tay: ,Hrk mS ;rI t00wdo Yk nfvnf;aumif; vH;k 0vQif uif;yoGm;Muav Nyw D nf;/ þonfudk usrf;xGufpum;tm;jzihf ajym&aomf... eda&m"qdkufjcif;? r*fusjcif;? zdkvf0ifjcif;rsm;yifjzpfMu\/ ÓPftjrif pifMu,fjcif; ÓP'óe0dok'd¨pcef;yifjzpf\/ þodkY r*fzdkvfÓPfwdkYjzihf igpGJudk vHk;0 y,fzsufNyD;pD;olü igwaumaumay;rSom jyKcGihfomaom tukodkvf 'kp½dkuf w&m;q,fyg;onfvnf;aumif;? 'kp½dkufrIjzihf toufarG;jcif;rsm;onf vnf;aumif;? t&if;vJ tzsm;xif;jzpfyrm uif;a0;oGm;&acsawmh onfom/ igwaumaumay;rSom oDvtusKd; uHvnf;usKd;apaom raumif;uHtrsKd;rsKd;wdkYvnf; rpdk;rdk;EkdifawmhNyDom/ þum; ty,f0#fjrpfrS uRwfvGwfaomtydkif;/ aumif ; rI r S x jzpf a om raumif ; rI u axmif ; xk q J o m txufu jyqdkcsufrsm;onfum; yxrr*fjzihf 'd|Od ;D pD;aom raumif;rI 'kp½du k t f m;vH;k ysujf yKe;f apjcif;yifjzpf\/ odkYr[kwf 'd|doGm;vrf;udk ydwfqdkYjzwfawmufí ty,f pcef;udk NzdKzsufvdkufjcif;wnf;/ xdo k Ykd 'kp½kurf w I u Ykd kd axmif;xky,fzsuEf idk yf gaomfvnf; 'kw, d ? wwd,r*frsm;\ e,fy,fwiG ;f 0,f okp½du k rf rI S uyfygvmaom umr&m* Asmyg'rsm; axmifxm;jcm;em;vsufuom/ wpfzef xdkr*fpcef;wdkYrS vGefajrmufygaomfvnf; pwkw¬r*f\ e,fwGif;0,f okp½dkufrIrS uyfygvmaom b0 &m* rme arm[ponfh raumif;rIrsm; axmifxm;jcm;em;vsufu om/ b0aumif; tcgaumif;rsm;rS xjzpfaom trsm;wdt Yk m;ud;k &m ok'd¨ewfb0&Sd tNidtaxG;rsm;um; tm;aumif;aeacsao;&m ¤if;wdu Yk v kd nf; 'kw, d wwd, r*fowdrå sm;jzihf umr&m* Asmyg;w&m; csprf ek ;f SESpfyg;wdkYudk csKyfapí umr#fjrpf z,fxkwfMu&OD;rnf/ wzef pwkw¬r*fowdåjzihf b0&m* rme t0dZÆmESihfwuG

<uif ; orQ tm;vH k ; od r f ; usH K ;csKyf j ywf a pNyD ; b00#f j rpf u d k v nf ; qufvufum z,fxkwfMu&OD;rnf/ tyg,0#fjywf ok'd¨ewfb0jzihf vrf;rqHk;ap&m? umr0#fjywf jA[®mhZmwfb0jzihfvnf; pcef;rodrf;rdap&m/ tuef;b0ü raumif;uyifaumif;aeonf xifrdaomfvnf; taumif;b0üum; taumif;onfyif raumif;csifNyD/ þum; umrb0rsm;\ 0#fjrpfrS uRwfvGwfaom tydkif;/ jyef v nf & S i f ; vif ; jcif ; þtydkif;onf... oAÁygyótum&PH pum;awmft& raumif;rItm;vHk;udk rjyKusihfjcif;udk &Sif;jyajymqdkaom tyd k i f ; yif jzpf & m xd k r aumif ; rI t qih f q ih f y,f y H k t aMumif ; onf oabmaygufxu kd Nf yx D if\/ 0dyóemÓPftqihf qifw h jYkd zihf cE¨mjzpfpOf ukefpOf arTaESmufMunhfjcif;? tpGJxm;udk tm;enf;apjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfNyD; aemuf r*fjzihf y,fyHkyifjzpf\/ qufvufí - raumif;rIonf rnfonfah e&mrsm;rS xGuaf y:vmygoenf;/ - raumif;rIudk rnfolu OD;aqmifaeygoenf;/ - xd k r aumif ; rI u d k y,f & mü rnf o nf h e nf ; y&d , m,f u d k oHk;ygoenf;/ þar;cGef; oHk;cGef;udk ar;vdkyg\/ tuGufcsí wduspGm ajzap vdkyg\/ ajzqdkEdkifaomf oabmaygufNyD[k ,lqyg\/ rajzqdkEkdifaomf vHk;0oabmraygufao;[k ,lqyg\/ tu,fwdwd BudKMum; BudKMum; oabmaygufaomfvnf; aumif;? &dyfrd½HkrQavmufom&Sdaeaomfvnf;aumif; xdkoifoabm aygufaom twdkif;omvQif... oihftm; uGufusm;odorm;[lívnf;aumif;? t&dyform; [lívnf;aumif;? emrnfay;uifyGef;wyf&rnfomjzpfyg\/ oifonf pmudkMunhfí todudk rapEdkifao;aomf atmufyg wkdUudk qufvufMunfhygav.. raumif;rSKonf.... tm&HkcHpm;pOf ynwfudkjrif&mrS pwifxGufay:vmonf/ xdkraumif;rSKudk igpGJ'dXdu OD;aqmifygonf/ xdkraumif;rSKudk... tjypfukdvnf;jrif t&dSudkvnf; qifjcif?wpfpwpfpvnf; y,fzsifaomenf;jzifh &dyfvSD;ypfygonf/ þum;tusOf;/ a'guftuefUMuD;oHk;ckygaom &xm;bD;wyf,mOf tm&Hk\obm0onf wdkufvnf;wkduf qGJvnf;qGJtm;jzifh wdkufqGJqGJavh&dS\/ tm½kH\ wkdufqGJqGJjcif;udk cHvkduf&&Smaomowå0g onfum; rdrdcE¨mrS todpdwfxGufcJhí wpfzuftm&Hk&SifbufodkU ygoGm;awmh&m... -tm½kH\ vSnfhpm;rSKaMumifh vnf;aumif; -a0'em\ csJUum;rSKaMumifh vnf;aumif; -0dnmOf\ upm;rSKaMumifh vnf;aumif; xdktm½kH\ tqif;&dyfrQwdkUudk cHpm;vsufu rdef;r? a,musFm; MuufbJrsm;[lí todrSm; trSwfrSm;oGm;acsawmh\/ pmrsuf E S m 26 ok d Y


COVER SPECIAL FEATURS "r®0D&onf "r®opömudk ñTefjyonf/ rsuf E S m zk H ; rS t quf

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ies are to be carried out by a yeoman farmer. What three?"

"Herein, monks, the yeoman farmer must first of all well ]]&[ef;wdkY tdrf&Sifa,musfm;? v,form;\ rsKfd;aphrcsrD a&S; plough and harrow his field, and when these things are done he tzfdkY wifBudKjyKvkyfzG,f&m udpöwdkYonf þoHk;yg;wdkYyifwnf;/ tb,foHk; must sow his seed at the proper season. Having done this he lets yg;wkedY nf;[lr.l ..}} in the water and lets it out again in proper season. These are the ]]&[ef;wdkY þavmuü tdrf&Sifa,musfm;v,form;onf three preliminaries." "In the same way, monks, these three preliminaries are a&S;OD;pGmomvQif v,fudkaumif;pGmxGef,ufí ajrudknDnDñGwfñGwf jyKí a&S;OD;pGmomvQif wifBudKí v,fudkaumif;pGmxGef,ufNyD; ajrudk to be carried out by a monk. What three?" "The undertaking of the training in the higher morality, nDnDñGwfñGwf jyKNyD;vQif oihfavsmfaomtcgü rsKd;aphwdkYudk BuJcs\/ in the higher thought, in the higher insight. These are the three. oihfavsmfaom tcsdefürsdK;aphudk BuJcsNyD;vQif tcsdeftcgtm;avsmfpGm Wherefore, monks, thus must ye train yourselves:" a&udkoGif;vnf;oGif;\/ xkwfvnf;xkwf\/ &[ef;wdkY tdrf&Sifa,musfm; Keen shall be our desire to undertake the training in..the higher insight. v,form;\ rsKfd;aphrcsrD a&S;tzdkYü jyKvkyfzG,fwdkYonf þoHk;yg;wkdYay That is how ye must train yourselves. wnf;...}} (Translation of the Third, ANGUTTARANIKAYA, ]]&[ef;wdkY þtwlomvQif &[ef;tm; a&S;tzdkYü wifBudKí Gradual Sayings, Chapter IX. The Recluse, Agriculture Sutta.) kjyKvkyfzG,fwdkYonf þoHk;yg;wdkYaywnf;/ tb,foHk;yg;wdkYenf;[lrl Nyain Chan Oo. t"doDvodu©mukdaqmufwnfjcif;? t"dpdwåodu©mudkaqmufwnfjcif;? t"dynmodu©mudkaqmufwnfjcif;wdkYaywnf;/ &[ef;wdkY &[ef;tm; twdkif;om oifwkYdusihfaqmifMu&rnf/ &[ef;wkYd? þodkYvQif oifwkdY a&S;tzdkYü wifBudKí jyKvkyfzG,f&mwdkYonf þoHk;yg;wdkYaywnf;}} ]]&[ef;wdkY xdkYaMumihf þomoemawmfü t"doDvodu©mudk usihfaqmifMu&rnf[k jrwfpGmbk&m;ocif rdefY`rGwfawmfrlavonf/}} (t*Fkwå&edfum,f0if? okwåEÅyd#u? t*FkwådK&fygVdawmf? wduded aqmufwnf&mü igwdkYtm; xufoefaomqE´jzpfvwåHU/ t"dpdwåodu©m udk aqmufwnf&mü igwkYdtm; xufoefaom qE´jzpfvwåHU/ t"dynm ygwfomrP0*f? acwåokwfudk jyefqkdwifjytyfygonf/) Nid r f ; csrf ; OD ; odu©mudkaqmufwnf&mü igwkdYtm; xufoefaomqE´jzpfvwåHU[k? þ

aemuf a usmzk H ; rS v,fudkvsifvsifjrefjref aumif;pGmxGef,ufí ajrudknDnDñGwfjyK\/ v,fukd vsiv f sijf refjref aumif;pGmxGe, f ufí? ajrukn d n D ñ D w G ñ f w G jf yK\/ v,fukdvsifvsifjrefjrefaumif;pGmxGef,ufí ajrukdnDnDñGwfñGwf jyKNyD;vQif aumif;pGmajyajyjypfjypf rsKd;aphwdkYudk BuJcs \/ vsifvsifjrefjref rsK;d aphwu Ykd kd BucJ sí a&udo k iG ;f vnf;oGi;f \/ xkwv f nf;xkw\ f / &[ef;wdYk tdrf&Sifa,musfm; v,form;\ taqmwvsif jyK&rnfhjyKvkyfzG,f wdkYonf þoHk;yg;wdkYaywnf;/}} ]]&[ef;wdkY tdrf&Sifa,musfm; v,form;tm; ]],aeYyif ig\ pyg;yifwdkYonf aygufygap? eufjzefyif zHk;ygap? oefbufcg rSnhfygap}} [k þodkY tvdk&Sdwdkif; NyD;apEkdifaom xdkwefcdk;tpGrf;onfr&Sday/ &[ef; wdkY pifppfaomfum; xdktdrf&Sifa,musfm;v,form;\ xdkpyg;wdkYonf nDñGwfaom Owkudk&í aygufvnf;ayguf? zHk;vnf;zHk; rSnhfvnf;rSnhf aom tcgrsKd;onf&Sd\}} ]]&[ef;wdkY þtwlomvQif &[ef;\ taqmwvsifjyK&rnfh jyKvkyfzG,fwdkYonf þoHk;yg;wdkYaywnf;/ tb,foHk;yg;wdkYenf;[lrl t"d oDvodu©mudk aqmufwnfjcif;/ t"dpdwåodu©mudkaqmufwnfjcif;/ t"dynmodum© udak qmufwnfjcif;wdw Yk nf;/ &[ef;wdYk &[ef;\ taqm wvsifjyK&rnfhjyKvkyfzG,fwdkYonf þoHk;yg;wdkYyifwnf;/ ]]&[ef;wdkY xdk&[ef;tm; ]],aeYüaomfvnf;aumif;? ewfjzef üaomfvnf;aumif;? oefbufcgüvnf;aumif;? ig\ pdwfonf wPSm 'd|dwdkYjzihf wpfpHkwpfckaom tm½Hkudk rpGJvef;rlí tmoa0gw&m;wdkYrS uif;vGwaf pownf;}}[k þodt Yk vd&k w dS ikd ;f Ny;D apEkid af om xdw k efc;kd tpGr;f onf r&Sday/ &[ef;wdkY pifppfaomfum; t"doDvodu©mudkvnf;aumif;? t"dpdwåodu©mudkvnf;umif;? t"dynmodu©mudkvnf;aumif;? usihfoHk; aom xdk&[ef;\ pdwfonf wPSm'd|dwdkYjzihf wpfpHkwpfckaom tm½Hkudk rpGJvef;rlí tmoa0gw&m;wdkYrS uif;vGwfaom tcgrsKd;onf&Sd\}}

Tomorrow let them ear. On the following day let them ripen." No! It is just the due season which makes them do this." "In the same way there are these three urgent duties of a monk. What three?" "The undertaking of the training in the higher morality, in the higher thought and in the higher insight. These are his three urgent duties." "Now the monk has no such magic power or authourity as to say: "Today: Let my mind be released from the a-savas without grasping, or tomorrow, or the day following." No! It is just the due season which releases his mind, as he undergoes the training in these three." "Wherefore, monks, thus must ye train yourselves: Keen shall be our desire to undertake the training in these three branches of training. This is how ye must train yourselves." (A complete translation of the Third ANGUTTARA NIKAYA, Gradual Sayings. Chapter X, Urgent Sutta) Dhamma Vira-Thander Aung ITBM University, Yangon.

]]&[ef;wdkY xdkYaMumihf þomoemawmfü ]]t"doDvodu©mudk aqmufwnf&mü igwdkYtm; xufoefaom qE´jzpfvwåHU/ t"dpdwå odu©m udk aqmufwnf&mü igwdkYtm; xufoefaom qE´jzpfvwåHU/ t"d y nm od u © m ud k aqmuf w nf & müigwk d Y t m; xuf o ef a om qE´jzpfvwåUH }} [k þtwdik ;f om oifwu Ykd siMfh u&rnf/ &[ef;wdYk þodv Yk Qif oifwdkY usihfMu &rnf}}[k jrwfpGmbk&m; rdefY`rGwfawmfrlavonf/ (t*Fkwå&edum,f0if? okwåefyd#uwf? t*FkwådK&fygVdawmf? wdu edygwf? avmPuyv’0*f? tpöm,duokwfudkazmfjyygonf/) "r® 0 D & -oEÅ m atmif tjynf j ynf q d k i f & max&0g'Ak ' ¨ o moemjyKwuú o k d v f &ef u k e f /


DHAMMA TALKS

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"r®0D&onf t"r®w&m;z,f&Sm;Edkif&ef jzpfonf/

odbk&m;? Edk;bk&m;? yGihfbk&m; bk&m;oHk;ql t"dygÜ ,f armif x d e f 0 if ; (opf a wm) ]]od b k & m;}} jrwfpGmbk&m;onf ocFwtocFw w&m;tvHk;pHkudk razmuf rjyef[kwfrSefwdkif;aom oufqdkif&mw&m;"r®wkdY\ oabmvu©Pmudk xdk;xGif;vsuf udk,fawmfwdkif o,rÇLÓPfjzihf odawmfrlygonf/ þum; yxror®morÁK'¨*kPfawmfESihf jynhfpHkawmfrlaom ]od} bk&m;\ teuf t"dyÜg,fjzpfygonf/ ]]Ed k ; bk & m;}} jrwfpGmbk&m;onf tprxif oHo&mwpfcGifvHk;tdyfarmus vsu0f goemESiw fh uGaom arm[udavomwnf;[laom xkt d yd af rmus jcif;rS jyefvnftdyfidkuforf;a0jcif;rjzpf? pifppfaumif;rGefpGm rnfonfh yk*Kd¾ vu f rQ rcdik ;f tyfygyJ? uk, d af wmfwikd t f &[wår*fwnf;[laom Ed;k jcif; jzihf Edk;awmfrlygonf/ arm[wnf;[laom ttdyfvHk;0&yfoGm;awmfrlyg onf/ arm[wnf;[laom idkufjcif;? arS;jcif;? orf;a0jcif;tvsif; uif;awmfryl gonf/ þonfum; 'kw, d or®morÁK'*¨ P k af wmfEiS fh jynhpf akH wmfral om ]Edk;} bk&m;\t"dyÜg,fjzpfygonf/ ]]yG i h f b k & m;}} þpMu0VmBu;D twGi;f ü ,lZemud;k ode;f odw Yk ikd af tmif xGe;f vif; aom tvif;"mwfonf ylaEG;aom OPSawaZmtaiGU"mwfukd ay;pGr;f Edik f

aom aerif;BuD;\ ta&mifESihfaygif;qHkrdaomaMumihf yGihfcsyfvTmwdkY pk½Hk; &pfywfMuyfwnf;vSí yGihf[jcif;iSm rpGrf;Edkifaom y'k r ® m MumiH k B uD ; onf tyl " mwf t aiG U [yf o nf E S i h f w pf N yd K if e uf tcsyfcsyftvSyfvSyf oyf&yfom;em;zGm;zGm;&Gm;&Gm; pGihfum;yGihfxGufí? tvSusuo f a&a0a0qmqmwihw f ,fpmG jzpfvsu?f ½Icsipf zG,f ewfrrd ,f av;onf ywåjrm;MuKwf a&Tom;MuKwfrS vkyfvDckefxGuf uckefNyHK;&,f vsuf aebdonhftvm;? <um;<um;yGihfcsyf vQyfvQyf0wfqH vQHvQHcsdKat; &eHYaoG;vsuf ½Iai;MunhfarmzG,f wifhw,f0ihfx,fpGm yGihfbdouJhodkY? Ak'¨jrwfpGm pdaEÅ,smonf t0dZÆmtarSmifcGif;aom tvif;"mwfr*fzdkvf edAÁmeftjrefa&mufapwwf? &ifhusufapwwfaom "r®taiGU"mwfudk ay; wwfaom t&[wår*fEiS hf aygif;qHrk jd cif;aMumih?f oAÁnKwÓPfEiS w hf uG aom? toacsF,s teEÅÓPfawmf? teEÅ*kPfawmfwdkY tqihfqihfyGihf awmfrlygonf/ þonfum; wwd,or®morÁK'*¨ P k af wmfEiS hf jynfph akH wmfral om ]]yGihf}} bk&m;\ teuft"dyÜm,fjzpfayownf;/ (#Dumausmf or®morÁK'¨yk'f tzGifhpum;udkrSD;ívnf;aumif;? rH&k mG NrKd Uta&SUv,fww D u kd f aus;Zl;&Siq f &mwmfb&k m;Bu;D t*¾r[my@dw b'´EÅuk@vpD&ifawmfrlonhf r[mokw'DyeDusrf;? yxrwGJudkrSD;í armifxdef0if; (opfawm) vnf;aumif; wifjyjcif;jzpfygonf/)

pmrsuf E S m 24 rS toH&yd pf onfrsm;rQuo kd m cHpm;vsuu f vnf; rde;f r?a,musmF ; ponfrsm;tjzpf todrSm;trSwfrSm; oGm;jzpfawmh\/ txif r S m ;awmh cif tjrif r S m ;aomf cspf tjzpf r sm;u om,mp&m þwPSmt&pfyifhí wufvmap\/xkdtcg... 'gu rif; [dk[mu ol þodUk vQif toGiw f u l rkd cl JG wdu k yf MJG u;D usi;f yapcJjh y/D toGirf wl aomfum; rlvnf;cGJ t,lvnf;cGJjzifh wdkufyGJMuD;rsm; usif;yay;vkdufjyD/ xdkokdU... trltusifh bufcGJvsuf yifhay;vkdufaomtcg... rif;onf igjzpfvmjy;D olonf t0SmjzpfvmcJ&h acsjy/D odUk r[kwf igua,musF m ;?ol u rd e f ; r[l í vnf ; aumif ; ?iguvl ol u Muuf [lívnf;aumif; toGirf wl OmOfrwl qefUusizf ufrsm;odUk a&mufvmcJMh u cJhMu&ygacsjyD/ xdik gonfyif 'kp&du k t f vTmudk OD;aqmifaeaom t&m&dw S nf;/ xkdigonfyif t&m&mudk vTmaeaom tcGmwnf;/ xkdtcg ighzdkUtawG; 0ifvmavwdkif; pdwf&dkif;vnf;azmuf vGefusL;rSKtqifhodkU a&mufcJhMu&acsjyD/ raumif;rSKtvdq k ;kd onf raumif;usKd ;udo k m ay;\/Muuf[if; cg;u Muufom;[if;pm;t&om rjzpfay:apEdkif/a&cJa&onft0ifat; jrapwdkif; txGuf0,f rat;jrapEdkif/ aumif;usdK;udkomESpfoufolwdkif;... raumif;rSKrS raumif;usdK;odkU qufumqufum uscHae&av aomtcg xdkraumif;rSKt&mudky,fzsuf&ef MudK;pm;rnfrSmvnf; "r®wm yif/xkxnfMu;D rm;aejyjD zpfaom raumif;rSKOmOfp&du k w f Udk tMum; aumif;

&efMudK;pm;rSK a&pifat;av;wpfayguf usa&mufoGm;aomtcg... rD;td;k uif;Mu;D \txuf a&pifav;wpfpuf usoufomG ;onf tvm; raumif;aomOmOfp&dkufwdkU\ wefjyeftm;u... -udk,fvSKyf ESKwfzGifh ppf&dSefjrSifhay;Muawmhrnf -pdwf0,fxdkif;usifh ppf&dSefjrSifhay;Muayawmhrnf -o@mef0,f tm½Hkqihf ppfaoG;rsm; jr§ihfay;Muayawmhrnf/ odkYr[kwf udk,fEIwfpdwfodkY 'kp½dkufom;wpfusdyf oGif;ay; Muavawmhrnf/ udk,fEIwfwdkYudkum; &ifqdkifwdkufyGJ e,fajrtjypf toHk;cs\/ pdwfudkum; ppfqifa&; pDrHuGyfuJ&mXmetjzpf toHk;cs\/ tm½Ho k @efwu Ykd u kd m; ppf&u d m© odrk ;DS &m *dak xmiftjzpf toH;k cs\/ xdkokdY.... wefjyefwu Ykd Bu;D pd;k &m e,fajrBu;D oH;k ck zefw;D xm;jcif;wdaYk Mumifh y,fzsufEdSrfeif;&ef wm0efusaom tkyfpkbufuvnf; 1/ ud, k Ef w I f aomif;use;f rI y,fowf&ef ud, k u f sio fh v D apmihx f ed ;f &ygonf/ 2/ pdwfaomif;usef;rI y,fowf&ef pdwfusihform"d avhusihf&yg onf/ 3/ rsKd ; roef Y r I EI w f y ,f & ef od u sih f y nm avh v m&ygonf / xdkoHk;ckwdkYudk ywfvnfxyfxyf vnfywfapvsufu u/ ud, k Ef w I f Nird o f ufrI um,0da0u-orxOD;pGm xlaxmifMu&\/ c/ pdwNf ird o f ufrI pdw0å ad 0u- orxvHx k rd ;f tjzpf xlaxmifMu&\/ */ tm½HkNidrfoufrI Oy"d0da0u- orxpdk;rdk;a&;tjzpf xlaxmif Mu&\/ (quf v uf a zmf j yygrnf )


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf Ak'¨w&m;jzifh avmuudk apmihfa&Smuf&efjzpfonf/

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vmjcif;raumif;aom vlYb0 wefzkd;rJh t&mrsm; ynmEG , f ( {&majr-"Ek j zL)

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tjrwfqkH;Opömonfum; rnfonhft&mjzpfyg oenf; bk&m; vkdY ar;avQmufawmh bk&m;&Sif uk d , f a wmf j rwf B uD ; u- ]]tarmif e wf o m;? avmurS m trsKd ; aumif ; om;orD ; wd k Y & J U tjrwf q k H ; aomOpö m onf u m; o'¨ g w&m; aywnf ; }} vd k Y ajzMum;awmf r l c J h y gw,f / o'¨gw&m;&Sw d v hJ [ l m tjrwfq;Hk Opöm&Siq f adk wmh o'¨ g w&m;r&S d w J h v l u awmh tqif ; &J q k H ; OpömrGJolvdkY qkd&rSmyg/ ,ck rsufarSmufb0rSm tkd;tdrfwkduf wm tjynhftpkHeJY csrf;ompGmae&ayr,fh o'¨g w&m;uif;rJholjzpf&if qif;&Jom;ygyJ/ ,ck vuf&Sdqif;&Jaeayr,fh o'¨gw&m;&SdwJhvlu awmh vlcsr;f omBu;D yJjzpfygw,f/ &eforl sK;d ig;yg; eJY teD;uyfwnf&SdaeMuwJh avmuvlom;awG &JU wpfOD;csif;pDrSm &SdaeMuwJh vlYpnf;pdrfcH ½ky0f w¦Kypön;f awG[m tcsed u f mvaeY&ufra&G; ysupf ;D qk;H ½I;H oGm;Ekid yf gw,f/ rysurf pD;bJ wnf&dS aerSmu o'¨gw&m;ppfygyJ/ bk&m;&Siftay:rSm Munf n Kd a v;pm; tm;xm;uk d ; uG , f w J h o '¨ g ? w&m;awmftay:rSm ,kHrSm;oHo,uif;pGm tm;xm;jrwfEkd;ukd;pm;NyD; yGm;rsm;w,fqkdwJh o'¨g? bk&m;&Sif&JUwynhfom;oHCmawmft&Sif jrwfawGtay:rSm rrSdwfrokef pdwf0,fxHkvkdY ,kHMunfukd;uG,fwJh o'¨g? rpm;&olukd EkdiforQ auR;? r0wf&olukd pGrf;orQay;? oma&;ukd vnf; ulnD? ema&;ukdvnf; ulnD? wlnDpGm b0tajcjrihfapzkdY o'¨gw&m;omvQif t"du tcsuf j zpf y gw,f / avmuD a umif ; usKd ; ? avmukw&å maumif;usK;d awGudk tpOfw;kd yGm;ap EkdifwJh o'¨gw&m;[m vmjcif;aumif;wJhvlawG &JU ESv;Hk om;xJrmS yJ jzpfay:avh&ydS gw,f/ vlb Y 0 ukd vmjcif;raumif;wJhvlawG&JU ESvkH;om;xJrSm awmh o'¨gw&m;qkdwJh "gwfcH vkH;0qdwfokOf; aeygw,f/ tJ'DtxJrSm ukd,fygovm; rygbl; vm;qkdwm jyefNyD; qef;ppfMunhfyg/ aemuf ok H ; tcsufu- taMumif; tusKd ; taumif ; tqk d ; ? trS m ;trS e f u k d ykdif;jcm;a0zefEkdifwJh ÓPfynmuif;rJhol[m avmuaumif; usKd;ukd em;rvnfEkdifovkd uk d , f u k d , f w k d i f u vnf ; ]ol r sm;a,mif w k d i f ; pmrsuf E S m 29 ok d Y


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

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"r®0D&onf Nidrf;csrf;aompdwfjzpfwnf&ef &Gnf&G,fonf/

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qkdvmol uRefr\tdrfOD; ewfocif aus;Zl;&Sif/ ]]aMomf - ao jcif ; w&m; qk d o nf r S m rnfolrQ rSef;qvdkYr&Ekdif aomt&m/ arh x m;í vnf; r&onhft&m}} jzpf ayonf/ uRefr i,fpOf uav;b0uwnf ; u use;f rma&;csLcsmvSygonf/ a&m*gb, xlajymvSyg onf/ rMumcP aorif; ES i h f vk c J h & onh f t Bud r f aygif ; vnf ; renf ; vS awmh y g/ aemuf a emuf b0u ]oDv} enf;cJhíom ,ck b0xkdodkY tema&m*gxl a jym&jcif ; jzpf E k d i f y gonf / rMumcP aq;½k H w uf í tcG J p d w f c H & onht f cgwdik ;f uRerf ]0#f} qko d nhpf um;ukd ykrd dk od&SdcHpm;vmcJh&ygonf/ uH ur® rdrdjyKvkyf xm;cJo h nhf ]t&dy}f rsm;udv k nf; vufceH m;vnf vmcJh&ygonf/ uRerf rEÅav;wuúov dk f wufa&muf ynmoifMum;cJhpOfu bdkiftkdvkd*sD (Biology) bmom&yfonf uRefrtESpfoufqkHbmom&yf jzpfygonf/ zm;? ig;? ykpGef? a,mufoGm;? Muuf? 0uf (0ufoaE¨om;)? ykd;[yf? wDaumif ponhf taumifyavmifrsm;pGmonf uRerf \vufawGU avhusihfrI (Practical) "g;csufatmufwGif toufaysmufcJhMu&ygonf/ uRefrtwGuf cGpJ w d u f &d , d m (Disectiong sect;) onf vGepf mG tok;H 0ifvyS gonf/ ta&jym;? tqD? tom;rsm; ukd wvTmNyD;wvTm cGmEkdif&eftwGuf "g;t&G,f rsKd;pkH? aoG;aMumrsm;? tqkyf? tonf;? ESvkH;? ausmufuyfrsm;ukd vdkovkdukdifwG,fí jyoEkdif &ef n§yfrsKd;pkH? tyf ponfrsm;ukd uRefr aumif; rGefpGm ukdifwG,fwwfcJhygonf/ uRefr avhusihfoifMum;&eftwGuf zm;wpfaumifukd aiGwpfrwf (xkdtcsdefu) ay;í oli,fcsif;ausmif;om;rsm;xHrS 0,f& ygonf/ nae a&Tref;aqmif (trsK;d orD;aqmif) odkY ydkYvmonhf zm;av;ukd yvwfpwpftdwf

wGifxnhfí xdyf0rS om;a&yifjzihf pnf;um uRefrtdyf&m ukwifatmufodkY ypfcsxm;&yg onf/ eHeufcif; ausmif;oGm;pOf ,laqmifoGm; cJ h N yD ; td w f t wG i f ; rS m rl ; arh a eNyD ; jzpf a om zm;av;ukd trJqo D u H ef (Tray) wGif yufvuf vefxm;vkdufonf/ zm;av;\ ajcz0g; vuf z0g;av;rsm;ukd trJqDuefwGif oHrId (yJeftyf) jzih f taotcsmpk d u f x m;&onf / zm;\ 0rf ; Ak d u f u d k c G J í twG i f ; rS aoG ; jyef a Mum? aoG;vTwfaMum? tpmtdrf ponhf twGif; uvDpmrsm;ukd avhvmrSwfom;í tyfcsnfBuKd; jzih f csnf u m Tray trJ q D u ef \ ab;wG i f pm&GufjzLay:ü trnfemrrsm;ukd a&;xkd;ay;& ygonf/ rSev f Qif Gread-4 uRerf tvGerf ufarm aom trSwfjzpfygonf/ xkdrufarmrIaMumifh uRefrrSm wjcm;olrsm;xuf ykdrkdavhusifhcJh& ygonf/ uRefr jyKorQ EkcJh&onhf zm;oli,f avhusihfrINyD;onfxd tqkyfrSm ydefvkdufazmif; vkduf touf&Sifvsuf&Sdaeao;onhf zm;i,f Tray (trJqDuef) twGif;wGif &ifuGJyufvuf usef&pfcJh&Smygonf/ tusKd;qufrSm uRefr\ cE¨mukd,ftwGif;&Sd om;tdrf (om;Otdrf) rSm jzpfaeaom tom;ykv d ;Hk rsm;ukd uRerf \0rf;Aku d f ukd cGJí z,f&Sm;cJh&ygonf/ ykd;[yf? wDaumif wdkY\OD;acgif;ykdif;&Sd (tm½kHaMum) ukd ykHpH (Ring) twdkif; rysufapbJ wDaumif\ OD;acgif;ykdif;&Sd


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf vkHhvjynfh0jcif;ESifh wnfMunf&J&ifhjcif;ukd jyqkdonf/ tom;prsm;ukd n§yf (fossil) jzihf qGJxkwf&yg onf/ i,fpOfuwnf;u wDaumif? ykd;[yfjrif vQiyf if &G&H mS aMumuf&UHG wwfol uRerf ? vufweG fY pGmjzihf vkyfaqmifEkdifcJh&ygonf/ xkdvkyf&yf aMumihf[k uRefr,lqygonf/ uRefr OD;acgif; a0'emukd jyif;xefpGmcHpm;&NyD; acgif;ykdif;ukd (C.T .Skim) OD;aESmufyi kd ;f qkid &f mpufjzihf ppfaq; cJh&onf/ uRefr\aMum½kd;ukdazmufí cufcJ yifyef;pGm uRefrtoufukd vk,lcJhMu&ygonf/ ykpGefxkyf vufawGUvkyf&onhfaeY qkdvQif uRefrwdkYtm;vkH; aysmf&TifMuygonf/ acgif;ykdif;&Sd tqDtdwfukd uGJxGufroGm;ap&ef *½kpkdufí cGJpdwf&ygonf/ tqDtdwfuGJoGm;NyD qkdygu xkdaeYtwGuf vufawGU (Practical) trS w f r S m 0 Zero om jzpf y gawmh o nf / xkyd pk eG q f rD sm;ukd vufawGUNy;D onfEiS fh taqmif odkY ,lvmMuygonf/ xrif;Al; (Lunch Box) wGifxnhfum atmufrS za&mif;wkdifrD;jzihf tylay;í aysmf&TifpGm pm;aomufcJhMuygonf/ taqmifrSL;rod&ef ckd;í jyKvkyfpm;aejcif;\ t&omrSm aumif;rGefvSygawmhonf/ uRefrwdkY a*gwrjrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif EkpOfb0? wHigonf&GmwGif wHigonf\om; jzpfcJhzl;ygonf/ wHigonfrsm; ig;zrf;xGuf&m rS t jyef yk d u f u G e f w G i f r d v maom ig;rsm;uk d oJaomifjyifwGif oGefcsí touf&Sifaeao; aomig;rsm;\OD;acgif;udkxkum owfjzwfae Muonhjf rifuiG ;f ukMd unhí f 0rf;om&Tijf rL;cJo h nhf bk&m;tavmif;awmf yg&rDEpk Ofb0u jyKvyk cf hJ aom raumif;tukokdvfuH\ t&dyfrJ trI aMumifh jrwfpGmbk&m;jzpfawmfrlcsdef rMumcP OD;acgif;awmfukdufcJonhfa0'emqkd;ukd cHpm; cJh&ygonf/ ]0#f} qkdonfrSm bk&m;jzpf&ef &nf oefí av;oacsFESihfurÇmwpfodef;ywfvkH; usihfBuHtm;xkwfawmfrlcJh&onhf jrwfpGmbk&m; &Sifukd,fawmfwdkifyif a&SmifvTJír&Ekdifay/ rdrdjyKvkyfjcif;\ ]t&dyf} onf rdrdaemufrS xyfcsyfvkdufygvsuf&Sdygonf/ wpfzef rdrdtwGuf vkHNcKHvSNyD[k xif xm;aom trmcHa,mufoGm;tcGHtdrftwGif;ü aexkdifaom a,mufoGm;aumifav;rsm;rSm uRefr\vufawGUprf;oyfrIaMumifh rvIyfEkdif r&Sm;Ekid ?f ½ke;f uefEidk rf t I vsO;f r&Sd toufaysmuf cJh&ygonf/ uRefr\&nf&G,fcsuf twåpdwf\ atmuf 0 ,f owå 0 gi,f a v;aygif ; rsm;pG m aoaMuysufpD; b0ysufcJhMu&ygonf/ ,ck uRerf rSm vkNH cKv H NS y[ D k xifxm;cJh

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aom at;csrf;om,mvSNyD[k rSwf,lxm;cJh aom uRefr\tdrfi,ftwGif;0,f aysmf&TifpGm aexkdifEkdif&rnf[laom arQmfvihfcsufrsm;jzihf aexkdifcJhaom uRefrtyÜad ,[d- rcsprf ESpo f uforl sm;ESi?hf orÜa,ma*g- twlwuG aexkdif&jcif;wnf; [laom? 'ku©- qif;&J\/ yda,[d- cspfcifjrwfEkd;tyfaomol rsm;ESihf? 0dyÜa,ma*g- auGuGif;&jcif;wnf;[l aom? 'ku©- qif;&J\/ xk d q if ; &J j cif ; 'k u © t aygif ; wd k Y r S uif ; a0;aprnh f vrf ; aMumif ; tppf t rS e f ?

enf;vrf;&Smí uRefr BuKd;pm;½kef;xGufEkdif&ef BuKd;pm;&rnfomjzpfygawmhonf/ trSefpifppf 'ge? oDv? bm0em þoHk;jzmukd yGm;rsm;? rdrd jyKvkyfxm;cJhtyfaomuHrsm;\ ]t&dyf} rsm; atmufrS vGwfajrmufEkdifap&ef uRefr BuKd;pm; &rnfomjzpfygawmhonf/ trSefpifppf 'ge? oDv? bm0em þokH;jzmukd yGm;rsm;? rdrdjyKvkyf xm;cJhtyfaomuHrsm;\ ]t&dyf}rsm;atmufrS vGwfajrmufapEkdifap&ef uRefr BuKd;pm;tm; xkwf&ygOD;rnf/ ouf y k d i f N id r f ; ñTef;- 0dygufawmf 12-yg;? "r®pMum

pmrsuf E S m 27 rS vku d af ,mif? tarmif awmifreS ;f ajrmufreS ;f rod} qkdwJh pum;ykHtwkdif;ygyJ/ a0zefydkif;jcm;EkdifwJh ÓPfynmuif;rJhol[m w&m;jcif; rw&m;jcif; qkdwm em;rvnfovkd uHç uH\tusKd;ukdvnf; em;rvnf y gbl ; / bk & m;rod ? w&m;rod ? oH C mrod w J h / ÓPf y nmenf ; rI [ m oHo&mrSm 'ku©ukd 'ku©twdk;eJY qwkd;yGm;cH Mu&rSmyg/ 'ghaMumihf ÓPfynmuif;rJholawG [m vlYb0odkY vmjcif;raumif;wJhvlawGyJ jzpfw,fvYdk qk&d rSmyg/ vlb Y 0ukd vmjcif;aumif; wJhvlawGuawmh avmua&;&m? "r®a&;&m awGrmS ydik ;f jcm;a0zefojd rifEidk w f hJ ÓPfynmawG &S d M uygw,f / vmjcif ; raumif ; wJ h v l a wG & J U todÓPfeaYJ wmh tm;vk;H [m qefu Y sib f ufawG jzpfaeMurSmyg/ qefYusifbufawG rQwzkdY wlnD zkdY t"du tcsufwpfckuawmh urÇmol urÇm om;wkdif;rSm aMumif;usKd; ed,mrw&m;awGudk trSeftwdkif; vufcHay;EkdifwJh ÓPfynm&SdzkdYyJ jzpfw,f/ vlb Y 0ukd vmjcif;raumif;wJt h xJrmS ukd,fygaeao;vm; jyefNyD;qef;ppfyg/ aemuf q k H ; av;tcsuf u awmh aumif;rI ukokdvfawGukd jyKvkyftm;xkwfzdkY arhavsmhae wJhvl? raocif &SifaepOfumvwdk av;twGif;rSm om;a&;? orD;a&;? pD;yGm;a&;? BuD;yGm;a&;awGeJY vkH;yef;ae&wm rtm;vkdYygvkdY taMumif;jyNyD; ukokdvfawGukd rjyKbJaewJhvl? ukodkvfjyKzkdY rodol? ukokdvfjyKzkdY tcsdefqGJaeol? ukov dk jf yK csipf w d v f ;Hk 0r&So d ?l ukov kd f tukov kd f r&Sd[k ,kHMunfxm;ol? xkdvlrsm;pGmwdkY[mvnf; vlb Y 0ukd wefz;dk odwv hJ [ l m wefz;dk awG jrifw h uf vmapzkdY ukokdvfaumif;rIa&;&mawGukd &Ekdif orQ BuKd ; pm;tm;xk w f jyKvk y f y gw,f / tukodkvfjyKwJh vleJY ukokdvfarhwJhvl&JU vuf&Sd tajctaeukd okH;oyfMunhf&if ukokdvfjyKwJh

vlxHukd qif;&JEGrf;yg;olawGu tm;ukd;wBuD; csOf ; uyf M uovd k jrih f j rwf w J h t usih f o D v eJ Y jynh f p k H w J h &[ef ; oH C mawmf a wG u vnf ; <ua&mufcs;D jri§ Mfh uovkd t&d,molawmfaumif; BuD;awGuvnf; om"k ac:Muygw,f/ ukokdvf jyKzkdY arhaewJhol&JUxHukdawmh b,folurS rvm Muovkd olawmfaumif;awGuvnf; om"krac: Muygbl;/ 'g[m vuf&Sdb0&JU uGmjcm;rItusKd; &v'fawGyJ jzpfygw,f/ uk d , f a &m aumif ; rI a &;&mawG r S m arhaewJholrsm; jzpfaervm; jyefNyD; qef;ppfyg/ vl Y b 0uk d vmjcif ; raumif ; wJ h t xJ r S m uk d , f r ygatmif wef z k d ; rJ h uk d , f u sih f o D v raumif ; jcif ; ? o'¨ g w&m;uif ; rJ h j cif ; ? ÓPfynmenf;jcif;? ukokdvfjyKzkdY arhavsmh jcif; pwJhtcsufav;csu v;csuf eJY tjyef ukd,fusihf oDvukd apmihfxdef;? o'¨g &Sdoljzpfatmifvkyf? ÓPfynmBu;D atmif ynm&So d al wmfaumif;awG xHrSm enf;cH? aumif;rIukodkvfawGudkvnf; pGrf;EkdiforQ jyKvkyfzdkY rarhygeJY/ 'gqkd&if vlYb0ukd vmjcif;aumif;wJh vljzpfNyDvkdY qkd&rSmyg/ vmjcif;raumif;aom vlYb0wefzkd;rJht&mrsm;ukd a0;pGma&Smif&Sm;Mu í vmjcif;aumif;aom vlYb0wefzkd;jr§ifwif a&;t&mrsm;ukd jyKvkyftm;xkwfí aexkdifoihf MuygaMumif; a&;om;wifjyvkduf&ygonf/ tm;vkH; vmjcif;aumif;aom vlYb0 wefzkd;od olrsm; jzpfEkdifMuygap/ ynmEG , f ( {&majr-"Ek j zL) pmuk d ; Ak ' ¨ p mayrsm;


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

30

"r®0D&onf avmuD avmukwå&mtusKd;ESpfyg;twGuf jzpfonf/

t&d,mpcef; r*fwufvrf; q&mawmf O D ; eE´ ( rEÅ a v;)

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(cHpm;jcif;aMumihf) 8/ wPSm - tm½kHukd uyfNidjcif;/ (uyfNidjcif; aMumihf) 9/ Oyg'gef - tm½kHukd pGJvrf;jcif;? vufrvTwf jcif;/ (vufrvTwfjcif;aMumihf) 10/ ur®b0 - uHjzpfatmif jyKvkyfjcif;/ (jyKvkyfjcif;aMumihf) 11/ Zmwd - tem*wfü b0topfwpfzef jzpf&OD;awmhvwåHU/ (jzpf&vwåHUaMumihf) 12/ Z&m? r&P - tkdjcif;? aojcif;? pkd;&drfjcif;? idka<u;jcif;? ylaqG;jcif;? ukd,fqif;&Jjcif;? pdwf qif;&Jjcif;? jyif;pGmylavmifjcif;wdkYonf jzpf& ayawmhtHh/ (þum; b0jzpfvQif jzpf&rnhf tusKd;qufrsm;) þt*F g (12)yg;wd k Y u k d t&usuf í þ(12)yg;wdkY\ wpfckESihfwpfck qufpyfíjzpf aeykH teuft"dyÜg,fwdkYukd ÓPfü xifjrifí vmatmif avhvmíxm;&ygrnf/ t0dZÆmESihf wPSmt&if;cH Oyg'gef uH a Mumih f ½k y f e mrf a y:/ tyif r S r sKd ; rsKd ; rS t yif trQif r jywf quf p yf o nh f [ ef uH a Mumih f emrf ½ k y f emrf ½ k y f a Mumih f uH tzef z ef jzpf j yef e nf ; tavsmf jA[® m odMum; ponfrsm;u xif&Sm; jyKjyif pD&if zef q if ; taMumif ; &if ; aMumih f vl e wf rsm;pG m owå 0 gwd k Y jzpf v m&rI r [k w f [ k ÓPf j zih f ½ I í arQmf / vlewfrsm;pGm owå0gwd\ Yk b0rsm;pGm qufpyfí oHo&mvnf&ykHwkdYukd tusOf;csKH;í jyaomvuFmjzpfonf/ t&usufí t"dyÜg,f ay:atmif tBudrfBudrfjyefí pOf;pm;Munhfxm; yg/ zm t0dZÆmESihf wPSm 1/ rlvESpfjzm-

jzpfygonf/ 2/ opöm(2)ck- ork',opöm? 'ku© opömwdkY jzpfygonf/ (puf0kdif;ü (1)uGufrS tpOftwkdif;axmufyg) 3/ (4)ck tvTm- twdwftaMumif; (1)vTm/ ypöKyeÜ t f usK;d (1)vTm/ ypöKyeÜ t f aMumif; wpfvmT / tem*wftusK;d (1)vTmwdYk jzpfygonf/ 4/ t*Fg(12)yg; (12)yg;w&m;ukd,frsm;ESihft0dZÆm? ocFg&(v) Zmwd Z&m r&PwdkYjzpf ygonf/ 5/ (3)yg;tpyf- ocFg&ESihf 0dnmOf (1)pyf/ a0'emESihf wPSm(1)pyf/ ur®b0ESihf Zmwd(1)pyfwdkYjzpfygonf/ 6/ (2)&yfrlv- wPSmESihf t0dZÆmwdkY jzpfygonf/ 7/ 0#f(3)0#fESihf- udavo0#f(3)yg;? ur®0#f(2)yg;? 0dygu0#f(8)yg;wdkYjzpfygonf/ 8/ umv(3)jzm umv(3)jzm- vGefavNyD;aom twdwfumv? ,ckjzpfqJ ypöKyÜefumv? aemif jzpfvwHh tem*wfumvwdkY jzpfygonf/ jcif ; &m 20 20/ twd w f t aMumif ; tjcif;t&m(5)yg;/ ypöKyÜeftusKd; tjcif;t&m (5)yg;/ ypöKyÜeftaMumif; tjcif;t&m(5)yg;/ tem*wftusKd; tjcif;t&m (5)yg;wdkYjzpfyg onf/ þuJ h o d k Y rk d ; uk w f q &mawmf B uD ; \ puf0kdif;ukd axmuf&avonf/ þpuf0kdif;um; t*Fg(12)yg; ½kyfemrfw&m;wdkY\ b0jzpfykH b0 awGjzpfí oHo&mvnf&ykw H u Ykd jdk yaom puf0idk ;f jzpfonf/ 'gaMumihf þpuf0kdif;u ñTefjywJh ykHpHtwdkif; rdrdukd,fwkdif&xm;aom þ½kyfemrf cE¨mwdkYonf (1)ckESihf(1)ck aus;Zl;jyKí em&D rvyf? rdepfrvyf aMumif;usKd;qufpyfí b0 oHo&mvnf&ykw H u Ydk dk t&d,mpcef; r*fwufvrf; txd jrifatmifMunhfí avhvmxm;&rnf jzpf o nf / 'grS o m b0oH o &mqif ; &J w k d Y \ tzef z ef t xyf x yf v nf í jzpf a e&yk H w d k Y u k d ÓPfü awGUjrif&NyD; xGufajrmufvdkaompdwf onf jzpf&ayawmhvwHh/ tw¦ e ,(4)rsKd ; enf ; (4)axG tjrifrmS ; 'd|Bd u;D (5)rsK;d wdu Yk dk y,fpeG Yf Ekdif&ef y#dpöorkyÜg'fw&m;awmfukd avhvm&mü BuKdwifí odxm;oihfaomenf;(4)axGum;1/ {uwåenf;/ 2/ emewåenf;/ 3/ tAsmyg&enf;/ 4/ {0H"r®enf;[lí (4)rsKd;&Sdygonf/ þenf ; (4)axG u k d em;vnf r S o m


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf b0&SifoefrIudk trSefuefqHk;azmfaqmif&ef jzpfonf/ ½kyfemrfwdkY\ twGif;ü&Sdaom odrfarGUaom yuwdowådwdkYukd ÓPfüawGU&rnfjzpfonf/ ½kyfemrfwdkY\ yuwdowådwdkYukd ÓPfüawGUxm; rSom tjrifrSm;'d|dBuD;wdkYukd y,fazsmufEkdifrnf jzpfawmh\/ 'gaMumihf þenf;(4)axGwdkYukd ÓPfü txl;xif&mS ;vmatmif avhvmxm;Mu yg&ef.... tw¦ e , 4 rsKd ; {uwå e nf ; onf t0d Z Æ m ? ocF g & paom oabmw&m;wdkYonf cE¨mtpOfwpfck wnf;ü aMumif;usKd;qufpyfí jzpfMuaom aMumihf (wpfckwnf;r[kwfaomfvnf;) xkd aMumif;usK;d quf oabmw&m;wdu Yk ydk if wpfpOf wpfwef; wpfckwnf;[k odaMumif;jzpf\/ emewå e nf ; onf t0d Z Æ m paom oabmw&m;wdu Yk dk wpfv;Hk wpfcw J nf;r[kwb f J wpfuGJwpfjym; wpfjcm;pD[k odaMumif;jzpf\/ tAsmyg&enf;onf t0dZÆm ponf wd k Y ü ocF g & ponf w d k Y \ jzpf a y:vmzk d Y & ef aMumihfMuAsmyg& r&Sd[k odaMumif;jzpf\/ {0H"r®wmenf;onf Asmyg&r&Sdaomf vnf; t0dZÆmü ocFg&jzpfzkdY&ef aus;Zl;jyKEkdif aom xkH;pH"r®owåd&Sdonf[k odaMumif;jzpf\/ þum; tw¦e,enf; (4)rsKd;jzpf\/ enf; 4 axG 1/ {uwåenf;- t0dZmÆ aMumifh ocFg& jzpf & m ocF g &aMumif h 0d n mOf j zpf & m þod k Y ponfjzpf&mwdkYü taMumif;tusKd;tm;jzihf ½k y f e mrf o EÅ w d tpOf t wef ; BuD ; wpf c k o nf wpfoEÅmefwnf;ü tqufrjywfjzpfae&um; (tpOftwef;wpfckjzpfonf[k) odtyfaom enf;onf {uwåenf;rnf\/ Oapä ' 'd | d oów'd | d w d k Y r S v G w f þor® m 'd | d t jrif r S e f Ó Pf o nf twdwftaMumif;w&m;ESihf ypöKyÜeftusKd;w&m; ypöKyÜeftaMumif;w&m;ESihf tem*wftusKd; w&m;wdkY\ aMumif;usKd;qufEG,fvsuf txyf xyfjzpfaeaom ½kyef mrftpOftwef;\ rjywfpJ rIukd xkd;xGif;í odjrifaeaom todÓPfjzpf& um; aovQifjywf\? aemufxyfbmrSrjzpf[k pGJ,laom Oapä''d|d tjrifrSm;rSvGwf\/ xkdodkY ½kyfemrfwdkY\ aMumif;usKd;qufEG,frIoabmudk [kwfwkdif;rSefpGm jrifaomÓPfonf aovQif twåonf rjywf? NrJ\,laom oów'd|d tjrifrmS ;udv k nf; y,fEidk \ f / ({uwåenf; Ny;D \) 2/ emewå e nf ; - {uwå e nf ; t& t0d Z Æ m aMumif h ocF g &jzpf o nf / t0d Z Æ m taMumif; ocFg&tusKd;? ocFg&aMumihf 0dnmOf jzpfonf/ ocFg&taMumif; 0dnmOftusK;d / þodYk

taMumif;wpfvJ tusKd;wpfvJwdkY jzpfay:í vmaeaom t0dZÆm ocFg& 0dnmOfemrf½kyf (v) Zmwd Z&m r&P paom taMumif;w&m; tusKd;w&m;wdkY\ ukd,fykdifvu©PmtoD;oD; wkdYukd ykdif;jcm;rSwfom;í odxm;jcif;onf emewåenf;rnf\/ ,if ; emewå e nf ; uk d (oEÅ w d t pOf twef;Ce) orl[ (taygif; Ce) udpö (tvkyf vkyfwJh Ce) tm&r®P (tm½kHCe) [laom ½kyfwkH;½kyfcJ emrfwkH;emrfcJwdkYukd zsufqD;vsuf y&rwfoabmodYk ÓPftjrifqu dk af tmif y#dpö orkygÜ 'f t*Fg&yfwu Ydk dk vu©Pm &o ypöKy|mefy'|mefwdkYenf;tm;jzihf odrf;qnf;xm;&\/ twdwf? ypöKyÜef? tem*wf ½kyfemrf oEÅwdtpOfwdkYonf wpfpOfwpfwef;wnf; rSefaomfvnf; ½kyfuvmyf? emrfuvmyf? pdwå vu©P wpfcjk cif;jrifatmif oEÅwC d ey'|mef NyKdatmif odrf;qnf;&\/ ½kyfuvmyf? emrf uvmyfwpfck\ twGif;üwnfaom y&rw¦ "gwfom;wdkYukd wpfvkH;pD? wpfvkH;pD ÓPfjzihf cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmí þum; yx0D? þum; tmayg? þum; awaZm? þum; 0ga,m [kvnf; aumif;? þum; zó? þum; a0'em[k ponfjzihfvnf;aumif;? orl[Ce [laom ½kyfwkH;? ½kyfcJ? emrfwkH;? emrfcJwdkYukd NyKduGJoGm; atmif odrf;qnf;&\/ wpfzef ½kyfvkyfief;? emrfvkyfief; udpöCeukdvnf; NyKduGJoGm;atmif odrf;qnf;&\/ ,if;odkY odrf;qnf;EkdifvQif emewåenf;ukd odonfrnf\/ þodkY ukd,fykdif vu©PmtoD;oD;&Sad yr,fv h Ykd taMumif;wpfvJ tusK;d wpfvEJ iS yfh J qufpyfru I awmh &Sad eay\/ qufpyfrIuawmh &aeay\/ 'ghaMumihf emewå enf;rnf\/ þemewåenf;ukd odonfrnf\/ þemewåenf;ukd rSefuefpGmodaomolonf vnf ; Oapä ' ? oów'd | d w d k Y r S vG w f \ / (emewåenf; NyD;\/) 3/ tAsmyg&enf ; y#d p ö o rk y Ü g 'f w&m;awmf\ qufpyfrIü taMumif;w&m; bufü tusKd;w&m;wdkYukd jzpfay:ívmatmif jyKvyk rf nf[al om aMumihMf uAsmyg& r&Su d if;ae \/ tusKd;w&m;rsm;bufüvnf; taMumif; w&m;rsm;onf xif&Sm;&SdcJhaomf igwdkYtusKd; w&m;rsm;onfvnf; xif&mS ;jzpfMurnf[al om aMumihfMuAsmyg&r&Sd uif;aernf/ t0dZÆmü igonf ocFg&w&m;jzpfap &rnf[k aMumihfMuAsmyg&r&Sd/ ocFg&w&m;wdkY üvnf ; 0d n mOf u k d jzpf a p&rnf [ l a om aMumihfMuAsmyg&r&Sd uif;ae\/ þodkY ponf jzihf t0dZÆm? ocFg& paom w&m;wdkYü aMumihf

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Mu Asmyg&r&Sd uif;uif;aerIaMumifh tAsmyg& enf;rnf\/ þtAsmyg&enf ; uk d rS e f u ef p G m od aomol o nf uH a Mumih f emrf ½ k y f ? emrf ½ k y f aMumihf uH? tzefzefavsmfpGmomjzpfonf/ zef q if ; &S i f twå r &S d ? tzef q if ; cH & aom ZD 0 twå r &S d [ k o d í twå ' d | d p G J j yKwf \ / þtAsmyg&enf;jzpfaom t0dZÆm aMumihf ocFg&jzpf\/ t0dZÆmtaMumif;? ocFg& tusKd;? wpfcg ocFg&aMumifh 0dnmOfjzpf\/ ocFg&taMumif; 0dnmOftusKd;/ þü ocFg& onf tusKd ; vnf ; jzpf \ / taMumif ; vnf ; jzpf E k d i f j yef o nf / 'D o abmud k y if (obm0 ed,mrtm;jzihfNyD;aom tvkdvkd taMumif;jzpf rIoabmonf&Sd\ [kqkdjcif;jzpfonf/) xkd oabmw&m;ukd em;rvnfvQif jyKvkyfaomf vnf; jyKvkyfonfrrnf[laom taMumif; tusKd;ESpf&yfvkH;ukd y,faom tud&d,'d|d jzpf \ / obm0ed,mr[lonf rD;ñTefYonf txufodkYwuf\/ avonf zDvmuefYvefY oGm;jcif;oabm&Sd\/ þodkY ponfjzpfykHonf obm0ed,mrtm;jzihfNyD;aom NrJaomxkH;pH "r®wmjzpfouJhodkY t0dZÆm paom taMumif; w&m;onf xif&Sm;&Sdvwfaomf ocFg&paom tusKd;w&m;wdkYonfvnf; xif&Sm;jzpfay:í vm&\/ t0dZÆmpaom taMumif;w&m;onf xif&Sm;r&Sdvwfaomf ocFg&paom tusKd; w&m;wkdYonfvnf; xif&Sm;rjzpfEkdifawmhay/ wpfenf; t0dZÆm? wPSm? Oyg'gef? ocFg&? uH [laom taMumif;w&m;wdkYonf xif&Sm;&SdcJhaomf 0dnmPf? emrf½kyf? oVm,? we? zó? a0'em [laom tusKd;w&m;wdkY onfvnf; xif&Sm;jzpfay:ívm&\/ t0dZÆm? wPSm? Oyg'gef? ocFg&? uH[laom taMumif; w&m;wdkYonf xif&Sm;r&Sdvwfaomf 0dnmOf? emrf½kyf? oVm,we? zó? a0'em[laom tusKd;w&m;wdkYonfvnf; xif&Sm;rjzpfawmh ay/ þonf w d k Y u k d y if (obm0ed , mrod ' ¨ a[wkbm0) [laom NrJNrHaomoabmtm;jzihf tvkdvkdNyD;pD;íaeaom (taMumif;w&m;\ jzpfEkdifrIoabm[k) qkdvkdayonf/ þobm0 ed,mr\ NrJaomoabmtm;jzihf NyD;pD;íae aom pGr;f tifowå&d rdS o I abmukd em;rvnfygu uH ç uH \ tusKd ; wd k Y u k d ypf y ,f í aeaom tud&d,'d|djzpfEkdif\/ 4/ {0H"r®wmenf;um; EkdYrS EkdYcsOf jzpfEkdifouJhodkY t0dZÆm paom taMumif;w&m; pmrsuf E S m 35 ok d Y


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

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"r®0D&onf b0&SifoefrI y"meukdy,fí tukokdvfuif;aom &SifoefrItwGufjzpfonf/

ax&0g'Ak'¨omoemjyK t*Fvdyf&[ef;awmf t&SiftmeE´marawå,s (1872- 1923)

t&SiftmeE´marawå,s avmif;vsm csm;vfpf[ife&Dt,fvifbif;euf (Charles Henery Allen Bennett) ukd 1872 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (8)&ufaeYwGif vef'efNrKdUü arG;zGm; cJhonf/ zcifrSm vQyfppftif*sifeD,mwpfOD; jzpfNy;D t,fvifbif;eufi,fpOfuyif uG,v f eG f cJhonf/ xkdtcg rpöwmruf*&Dum (Mr.Mc Gregor) trnf&Sd yk*¾KdvfwpfOD;u arG;pm; cJo h nf/ t,fvifbif;euf\ rdcifrmS pnf;urf; wif;Muyfaom uufovpf bmom0if wpfOD; jzpfcJhonf/ t,fvifbif;eufonf t&G,af &muf aomtcg bwfofNrKdUü ynmoifMum;cJhonf/ "gwfcyJG nm&Sit f jzpf avhusio fh ifMum;Ny;D aemuf a'gufwmbm;ewf'kdif,m Dr.Bernard Dyer xHwiG f tvky0f ifvyk o f nf/ a'gufwm bm;ewf 'dkif,mum; "gwfcGJynm&Siftjzpfvnf;aumif;? tBuHay;"gwkaA'ynm&Siftjzpfvnf;aumif; Ekid if w H umodonhf yk*K¾ v d Bf u;D jzpfonf/ t,fvif bif;euf tvkyf0ifonfhtcsdefwGif a'gufwm bm;ewf'dkif,monf vef'efajymif; a&mif;0,f a&;ukrP Ü D (Landon Corn Trade) \ w&m;0if "gwfcyJG nm&SiBf u;D tjzpf vef'efNrKUd wGif tajccs aexkdifvsuf&Sdygonf/ 1894 ckESpfwGif a&Tt½kPfOD; (The Golden Dawn) trnf&Sd [mrvfwpf*E¨m&D *kP d ;f odYk 0ifco hJ nf/ ,if;*kP d ;f \&nf&, G cf surf mS vQKdU0SufeufeJaom *E¨m&Dynmjzihf pdwf0dnmOf qk d i f & m wk d ; wuf r I u k d &,l a &;jzpf o nf / *kP d ;f acgif;aqmifjzpfol qmtuf'iG t f mEk;d onf arS m f q &mBuD ; wpf O D ; tjzpf v nf ; aumif ; ? *E¨m&Dyk*¾Kdvfxl;BuD;wpfOD; tjzpfvnf;aumif; xifay:ausmfapmcJhonf/

t&SiftmeE´marawå,sonf 1890 jynhfESpf touf (18) ESpft&G,fwGif qmtuf 'GiftmEkd;\ tm&Swdkuf\tvif;a&mif (The Light of Asia) uAsm&SnfBuD;ukd zwf½IcJhonf/ ,if; uAsm&SnfBuD;onf xl;jcm;ajymifajrmuf vSojzihf ESpftenf;i,ftwGif; tBudrf(60) ausmf ykHESdyfxkwfa0cJh&onf/ urÇmtESHYtjym; tkyfa& oef;ESihfcsDí jzefYcsDcJh&onf/ þuAsm &SnfBuD;onf Ak'¨\jzpfpOfESihf Ak'¨\w&m;awmf taMumif; uAsmzGJUoDukH;xm;jcif;jzpfonf/ "gwfcGJq&mtjzpf t,fvifbif;euf vkyfukdif aepOf ,if;uAsm&SnfBuD;ukd zwf½IcJh&onf/ ,if ; uAsm&S n f B uD ; u t,f v if b if ; euf u k d Ak'b ¨ mom bufoYkd pdwñ f w T af pcJo h nf/ olonf xku d Asm &SnBf u;D ukd zwf½cI &hJ Ny;D onhaf emufyikd ;f wGif Ak'¨pmayrsm;ukd vufvSrf;rDoavmuf avhvm zwf½Iavawmhonf/ i,f p Of u wnf ; u pG J u yf c J h a om yef;ema&m*gaMumihf olonf tylykdif;a'oodkY c&D;xGuf&ef cGihf,lvkdufonf/ wpfcsufckwf ESpfcsufjywftaejzihf a&m*gvnf;oufom aysmufuif;? Ak'b ¨ momukv d nf; avhvmoif,l Ekdif&ef 1989 ckESpfwGif oD[kdVfEkdifiH (oD&dvuFm EkdifiH) odkY xGufcGgcJhonf/ oD[Vkd f (oD&v d uFm) Ekid if w H iG f olonf urf b l ½ l * rl 0 gt&yf o d k Y o G m ;NyD ; oD [ k d V f (oD & d v uF m ) bk e f ; awmf B uD ; wpf y g;xH w G i f ygVdbmom oif,lonf/ (6)voif,lNyD;aom tcg ygVdvdk oGuo f u G v f ufvuf ajymEkid o f nf/ t,f v if b if ; euf o nf &mreoef t rnf & S d wrD v f t rsKd ; om;BuD ; (oD & d v uF m Ek d i f i H \ a&SUaecsKyf) xHwGifvnf; a,m*'óeESihf vufawGUusihfpOfrsm;ukd avhvmoif,lcJhonf/ a&SUaecsKyfu ol\om;twGuf tvGwfoif q&mtjzpf t,fvifbm;eufudk iSm;xm;onf/ 1901 ckESpf ZlvkdifvwGif t,fvif bif;eufonf ukdvHbkdNrKdU&Sd oD,dqkdNAD toif; wkduf (Hope Lodge) wGif yxrqkH;tBudrf tjzpf Ak'¨bmomtaMumif; (opömav;yg; taMumif;) a[majymcJhonf/ t,fvifbif;eufonf Ak'¨bmom taMumif;ukd avhvmprf;oyfaeonfqadk pumrl

Munf v G i f

pifppfol\ tZÑwåwGif Ak'¨bmom0if jzpfae ayNyD/ Ak'¨bk&m;a[m yd#uwfokH;ykHukd avhvm zwf½Iavav Ak'¨bmom\qGJaqmifrIbufodkY ygavav jzpfonf/ t,fvifbif;eufonf jrefrmEkdifiH wGif &[ef;0wf&ef qkH;jzwfvkdufonf/ jrefrm Ekid if &H dS &[ef;oHCmrsm;onf Ak'\ ¨ "r®0ed ,ESifh ykdnDonf[k xifjrif,lqonf/ oD&dvuFmwGif jrif a wG U ae&aom ewf r d p ä m tuuJ h o d k Y a om tusirfh sm;aMumihf jrefrmEkid if u H dk pdwñ f w T cf jhJ cif; jzpfonf/ olonf arSmfynmpdwfwefckd;ESihf a,m*Dynm&yfrsm;aemufodkY vkdufaomvrf; onf jynhfpkHjcif;r&SdaMumif;udk oabmaygufNyD; jrefrmEkdifiHokdY xGufcGmvmjcif;jzpfonf/ olonf 1901 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (8) &ufaeYwGif ppfawGNrKdUü omraP0wfcJhonf/ 1902 ckESpf arv (21) &ufaeYü a&Tjym;q&m awmfukd OyZÑm,fjyKí jrihfjrwfaom&[ef;b0 odkY a&mufcJhonf/ bGJUawmfrSm t&SiftmeE´m arawå,sjzpfonf/ t&SiftmeE´marawå,sonf t*F v d y f vl r sKd ; rsm;teuf 'k w d , ajrmuf &[ef ; jyKcJ h o l jzpf y gonf / yxrqk H ; &[ef ; jyKcJ h o l r S m rpö w m a*:'ef ' l ; *vuf jzpf onf / xk d y k * ¾ K d v f o nf 1899 ck E S p f w G i f uk d v H b k d N rKd U Z,aqum&mrausmif ; wk d u f ü t&S i f t aomubG J U jzih f &[ef ; jyKcJ h o nf / xk d Y a emuf jref r mjynf o d k Y <ua&muf o D w if ; okH;NyD; 1905 ckESpfwGif ppfawGNrKdUü ysHvGef awmf r l c J h y gonf / t&SiftmeE´marawå,srax&f onf &[ef;jyKonhfESpfwGif rEÅav;NrKdUodkY <uawmfrl um a&TusD;jrifbk&m;ü oDwif;okH;awmfrlNyD; 0guyf a wmf r l o nf / oD w if ; uRwf a omtcg ta&SUr[m0do'k g¨ ½kaH usmif;wku d o f Ykd <ua&mufí y0g&PmjyKawmfrlonf/ (y0g&PmjyKjcif;qkd onfrSm 0guRwfaomtcg oufqkdif&m&[ef; onf rd r d ü jrif í jzpf a p? Mum;íjzpf a p? ,kHrSm;íjzpfap tjypfwpfpkHwpf&m&Sdygu xkd tjypfukd xkwfazmfajym&eftwGuf tenf;qkH; ig;yg;ta&twGu&f adS om tjcm;&[ef;rsm;tm; vlo&d iS Mf um; yefMum;jcif;yifjzpfonf/ y0g&Pm


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf udk,fusifhoDvESifh pm&dwåjrifhrm;ap&ef jzpfonf/ trIukd y0g&PmaeY oDwif;uRwf vjynhfaeYü &[ef;wdkif; jyK&onf/) þok d Y y0g&PmjyK&ef t wG u f 0g ti,fqkH;jzpfaom t&SiftmeE´marawå,s onf aemufqkH;rSm ae&m,l&onf/ olonf aqmihfaMumihfxkdifvsuf wjcm;ax&fBuD;wdkY\ y0g&PmjyKrIukd MunfnKd&if; rdrdtvSnhfukd apmihq f idk ;f ae&onf/ aqmihaf Mumifx h idk &f onf rSm MumjrifhvSojzihf anmif;nmvGef;aom aMumifh rl;vJoGm;&Smavonf/ t&SiftmeE´marawå,sonf 1903 ckESpf rwfv (15)&ufaeY Ak'¨omoeorm*r (tjynfjynfqidk &f m Ak'b ¨ momtoif;)ukd wnf axmifum twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf aqmif&Guf awmfrcl o hJ nf/ ,if;odYk aqmif&u G cf jhJ cif;twGuf r[m0dok'¨g½kHq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;u t&Sif tmeE´ m arawå , stm; emem&|ed , smed u Ak ' ¨ b momembd 0 ¹u tmeE´ m arawå , s r[mZe*k ½ k b G J U csD ; jr§ i h f a wmf r l c J h y gonf / toif; u 1903 ckESpfwGif Ak'¨0g'trnf&Sd pmapmif u k d t*F v d y f b momjzih f ok H ; v wpfBudrfxkwfa0&m t&SiftmeE´m arawå ,sonf t,f'Dwmtjzp mtjzpf aqmif&Gufawmf rlcJhygonf/ t&Sit f meE´marawå,sonf &efuek f NrKdU OD;jym;awm&ü oDwif;okH;pOf 0DxdusykHukd "gwfykH½kduful;wifjyEkdif&ef BuKd;pm;aqmif&Guf awmfrlcJhonf/ odkYaomf ratmifjrifcJhacs/ pma&;q&mBu;D yDr;dk eif;onf jynfNrKUd aq;½kHwGif pma&;BuD;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif aepOf v,f w D q &mawmf b k & m;BuD ; onf jynfNrKdUodkY <ua&mufí w&m;a[mMum;awmf rl&m q&mBuD;yDrkd;eif;onf v,fwDq&mawmf bk & m;BuD ; \w&m;uk d emMum;&NyD ; aemuf tvk y f r S Ek w f x G u f u m v,f w D q &mawmf bk&m;BuD;xHwGif &[ef;0wfcJhonf/ q&mBuD; yDr;dk eif; (t&Sif aumov’) onf &[ef;0wfjzihf &efuek Nf rKUd odYk <ua&mufpOf ygwdarmufr&ojzihf oDwif;okH;&ef ausmif;tcuftcJawGUae&m t&SiftmeE´marawå,su rdrdoDwif;okH;aom awm&ausmif;wGif vufcHxm;onf/ "gwfcGJ ynmukv d nf; oifay;onf/ q&mBu;D yDr;dk eif;u t&Sit f meE´marawå,sudk q&maumif; wpfyg; tjzpf a&;om;rSwfwrf;wifcJhygonf/ oD&dvuFmEkdifiHrS xGufcGmum jrefrm Ekid if w H iG f oDwif;ok;H aeawmfral omfvnf; t&Sif tmeE´ m arawå , suk d *k P f j yKaomtm;jzih f uk d v H b k d N rKd U wG i f cef ; rBuD ; wpf c k \ trnf u k d arawå,scef;r[k trnfay;cJhygonf/

1908 ckESpf {NyDv(23)&ufaeYwGif t&SiftmeE´marawå,sonf omoemjyK&ef vef'efNrKdUodkY a&muf&Sdvmonf/ omoemjyK tzGJUwGif Ak'¨omoeorm*rtoif;\ aiGxdef; rif;BuD;uawmf a':jrarvnf; yg0ifavonf/ omoemjyKtzGJUonf t*FvefwGif 1908 ckESpf atmufwb dk mv(2)&ufaeYtxd aexkid cf o hJ nf/ &efukefokdY jyefa&mufonhftcg t&SiftmeE´m arawå,su ol\omoemjyKc&D;onf tvGef atmif j rif a Mumif ; &ef u k e f x k w f o wif ; pm wpfapmiftm; rdefYMum;awmfrlcJhygonf/ NAdwdefAk'¨bmomtoif;BuD;u jrefrm Ek d i f i H & S d pmoif a usmif ; rsm;wG i f Ak ' ¨ b mom oifMum;a&;twGuf t&Sit f meE´marawå,sEiS fh ol\rdwfaqGrsm;u atmifjrifpGm aqmif&Guf Ekid jf cif;tay: 1908 ckEpS t f wGi;f cs;D usL;*kPjf yK xm;onfukd rSwfwrf;rsm;wGif awGU&Sd&ygonf/ t&SiftmeE´marawå,s\ usef;rm a&;tajctaerS m wpf a eY w pf j cm; ,k d , G i f ; qkd;0g;vmonf/ 1913 ckESpfwGif onf;ajc ausmufwnfa&m*gaMumihf cGJpdwfukorI cH,l cJh&onf/ odkYaomf xl;jcm;rIr&SdcJhay/ aemufqkH; vl0wfvu J m t*FvefoYkd jyefomG ;&onf/ raorD t,fvifbif;eufonf usef;rma&;tajctae qkd;0g;aeonhfMum;rS tajctae,dkifvJoGm; aom NAdwdefAk'¨bmomtoif;BuD;ukd jyefvnf xlaxmifum Ak'¨bmom&DAsL;*sme,fwGifvnf; t,f'Dwmtjzpf aqmif&GufoGm;&Smygonf/ t,fvifbif;eufonf 1923 ckESpf arv(9)&ufaeY touf(51) ESpft&G,fwGif uG,fvGefcJh&Smavonf/ t&S i f t meE´ m arawå , s a&;om; cJhonhf rSwfom;zG,f&m ol\pl;&Saom "r® tjriftcsKdUukd atmufwGif azmfjyvdkufygonf/ tu,f í oif o nf avmu\ 0ef x k y f 0 ef y k d ; uk d aygh y g;apvk d v Qif v nf ; aumif;? vlYabmif avmuBuD;ukd Nidrf;csrf; a&;qD o d k Y yd k e D ; oG m ;atmif o,f a qmif c sif vQif vnf;aumif; ukd,fhaetdrfu pvkdufyg/ ukd,fhukdudk,f vGwfajrmufatmif? ukd,fhukd udk,f jrihfjrwfatmif? ukd,fhukdukd,f pifMu,f atmif BuKd ; pm;tm;xk w f v k d u f y g/ avmu BuD;wpfckvkH; vlYavmu\tusKd;ukd&nfrSef; vk y f a om aqmif & G u f r I x uf y k d í BuD ; us,f aom aqmif&GufrIr&SdNyD/ vlYavmutwGuf ul n D r I x uf yk d j rih f j rwf a om ul n D r I r &S d N yD / tb,f a Mumih f e nf ; / vl w k d i f ; vl w k d i f ; onf vl Y a vmuBuD ; \ tpd w f t yd k i f ; wpf c k p D j zpf aomaMumih f w nf ; /

33

y#d p ö o rk y Ü g 'f ? vu© P ma&;oH k ; yg; ponfhw&m;rsm;jzihf tajccHxm;aom Ak'¨ w&m;awmf o nf o mvQif od y Ü H e nf ; jzih f tppf a q;cH E k d i f o nf / rS w f a usmuf w if c H Ekdifonf/ ,ckvnf; rnfolrQjiif;qkdír&/ aemifvnf; rnfolrQ jiif;qkdEkdifrnfr[kwf/ acwfopf odyÜHynmjzihf wkd;wufxGef;um; vmrnf h aemif v maemif o m;rsm;\b0ES i h f [yfrdEkdifrnhfbmomrSm Ak'¨bmom omvQif jzpf o nf / Ak ' ¨ w &m;awmf o nf vl o m;rsm; ukd OD;aqmifvrf;jyEkdifonf omru vlom; rsm;\vuf a wG U b0wG i f v nf ; tH 0 if c G i f u s atmif tok H ; csEk d i f a om w&m;awmf j zpf onf / Ak ' ¨ w &m;awmf o nf wef c k d ; &S i f zefqif;&Si&f o dS nf[k ,kMH unfaomw&m;r[kw/f qkawmif;½kHrQjzihf NyD;jynhfpkHaomw&m;r[kwf/ t&rf;rJh,kHMunfrIukd vufcHaomw&m;r[kwf/ w&m;ao0g'ukd tm;ay;aomw&m;r[kwf/ jyefvnfapm'uwufciG rfh &Sad om w&m;r[kw/f pOf;pm;qifjcifÓPfay:wGif tajcwnfaom w&m;jzpfonf/ qifjcifwkHw&m;ukd tajcjyK onhf oabmw&m;rsm;yg0ifaomw&m;jzpf onf / wpf z ef oabmw&m;rQomr[k w f / vuf a wG U yg usih f B uH t m;xk w f & aomw&m; jzpfonf/ Ak'¨0g'onf w&m;pmukdcsnf; &Gwf zwfo&ZÑ,fae&aom0g'r[kwf/ vufawGU usiBfh ut H m;xkw&f aom0g'jzpfonf/ xkaYd Mumifh tMuifolonf w&m;pmrsm;ukd tBudrfwpf axmif &Gwfzwfaeaomfvnf; xkdw&m;twkdif; usihfBuHaexkdifjcif;rjyKygu xkdolonf Ak'¨ bmomw&m;awmfukd ouf0if,kHMunfvkdufem ol [ k r,l q Ek d i f / w&m;pmuk d tBud r f wpf a xmif r&G w f a omf v nf ; w&m;pm wpf y k ' f u k d em;vnf a tmif j yKí xk d t wd k i f ; vufawGUusihfBuHolomvQif Ak'¨\w&m;ukd rS e f u ef p G m ouf 0 if , k H M unf vk d u f e mol [ k ,l q Ek d i f o nf / Oyrm ig;yg;oD v ud k em; vnf N yD ; tvG w f & G w f q k d a eaomf v nf ; ,if ; uk d vk d u f e musih f B uH j cif ; rjyKygu Ak ' ¨ bmomtppf [ l í r,l q Ek d i f y g/ Ak'¨w&m;awmfonf aeYpOfjzpfysuf awGUBuKHaeaom vlrIudpöESihfvnf; oufqkdif onf/ Ak'¨w&m;awmfukd rSDjirf;jyKí vlrIudpö rsm;wG i f vuf a wG U usih f B uH a exk d i f j cif ; jzih f vlpY rG ;f &nfowåu d dk tjynht f 0 tok;H csEidk o f nf/ Ak'¨w&m;awmft& rnfonhfouf&Sd pmrsuf E S m 39 ok d Y


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

34

"r®0D&onf rdrdudk,fudk apmifha&SmufEdkif&eftwGuf jzpfonf/

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DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf vlrsKd;ra&G; bmomra&G;? vlom;rsKd;EG,ftm;vHk;twGuf jzpfonf/ ]]OD;aumif;BuD; tdrfa&SUrSm ikwfwkwf xdkifaewmAsdKU}} qdkNyD; aMu;pnfacguform;udk ajymawmh]]aoaumaocsm&JUvm;Asm? cifAsm; u tdyfcsifrl;wl;eJY}} qdkawmh]][kwyf gw,fqu kd mG ? ighrsupf ed YJ wyftyf jrifwmyg}} ]]a[h..a[h? pum;awG aemufraS jym Mu? oHCmawG t½kPfqGrf;uyfzdkY aemufusae tH;k r,f}} vdYk 'umBu;D OD;pHarmifajymvku d af wmhrS tdrfatmufqif;oGm;awmhw,f/ eHeufy|mef;yGJ odrf;NyD;wJhtcg.. ]]t&Sib f &k m; y|mef;ylaZmfaewJt h csed f OD;aumif;BuD; y|mef;w&m; vmemw,fxif&JU}} ]]'geJ Y 'umBuD ; ? OD ; aumif ; qd k w m &Gmawmifydkif;u r[kwfvm;/ apmapmpD;pD; tdraf &SUrSm xdik af e&w,fv?Ykd tdrx f 0J ifNy;D w&m; emvnf; &&JUom;eJY}} ]]atmf..t&Sifbk&m; rodao;bl;eJY wlw,f/ olaowm vydik ;f avmufyJ &Sad o;w,f}} vdkY ajymvkdufawmhrS? OD;aumif;wpfa,muf w&m;emcG i h f & NyD ; aumif ; &mok * wd b 0od k Y a&mufygapvdkY trQa0cJh&ao;w,f/ vlwpfa,muf&JU BuD;yGm;wdk;wufa&; udk tpOfarQmfawG;vdkY jyKay;vkduf&wJh arwåm w&m;avmuf MunfEl;wmr&Sdygbl;/ avmu urÇmBu;D at;Nird ;f apzdYk vlom;wkid ;f apmifah &Smuf &r,hf w&m;av;yg;qdkwm&Sdygw,f/ arwåm? u½kPm? rk'dwm? Oayu©mw&m;awGayhg/ t&d ,molawmfpifyk*¾dKvfawGrSeforQonf onf av;rsdK;udk tav;xm;yGm;Muw,f/ jA[®pdk&f w&m;av;yg;vdkYvJ ac:ygw,f/ jA[®mhjynf a&muf&eftaMumif;awGyJ/ wpfckaomurÇmrSm rdrdwdkYbk&m;avmif;[m ]]t&u}} trnf&wJh ykPmÖ ;wpfO;D jzpfczhJ ;l ygw,f/ t&G,af &mufawmh ydkifqkdiforQawGudk pGefYvSLNyD; [dr0EÅmawmrSm &aohjyKcw hJ ,f/ tNrw J rf; olymG ;wJw h &m;awGu jA[®mpdk&fw&m;av;yg;ygwJh/ oludk,fwkdifvnf; yGm;ovdk wynhrf sm;udv k nf; apmifah &SmufwwfzYkd qHk;rygw,f/ olaovGefawmh jA[®mjynfodkY a&mufcJhw,f/ &aohb0rSm ckepfESpfwkdifwdkif tm;xkwfcJhwJh arwåmawG&JUtm;u ckepfurÇm wdkifwdkif jA[®mjynfrSmae&w,f/ b,favmuf tusdK;aus;Zl;BuD;rsm;ovJqdkwm awG;MunhfMu yg/ arwåmtusdK;q,hfwpfrsdK;&Sdygw,f/ 1/ csrf;ompGm tdyf&w,f/ 2/ csrf;ompGm Edk;&w,f/ 3/ tdyfrufqdk;awG rrufbl;/ 4/ vltrsm;cspfcifw,f/

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yk*¾dKvfwpfa,mufu tem;udkuyfNyD;]]touf&Snfcsif&if &wemoHk;yg; rarhe?YJ arwåmw&m; rsm;rsm;yGm;}} vdYk ajymw,f/ 'geJyY J wynhaf wmfvnf; owdjyef&wJt h csed af v; rSm pdwx f rJ mS ayhg? &wemoH;k yg;&JU *kPaf wmfawG udk yGm;w,f/ NyD;awmh arwåmydkYw,f/ ]]ckqdk wynhfawmftouf (55) ESpf &Syd gNy/D igwwfEikd o f rQ &wemoH;k yg;wdu Yk kd ylaZmf r,f/ aeYpOfrjywf udk,fwkdifqGrf;csufNyD; oHCm awGudk qGrf;vSLr,f? arwåmw&m;rsm;rsm;xm; r,fqdkNyD; qHk;jzwfxm;ygw,fbk&m;}} vkdY olu ajymjyawmh]]atmf . .&wemoH k ; yg;eJ Y arwå m w&m;}} touf&SifpGm temrJha&; &efab; uif;aMumif; aumif;rIr*FvmjzpfapwwfzdkY uawmh ESpOf ;D at;wJh arwåmaq;yJ r[kwvm;/ fvm;/ aeYpOftcsdefwdkif; aomufEdkifoa&GU? ypöKyÜefoHo&mESpfckpvHk;rSm aomuuif;a0; csr;f omwJt h m[m&awG ay;pGr;f rSmr[kwyf gvm;/ onfvdk pdwfaepdwfxm;jyKjyifyHkav; udk udk,fhtawGUtBuHKeJY &Sif;jyum w&m;yGJudk tqHk;owfcJhygw,f/ w&m;yGJNyD;vdkY rMumygbl;/ toHcsJUpufq&mzGifhvdkufwJhoDcsif;u.. ]]arwåmtusKd ;rSm zGiu fh mjy&if wefc;kd tmedoif jA[®mhbHkvm;&m w&m;ygyif rSwf MuapaMumif;xif? MunfMunfvifvif a&Tarwåm ydkYMuxm0pOf}}/ / ñTe;f - y|mef;a'oem EG , f , if ; rm (wrÜ 0 wD )

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DHAMMA VIRA FOR YOUTHS

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DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf vlom;rsKd;EG,fquftwGuf jzpfonf/ t&mudkjrifaomf opfyifxufrSqif;í jrif;pm; cGut f eD;okYd csO;f um jrif;pmcGut f wGi;f rS yJwu Ykd dk ,lí ol\cHwGif;ü tjynfhxnhfonhftjyif vufjzihq f yk í f vnf; ,laqmifum opfyifay:ü tustexkdifNyD; 0rf;pnf;pdrfcH&efjyif\/ xkdpOf yJaphwpfaphonf atmufodkYjyKwfusíoGm;\/ arsmufonf bmrSrpOf;pm;bJ olüY trsm;tjym; &Sdaeaom yJjyKwfaphwkdYukd pGefYypfvsuf opfyif atmufodkY tajy;qif;um usoGm;aomyJaphukd ae&mtESHY vkduf&Sm\/ rnfonhfae&mrS &Smí rawGUaomf opfyifay:odYk jyefwufc\ hJ / xkt d cg rS apmapmu olpeG yYf pfcahJ omyJwu Ykd dk owd&\/ ,ckrl olYwGif 0rf;pnf;pdrfcHzkdYa0;pG/ pm;p&m yJwpfaphrS rusefawmhaomtjzpfESihf BuKHawGU& avonf/ xkdtcgusrS arsmufonf rsufpdysuf rsufESmysufjzihf aqG;íaeawmhonf/ xkdtjzpf ukd bk&ifrif;Bu;D vSr;f íjrif\/ xkt d aMumif;ukd rif;BuD;u odvkdojzihf ynm&Sd trwfBuD;ukd ac:íar;\/ trwfBu;D u arsmufru dk \ f tjzpf uk d Zmwf p k H c if ; í avQmuf x m;\/ NyD ; vQif ,ckuJhodkY rif;BuD;udkavQmufxm;um pum;ukd tqk H ; owf v k d u f a vonf / ]]t&S i f r if ; BuD ; avmuü ynmr&SdaomolwdkYonf tenf; i,frQukdom Munhfwwfí trsm;ukd rMunhf wwf rjrifwwfaMumif;yg/}} bk&m;tavmif; ynm&SdtrwfBuD;\ pum;ukdMum;NyD;onf\tqkH;wGif Am&mPoD rif;BuD;onf a&SUodkYqufícsDwufjcif;rjyKawmh bJ Am&meef;odkYom jyefvnfí <ujref;awmf rlavonf/ ypöEÅ&mZft&yfukd odrf;ykdufxm; aom ck;d om;"g;jywdv Yk nf; Am&mrif;Bu;D uk, d w f idk f csDwufawmfrlvmNyD[k owif;pum;Mum;ojzihf vGwf&muRwf&modkY xGufajy;wdrf;a&SmifoGm; Muavonf/ ,ck ypöKyÜefüvnf; aumovrif; BuD;onf jrwfpGmbk&m;\a'oemukd Mum;em &onfwGif wyfukd a&SUqufrcsDwufawmhbJ om0w¦dNrKdUokdY jyefvnf<ujref;oGm;avawmh onf/ ,ckZmwfukdaygif;aomf twdwfu Am&mjynhf&Sifrif;onf ,ck tmeE´m? igbk&m;rl xkdpOfu ynm&SdtrwfBuD;jzpfzl;NyD[k Zmwf aygif;awmfrlygonf/ aZmf a emif usrf ; uk d ; uVm,rk|dZmwf ig;&mhig;q,fZmwfedygwfawmf (anmifuefq&mawmf)

pmrsuf E S m 33 rS owå0grqkd pdwf\aphaqmfcsuft& jyKcJhaom twdwu f H (0g) twdwv f yk &f yfrsm;tay: rlwnf í xkdol\trltusihf p½kduf pdwfaepdwfxm; b0vrf;aMumif;wdkYonf jzpfay:vmMu&onf omjzpfonf/ wpfenf;tm;jzihf Ak'¨0g'onf uHw&m;ukd y"gejyKaomw&m;jzpfonf/ odkY&m wGif aocsmpGm qef;ppfMunhfygu twdwfuH onf ypöKyÜeftajctaeukd rnfodkYyifzefwD; onfqkdapumrl xkdypöKyÜeftajctaeukdyif xufjrufaomÓPftajrmftjrifjzihf rdrdqE´ &Sd&m jyKjyifaqmif&GufoGm;rnfqkdygu tem *wfudk jyKjyifzefwD;Ekdifonf/ wpfenf;tm;jzihf ÓPfxufjrufaomowå0gtzkdY (txl;ojzihf vlom;tzk)Yd vuf&t dS ajctaetwGuf uHMur®m ukd olomvQifykdifqkdifayonf/ twdwfujyKcJh aom pGrf;tm;rsm;\a&mifjyef[yfrItwdkif; ol Y b 0onf jzpf & onf q k d a omf j im;vnf ; vuf&SduHMur®mukdum; olomvQif ykdifqkdif avonf / xk d Y t jyif tem*wf t wG u f yd k i f p k d ; ol r S m vnf ; ol o mvQif j zpf a yonf / tu,fí olonf ÓPfynmjzihf jyKjyif xdef; ausmif;oGm;rnfqkdygu aemifb0twGuf om ru vuf&ydS pöKyeÜ b f 0twGuyf g olb Y 0? olpY ½ku d ?f olYtajctaewdkYukd zefwD; Ekdifavao;onf/ Ak'0¨ g'onf urÇmolurÇmom;tm;vk;H pmrsuf E S m 37 rS 'kv’b&JUtESpfom;trSefudk tusOf;csKyfa&;jyyg qdkvQif pdwf&JU tnpftaMu; tpGJawGcRwfae wmqdk rSm;Ekdifr,frxifygbl;/ onf a e&mrS m ]ypö K yÜ e f r S m vnf ; pGJvef; raebJ tem*wfudkvnf; ab;z,f xm;NyD ; rif ; &J U aemuf r S m vnf ; bmrS csef rxm;ygeJ Y } qd k w J h t*F v d y f u Asmwpf y k ' f u d k owd&rdygw,f/ Ak'b ¨ momjrefrmawG odxm;wJh Ak'¨a'oemawmfxJu ba'´u&wåokwåHxJrSm ygwJh w&m;pOfeJYvnf; cyfqifqifwlygw,f/ ]]twdwfcE¨mudkvnf; jyefrvGrf;&m? tem*wf cE¨mudkvnf; vSrf;rarQmf&m? twdwfcE¨monf csKyf N yD ; NyD ? tem*wf c E¨ m onf ra&muf v m ao;ay? twd w f u d k vG r f ; wyl a qG ; jcif ; ? tem*wfudk rSef;qai;arQmfjcif;jzihf vlom; onf ud k , f h ' k u © u d k ud k , f w d k i f z ef w D ; aeMu onf / ypö K yÜ e f j zpf a om ½k y f e mrf u d k v nf ; rom,m rpGv J ef;bJ xdx k kd jzpfqcJ PüomvQif vkyfoihfvkyfxdkufonfudk vkyfudkifoGm;vQif rS m ;,G i f ; aom tawG ; tac:rsm; Mum;0if aESmihf,SufEkdifp&m ae&m uGufvyf r&SdEkdifay/

39

vk d u f e musih f o k H ; oih f a om0g'jzpf o nf / Ak ' ¨ bmom0ifwkdif; usihfokH;&onhfig;yg;oDvü yg&S d a om ol Y t owf r owf & ynwf c suf wpfcsufukd vkdufemvQifyif urÇmppfyGJrsm; rjzpfyGm;Ekdif? ppf\ted|m½kHrsm; ray:aygufEkdif/ wpfzef ao&nfao&ufukd raomufpm;ESihf [laom ynwfcsuu f dk vku d ef mvQiyf if &mZ0wf rIcif;rsm; avsmhyg;Ekdifonf/ Ak'¨bmomonf trsK;d orD;rsm;ukv d nf; a,musmf ;rsm;ESifh wef;wl tcGihfta&;ay;aombmomjzpfonf/ urÇmh vlom;wdkY wkd;wufa&;twGuf acwfopfynm a&;pepfukd csrSwf&mwGif Ak'¨0g'ESihftnD csrSwf oih f o nf / Ak ' ¨ 0 g'onf 0d Z Æ m ES i h f o d y Ü H y nm &yf r sm; oif M um;jcif ; uk d txl ; tm;ay; onf / od k Y & mwG i f xk d r Qjzih f rvk H a vmuf / vl o m;wd k Y w G i f pd w f " gwf o nf t"d u jzpf o jzih f pd w f " gwf a umif ; rG e f a &;twG u f vnf ; yl ; wG J a vh u sih f y sKd ; axmif ay;&rnf / Munf v G i f (þaqmif ; yg;uk d q&mBuD ; rif ; ,k a 0\ tw¦ K ywå d x l ; pmtk y f E S i h f pma&;q&m a r mif o mrn jref r mjyef o nh f 20 &mpk \ yxrqk H ; taemuf w k d i f ; omoemjyKyk * ¾ K d v f t&SiftmeE´marawå,spmtkyfwkdYrS aumuf E k wf w fa &;om;ygonf / ) xdkodkYaom tawG;rSm;wdkY Mum; r0ifEkdifaomf tawG ; rS m ;ud k trS D j yKí jzpf a y:wwf a om pGJvrf;uyfNidrIrsm;vnf; tdrfajcrJhb0odkY tvdk vdka&mufoGm;ayawmhrnf/ 'ku©w&m;onf vlem;odkYoDcGihfr&awmhbJ tkwfMum;jrufayguf b0rsKd;jzihf Zmwfodrf;&ayawmhrnf}} 'gaMumihf rdkY 'ku©udk rvdkvm;aom "r®rdwfaqGtaygif;wdkY taejzihf ypöKyeÜ cf E¨m ig;yg;wd\ Yk cPwdik ;f cP wdkif;aMumif;usKd; qufum jzpfysufaerIrSwyg; rNyKd ruGt J Nrw J nf aeaom twå[o l nfh cdik Nf rrJ I awGr&SdEkdifonfhtwGuf arG;onfrS aoonf txd wa&GUa&GU ajymif;vJaeyHkudk qifjcifNyD; bmudkrSrpGJeJY}} qdkaom jrwfAk'¨\ rSmwrf;awmf udk owdxm;oihfayonf? NyD;awmh t*Fvdyf pmwrf;av; wpfckudkvnf; pmzwfolwdkY0dkif;NyD; bmomjyef pOf;pm;apEkid zf zYkd w d af c:vdu k yf gw,f/ Let go, Let go, Don't hold on to anithing.

pma&;ol u awmh vT w f v d k u f ? vT w f v d k u f ? bmud k r S qk w f r xm;eJ Y vd k Y t"d y Ü g ,f z G i h f N yD ; "r®omupämjyK wdkufwGef;vdkufygw,f/ [ef o G i f c ef Y


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awmifolv,form;\ taqmwvsifjyKzG,fudpö(3)yg; The Urgent duties of a yeoman farmer "r® 0 D & -oEÅ m atmif (tjynf j ynf q k d i f & max&0g'wuú o k d v f )

Ä

Ä

xdk&[ef;tm; ]],aeYaomfvnf;aumif;? eufjzefaomfvnf;aumif;? oefbufcgaomfvnf;aumif; ig\pdwfonf wPSm'd|dwdkYjzihf wpfpHkwpfckaom tm½Hkudk rpGJvef;rlí tmoa0gw&m;wkdYrS uif;vGwfapownf;}} [k tvdk&Sdwdkif; NyD;apEkdifaom wefcdk;pGrf;r&Sday/ pifppfaomfum; odu©moHk;&yf y#dywfudk usihfaqmifjcif;jzihfom xdk&[ef;\ pdwfonf tmoa0gw&m;wdkYrS uif;vGwfonfomjzpf\/

Now the monk has no such magic power or authority as to say: "Today: let my mind be released from the asavas without grasping, or tomorrow, or the day following." No! It is just the due season. which release his mind, as he undergoes the training in these three. Urgent tpö m ,d u ok w f On a certain occasion the Exalted One was going his tcgwpfyg;üjrwfpGmbk&m;onf rsm;pGmaom &[ef;oHCm rounds among the Kosalans together with a great company of awmfwdkYESihftwl aumovwdkif;ü a'opm&DvSnhfvnfawmfrlonf&Sd&m monks, and on coming to Pankadha, a district of the Kosalans, yuF"mtrnf&Sdaom aumovwdkif;olwkdY\ ed*Hk;odkYa&mufawmfrlí there abode. (Now Pankadha is a district of the Kosalans) xdkyuF"m (ouF0g)ed*Hk;ü oDwif;oHk;aeawmfrl\/ (,cktcg xdfkyuF"m Now on that occasion a certain monk named Kassapagotta, of the Kassapa clan, was resident at Pankadha, ed*Hk;qdkonfrSm aumovc½kdif\ NrdKUwpfNrddKUjzpfíaeayNyD) xdktcg uóy a*gwåtrnf&Sdaom &[ef;onf xdkyuF"m and it happened that the Exalted One was instructing, inciting and gladdening the monks with a religious talk suitable to the ed*Hk;ü ausmif;xdkifyk*¾dKvfjzpf\/ ¤if;yuF"med*Hk;wGif jrwfpGmbk&m;onf keeping of the precepts. Then the Exalted one addressed the &[ef;wdkYusihfaqmif&rnfh odu©myk'fESihf pyfaom w&m;pum;jzihf tusKd; monks, saying: pD;yGm;udk odjrifapvsuf "r®udkaqmufwnfapum xufoef&Tifvef;ap "Monks" "Lord" replied those monks to the Exalted One. awmfr\ l / xdpk OfjrwfpmG bk&m;onf &[ef;wdt Yk m; rdeMYf um;awmfr&l mwGi.f .. Then the Exalted one said this: ]]&[ef;wk}dY } "Monks, there are these three urgent duties of a yeo]]t&SifjrwfBuD;bk&m;}} [k &[ef;wdkYu jrwfpGmbk&m;&Siftm; man farmer. What three?" jyefMum;avQmufxm;Mu\/ "Herein, monks the yeoman farmer gets his field well xdktcg jrwfpGmbk&m;onf &[ef;wdkYtm; þuJhodkYaom ploughed and harrowed very quickly. Having done so he puts in his seed very quickly. Having done he lets the water in and turns "r®pum;udk rdefY`rGwfawmfrlav\/ ]]&[ef;wdkY tdrf&Sifa,musfm;? v,form;\ taqmwvsif it off very quickly. These are his three urgent duties." "Now, monks, that yeoman farmer has no such magic jyK&rnfh jyKvkyfzG,f&m udpöwdkYonf þoHk;yg;wdkYwnf;/ tb,foHk;yg;wdkY power or authority as to say: "Let my crops spring up today. enf;[lrl? &[ef;wdkY? þavmuü tdrf&Sifa,musfm;? vuform;onf pmrsuf E S m 25 ok d Y ]] arwå m pd w f }} 2011 = azazmf0g&Dv(22)&ufaeYxkwf "r®0D&*sme,f twJG(23)? trSwf(3) aemufausmzkH;rS Vision of the Dhamma aqmif;yg;? acgif;pD;wGif? (wykdYwJGvjynfhMo0g'ygwdarmuftcgawmfaeY)[lí rSm;,Gif;pmyg&Sdonfukd ]]arwåmpdwf}} On Amity [k jyifqifzwf½Iyg&ef arwåm&yfcHygonf/ - "r®0D&*sme,f


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