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Address Hlaing Kyi Phyu Dhamma Vira Publishing House Head Office: Blk (1), Rm(R6), Myanmar InfoTech, Hlaing Ts, Yangon. Branch Office: No. 50, 2nd Fl. Bank St, Kyauktada Ts, Yangon. Ph: 0980 23992 , 0950 01401 e-Mail - dhammavira@gmail.com

Mo0g'gp&d,q&mawmfrsm; t*¾r[my@dw b'´ E å ukrm& 'kw, d ygarmu©csKyq f &mawmf(pDr)H t*¾r[m*E¬0gpuy@dw b'´ EåaZmwdu(M.A) 'kw, d ygarmu©csKyq f &mawmf(ynm) tbd"r®myd#ur[mXme? XmerSL;^ygarmu©q&mawmf t*¾r[m*E¬0gpuy@dw a'guw f mb'´ Eåax&dE´(Ph.D) yd#uwfqidk &f mygVpd mayXme? XmerSL;^ygarmu©q&mawmf t*¾r[m*E¬0gpuy@dw b'´ Eåy@dwmbd0o H (M.A) okwå Eåy#d uwfr[mXme? XmerSL;^ygarmu©q&mawmf r[m*E¬0gpuy@dw b'´ Eåork e(M.A) Ak'a¨ 'oemjyefyh mG ;a&;ynmXme? XmerSL;^ygarmu©q&mawmf t*¾r[m*E¬0gpu y@dw b'´ EÅynm0Ho(M.A) armfueG ;f xde;f q&mawmf

pmwnf;csKyf r[mo'¨ra® Zmwdu"Z wuúov dk o f Qio f &D d ("r®mp&d,? bDat)

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EDITORIAL "r®0D&onf "r®opömudk ñTefjyonf/

abm*pu©KESifh "r®pu©K ESpfbufvSrsufpdtjrif &Sdolrsm;jzpfatmif usihfaqmifMuyg vGefcJhaomESpfaygif; 2550 ausmfu yGihfawmfrlcJhaom a*gwrAk'¨wnf;[laom pMurif;BuD;onf avmuBuD; wpfckvHk;\ jzpfjcif;ysufjcif;? yGm;jcif;qkwfjcif;? jrwfjcif;,kwfjcif;? qdk;jcif;aumif;jcif;ponhf tvkH;pkHukd odjrifcJh onfhtavsmuf avmuom;tm;vHk;twGuf tqHk;trjzpfaom Ak'¨omoemawmfjrwfBuD;ukd wnfaxmifay; awmfrlcJhonf/ pMu0aw;rif;BuD;onf pMumrif; usihf0wfESihfnDvQif om;BuD;&wem pMum&wemukd &ovdk bk&m;&Sifwnf; [laom pMumrif;\ w&m;awmfrsm;udk vdkufemusihfBuHolrnfolrqdk r*fav;wefzdkvfav;wef &Muygrnf/ ypöKyÜef b0wGifvnf; avmuDaumif;usKd;ukd rkcs qwfqwf &&SdcHpm;&rnfjzpfygonf/ Ak'¨\tqHk;trtay: ,HkMunfav;pm;NyD; vdkufemusihfBuHolrsm;tm;vHk;onf tarGcHjzpfygonf/ Ak'¨\ tqHk;trw&m;awmfrsm;udk oif,laqmifxm; ydkYcsa[mMum;jyoaeaom q&mawmfrsm;onf tarGpm;tarGcHvnf;jzpf tarGxdef;vnf;jzpfMuygonf/ av;oacsFESihf urÇmwpfodef; toufESihfvJum &SmrSD;cJhaom Ak'¨\"r®tarGrsm;udk xdef;odrf;apmihfa&Smuf vsu&f adS om wynho f m; oHCmrsm;tm; Ak'u ¨ qGr;f ? ouFe;f ? ausmif;? aq;? ypön;f av;yg;udt k vSLcHEidk af Mumif; cGijfh yKxm; ygonf/ Ak'o ¨ nf avmukw&å m tarGoufoufomay;cJo h nfr[kw?f avmuDtarG? avmuDvrf;ñTe?f avmuBu;D yGm;a&;? ynma&;? usef;rma&;? usufoa&ESihf jynhfpkHa&;? tdrfaxmifa&;? wdkif;a&;jynfa&;? ppfa&;yg rusef enf;em cHvdkufygusihfaqmifolrsm;tm; avmuoHo&mESpfjzmvHk; tusKd;&Sdap&ef r*Fvokwf? od*Fgavm0g'okwf? ukvokwf? or®'g okwf ponfjzihf tjynfhtpHkqHk;ra[mMum;cJhygonf/ a*gwrAk'¨\ tqHk;trrsm;onf yd#uwftm;jzihf (3)yHk edum,ftm;jzihf ig;&yf&Sd í avmu"r®ESpfXmevHk;ü todÓPf&,lvo kd l wdik ;f onf urÇmt h Bu;D tqH;k pmtkyBf u;D [k ac:qd&k aom þAk'a¨ [myd#uwfawmf (jcif;awmif;)Bu;D udk avhvmrSwfom; usihfMu&ef vdktyfvSygonf/ r&&Sdao;aom pnf;pdrfOpömrsm; &&Sdatmif? &&SdNyD;pnf;pdrfOpömawG raysmufysufbJ wdk;yGm;vmatmif aqmif&GufEdkif jrifpGrf;Ekdifaom abm*pu©K (pD;yGm;a&;rsufpd)ESihf aumif; raumif;? tjypf&Sd r&Sd? t,kwf? tjrwf? rnf;npf? jzLpifqdkaom w&m;rsm;udk odEkdifjrifpGrf;Ekdifaom "r®pu©K (w&m;rsufpd) [lí rsufpdESpfrsKd;&Sd&m ,if;ESpfrsKd;vkH;r&Sdolukd pkHvkH;uef;[kac:&NyD; pD;yGm;a&;rsufpd odkYr[kwf w&m;a&;rsufpd wpfvHk;vHk;csKdUwJhaernfqdkvQif wpfbufjrif? w&m;a&;ESifhpD;yGm;a&;rsufpd (2)rsKd;&Sdoludk ESpfbufjrif[k ac:&onf/ þESpfbufjrifolonf ,ck ypöKyÜefrSma&m wrvGefrSmyg csrf;om EkdifMuygonf/ Ak'¨u pHkvHk;uef;ESihf wpfbufjrifudk a&SmifMu? ESpfbufjrifoludk aygif;Mu? rdrdvnf; ESpfbufjrifjzpfatmif BudK;pm;Mu[k wdkufwGef;xm;onfudk rmefvnfq&mawmfBuD;u]a&S ; u t,l ? or® m jyKí vl [ k jzpf a &S m if ; ? tvmaumif ; \? aemuf a Mumif ; wpf z ef vrf ; aMumif ; rSefatmif? jrifÓPfrsufpd? ESpfbuf&Sdavmh} [k a&;pyfqkH;rxm;cJhygonf/ okdYjzpfí vdktyfcsufr&Sd NyD;jynhfpkHatmif vrf;ñTefay;xm;aom Ak'¨\ tqHk;tr omoemawmfBuD;0,f abm*pu©K? "r®pu©K ESpfbufjrifoljzpfatmif BudK;pm;Muyg[k þ"r®0D&rS wdkufwGef;vdkufyg&ap/ t,f ' D w m

3


Satipat.t.ha-na: - THE DIRECT PARTH TO REALIZATION

4

"r®0D&onf t"r®w&m;z,f&Sm;Edkif&ef jzpfonf/

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(,cif t ywf r S t quf )

um,mEk y óem um,mEkyóem- um,udk tzefwvJvJ ½IjrifoHk;oyfjcif; tEkyóemqdkwJh tzefzeftxyfxyf qifjcifoHk;oyfNyD; ½Ijrifjcif;? um,qkdwJh ur®|mef;tm½Hk meditation object wpfca k y:rSm owdç ÓPfç 0D&, d awGeYJ pOfqufrjywf tBurd Bf urd f txyfxyfqifjcifoHk;oyfaewmudk um,mEkyóemvdkY ac:w,f/ r[mowdy|meokwfrSm ur®|mef;tm½Hk 21-rsdK; ay;xm;wJh teuf um,mEkyóemeJY pyfqkdifwJhur®|mef; 14-rsdK;&Sdw,f/ tJ'D 14rsdK;udk tydkif; 6- ydkif;cGJNyD; jrwfpGmbk&m;u a[mxm;w,f/ tJ'Dtykdif; 6-ydkif;eJY rdrd&JU owdpGrf;tm;awGç ÓPfpGrf;tm;awG t"dutm;jzihf 'DpGrf;tm; 2-ck xufvmatmif avhusihfay;wm/ 'DuaeYacwfrSmawmh ur®|mef;xdik w f ,f w&m;tm;xkww f ,f (Meditation Practice) vdYk 'Dvkd ajymaeMuw,f/ ur®|mef;xdkifw,fqdkwm pdwfudk tm½HkeJYavhusihfay;wmyJ/ um,mEkyóemqdkwm um,qdkwJhtm½HkeJY pdwfudkavhusihfay;wm/ pdwfqdkwJhae&mrSm t"duu um,ay:rSm owdav;uGmroGm;atmif avhusihfay;wm/ owduGmroGm;&if um,&JUtaetxm;ç um,&JU obm0ç um,&JUvkyfaqmifrIç um,&JU ay:vmwJhtjcif;t&mawGç xdk um,&JU teD;uyfq;kH taMumif;qdw k mawGukd xifxif&mS ;&Sm;odEidk w f hJ tod ÓPfay:vmw,f/ tJ'Dvdk owduyfNyD;awmh tNrJrjywf Munhf½IvdkufwJh tcg ÓPf&nfÓPfaoG;awG xufvmNyD; ydkydkNyD;awmh oabmaygufvm w,f/ tJ'v D kd oabmaygufatmif avhusiw fh ehJ nf;awGukd jrwfpmG bk&m; u a[mxm;wmyg/ 'D u aeY jrwf p G m bk & m;a[mxm;wJ h enf ; pepf a wG t wd k i f ; (Contemplation of the body)/

bkef;BuD;wdkY tusOf;csKyfNyD;awmh a[mygr,f/ tESpfcsKyfqdkwJhtwdkif; tus,w f 0ihf ra[mygbl;/ jrwfpmG bk&m; a[mxm;wJh t"dymÜ ,fav;awG em;vnf½Hk tESpfcsKyfav;awG a[mygr,f/ owdy|mefqw kd m jrefrmEkid if rH mS xGe;f um;aewJh &dyo f mtrsKd ;rsKd ; u jyaeMuwJh owdy|mefygyJ/ 'Dw&m;uvGNJ y;D tm;xkwpf &mvnf; r&Syd g bl;/ jrwfpmG bk&m;ud, k w f ikd u f um,ç a0'emç pdwçå "r®qNkd y;D awmh a[mcJh wm/ vlYoEÅmefrSm ur®|mef;tm½Hktjzpf toHk;csEkdifzdkYç owdw&m; pGJuyf NyD; todÓPfwdk;wufatmif avhusihfzdkY obm0tm½HkawGudk ckvdka[m xm;w,f/ 'gaMumifhrdkY 'DuaeY um,tm½HkeJY ywfoufNyD; avusihfwJh enf;pepfawGudk ajymr,f/ rajymcif tusOf;csKyfwpfck ajymjyr,f/ tmemygeyAÁ jrwfpmG bk&m;u &Si;f jyzdYk ar;cGe;f av;wpfck xkww f ,f/ raeYu tusOf;csKyf ajymxm;wJhxJrSm ]]uma, um,mEkyóD 0d[&wd}} um, qdw k hJ tm½Hak y:rSm owderYJ jywfqifjcifo;kH oyfaeygwJ?h qifjcifo;kH oyfw,f qdkwm b,fvdkqifjcifoHk;oyfwmvJ? b,fvdkqifjcifoHk;oyfNyD; aervJ¿ jrwfpGmbk&m;u yxrydkif;taeeJY tmemyge-xGufav 0ifavqdkwJh um,tay:rSm qifjcifoHk;oyfyHkudk um,m-EkyóemtaeeJY yxrqHk; a[mw,f/ xGufav0ifavqdkwmvnf; udk,fcE¨mrSmjzpfay:aewJh um,av;wpfckyJ? Body eJY qufpyfaeonhftwGufaMumihf xGufav 0ifavqdw k u hJ m,ay:rSm pOfqufrjywf owduyfNy;D awmh qifjcifo;kH oyf Munhf&r,f/ vlwkdif;vlwkdif;[m 24-em&D touf½SLaeMuwmjzpfw,f/ tmemygerSm tme- xGufoufeJY? yge- 0ifouf? vlawG[m 24-em&D vH;k vH;k pOfqufrjywf ½SLoGi;f w,f/ ½du I x f w k w f ,f/ tJ'½D LS oGi;f ½du I x f w k f aewJh um,? wpfenf;tm;jzihaf jym&if 'dw Yk awG ½SL½du I af eMuwm bmawG udk ½SL½dIufaeMuwmvJvdkYar;&if t&yfpum;eJYajym&if ]av} ayhg/ pmay


Satipat.t.ha-na: - THE DIRECT PARTH TO REALIZATION "r®0D&onf Ak'¨w&m;jzifh avmuudk apmihfa&Smuf&efjzpfonf/ pum;eJYajym&if ]0ga,m} ayhg/ 0ga,mqdkwm r[mbkwfBuD; 4-yg;xJrSm ygw,fqdkwm tm;vHk;odw,f/ tJ'D 0ga,mqdkwJh obm0 ]av} udk 'dkYwawG ½SLoGif;aew,f/ tJ'D ½SLoGif;rI ½dIufxkwfrIudk 'DuaeY tmemyge vdkY oHk;vkdufwm? tJ'g[m tm½Hkav;wpfckyJ/ tJ'Dtm½Hkay:rSm owdav;uyfxm;wmu tmemygeówd? ]owd} qdkwm ½SLoGif;aewmeJY ½dIufxkwfaewm 'Dtm½Hkav;udk pOfquf rjywf mindful vkyfaeEdkifwmyJ&Sdw,f/ 'Dtm½HkeJY obm0udk owdu rodEikd b f ;l / owdqw kd m tm½Hu k kd &,lay;Edik w f myJ&w dS ,f/ tm½Hu k kd odwwf wJhoabmr&Sdbl;/ tm½Hu k o kd w d mu ÓPfuodwm? owdu tm½Hak v;eJY wGrJ ay; bJeJY ÓPfu rodEkdifbl;/ yl;aygif;NyD; tvkyfvkyf&w,f/ owdu tm½Hk av;udk ,lay;wJt h cg ÓPfu obm0udo k w d ,f/ 'DEpS cf x k ufvmatmif avhusihfay;wm/ eHygwf (1) u ckacwfajymwJh xGufav0ifavyJ/ xGufav0if avudk tm½HktjzpftoHk;jyKNyD; owdpGrf;tm;awGxufvmatmif? ÓPf &nfÓPfaoG;awG xufvmatmif b,fyHkavhusihfrvJ? 'guwpfykdif;/ £&d , myxyAÁ aemufwpfck um,eJYywfoufNyD; vlawG[m £&d,mykxfvdkY ac:wJh ud, k t f rlt&mawGajymif;vJNy;D aeMu&w,f/ rajymif;vJb;l qd&k if vlawG[m touf&iS o f efzYdk rjzpfEidk b f ;l / t&d,mykxf 4-yg; ajymif;ajymif; aeonhftwGufaMumihf cE¨mudk,fBuD;&JU yifyef;anmif;nmrIawGukd y,fazsmufEdkifMuwm/ oGm;aewJhtcsdefydkif;&Sdovdk &yfaewJhtcsdefydkif;&Sd w,f/ xdik af ewJt h csed yf ikd ;f &So d vdk avsmif;aewJt h csed yf ikd ;f &Sw d ,f/ avsmif;? xdkif? &yf? oGm;qdkwJh 'D£&d,mykxf 4-yg;udk wpfckNyD;wpfck ajymif;vJae onhftwGufaMumihf cE¨mudk,fBuD;[m NydKuGJroGm;bJeJY tESpf 30? 40? 50? 60? 70? 80 uae 100 xdatmif wnf&Sdvmw,f/ tJ'DaeYpOfeJYtrQ tajymif;tvJvkyfae&wJh £&d,mykxf 4yg;qdkwm tvG,fwul vlwdkif;rSm&Sdw,f/ tvG,fwul&Sdaomfvnf; udk,fvrf;oGm;&if oGm;aerSef; od&JUvm;vdkY pOf;pm;Munhf&r,f- oGm;rSef; rodbl;/ txl;ojzihf awG;aew,fç vrf;oGm;aewmudk rpOf;pm;bl;/ rwfwyf&yfae&ifvnf; igrwfwyf&yfaewmvdkY rpOf;pm;bl;/ pdwfu wpfjcm; taMumif;t&ma&mufaew,f/ owdu uyfraebl;vdaYk jymwm/ xdkifae&ifvnf; igxdkifaeygvm;vdkY rodbl;/ pdwfu wjcm;a&mufae w,f/ xdkifaewJhtay:rSm owdr&Sdbl;/ avsmif;ae&ifa&m owdr&Sdbl;/ [dkaeY[dk&ufawGu taMumif;awG awG;csifawG;r,f? aemuf&ufaemuf &ufu taMumif;awG awG;csifawG;r,f/ jrif&r,hf Mum;&r,hft&mawG pOf;pm;&if pOf;pm;aer,f/ owdu wpfjcm;a&mufaew,f/ owdruyf bl;/ tJ'£ D &d,mykxf 4- &yfukd owduyfNy;D apmifMh unhw f ehJ nf;udk 'kw, d ydkif;taeeJY jrwfpGmbk&m;u a[mw,f/ 'g udk,fcE¨mrSm&SdwJh tm½HkawGeJY avhusihfwmyJ/ orÜ Z nyAÁ aemufwpfcku- avsmif; xdkif &yf oGm; £&d,mykxfqdkwJh tBuD;pm;BuD;awGxJrSm tao;tzGJav;awG &Sdao;w,f/ cE¨mudk,fudk a&SUudk udik ;f vdu k w f m &Sw d ,f/ aemufukd vSev f u dk w f m &Sw d ,f/ cE¨mud, k u f kd a&SUudk a&TUvkdufwm&Sdw,f/ aemufudk qkwfvkdufwm&Sdw,f/ rsufvHk;u vnf; wnhfwnhfMunhfwm&Sdw,f/ apmif;Munhfwm &Sdw,f/ MunhfyHkMunhf enf;awG? 'g £&d,mykwf tao;pm;av;awGvdkYac:w,f/ rsufvHk;u pmrsuf E S m 6 ok d Y

5

Ak'*¨ w D u d m q&mawmf OD;oDvmpm&

(½kd;rwdrf r[matmifajrausmif;) 'k A Á p bd u © K 0w¦ K Ak'¨&Sifawmfjrwfonf om0w¦djynf aZw0efausmif;awmfü aeawmfrlaomtcg oDwif;okH;azmf&[ef;wdkYqkH;ronfukd rem,lbJ oref;jrufudk EIwaf om &[ef;wpfyg;ukd taMumif;jyKí ]]ukaom ,xm 'k*¾[dawm}} paom okH;*gxmukd a[mawmfrlonf/ ukaom ,xm 'k*¾[dawm? [w¦ar0gEk uEÅwd/ omrnH 'kyÜ&mr|H? ed&,m,k yu¹kwd/ ,H udÍöd odxdvH ur®H? oHudvd|Íö ,H 0wH/ ouFó&H jA[®p&d,H? e wH a[mwd r[yævH/ jref r muAsm aumif;pGmukdifrI rjyKygvQif? oref;jrufu vuf&SykHoGif? raumif;okH;oyf usKd;jywfusihfvQif? &[ef;jzpf a&mufvpfi&JcGif/ Just as kusa grass wrongly grasped cuts the hand indeed; even so the ascetic life wrongly handled drags one to hell.

pum;ajy/ / raumif;ojzihf ukdif,ltyfaom toGm;xufjruf oref;jrufonf ukdif,lqGJ aomvufukd pl;&Sykdif;jzwfouJhokdY xkdYtwl usKd;jywfoDv ponfjzpfaygif; raumif;ojzihf okH;oyftyfaom &[ef;b0onf i&JodkYqGJcswwfav\/ jref r muAsm ayhgavsmhpGmjyK trIwjzm? npfnL;pGmaESm jyKaomusifhrSm? pkd;&drfpdwf&rf; &[ef;usihfrSm? tusKd;um; wkd;yGm;rjzpfyg/ Any loose act, any corrupt vow, a dubious holy life, none of this is of great fruit.

pum;ajy/ / ayhgavsmhpGmjyKvkyfaom trI onfvnf;aumif;? oDvnpfnL;apwwfaom tusio fh nfvnf;aumif;? (oDwif;ok;H azmfw)Ydk awG;awmí atmufarhaom olawmftusihfonfvnf;aumif;? tusKd; rrsm;acs/ u,d&m ap u,d&maxeH? 'VareH y&uúar? odxdavm [d y&dAÁmaZm? bda,sm tmud&aw &ZH/


Satipat.t.ha-na: - THE DIRECT PARTH TO REALIZATION

6

"r®0D&onf Nidrf;csrf;aompdwfjzpfwnf&ef &Gnf&G,fonf/

Munhw f t hJ cgrSm- a&SUwnfw h nfv h nf;Munhw f ,f? ab;udv k nf; Munhw f ,f? aemufvSnhfMunhfwmvnf; &Sdw,f/ odkYaomf ur®|mef;xkdifzdkYtwGuf jrwfpGmbk&m;u tm½HktwGuf 'DESpfckyJay;w,f/ tmavmudwwJh- a&SUwnfhwnfhMunhfw,f? 0davmudwwJhenf;enf;av;apmif;iJhNyD;awmh MunhfwJhtMunhfrsdK;? £a`E´&& MunhfwJh tMunhfu 'DESpfckyJ&Sdw,f? armhMunhfwmwdkY? iHkYMunhfwmwdkYu odyf£a`E´ r&bl;ayhg/ aemufvn S Mfh unh&f if ydq k ;kd wmayhg/ tJ'aD wmh rodromMunfw h hJ tMunhfav;ESpfcktay:rSmvnf; tm½HkuyfNyD; owdeJYapmifhMunhfwm/ £&d,mykxt f ao;pm;av;awGukd owdxm;wwfvmatmif avhusiw fh m ]orÜZnyAÁ}} qdkNyD;awmh eHygwf (3) taeeJY um,wpfckudk a[mwm/ tJ'DtxJrSm tao;pm;av;awG ygw,f/ tao;pm;av;awG u bmvJqdk&if vufuav;udk auG;&mu qefYvdkufw,f? qefY&muae auG;vkdufw,f/ ajcaxmufuav;udk auG;&muae qefYvkdufw,f? qefY &muae auG;vkdufw,f/ cE¨mudk,f&JU vIyf&Sm;rItao;pm;av;awG[m vnf; um,yJ/ tJ'Dtay:rSmvnf; owduyfNyD;awmh todÓPfjzpf atmif BudK;pm;&w,f/ aemufwpfcu k &[ef;oHCmawGusawmh ouFe;f 0wfyçkH oydwf av; ydkufoGm;yHkç ouFef;0wfae&if ouFef;0wfyHk? oydwfydkuf&if oydwf? vlawGusawmhvnf; tusD ?F ykq;kd ? xrD0wfwm t0wfwefqm0wfwt hJ cg 0wfyHkpm;yHk? tJ'Dtao;tzGJUav;awGudkvnf; owduyfzdkY? 'gwifvm;qdk awmh rubl;wJ/h tdro f mxJ0ifwt hJ cgvnf; ]Opöm& yóm0 ur®} tcif; BuD;oGm;w,fç tcif;av;oGm;w,f/ 'gudkvnf; todÓPf&Sdatmif avhusihfzdkY enf;pepfawGudk jrwfpGmbk&m;u a[mxm;w,f/ aemufwpfck aeYpOfESifhtrQ vlawGu tpmpm;Muw,f/ pm; w,f? 0g;w,f? aomufw,f? vsufw,f tJ'DudpöawGudkvnf; owduyf Ny;D ynmwd;k wufatmif avhusiw fh ehJ nf;pepfawGuvnf; tydik ;f wpfyikd ;f wJh/ tJ'Dvdk £&d,mykxftao;pm;av;awGudkvnf; owdxm;wwf qifjcifwwfwmudk owdorÜZnvdkY ac:w,f/ tJ'gudk orÜZnyAÁ owdorÜZmntydkif;vdkY ac:w,f/ yxrqHk;tydkif;udk tmemygeyAÁ- xGufav0ifaveJY avhusihf wm? 'kwd,tydkif;udk £&d,myxyAÁ? oGm;vmvIyf&Sm; £&d,mykxfBuD; av;yg;eJY avhusihfwm/ tck wwd,ykdif;usawmh orÜZnyAÁwJh/ tJ'gu tckvkd cE¨mud, k &f UJ £&d,mykxf tao;pm;av;awGukd owdxm;Ny;D awmh qifjcifwHkw&m;eJYqifjcifNyD;awmh ÓPf&nfÓPfaoG;xufvmatmif avhusihfwm/ a'guw f m t&Sief E´rmvmbd0o H (qufvufazmfjyygrnf/) jref r muAsm &[ef;jyKvJ pGJNrJpGmaESmf? BuKd;pm;oGufvuf wkd;wufjyKaESmf? ayghavsmhpdwf&rf; &[ef;jzpfaomf? udavjrL wkd;xlESHYumay:/ If aught should be done, let one do it; let one promote it steadily, for slack asceticism scatters dust all the more.

pum;ajy/ / &[ef;jyKvQif xdxda&mufa&muf pGJNrJpGmjyK&m\/ (ukokdvfjyKvQifvnf; xdxda&mufa&muf pGJNrJpGmjyKvkyf&m\) ayhgavsmh aom&[ef;tjzpfonf udavomjrLukd (rsm;rsm;BuD;) ysHUESHYapwwf\/

rauG;q&mawmfBuD; aorif;tm; &ifqkdifykHukd avhvmylaZmfjcif;

armif r sKd ; xG e f ; -jrif ; NcH

rauG;q&mawmfBu;D (Ekid if aH wmfoC H r[mem,uOuú|) onf (29.3.2010)aeY 1371 ckESpf? wefcl;vqef;(15)&uf? wevFmaeY rGe;f vG(J 1;45)wGif b0ewfxyH sv H eG af wmfrcl hJ aMumif; (12.4.2010)aeYwiG f jyKpk x m;onh f q&mawmf B uD ; jzpf p Of t usOf ; csKyf ü awG U &ygonf / EkdifiHawmftpkd;&uvnf; owif;pmESihf jrefrmh½kyfoHwkdYwGif q&mawmf BuD;\ psmyeudpöukd tus,fw0ihfazmfjycJhygonf/ q&mawmfBuD;\ b0jzpfpOftusOf;ESifh tbdPSokwfygVd+ edó,(tusOf;)pmtkyf i,fwGif zwf½IolwdkY oHa0*ÓPfyGm;ap&ef azmfjyaom*gxmwpfyk'fyg&Sdygonf/ tenf;i,f xkwfEkwfazmfjyvkd ygonf/ (u) aom - igwdkYxdyfwif xkdaus;Zl;&SifrauG; q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;onf? (c) rpöK - &ufpufMurf;MuKwfaorif;,kwfu? (*) tm0ka"[d - Z&m&efrmefAsm"d'Pf[k wGef;vSefzsufqD; vufeufBuD; wdkYjzihf? (C) ,kZÑH - ,kZÑaEÅm? owfykwfypfcGif; ppfcif; wkdufckdufvmonf&Sdaomf? (i) aw[d - xkdoDvçorm"dçynm &Sdef0gvkH;pkH wefckd;*kPfwkdYjzihf? (p) eH - &uf p uf M urf ; MuKwf v G e f q k d ; ,k w f o nh f owf y k w f y pf c G i f ; ppfcif;wdkufckduf xkdaorif;rkduf ukd? (q) y#d,kZÑdwkH - twkHYwpfzef jyefvSefwdkufcdkuf jcif;iSm? (Z) emou©d - tm;tiftpGrf;avsmhukefcrf;í ,dEGrf;rIdifawG rpGrf;Edkif&Sm cJhacs [kazmfjyxm; ygonf/ aorif;ESifh &if qdkifawGYvQif rnfolrqdk t½HI;ay;&\? Z&m? Asm"d 'ku© zdvmvQif rcsdatmifcHMu&onfhoabmudk oHa0*&apvdkaom ½IaxmifhrSa&;om;xm; aom *gxm jzpfonf[k oHk;oyf&ygonf/ pmrsuf E S m 35 ok d Y


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf vkHhvjynfh0jcif;ESifh wnfMunf&J&ifhjcif;ukd jyqkdonf/

rkH&GmaeZm

7

NydwåmESifh r&Sdjyóem(1)

t&S i f Z ed E ´ o m& (o'¨ r ® Z mwd u "Z)

Nyw d må ukd wapä[ak c:Muonf/ pmay ü wapä[kr&Sd/ ]emem ½lyuma,e wpäwDwdwapä} t½ky?f toHeYJ paom ½kyt f xl;xl;wkjYd zihf ajcmuf vefw Y wfaomaMumihf wapä[ak c:onf/ wapä tajcmufcH&onf[k ajym½kd;ajympOf ajymaeMu aomfvnf; trsm;tm;jzihf wapäuajcmufonf r[kwf? rdrduom tjrifxl;? toGifxl; ponf jzihf aMumuf&GHUxdwfvefYjcif;jzpfonf/ Nydwåmonf pmayü *wdig;yg;wdkYwGif ]ayw*wd } [l í yg&S d \ / avmbtpG J ? oHa,mZOf ork',? taESmiftwnf; ponf jzih f aoMuaomol r sm;jzpf & m vm;&m*wd wpf r sKd ; jzpf o nf / Nyd w å m jzpf a eol r sKd ; pk H w k d Y \ b0ykHo@meftpm;pm;awGukd azmfjyxm;aom ayw0w¦KygVdawmf[lívnf; txift&Sm;&Sd aeonf / vl a wG & J U tajymuawmh ol r sm; tvSL'gewpfcck jk yKvQif ydwyf if wm;qD;wwfol rsm;ukd ]ydwfwumjzpfaer,faemf} [k jrefrm pum;jzih f ajymMum;Muonf / ]yd w f w um} [laompum;vk;H onf ]Nyw d må } (ayw) a0g[m& ukdokH;jcif;jzpfaMumif; em;vnf&ayonf/ pum;qufpyfvmí ajym&aomf Ak'¨ bmomawGxJrSm bmoma&;ESihfywfoufaom tac:tajym a0g[m&awG rSm;,Gif;aewmukd awGU&onf/ Oyrmtaejzihf tenf;i,fazmfjy &vQif ]uxd e f } uk d ]oxd e f } [k a jymjcif ; ? ÚwfouFe;f ukd n§yo f uFe;f ? n§yBf u;D [kajymjcif;? ]jA[®pkd&f} ukd ]jA[®pkd&} [kajymjcif;? ]u½kPm} ukd ]*½kem} [kajymjcif;? ]edp"ö 0l } ukd ]aeYwpf"0l }[k ajymjcif;? ]oHCdu}ukd ]oH'du}/ ]yd@ygwfqGrf;} ukd ]odrw f pfywfqrG ;f }? ]ywåyu dk }f ukd ]'wfvbkid }f ponfrsm;jzpfonf/ ed ' gef ; taejzih f wapä ? Nyd w å m ? a0g[m& ponfwdkYukd xnhfajymaomfvnf; þaqmif;yg;ü t"dutm;jzihf Nydwåm&SdaMumif; ESihf r&Sd0g' (ewådu rdpäm'd|d)ukd xlaxmifae ol r sm;taMumif ; tawG ; tjrif y &d o wf u k d rdwfqufwifjyygrnf/ a&S;OD;pGmNyd w å m jyóem Nydwåmqkdwm wu,f&Sdovm;? Nydwåmqkdwm b,fvkdowå0gvJ? NydwåmawG b,frSmaeMuovJ...

ponhf ar;cGe;f rsm;onf Nyw d må taMumif; odcsif aeMuaom Nydwåmukd pdwfyg0ifpm;olrsm;xHrS xGufay:vmjcif;jzpfonf/ Nydwåmwu,f&Sd r&Sd odcsifonfrSm olwdkY\jyóemjzpfaeonf/ Nydwåm wu,f&Sd r&SdudpörSm ,aeYumvwGifom &Sdaeonfr[kwf/ a&S;,cifumvuvnf; &SdcJh onfyifjzpfonf/ Nydwåmwu,f&Sdygu uRJ? EGm; paom wd&pämefrsm;uho J Ydk txnfu, dk jf 'yfudk jrifawGU& rnf[k ,lqxm;Muonf/ wpfcsKdUu vufawGU jyEkid rf S ,krH nf/ rsupf ed jYJ rifrS vufcrH nf[k tpGJ oefMuonf/ okaYd omf olwo Ykd wdrxm;rdMuonf rSm rsupf jd zihrf jrifEidk ?f rjrif&aomfvnf; wu,f &Sdaeaomt&mrsm; avmuBuD;rSm ajrmufjrm; pGm &Sad e\/ Oyrm- av? a&m*gyk;d rTm;rsm;? toH? teHY? pdwfpGrf;tif ponfrsm;/ ouf&o dS wå0grsm;onf 0ifouf? xGuf oufjzihf avukd ½SL½SKdufoGif;xkwfaeMuaomf vnf; avukrd jrif&ay/ bmuk½d LS wmvJar;vQif ]avukd½SLwmyg} [k ajymMurnfom/ avonf &Sad omfvnf; jrif&aom ½ky0f w¦KrsK;d r[kw/f av rnfrQta&;BuD;oenf;qkdvQif av½SLonf[k rajymMubJ ]touf½LS onf} í ajymMu&onf/ avonf touf? toufonfav jzpfae aomaMumihfwnf;/ rsuf j rif u k d , f a wG U r[k w f v Qif rdrdwdkYtaejzihf rsufjrifukd,fawGU rjrifzl;aomfvn;f urÇmajray:wGif xl;jcm; qef;Mu,ftHMozG,faumif;aom owå0grsm;&Sd aeonfukd ½kyfjrifoHMum;wGif awGUjrif&\/ 'pfpfumAm&D (Discovery) ac: &SmazGawGU&Sd csuf rsm; jzpf o nf / urÇ m h p uf 0 ef ; um; tajymus,f vG e f ; vS o nf / xl ; axG o nh f

tH h & maomf ud p ö a wG taMumif ; t&mawG rsm;pGm&Sdaeonf/ rdrdrjrifzl; rawGUzl;ao;jcif; omjzpfonf/ r&Sdr[kwf? {uef &Sdaeonfukd t<uif;rJh,kHMunftyfyg\/ wpfcsKdUudpörsm;rSm odyÜHynmtusKd; quf ypön;f u&d,mrsm;\tultnDjzihf jrifEidk f aomt&mrsm;&Sdyg\/ Oyrm-toHwkefcgEIef;? avwkdufEIef; ponf/ qkdvkdonfrSm yuwd rsupf jd zihf rjrifEidk af omfvnf; wu,ft&Sw d &m; jzihf xif&Sm;&Sdaeaom taMumif;t&mrsm; rsm;pGm &Sdaeonf[laom tcsufyifjzpfonf/ ewfukd jrifzl;Muygovm;? awGUzl;Mu ygovm;/ rdrdrjrifzl;? rawGUzl;wkdif; r&Sd? [k vkyfír&/ ewfr&Sd[k rqkdtyf? r&Sdr&Sd[kcsnf; ,lvkdufvQif ewd¦u 'd|d (r&Sd0g')jzpfoGm;onf/ ew¦du 'd|donf ed,urdpäm'd|dac: tNrJxm0& rSm;,Gi;f aomt,l0g'Bu;D jzpfonf/ ta[wku 'd | d - taMumif ; w&m;r&S d [ k ,l a om0g' tud&d,'d|d-bmrQtaxGtxl;vkyfp&mrvkd? ukodkvf'geawGjyKp&mrvkd? olYtvkdvkdjzpfae onf [laom 0g'wkdYxuf ykdíqkd;&Gm;ayonf/ bk&m; cRwfawmifruRwf? 'DurÇmysufoGm; onhw f idk af tmif aemufurÇmtxd pGu J yfaeaom 'd|dBuD; rsm;jzpfavonf/ ewf 0 w¦ K Nyd w å m 0w¦ K rsm; ewfawG&adS Mumif; ewfujdk rifz;l awGUzl; jzpfz;l olrsm;u uk, d w f ikd 0f efccH surf sm;jzihf azmfjy xm;aom oH*g,emwif 0drme0w¦Kt| uxm usrf;rsm; txift&Sm;&Sdyg\/ NydwåmESihfywfoufívnf; avmuü Nydwåmrsm;ESihf awGUzl;? jrifzl;olrsm;taMumif;ukd taotcsm azmfjyxm;aom ]ayw0w¦K} t| uxmusr;f } rsm;vnf; txift&Sm;yif&adS cs\/ oH*g,emwifí okwfoifxm;aom yd#uwf awmfrsm;jzpf\/ xkdusrf;wGif Nydwåmaygif; (51) rsKd;wdkYukd 0w¦KZmwfvrf;jzpf&yfrSefrsm;jzihf wifjy xm;\/ tenf;i,frQ aumufEw k af zmfjy&aomf 1/ acwåLyrmayw0w¦K- wPSmayraMumifh ½ku©pkd;jzpfoGm;aom olaX;om;/ 2/ olu&ayw0w¦K- EIwfrapmihfpnf;rIaMumihf Nyd w å m jzpf o G m ;&aom &[ef ; i,f w pf y g; taMumif;/ pmrsuf E S m 10 ok d Y


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

8

"r®0D&onf vlrsKd;ra&G;? bmomra&G;? avmuom;tm;vkH;twGufjzpfonf/

vlom;ESifh 'ku©ckepfyg; &S i f Ó P (zsmyk H ) Zmwd'ku©oabmudk Ak'¨a[mMum; awmfrlaomfvnf; pifppf? Zmwd= y#doaE¨ae jcif ; onf u m; 'k u © r [k w f ? y#d o aE¨ a erI taMumif;aMumihjf zpfay:vmaom um,du'ku?© apwodu'ku©wdkYudk axmuf½Ivsufom ]'ku©} [lí a[mMum;awmfrljcif;jzpf\/ y#doaE¨ae jcif;onf tb,f'ku©\ taMumif;jzpfoenf; [k qdkygvQif Oy&dyPÖmo-Amvmy@dwokwf wGif Ak'¨onf Oyrmtm;jzihf a[mMum;awmfrlcJh \/ tyg,füjzpfaom'ku?© trd0rf;wGi;f odYk ouf0ifjcif;t&if;&Sad om 'ku?© trd0rf;jzihf vG,f aqmifcH&jcif;vQif t&if;&Sdaom 'ku©? udk,f0ef ysufpD;jcif;vQif t&if;&Sdaom'ku©? trd0rf;rS zGm;jrif&jcif;vQif t&if;&Sdaom'ku©? trd0rf;rS tjyifodkYxGufjcif;vQif t&if;&Sdaom'ku©? rdrd vHkYvvQif t&if;&Sdaom'ku© (rdrdukd,frdrdao aMumif;BujH cif;) olwpfyg;wd\ Yk vHv Yk vQif t&if; &Sdaom'ku© (olwpfyg;wdkY\ aoaMumif;BuHcH& jcif;) xd'k u k w © o Ykd nf&\ dS / ,if;'kuw © \ Ykd wnfrDS jzpf a y:&m tajccH t aMumif ; w&m;onf Zmwd- y#doaE¨aejcif;yifjzpfonf/ xdkYaMumihf Ak'¨u- Zmwd'ku©[k a[mMum;awmfrljcif;om jzpfayonf/ 'k u © c k E S p f y g; ZmwdukdtaMumif;jyKí owå0grsm; awGUBuHKcHpm;&aom 'ku©ckepfyg;rSm (1) *aAÇm uúEu dÅ - rlvu'ku?© (2) *AÇy&d[&Prlvu'ku© (3) *AÇ0yd wård v l u'ku© (4) 0dZm,erlvu'ku© (5) A[deu d r© erlvu'ku© (6) twåLyuúrrlvu 'ku© (7) y½lyuúrrlvu'ku-© [laom 'kuc© ek pf yg;yifjzpfayonf/ *aAÇ m uú E Å d u rl v u'k u © trd0rf;üowå0gonf jzpfxkdufonhf uHtm;avsmfpGm jzpfMu&aomfvnf; MumndK? MumeD? MumjzL? y'kr®mMum? Mumyk@&dPf ponf wdkYü jzpfMu&onfrsdK;r[kwf? trSefpifppfum;? tpmopf t d r f \ atmuf ? tpmusuf t d r f \ txuf? ESpfbufaom0rf;ysOf;vTm? ausmufql; ½d k ; wd k Y \ tv,f ? tvG e f u sOf ; ajrmif ; vsuf tarSmifwdkufjzpfaom ydk;avmufaumifwdkYjzifh eHapmfí tvGefpufqkyfzG,f&mjzpfNyD; n§DeHYan§mf

avSmif;? raumif;aomoGm;vm&mjzpfonhf trd \ 0rf;wdkufü- ydk;ç avmufaumifrsm; uHtm; avsmfpGmjzpfMu&ouJhodkY jzpf&jcif;jzpfonf/ xdkuJhodkY trd\0rf;acgif;ü atmif;í jzpfMu&aom owå0gwdkYonf q,fvwdkifwdkif trd \ 0rf ; wG i f ; üjzpf a om aygif ; tyf a omrkepYf rd ;f aygif;uJo h Ykd jzpfMu&Ny;D [db k ufonfbuf a&GUvsm;jcif;yif jyKír&bJ jyif;jyaomqif;&Jukd cHpm;ae&\/ xdkuJhodkY cHpm;&aomqif;&J'ku©udk ]*aAÇmuúEÅd urlvu'ku}© [kac:\/ y#doaE¨ ae&aomf vnf; þ'k u © u d k rcH p m;&ol r S m ypädrb0du yk* ¾dKvfjzpfaom bk&m;tavmif; awmfwdkYjzpfonf/ ]*AÇ y &d [ &Prl v u'k u © } trd0rf; om;tdrfwGif;ü oaE¨wnf vsuf arG;zGm;&aomowå0gwdkYonf rdcifjzpfol ajcacsmfvJaomtcg? udk,fvufvIyf&Sm;í oGm; aomtcg? xd k i f a omtcg? xaomtcg? b,fnmvJavsmif;aomtcgwdkYwGif t&uf orm;\vufodkY usa&mufaeaom qdwfi,f uJhodkYvnf;aumif;? tvrÜm,fq&mvufwGif usa&mufaeaom a>ri,fuJhodkYvnf;aumif; 'ku©udk cHpm;ae&ayonf/ rdcif\ xdkifjcif;? x jcif;? vrf;avQmufjcif;? vl;vdrfhjcif; ponfwdkY aMumihv f nf; a&SUodq Yk iJG ifjcif;? aemufow Ykd eG ;f xd;k jcif;? txufrS zdESdyfjcif;? txufodkY yifhwifcH& jcif; paom vHv Yk jzihjf yKtyfaom qif;&Jukd cHpm; ae&\/ trd j zpf o l u at;jraoma&ud k aomufaomtcg oaE¨om;onf tvGeaf t;jr aom ]e&ufi&J} odkY usouJhokdY cHpm;&NyD;? ylaom,m*k? xrif; ponfwdkYudk pm;aomuf aomtcg tcd;k tvQu H if;aom rD;us;D wGi;f xJoYkd ypfcscH&ouJhodkY cHpm;&onf/ rdcifjzpfolu tcsO?f tief? tpyfwYkd pm;aomtcg oaE¨om; onf cE¨mudk,fudk vSefjzihfxdk;qGNyD; qm;ESihfyuf ovdk cHpm;ae&ayonf/ oaE¨om; xdkodkY qif;&J'ku©cHpm;ae&jcif;onf udk,f0efaqmif jcif;vQif taMumif;&if;cHjzpfí ]*AÇy&d[&P rlvu'ku©} [k ac:qdkayonf/ ]*AÇ d 0 d y wå d r l v u'k u © } awGa0aESmuf,Sufaomudk,f0ef&Sd aom rd c if \ taqG t rsd K ;? taqG c if y G e f ; ?

cspu f Rr;f 0ifol tp&So d t l aygif;wdo Yk nf jrifjcif; iSm rxdkufaom rdcifwdkY\ udk,fwGif;t*Fgt&yf ü? jzwfjcif;? cGJjcif; tp&Sdonhf qif;&Judk cHpm;& \/ xd k ' k u © o nf ud k , f 0 ef y suf p D ; jcif ; vQif taMumif;&if;cH&SdaomaMumihf ]*AÇ0dywådrlvu 'ku©} [k ac:qdkayonf/ 0d Z m,erl v u'k u © om;zGm;rdcifjzpfol\ ur®ZavwdkY onf txufatmuftjyeftvSefwGef;xdk;í oaE¨om;onf ]e&ufi&Jacsmuf} odkY acgif;pdkuf vsuf tcscH&ouJhodkY tvGefaMumufrufzG,f aumif;aom oHaumufcsdwfjzihf qifajymifBuD; udk vd&k mqGiJ ifonhEf , S ?f tvGeu f sO;f ajrmif;aom a,med0-odYk qGiJ ifxw k af qmifjcif;cH&um? ]e&uf i&J} odkY usaom owå0gyrm ta&SUtaemuf awmifajrmuft&yfwkdYrS vdrhfvmaomawmif BuD;av;vHk;wdkYjzihf trIefYBudwfcH&ouJhodkY oaE¨ om; owå0gwdkY cHpm;Mu&\/ þqif;&J'ku©cHpm;&jcif;onfvnf; trd0rf;rS zGm;jrif&jcif;vQif taMumif;&if;cHjzpf aomaMumihf ]0dZm,erlvu'ku}© [k ac:qdak y onf/ A[d e d u © r e rl v u'k u © rdcifjzpfol\0rf;rS tjyifodkYxGufvm aom (0g) arG;zGm;vmaom tvGeEf ek ,ford af rGU aom cE¨mudk,f&Sdaom oaE¨om;owå0gtm; vufjzihf udkifwG,fjcif;? a&jzihfaq;aMumjcif;? ykqdk;jzihf a&okwfay;jcif; tp&SdonfwkdYudk jyKvkyfay;Muaomtcg oaE¨om;owå0gonf tvGex f ufaom tyfcRe?f oif"ek ;f "g;oGm;wdjYk zihf xdk;qGjcif;? vSD;jzwfjcif;? cGJpdyfjcif;wdkYaMumifh tvGefemusifaomqif;&Judk cHpm;&ayonf/ xdkqif;&Judk oaE¨om;cHpm;&onfrSmvnf; rd c if \ om;td r f w G i f ; rS tjyif t yod k Y xG u f ajrmuf j cif ; vQif taMumif ; &if ; cH j zpf a om aMumihf ]A[dedu©rrlvu'ku©} [k ac:qdkay onf/ pmrsuf E S m 10 ok d Y


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf avmuD avmukwå&mtusKd;ESpfyg;twGuf jzpfonf/

9

a*gwrAk'¨ESihf rif;wdkY\ avmuobm0"r® jyóemajz&Sif;enf;rsm; (1) wuú o d k v f o Qif o D & d ( "r® m p&d , ? B.A)

(,cif t ywf r S t quf ) Ad r d Á o m&rif ; BuD ; onf urÁ v m wpfxnfpDudk tzdk;jzwfapawmfrlaomf tm;vHk; yif tzdk;te*¢xdkufwefonfudk awGU&í xdk (8)xnfteuf (4)xnfudk bk&m;&SifxHarSmuf qufuyfvSL'gef;apNyD; usef 4 xnfudkrl rdrd\ a&Teef;awmfü xm;&Sdavonf/ ]aemuf r S vuf a qmif yd k Y o aom olonf a&S;OD;pGm ykdYotyfaomvufaqmif yPÖmxuf omvGefaom vufaqmifwdkYudk ydkYooihfonf? ig\oli,fcsif; yuúKomwdrif; uvnf ; igY x H o d k Y tzd k ; te*¢ x d k u f a om vufaqmifudk ydkYoaptyfNyD? igonf tb,f odkYaom vufaqmifyPÖmtwHkYudk ykdYo&yg rnfenf;} [k AdrdÁom&rif;BuD;onf BuHpnf qifjcifawmfrlonf/ ]avmuü ESpfoufzG,f&m &wem rnfonfrSm ouf&Sd&wem? oufrJh&wem[lí ESpfrsKd;&Sd&mü oufrJhjzpfaom a&TaiG&wem tp&SdonfwdkYonf ouf&Sd&wem\ tqif; wefqmtoHk;aqmifomjzpf&\/ xdkYtwGuf ouf&Sd&wemonf oufrJh&wemxuf csD;rGrf; onfomjzpf\/ ouf&Sd&wemwGif wd&pämef&wem? vl&wem[lí ESpfrsKd;&Sdjyef&m wd&pämef&wem onf vlwdkYtoHk;taqmifomjzpfí vl&wem? wd&pämef&wemESprf sK;d wdw Yk iG f vl&wemonfom csD;rGrf;tyf\/ wpfzef vl&wemwGifvnf; rdef;r &wem? a,musfm;&wem[lí ESpfrsKd;&Sd&mü rdef;r&wemonf a,musfm;\ toHk;taqmif omjzpfí rdef;r&wemxuf a,musfm;&wem onfomvQif ydkrdkcsD;rGrf;tyf jrwfvSayonf/ wpfzef a,musfm;&wemonfvnf;

tdrf&m tpD;tyGm;ü tm;xkwfaeol vl0wf aMumif&wemESihf tdrf&mtpD;tyGm;tm;rxkwf aom &[ef;&wem[lí ESpfrsKd;&Sd&m &[ef; &wemonfomvQif tjrwfqHk;jzpfonf/ pMu 0aw;rif;yif jzpfvihfupm; ,aeY &SifjyKopfp omraPi,ftm; wnfjcif;ig;rsKd;jzihf &Sdcdk; ylaZmf&avonf/ odkYtwGuf tdrf&mraxmif &[ef;abmifaeoludkom csD;rGrf;tyfavonf/ wpfzef tdr&f mraxmif&[ef; abmif üvnf; oDv? orm"d? ynm[laom odu©m oHk;yg;wdkYudk usihfaeqJjzpfaom ykxkZOft&d,m ESihf atmuft&d,m yk*¾dKvf&wem? &[EÅm[l íESpfrsKd;&Sd&mü usihfqJt&d,mwpfodef;yif jzpf vihfupm; &[EÅm yk*¾dKvfwpfyg;udk *kPfaus;Zl; BuD;jrwfaomt&mü vdkufí rrDygacs/ odkY twG u f &[EÅ m yk * ¾ d K vf o nf o m csD ; rG r f ; tyf jrwfvSayonf/ xd k & [EÅ m onf v nf ; Ak ' ¨ &wem? om0u &wem[lí ESpfrsKd;&Sd&m om0u&wem aygif; wpfodef;yifjzpfvihfupm;? Ak'¨&wem bk&m;wpfqu l kd *kPaf us;Zl;Bu;D jrwfaom t&m vdu k í f rrDEikd af cs? odt Yk wGuf Ak'&¨ wemonfom vQif csD;rGrf;tyf jrwfvSayonf/ wpfzef Ak'&¨ wemonfvnf; yapöu Ak'¨g &wem? oAÁnKwAk'¨&wem[lí ESpfrsKd; &Sdjyef&m yapöuAk'¨ wpfodef;yifjzpfvihfupm; oAÁnKwbk&m;wpfqludk *kPfaus;Zl;BuD;jrwf aom t&mü wpfpdwfwpfa'oyif vdkufí rrDSEkdifacs? odkYtwGuf oAÁnKwAk'¨&wemonf omvQif csD;rGrf;tyf\/ tjrwfqHk;jzpfayonf/ ewfjA[®mESiw fh uGaom owåavmu BuD;wpfckvHk;ü oAÁnKAk'¨&wemESihfwlaom &wemrnfonfr&Sdacs/ twkr&Sdaom &wem udkomvQif ig\ oli,fcsif; yuúLomwdrif;xH

ydkYoaytHh}[k AdrdÁom&rif;onf BuHpnfpOf;pm; qifjcifNy;D wuúov kd jf ynfuvmaom trwfrsm; udk ]tarmifwdkY tarmifwdkY\ wuúodkvfjynf t&yf0,f bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm þ&wemoH;k yg; udk zl;awGUMu&yg\avm} ]jrwfaomrif;BuD; uREfkyfwdkY ae&m wuúodkvfjynfü bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm[laom toHrQyif Mum;od&jcif;r&Sdao;yg? zl;ajrmfcGihf udkum; tb,frSm&SdygtHhenf;} ]aumif;NyD tarmifwdkY} [k rdefYqdkum]xdkt&yfü r&Sdaom vufaqmifudk ydo Yk cGi&fh ayNy}D [k tvGe0f rf;ajrmufEpS o f ufum qufvufí wpfzefBuHpnfjyefonfrSmvltaygif;tm; csD;ajr§muf&ef ig\ ol i ,f c sif ; yuú L omwd r if ; \ ae&mXme wuúodkvfjynft&yfokdY jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sifudk igawmif;yefavQmufxm;í ydkYo&ef pGrf;Ekdifap umrl jrwf p G m bk & m;&S i f w d k Y rnf o nf u m; ypöEÅ&mZft&yfrsm;ü t½kPfwufap½dk;xHk;pH r&S d u k e f ? od k Y j zpf & um; bk & m;&S i f u d k , f w d k i f <ua&muf & ef r jzpf E k d i f ? t&S i f o m&d y k w å & m? t&Siaf rm*¾vmef tp&Sad om om0u&[EÅmBu;D rsm;udk igawmif;yefavQmufxm;í ydkYo&ef pGrf;EkdifonfyifjzpfapOD;awmh? pifppfaomfrl igonf rax&fjrwfBuD;rsm; ypöEÅ&mZft&yfü aeMuonf[k Mum;&vQifyif rif;csif;vlrsm;udk apvT w f u m xd k r ax&f B uD ; rsm;ud k rd r d \ tOD;t&yfodkY ra&mufa&mufatmif yihfaqmif NyD;vQif ypönf;av;yg;jzihf jyKpkvkyfauR;&ef oihfavsmfay\/ odkYjzpfí rax&fjrwfBuD;rsm; <uoGm;awmfrl&ef rjzpfEkdif? pifpifum; igonf bk & m;&S i f E S i h f w uG rax&f B uD ; rsm;ud k , f w d k i f <uoGm;awmfrlMuouJhodkYjzpfatmif o0PfvTm udk ydkYoaytHh}[k BuHpnfí tvsm;(4)awmif teHYwpfxGm&Sdaom ryg;vGef; rxlvGef;aom a&Tjym;udk cwfapNyD;vQif xdka&Tjym;xuf0,f tu©&mwdkYudk a&;om;awmhrnfhaeYü eHeuf apmapmuyif OD;acgif;aq;avsmf? a&rdk;csdK;í &Spfyg;oDvudk aqmufwnfNyD;vQif eHeufpm pm;NyD;aomf xdkaeY tzkdY&m eHYomyef;rmvf tqif;wefqmrsm;udk 0wfpm;yefqif vdr;f usrH I


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

10

"r®0D&onf b0&SifoefrIudk trSefuefqHk;azmfaqmif&ef jzpfonf/

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DHAMMA DEW "r®0D&onf b0&SifoefrI y"meukdy,fí tukokdvfuif;aom &SifoefrItwGufjzpfonf/

11

£|'kv’bw&m;av;yg;ESihf tusihfw&m;av;yg; Nid r f ; csrf ; OD ; þurÇmavmuü csrf;omjcif;okcr*Fvm tjzmjzmwdkYESihf jynfph EkH idk &f ef&cJaom £|'kvb ’ w&m;av;yg;wdEYk iS fh ¤if;£|'kvb ’ w&m; av;yg;wdkYudk &apEkdifaom tusihfw&m;av;yg;wdkYudk avmuü vdkufem usihfoHk;azmfaqmifEkdifMuap&eftwGuf jrwfpGmbk&m;ocifonf okwåEÅ yd#u t*Fkwå&edum, ygVdawmf ywåur®okwfwGif a[m`rGwfawmfrl ygonf/ xdk£|'kv’bw&m;av;yg;udk azmfjyaom ywåur®okwf t"dyÜg,ftusOf;csKyfESihf xdkokwfawmfvmteufrsm;udk vG,fulpGm em;vnfusihfaqmifEkdifMuap&eftwGuf aus;Zl;awmf&Sif wdyd#u "&"r®b@m*g&du rif;uGef;q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;zGihfqdk pD&ifawmfrlcJhyg aom "r®vuFmaqmify'k w f u Ykd kd "r®0&D "r®rmru w&m;cspcf if olawmfpif wdkYtwGuf azmfjyay;tyfygonf/ ywå u r® o k w f teuf t "d y Ü g ,f t usOf ; csKyf u m; (1) £|'kv’bw&m;av;yg; (2) ¤if;w&m;av;yg;udk &apaom tusihfw&m;av;yg; (3) pkaqmif;&&Sdxm;aom ypönf;OpömwdkYudk oihfavsmfaom jyKvkyfazmfaqmifrI ywåur®av;yg;wdkYudk azmfjyaom okwfjzpfygonf/ (1) £|'k v ’ b w&m;av;yg; (1) pnf;pdrfOpömwdkYudk &ygap[k awmifhwjcif;onf &cJ \/ (2) pnf;pdrfOpöm &vmaomtcg ta`cGt&HwdkYvmMu ygap[k awmihfwjcif;onf &cJ\/ (3) pnf;pdrfOpöm ta`cGt&H&aomtcg touf&SnfMum ae&ygap[k awmihfwjcif;onf &cJ\/ (4) pnf;pdrfOpöm? a`cG&Hoif;yif; touf&Snfjcif;&&SdNyD; onhaf emuf b0ewf&mG ok*wdov Ykd m;a&muf&ygap [k awmihfwjcif;onf &cJ\/ þum; £|'kv’b w&m;av;yg;wnf;/ od v G , f r S w f v G , f aqmif y k ' f v uF m (1) OpömjynhfvQH? &vdkjyef? trSefcJ,Of;\/ (2) a`cG&Hoif;yif;? &vdkjcif;? cJ,Of;vSay\/ (3) touf&SnfpGm? aevkdyg? vGefpGmcJ,Of;\/ (4) ewfjynfewf&Gm &vdkyg? vGefpGmcJ,Of;\/ £|'kv’bav;yg;jy Ak'¨azmfñTef;bd/ (2) £|'kv’b w&m;av;yg;udk &apEdkifaom tusihfw&m;av;yg; (1) o'¨g -&wemjrwfoHk;yg;udk MunfndKjcif;/ (2) oDv -ig;yg;oDvESihf jynhfpHkjcif;/ (3) pm* -pGefYBuJay;urf;vSL'gef;jcif;/

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DHAMMA TALKS

12

"r®0D&onf udk,fusifhoDvESifh pm&dwåjrifhrm;ap&ef jzpfonf/

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(5) vlwcYkd ekd m;&m Z&yfEiS fh wlaomaMumihf oDvrnf\/ 'kp½du k f aeyljzihf ylavmifMuolwdkYonf xdktylrS uif;ap&ef oDvt&dyfudk cdkvHI Mu&ukef\/ oDvt&dyfü wnfMuaom oDv0EÅyk*¾dKvfwdkYonf 'kp½dkuf tyl rSuif;a0;í at;jrcsrf;omMuukef\/ omvm,HZ&yfBuD;ESihfwlaomaMumihf oDvrnfyg\/ omvm0d,-Z&yfEiS w fh \ l / £wd-xdaYk Mumih?f oDv-H oDvrnf\/ þonfwdkYum; oDvyk'f\ teuft"dyÜg,frsm;jzpfygonf/ olawmfaumif; oljrwfavmif;wdkY aqmufwnfMuaom oDvav;yg; olawmfaumif;oljrwfavmif; &[ef;yk*Kd¾ v(f vly*k Kd¾ v)f wdYk aqmuf wnfMuaom oDvum;(4)yg; tjym;&S\ d / xdo k v D av;yg;wdw Yk iG f tb,f oDvudktb,fw&m;jzihf NyD;jynhfpHkaptyfMuygoenf;qdkygaomf(1) ygwdarmu© oDvudk o'¨gw&m;jzihf NyD;aptyf jynhfpHkap tyfygonf/ (2) £`E´d, oH0&oDvudk owdw&m;jzihf NyD;aptyfjynhfpHkap tyfygonf/ (3) tmZD0yg&dok'd¨oDvudk 0D&d,w&m;jzihf NyD;aptyfjynhfpHk aptyfygonf/ (4) ypö, oEédódw oDvudk ynmw&m;jzihf NyD;aptyfjynhfpHk aptyfygonf/ (0dok'¨dr*f? y? 3-8? 48) oD v av;yg;wd k Y w G i f ok ' d ¨ r nf j cif ; taMumif ; t&if ; (1) ygwdarmu©oH0&oDvonf? a'oemajymMum;jcif;jzihf pifMu,faomaMumifh a'oemok'd¨rnf\/ (2) £`E, d´ oH0& oDvonf? aemufxyfwpfzef þodrYk jyKawmh tHh[k pdwfaqmufwnfapmihfpnf;jcif;jzihf pifMu,faomaMumihf o0& ok'd¨rnf\/ (3) tmZD0yg&dok'd¨oDvonf ukv'loe taeoeudk y,fí w&m;ojzihf ypönf;av;yg;wdkYudk jzpfapaom &[ef;\ 0D&d,jzihfpifMu,f aomaMumihf y&da,|dok'd¨rnf\/ (4) ypö,oEédódw oDvonf ypöa0u©Pmav;yg;jzihf qifjcifjcif;jzihf pifMu,faomaMumihf? ypöa0u©Pmok'd¨rnfav\/ (0dok'd¨r*f? y? 41-42) jrwfpGmbk&m;rS uvsmPykxkZOftxd yk*¾dKvf(5)rsKd;\ oDv(5)rsKd; (1) vl? omraPwdkY\ oDvonf tqHk;tydkif;tjcm;&Sdaom aMumihf oy&d,EÅoDvrnf\/ (2) &[ef;wdkY\ oDvonf uka#udk;axmifausmf tqHk;tydkif; tjcm;&Sdygaomfvnf; (u) t<uif;tusefr&Sd aqmufwnfjcif;udkvnf; aumif;? (c) vmbf? tausmftapm? aqGrsKd;? udk,ft*Fg? touf\ pmrsuf E S m 14 ok d Y


DHAMMA TALKS "r®0D&onf rdrdudk,fudk apmifha&SmufEdkif&eftwGuf jzpfonf/

13

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rdwv å u©Pm (16)yg;ESifh trdwv å u©Pm(16)yg; oD w mOD ; (jref r mpm) ygVd y d # uwf a wmf Zmwu0w¬ K 'G g 'ou t|uxmwG i f azmf j yyg &S d a om od r S w f M uzG , f & m rd w å v u© P m (rd w f a qG \ trSwftom;) 16 yg;ESihf trdwåvu©Pm(&efol\ trSwftom;) 16 yg; wdkYudk azmfjyvdkygonf/ rd w å v u© P m (16)yg; (1) rdrdESihf auGuGif;ae&vQif owdw& wovGrf;qGwf atmufarhaewwfygu xdkolum; rdwfaqGwnf;/ (2) rd r d E S i h f auG u G i f ; ae&mrS rd r d j yef v maomtcg 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om&Sdygu xdkolum; rdwfaqGwnf;/ (3) rdrdjyefvmaomtcg cspfcifvdkvm; ESpfoufygu xdkolum; rdwfaqGwnf;/ (4) rdrdjyefvmaomtcg ESpfouf&Tifvef; 0rf;ompum; ajymMum;ygu xdkolum; rdwfaqGwnf;/ (5) rdrd\ rdwfaqGrsm;udkom aygif;oif;ygu xdkolum; rdwaf qGwnf;/ (6) rdrEd iS fh roihjf rwfol rdr\ d &efow l u Ykd kd raygif;oif;yg u xdkolum; rdwfaqGwnf;/ (7) rdru d kd uJ&h UJ ESrdf chf sajymqdv k Qif wm;jrpfygu xdo k u l m; rdwaf wGwnf;/ (8) rdrdudk csD;rGrf;pum;ajymMum;vQif 0rf;omtm;& ajr§mufpm;ygu xdkolum; rdwfaqGwnf;/ (9) ol \ vQd K U0S u f c suf u d k rd r d t m; ajymMum;ygu xdkolum; rdwfaqGwnf;/ (10) rdrd\ vQdKU0Sufcsufudk ol\ vQdKU0SufcsufuJhodkY oabmxm;vsuf rajymrMum; vQdKU0Sufxm;ygu xdkolum; rdwfaqG wnf;/ (11) rdrdjyKvkyfaom trIudpötm;vHk;udk csD;rGrf;ygu xdkol um; rdwfaqGwnf;/ (12) rdr\ d ynmpGr;f &nfukd cs;D usL;ajymqdyk gu xdo k u l m; rdwaf qGwnf;/ (13) rdrdBuD;yGm;wdk;wufvQif ESpfouf0rf;omygu xdkol um; rdwfaqGwnf;/ (14) rdryd supf ;D qkw, f w k af evQif rESpo f ufygu (0rf;enf; ygu)xdkolum; rdwfaqGwnf;/ (15) olYtm; tpm;aumif; txl;tqef;&&SdvQif rdrdtm; ay;&ef owd&ygu xdkolum; rdwfaqGwnf;/ (16) olt Y m; tpm;aumif; txl;tqef;&&Sad omtcg rdrd tm;vnf; xdktpm;aumif;rsm; &ygap[k pdwfxm;aumif;(arwåmpdwf xm;) &Sdygu xdkolum; rdwfaqGwnf;/

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DHAMMA TALKS

14

"r®0D&onf vlrsKd;ra&G; bmomra&G;? vlom;rsKd;EG,ftm;vHk;twGuf jzpfonf/

(5) rdrdESihf roihfjrwfolawGudkrS aygif;oif;rI xdk&efolwnf;/ (6) rdrd\ taygif;toif; rdwfaqG aqGrsKd;wdkYudk a&SmifcGmjcif; jyKrl taygif;toif; rjyKrl xdkol&efolwnfh/ (7) rdrd*kPfudk ajymvQif ydwfyifrl xdfkol&efolwnf;/ (8) rdrdtm; ESdrfhcsajymrl uJh&JUrl twif;tzsif;ajymol xdkol onf &efolwnf;/ (9) rdrdtm; ol\ vQdKU0Sufcsufudk rajymrl xdkol&efolwnf;/ (10) rdrdu ajymxm;aom rfdrd\ vQdKU0Sufcsufudk wpfyg;olwdkY tm; zGihfcsajymMum;rl xdkol&efolwnf;/ (11) rdrdvkyforQ udpötm;vHk;udk ½IwfcsuJh&JUrl xdkol &efol wnf;/ (12) rdrd\ ynmpGrf;&nfudk rcsD;rGrf;rl xdkol&efolwnf;/ (13) rdrpd ;D yGm;Opöm vlral &;&m qkw, f w k yf supf ;D vQif 0rf;ajrmuf 0rf;om&Sdrl xdkol&efolwnf;/ (14) rdrw d ;kd wufBu;D yGm;vQif 0rf;romEkid f rESpo f ufEidk f r½Iqw d f EdkifvQif xdkol &efolwnf;/ (15) xdkoltm; tpm;aumif; taomufaumif; &&SdvQif rdrd tm; ay;a0rQwzdkY owdr&rl xdkol&efolwnf;/ (16) ig&ovd k ol v J &ygrl aumif ; avpG [ k rd r d t ay: Muifemaom pdwfxm;rsKd;r&Sdrl xdkol&efolwnf; þonfwdkYum; trdwåvu©Pm (&efol\ trSwftom;) 16 yg;wdkYjzpfavonf/ aqmif & ef v uF m rS w f p &m (1) igESihfawGUvQif rNyHK;&Tif pifppf &efolwnf;/ (2) igajymqdkcsuf rESpfouf rSwfcsuf&efolwnf;/ (3) rMunhfcsifeJ rsufESmvTJ rSwfpGJ&efolwnf;/ (4) iguajymvQif olqefYusif tpOf &efolwnf;/ (5) igY&efoleJY aygif;oif;cJh wu,fh&efolwnf;/ (6) igYrdwfaqGawG a&SmifMuOfay rSwfav&efolwnf;/ (7) igY*kPfajymvQif olydwfyif pifppf &efolwnf;/ (8) igYudk ESdrfhcsajymqdkurl [kwfy [kwfy csD;rGrf;u 'grS &efolwnf;/ (9) ol\ vQdKU0Sufwpfcsufcsufudk qufquf igYtm; rajym Mum;rSwfom;&efolwnf;/ (10) ig\ vQKd U0Suaf jymxm;csuu f kd vQKd U0Surf xm; olajymMum; rSwfom;&efolwnf;/ (11) igvkyforQ ol½Iwfcs 'grS &efolwnf;/ (12) igYynmpGrf; rcsD;rGrf; qdk;oGrf;&efolwnf;/ (13) igrBu;D yGm; ysupf ;D jim;aomf pdwt f m; wuf<u ESpo f ufu 'grS &efolwnf;/ (14)iguBuD ; yG m ; wd k ; wuf j im;aomf pd w f x m;,k w f v suf rESpfouf qufquf &efolwnf;/ (15) tpm;aumif;rsm;? ol&jim;aomf igYtm;ay;&ef olrBuHbJ ay;&efowd bdwfr&Sd rSwfbd&efolwnf;/ (16) tpm;aumif;rsm; ol&jim;aomf igYtm; raoG &ygap[k pdwfaepdwfxm; r&Sdjim; rSwfom;&efolwnf;/ (Zm 'Gg'ou? |? ptkyf? 198 ESihf rHk&GmNrdKU ta&SUv,fwD ausmif;wdkuf? t*¾r[my@dw b'´EÅuk@vax&f\ r[mokw'DyeD usrf;? y-wGJ) oD w mOD ; (jref r mpm)

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tm;xkwfMu&mwGif bkef;awmfBuD;rsm;yg0if aMumif;ukd rawGU&acs/ jrefrmEkdifiHonft*Fvdyfvufatmuff okdY usa&mufaomtcg t*FvdyfwkdYonf jrefrm bkef;awmfBuD;rsm;\tajctaeukdaumif;pGmt uJ j zwf w wf \ / t&S d e f t 0guk d o d \ / MoZm tmPmukd em;vnf\/ xkaYd Mumifh jrefrmEkid if \ H ynma&;uk d bk e f ; awmf B uD ; rsm;\vuf x J r S qG, J Nl y;D vly*k K¾ v d rf sm;\vufxo J Ydk xnfv h u kd \ f / xkdtcg jrefrmEkdifiH\ynma&;onf ]]0dZÆm}} ESifY ]]p&P}} rwG&J awmUbJ ]]0dZmÆ }} ESiYf ]]p&P}} uGí J oGm;awmh\/ trSeftm;jzifY]]0dZÆm}}ESifY ]]p&P}} uGJaeorQ umvywfvkH; ]]0dZÆm}} onfvnf; twkta,mif0Zd mÆ omjzpf\/ p&Ponfvnf; twkta,mif ]]p&P}}om jzpf\/ þtajc taeok d Y ra&muf a &muf a tmif t *F v d y f w k d U zef w D ; jcif ; jzpf w ef & m\/ þoabmuk d q&mawmfO;D Owår? q&mawmf t&Sit f m'dp0ö o H paom q&mawmftcsKdUom odjrifykH&yg\/ trSeftm;jzifYqdk&vQif ,aeUacwf ynma&;onf u d a vom wef ; vef ; &S d a e aom ykxkZOfyk*¾KdvfwkdY\tqkdtrdefYrsm;ukd tm;uk d ; í vl Y b 0\wef z k d ; uk d j zwf a e& aom ynma&;rsKd ; omjzpf o jzif h þurÇ m ajrtjyif ü ppf r S e f a om csrf ; omES i f h Nid r f ; csrf;rIwkdYukd&Ekdif&ef tvSrf;uGma0;vSyg\/ xk d Y a Mumif h u d a vom[l í jrLrQ r&S d a om oAÁnKwÓPf&Sifbk&m;ocif\ vlYb0 wefzkd; jzwfenf;ukdteufususodjrifawmfrlNyD;aom &[ef ; oH C mawmf r sm;onf y k * H a cwf r S ukef;abmifacwfwkdifatmif rdrdwkdU\ vuf 0,fü&SdcJYaomynma&; ukdrdrdwkdU\ vuf0,f ok d Y j yef v nf &&S d a tmif a qmif ½ G u f E k d i f r S o m þurÇmajrtjyifü ppfreS af omcsr;f omESiYf Nird ;f csr;f rIukd&&Sdatmif aqmif½GufEkdifayvdrfYrnf/ rdrw d v Ykd uf0,fü&Scd zYJ ;l aom ynma&; ukdrdrdwdkYvuf0,fokdY jyefvnfa&muf&Sd atmif aqmif½Guf&mü rdrdwkdUukd,fwkdifu urÇm tjrif t&yf & yf u k d a vh v mzwf ½ I E k d i f a tmif urÇ m Y pmayrsm;ukd vnf;wwfuRrf;&ef tm;xkwfzkdU vkt d yfyg\/ pdwmå Ekyóem owdy|mefa'oem awmf t & ]]avmb}} jzpf v Qif ]]avmb}} jzpfrSef;odawmfrlNyD;aomolawmfpif yk*¾Kdvf rsm;twGufukd,fusifh odu©mqkdif&mwefzkd;rsm; ESifYywfoufíq&mZD0uonf ]]tqdyf}}ukd ]]aq;}} jzpfatmiftokH;csEkdif ouJhokdYrnfonfh bmoEå & vmvmavmu twG u f t ok H ; us atmif tok;H csEidk v f rd rhf nfjzpf aMumif;,kMH unfrd ygojzifh a&S;acwfyk*Hjynfukd vGrf;rdyg\/ OD ; a&T a tmif


A TRAVEL DIARY OF THE WESTBOUND "r®0D&onf csrf;ajrhaysmf&TifrItwGuf jzpfap&onf/ aemuf a usmzk H ; rS

Ad r mef a wmf B uD ; wG i f jref r mEk d i f i H v k H ; qk d i f & m v,f w D 0 d y óem jyef Y y G m ;a&;A[k d t zJ G Y c sKyf qk d i f ; bk w f w if p Of a&; omoema&;tcrf;tem;rsm;usif;y&ef taqmiftcef;BuD;rsm;jzihf zGJUpnf;wnfaqmufxm;onfukd awGU&Sd&ygonf/ avmuk w f a vmuD pG , f p k H & yk * ¾ K d v f B uD ; \tpD t rH AdrmefawmfBu;D ukd pwifazmfaqmifzefw;D awmfral om uav;0 awm&ausmif; a,mig;NrKdU*kdPf;csKyfq&mawmfbk&m;BuD; (bdk;uav;0) onf avmuDavmukwå&mESpfjzmpkH pG,fpkHwwfuRrf;awmfrlonfESihftnD AdrmefawmfBuD;ukd pD&ifwnfaqmufawmfrlcJhonf[k qkdygonf/ AdrmefawmfBuD;\ta&SUajrmufaxmifhwGif ol&ówDa'0D wkdufcef;jymó'faqmifBuD;ukdvnf;aumif;? avmuDqkdif&m pD;yGm;a&;? BuD;yGm;a&;? csrf;omusef;rma&;ponf taMumif;udpörsm;ESihf pyfvsOf;í ,kHMunfvkdufpm;Muolrsm;twGuf ylaZmfEkdifMu&eftvdkYiSm od'¨dayguf 0dZmÆ "k&d rf sm;? bk;d awmfrsm;\½kyv f ;Hk rsm;ESifh urÇmrh [ma'0Bu;D rsm;[k ,kMH unf Muonhf [dE´Lewfbk&m;rsm;jzpfaom *aeY&Sf? vu©srD;a'0DwdkYtm; ylaZmf yoí a'0wmAvdjyK&m wkdufcef;rsm;ukdvnf; wnfaqmufxm;av onf/ AdrmefawmftaqmufttkHBuD;\ taemufajrmufbufwGif umvDr,fawmf½yk x f Ek iS fh jymom'faqmifBu;D ukv d nf;aumif;? ta&SUrsuEf mS pmwGif bJOykaH &uefBu;D ESifh bk;d odMum;½kyx f Bk u;D ukv d nf;aumif;? tv,f A[krd ck Of ;D Bu;D ESifh a&csr;f pifrsm;ukv d nf;aumif;? AdrmefawmfBu;D 0if;twGi;f odYk um;rsm; t0iftxGuf e*g;rkcOf ;D Bu;D rsm;ukv d nf;aumif; pDpOfaqmuf vkyfxm;&Sdavonf/

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17

xkjYd yif taqmufttkBH u;D \taemufbuf 0J,mae&mrsm;wGif t0Dpad &wGi;f Bu;D rsm;? a&csK;d cef;rsm;? tdro f mrsm;ESifh pm;zkad qmifwef;vsm; rsm;? qGrf;csuf½kHrsm;? qGrf;pm;aqmifrsm;ukdvnf; pepfwus pDrHwnf aqmufxm;ayonf/ Ad r mef a wmf B uD ; \ rl v 'g,umrsm; oufawmf&Snf uav;0awm&ausmif; a,mig;NrKdU*kdPf;csKyf bkd;uav;0q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;ESihf ckepf&ufom;orD;? trsm;jynfolwkdY pkaygif;í oHCdu'getjzpf aqmufvkyfvSL'gef;cJhMuonf[k qkdygonf/ ¤if;AdrmefawmfBu;D wnf&m ajrcsed f 1 'or 82 {u&Sd ajrae&m ukd rkH&GmNrKdU &Srf;awm&yf a':rdrdxrif;qkdif OD;jrihfMuL-a':rdrd? orD; rrmrmMuLwdkYu vSL'gef;cJhMujcif;jzpfonf[k qkdonf/ vG e f c J h o nh f E S p f w pf & mausmf u aemuf c H o rk d i f ; vGefcJhonfh ESpfaygif; 172 ESpfaomumv? ouú&mZf 1200 jynhfESpfqDu ,ckAdrmefawmfBuD;ae&mwGif cwufuefawmif&GmZmwd jzpfaom q&mawmfOD;Owåronf uRef;awmausmif;trnfjzihf tvsm; 9 ay&Sd ausmif;awmfBuD;wpfaqmifukd aqmufvkyfí oDwif;okH;awmf rlcJhavonf/

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A TRAVEL DIARY OF THE WESTBOUND

18

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19

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THE 'LEDI' DHAMMA ON NIYA MA DIPANI

20

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NIYAMA DIPANI OR MAN b

Maha-thera Ledi- Saya-daw, TRANSLATED From the Pa-l.i, B Revised and Edited by Mrs. C.A The Residuum Translated by V (,cif t ywf r S t quf ) jrifpdwfrsdK;ç Mum;pdwfrsdK;ç eHpdwfrsdK;ç vsufpdwfrsdK;ç awGUpdwfrsdK;ç BuHpdwfrsdK;ç odpdwfrsdK;[lí þudk,fü pdwfajcmufrsdK;&Sd\/ xdkwGif rsufvHk;rSm jzpfay:aompdwfonf jrifpdwfrnf\/ em;wGif;rSm jzpfay:aompdwfonf Mum;pdwfrnf\/ ESmacgif;wGif;rSm jzpfay: aompdwo f nf eHpw d rf nf\/ vQmtjyifrmS jzpfay:aompdwo f nf vsufpdwfrnf\/ tcsdKç tcsOfpaom &om½HkwdkYudk csdKrSef;ç csOfrSef;ponf jzihf odrIudk vsufpdwfac:onf/ wpfudk,fvHk;üjzpfay:aompdwfonf awGUpdwfrnf\/ ESvHk;wGif;ü jzpfay:aompdwfonf BuHpdwfç odpdwf rnf\/ xdkpdwfwdkY\ tm½HkwpfrsdK;ç teHYtm½HkwpfrsdK;ç t&omtm½Hk wpfrsKd ;ç tqif;tm½Hw k pfrsKd ;ç toHtm½Hw k pfrsKd ;ç axGaxGvmvm Buo H &d ef tm½HkwpfrsdK;/ / rsufpdç rsufESmESihf tqif;tm½HkawGUqHkí aeMuqGJMutcgü rsufvHk;rSm jrifpdwf jzpfay:\/ xdktqif;udk jrif\/ xdktm½HkESihf rsufESmvGJjyefvQif xdkjrifpdwfysufqHk;jyef\/ tqif;0w¬K trsdK;rsdK; ajymif;vJwdkif; jrifpdwftrsdK;rsdK; ajymif;vJ\/ em;Oypmü toHtm½Hkay:vmwkdif; em;wGif;rSm Mum;pdwfjzpfay:vm\/ xdktoHudk Mum;\/ xdktoHpJjyefvQif xdkMum;pdwf ysufqHk;jyef\/ toH trsdK;rsdK; ajymif ; vJ w k d i f ; Mum;pd w f t rsd K ;rsd K ; ajymif ; vJ \ / teH Y t m½H k w d k Y E S i h f ESmacgif;wGif;rSm jzpfay:aom eHpdwfrsdK;ç tcsdKç tcsOfpaom &om½HkwdkY ESihf vQmtjyifrSm jzpfay:aom vsufpdwfrsdK;wdkYrSmvnf; xdkenf;wl rSwfay;/ awGUpdwfonfum; wpfudk,fvHk;rSm jzpfay:\/ jrjrxufaom tyfoGm;ESifh xdk;í prf;aomf emrSef;od&m udk,ft*FgtvHk;pHkwdkYonf awG U pd w f r sd K ;\ jzpf a y:&m Xmecsnf ; aywnf ; / xd k a wG U pd w f o nf xdrSef;od½Hkvnf;&Sd\/ 'ku©a0'em yg&Sdaomtcg empdwftrsdK;rsdK;ç usifpdwftrsdK;rsdK;ç ,m;,Hpdwfç Budrf;pdwfç pyfpdwfç atmihfpdwfç tihfpdwfç eihfpdwfç pl;pdwfç xkHpdwfç usifpdwfç udkufpdwfç cJpdwfç ylpdwfç tdkufpdwfç at;pdwfç csrf;pdwf ponftrsdK;rsdK; &Sd\/ vltrsm;wdkYonfrlum; xdkemrIç usifrI ponfwdkYudk pdwf"mwf[lí rodEdkifMuukef/ 0dnmPf"mwf[lí rodMuukef/ emrf"mwf[lí rodMu ukef/ ausmufukef;tjyifrSm aejyif;pGmylaomtcg ausmufukef;a&ay:rSm xdkpdwfawG toacsF teEÅjzpfae\/ vltrsm;wdkYonfrlum; xdkpdwfawGudk ausmufukef;

(Continue from last week) As to these recluses and Brahmans we are told in the Brahma-jala-sutta: "There are some recluses and Brahmans who theorise with regard to what was before the aeons of time, and who speculate on what wil be after the aeons of time, etc.' From this we can see that their speculations did not come into the range of their fivefold iddhi. Hence as to a matter within the range of their iddhi their knowledge, and not that of average men was to be regarded as the true measure. And it was the business of the latter to learn to comprehend those points as they were given by those recluses and Brahmans. As it is said in the Dasavatthukasamma--dit.t.hi: "There are in the world recluses and Brahmans who, being in the right path, having made progress by right methods, have discerned and realised the nature of this world as well as of the world beyond, and declare what they know." Here one might say: 'I do not believe that there are recluses and Brahmans who have possessed such great supernormal powers. Why? Because now for certain no such men are ever to be seen or heard of in the world.' You are right in saying. 'now for certain no such men are ever to be seen' The reason is that now you are born too late, and in the closing part of a period of decadence. This is also true that you say: 'no such men are to be heard of.' The reason is that you are born rather too late in a non-Noble land, far removed from religions and texts coming down in unbroken succession from the beginning of an aeon. But you should investiagate the matter thus: In former days this world was exccedingly rich in all respects; men lived to a very great age, even past reckoning was one span of life. What then might not this world of men have been like in those days'? To what can we of today liken the saints and recluses of those times?" The nature of the result of action (kamma) This is of two kinds: that which takes effect in the lifeexperience of an individual, and that which comes about afterwards in a life beyond. Here "result" is that which maturers, that is to say, bears fruit, secures a distinct end. For instance when a man, having earned a kaha-pana (old Idian coin) by some job he has done, enjoys thereby things that he desires, it is then, and


THE 'LEDI' DHAMMA ON NIYA MA DIPANI "r®0D&onf avmuom;tm;vkH;\ ta&;t&mjzpfonf/

21

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,mr'DyeD

NUAL OF COSMIC ORDER by

Aggamaha-pan.d.ita, D. Litt. By M. Barua. M.A., D. Litt, and A.F. Rhys Davids, M.A. D. Litt. VEN. U Nya-na., Pathamagyaw. a&[laom ½kyftpkESihf wpfckwnf;,lí ausmufukef;a& ylonf[lí rS w f , l a jymqd k w wf M uuk e f \ / OD ; acgif ; ud k u f o nf [ k od M u\/ OD;acgif;wGi;f rSm 'kua© 0'emESi, hf OS af om ud, k 0f n d mPfrsKd ;jzpfay:íaeonf [k rodMu/ xdx k u kd , kd t f *FgwdüYk emrIay:onf emrIaysmufonf ponfwYkd üvnf; xdkenf;wlodav/ ESvHk;wGif;ü odpdwfç BuHpdwfwdkYonfrlum; avmbpdwf trsdK;rsdK;ç a'gopdwftrsdK;rsdK;ç arm[pdwftrsdK;rsdK;ç o'¨gpdwf trsKd ;rsKd ;ç arwåmpdwt f rsKd ;rsKd ;ç ynmpdwt f rsKd ;rsKd ; ponfjzihf tvGerf sm;jym; ukef\/ avmbtm½HkESihfawGUMuaomtcg avmbac:aompdwfBuD;ESihf zufwGJí ESvHk;xJrSm jzpfay:vmaom odrIç BuHrIudk avmbpdwfqkdonf/ a'gopdwfponfwdkYüvnf; xdktwlodav/ xdpk w d w f o Ykd nf ESv;kH aoG;xJrmS wpfvn S pfh çD wpfvn S pfh D jzpfay: csnfç ysufqHk;csnf aeMuukef\/ pdwfESpfrsdK;uGJí wpfNydKifxJjzpfay:onf [lír&Sd/ wpfckysufqHk;rS wpfckay:&\/ Oyrmum; wpfa,mufaom olrSm ewfaumif;ç ewfqdk;trsdK;rsdK; yl;0if&m\/ ESpfOD;NydKifí yl;0ifonf r&S/d wpfO;D xGurf S wpfO;D 0ifouJo h w Ykd nf;/ ud, k t f *Fg EIwt f *Fgwdu Yk kd cP jcif;ç cPjcif; vIyf&Sm;vQif oGm;rIç vmrIç ajymrIç qdkrI ponfwdkYudk jyKvkyfEdkifaom pdwfwefcdk;BuD;onf xdkESvHk;XmerS jzpfyGm;Muukef\/ vltrsm;wdkYonfrlum; xdkESvHk;XmerSjzpfyGm;Muukefaom pdwfwdkYudk wpfvSnhfpDç wpfvSnhfpDay:csnfç jzpfcsnf aeMuonf[lí rodMuukef/ axGaxGvmvm BuHwwfç odwwfaom pdwfwpfckxJ tNrJwnf&Sdíae onf xifrSwfMuukef\/ þum; pdwftrsdK;rsdK;cGJyHkwnf;/ ,cktcgü 0daoojzpfaom pdwåed,mr tcsufudk jyqdkay tHh/ pdwfwdkY\ a&SUaemufpDwef;íjzpfpOfudk 0Dxd qdk\/ xdk0Dxdonf jrif0x D çd Mum;0Dxçd eH0x D çd vsu0f x D çd awGU0Dxçd od0x d [ d í l ajcmufyg;&S\ d / xdkxdktqif;udk jrifMu&mü jrif0Dxd jzpfyHkum;- qifjcifpdwfç jrifpdwfç cH,pl w d çf pHpk rf;pdwçf jy|mef;pdwçf cHpm;pdwçf aemufvu dk pf w d [ f í l pdwcf ek pf rsdK; tpOftwkdif;jzpfNrJ? xdkckepfrsdK;wdkYwGif jrifpdwfonf rsufvHk;üjzpf\/ <uif;aompdwfajcmufrsdK;wdkYonf ESvHk;tdrftwGif;rS jzpfMuaom pdwfrsdK; wdkYomwnf;/ xdkxdktoHudk Mum;Mu&mü Mum;0Dxd jzpfyHkum;- qifjcif pdwfç Mum;pdwfç cH,lpdwf aemufü a&SUtwkdif;/ xdkxdkteHYudk eHMu&mü eH0Dxd jzpfyHkum;? qifjcifpdwfç eHpdwfç cH,lpdwf aemufüa&SUtwkdif;/ xdkxdkt&omudk odMu&mü vsuf0Dxd jzpfyHkum;- qifjcifpdwf? vsufpdwf?

then only that his work secures a distinct end, that is reaches the object sought by the labourer. In the same way is the point in question to be viewed. Carried once into effect an action runs its course as such, and as long as it does not nature, so long it cannot be said to have reached its distinct end. It sequence may run through hundreds of thousands of periods, Thus does a powerful kamma of immoral nature secure its distinct end in states of woe, and thus does a powerful kamma of moral nature become effective in lives of bliss. Again, the result of kamma is taken to be twofold: as drifting, affecting the individual, and as overflowing, affecting others. Of these the former implies prosperity, or adversity experienced by a man in this or that existence as an individual being, in consequence of his meritorious or demeritorious deeds. Under this aspect the result of kamma affects the doer of the deed only. But in his existence as an individual being" owing to the heat and power of his kamma promoting his happiness, or causing him misery, there arise conditions of prosperity, or adversity, with respect to persons other than himself. This is called the overflow of the result of kamma Under this aspect the result of his kamma is shared by otheres. The drifting course of the result of kamma may be illustrated by the properity of King Maha-sudassana's life in the Mahasudassana sutta. Moreover, woing to the power of the meritorious deeds of the king, various conditions of prosperity in the lives of other persons arose, some together with his own condition, some coming from this or that source. This many be taken as an illustration of the overflowing course of the result of kamma. It may even promote the happiness of the inhabitants of other continents. As regards evi deeds, the story in which the whole kingdom was ruined in consequence of the overflowing course of King Nalikera's act, persecuting five hundred sages, and such other stories may be related. Again, it is written; 'A person, Bhikkhus, may be so born as to promote the wellbeing of many men, the happiness of many men, the interests of many men, the well-being and happiness of many gods and men. A person, Bhikkhus, may be so born as to increase the ill of many men, the misery of many men, the


THE 'LEDI' DHAMMA ON NIYA MA DIPANI

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"r®0D&onf oEdÅokcodkY a&S;½Ijy|mef;onf/

cH,lpdwfaemufü a&SUtwkdif;/ xdkxdk0DxdrIudk awGUBuHK&mü awGY0Dxd jzpfyHk um; qifjcifpw d çf awGUpdwçf cH,pl w d f aemufü a&SUtwkid ;f / Mum;pdwo f nf em;üjzpfay:\/ eHpdwfonf ESmacgif;üjzpf\/ vsufpdwfonf vQmü jzpf\/ awGUpdwfonf udk,ft*FgwdkYüjzpf\/ <uif;aom pdwfajcmufrsdK; wdkYonf ESvHk;tdrfwGif;rSm csnf;jzpfMuukef\/ Oyrmum;- rif;tdrw f pfcrk mS ntcgü wHcg;ydwv f suf wpftrd f vHk; tdyfaysmfíaeMuukef\/ olcdk;wpfa,mufonf vmí wHcg;udk zGihf \/ rif;cpm;wpfa,mufonf Edk;í wHcg;rSm vlom;[kqifjcifí wHcg; apmihfudk EId;í tMunhfcdkif;\/ wHcg;apmihfonf wHcg;aomhaygufrS Munhf \/ jrif\/ tdyfzefapmifhwpfa,mufudk ajym\/ tdyfzefapmihfonf xí olcdk;udk zrf;\/ rd\/ rvTwfNyD/ rif;t&m&Sdwpfa,mufonf xíppf\/ ppfwrf;ppfcsufwif\/ t&m&Sdwpfa,mufu ppfwrf;ppfcsufudkMunhfí cdk;oltrSefjzpfaMumif; jy|mef;\/ rif;u jy|mef;csuftwkdif; pD&ifcsuf cs\/ rif;vkvifwdkYu olcdk;xHrS rl;pç rwfp n§pf,lMu\/ trIwpfckNyD; \/ vlwdkY\ udk,fcE¨monf rif;tdrfESihfwl\/ b0ifpdwfusí aeqJtcg onf 'Gm&ajcmufXmeonf rif;tdrfwHcg;ESihfwl\/ tyü&Sdaom tm½Hkpk onf olcdk;ESihfwl\/ tm½Hk'Gm& awGUqHkMurIonf wHcg;zGifhrIESihfwl\/ qifjcifpw d f ponfonf rif;ca,musmf ; ponfEiS w fh \ l / þjrifrçI Mum;rIç eHrIç vsufrIç awGUxdrIpkonfum; udk,fcE¨mwGif;rSm "mwftcsif;csif; aqmifMurIoufoufom &Sad o;onf/ yk*Kd¾ vrf mS rlum; igjrifonfç igMum; onfç igeHonfç igvsufonfç igawGUonf[k rodray:ao;/ Oyrmudk vnf; "mwfwdkY\ jzpfpOfESihfom pyf,SOfí,l/ þum; yÍö'Gm& ig;0Dxd jzpfyHkwnf;/ tqif;paom tm½Hkig;yg;wdkYESihfwuG avmu"r®tm½Hk tvHk;pHk wdu Yk kd odMuç BuMH u&mü oD0jd zpfyu kH m;- qifjcifpw d çf bGipf w d çf aemufvu kd f pdwf[lí oHk;rsdK;&Sd\/ yÍö'Gm&ig;0DxdwdkYü cHpm;pdwfESihf þraem'Gm&0Dxd ü bGifpdwfwdkYudk aZmpdwf [líac:\/ t&Sdefç t[kefxufoef jyif;xef aom pdwrf sKd ;udq k v kd o kd nf/ xdw k iG f þraem'Gm&aZmpdwo f nf twGiu f s,f qHk;jzpf\/ owåavmuBuD;ü aeYw½kef;½kef; nw½kef;½kef; wtkef;tkef; wnHnH &SdaeMuonfrSm þraem'Gm&aZmwefcdk;wdkY\ twwfaywnf;/ ESvHk;wGif;ü þaZmwefcdk;BuD;wdkY qdwfuif;íaeaomtcg cyfodrf;aom owå0gwdkYonf taoaumifawGESihf tvm;wlMuukef\/ rsufpdü jrifí vnf; jrifrSef;rodMu/ em;üMum;ívnf; Mum;rSef;rodMuukef/ ESmacgif; ü eHívnf; eHreS ;f rodMuuke?f vQmü vsuí f vnf; vsu&f rSe;f rodMuuke/f udk,ft*FgESihfawGUívnf; awGUMurSef; rodMuukef/ ESvHk;wGif;ü þraem 'Gm&aZm wefcdk;BuD;wdkY usa&mufay:aygufvmaomtcgrSom jrifvQif jrifreS ;f odMuuke\ f / Mum;vQif Mum;rSe;f odMuuke\ f / eHvQief rH eS ;f odMuukef \/ vsufvQifvsufrSef; odMuukef\/ awGUvQifawGUrSef; odMuukef\/ xdkYaMumihf þraem'Gm&0DxdwdkYonf jrif0DxdwdkY\aemufrSmvnf; rsm;pGm jzpfymG ;Muuke\ f / (v) awG0Y x D \ d aemufrmS vnf; rsm;pGmjzpfymG ;Muuke\ f / jrif0DxdponfwdkYESihf rpyf&SufyJ BuHzefrIoufoufwdkYESihf jzpfMuukef onfum; omírsm;ukef\/ þodkYjzpfMu&mü b,folwpfOD;wpfa,mufrQ xdkodkYjzpfMu&ef pDrHzefqif;&onfr[kwf/ pdwåed,mr tm;jzihf tvdkvdkpDNyD;ç pOfNyD; wpfpnf;wpf½Hk; wpfvHk;wpfzGJUwnf; jzpfNrJ"r®wmtwkdif; jzpfMuukef\/ puf½HkBuD;wdkYrSm t&if; pufcvkwfi,fwpfckudk vIyf&Sm;vdkufvQif tquf quf pufBud,mtrsm;wdkYonf wm;r&ç qD;r& tqHk;wdkif vnfMuukef ouJhodkY rsufpdç rsufESmESihf tqif;tm½kH awGUqHkcJhonf&Sdaomf tjrif0Dxdç tod0x D w d o Ykd nf wm;r&ç qD;r&jzpfMuuke\ f / rsupf çd rsuEf mS rrSw d o f mç rvTJom &Sdae&mü igrjrifvdk [k idkíyif aejim;aomfvnf; xdkyk*¾dKvfudk

ruin of many men, the ill the misery of many gods and men.' It not only affects beings, animals as well as men, but it also permeates the realm of space, and the whole organic world. Thus we read in our texts:'It is the rule, Bhikkhus, that when the Bodhisatta having fallen from the Tusita-heaven enters his mother's womb, then there appears throughtout this world including the celestial worlds, an infinitely splendid radiance surpassing in splendour the divine radiance of gods, and then th ten thousand worldsystems tremble, shake and quake.' Such is the overflowing result of a Bodhisat's acts of fulfilling many perfections. When men become exceedingly sinful in thought and deed, all the overfoowing course of their kamma rushes from this extensive earth up to the orbits of moon, sun and stars, agonising even the whole realm of space, and the whole organic would of trees, etc; undermining by degress the cause of prosperity and strengthening that of adversity. It is then that the life-span, beauty and health of men, inhabiting and living in both of these worlds, undergo diminution. Nowadsys men and trees appear exceedingly small. But we are told, in the Buddhavamsa, that, in the days of longevity. the body of a Buddha was eighty cubits in length, while according to the Sixth Book of the Anguttara the height was ninety cubits. The Dhammikavagga tells us that in ancient times the King Korabya of the Kingdom of the Kurus had a banyan tree, named Suppatittha, twelve leagues in circumference, its fruits of the size of big ricejars... When men become virtuous in thought and deed, it has been similarly declared how the life-span of men goes on increasing. The whole of the Aggañña and Cakkavatti-suttas should be referred to in this connection. Again, in the Pattakammavagga, of the Anguttara-mika-ya, we are told: 'At the time, Bhikkhus, when kings and their sons become unrithteous unrighteous become also the Brahmans and house-holders, and the people who live in suburbs and countries, Then the moon, sun, stars and planets move irregularly, At the time, Bhikkhus, when kings and their sons become righteous, righteous become also the Brahmas and house-holders, etc. Then do moon, sun, stars and planets move regularly'. This is the overflowing consequence of the collective kamma of men. Such a consequence affects even the whole realm of space and the whole organic world. (To be continue)

0Dxpd w d w f o Ykd nf jrifr'I u k E© iS fh twif;t"r® ESyd pf ufMuukev f wåUH / xdt Yk wl acG;oH? 0ufoH? wD;oH? rIwfoHwdkYESihf awGUqHkMu&mü igrMum;vdk[k idkíyif aejim;aomfvnf; tMum;tod0x D pd w d t f aygif;wdo Yk nf xdyk *k Kd¾ vu f kd Mum;rI 'ku©ESihf twif;ESdyfpufMuukefvwåH/ acG;ykyf? vlykyf ponfESihf awGUqHk&m ü eH0x D çd od? odpw d t f aygif;wdo Yk nf xdyk *k Kd¾ vu f kd eHr'I u k E© iS fh twif;t"r® ESyd pf ufMuukefvwåUH / tvGecf g;pyfaom "mwfpmç aq;pmwdu Yk kd pm;aomuf Mu&mü vsuf0Dxdç od0DxdwdkYonf xdkyk*¾dKvfudk cg;rIç pyfrI'ku©ESihf twif; t"r® ESdyfpufMuukefvwåHU/ tzsm;temBuHBudKuf&mwdkYü wpfudk,fvHk;rSm jzpfay:aom ylpdwfç avmifpdwfwdkYonfvnf;aumif;? temayguf&m udk,ft*FgwdkYü jzpfay:ukefaom empdwfç usifpdwfwdkYonfvnf;aumif;? xdktzsm;? xdktem raysmufNidrf;orQ umvywfvHk; xdkyk*¾dKvfudk yl'ku©ç avmif'ku©ç em'ku©ç usif'ku©wdkYudktwif;t"r® ESdyfpufMuukefvwåHU/ xif&mS ;apjcif;iSm ted|m½Hw k EYkd iS fh awGUqHrk u I kd jyqdv k u dk o f nf/ £|m½Hw k EYkd iS fh awGUqHk&mwdkYüvnf; þenf;twdkif; pdwåed,mr jzpfyHkwdkYudk tukefjrif Muav/ owå a vmuü pd w å e d , mrtcsuf u d k jyqd k c ef ; NyD ; \/ (quf v uf a zmf j yygrnf / )


A TRAVEL DIARY OF THE WESTBOUND "r®0D&onf Ak'¨\"r®w&m;awmf tppftrSefxGef;um;jyefhyGm;&efjzpfonf/ pmrsuf E S m 19 rS q&mh q &mwd k Y \ omoemh v uf i k w f r sm; jyef v nf a zmf x k w f j cif ; xdkrS qufEG,fNrdKUtv,frS? ,cifrdrd\ tmp&d,q&m t&Sif jrwfrsm;\ omoemhvufiw k t f &if; pwifwnfcif;awmfrcl &hJ m omoemh ae&ma[mif;Bu;D rsm;udv k nf; ,ckuo hJ Ykd uav;0q&mawmfBu;D ud, k w f ikd f jyefvnfazmfxkwfawmfrlcJhjyefygonf/ trsKd ; av;yg; trsm;aumif ; rI Ad r mef a wmf B uD ; þodkYaom jzpfpOfxkyÜgwftaMumif;&yfrsm;udk axmufqí rlvbdk;uav;0q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;onf ,ck ½lyg½Hk AdrmefawmfBuD;ukd vnf; trsKd;av;yg; trsm;aumif;rI ukodkvfawmfBuD;tjzpf qef;opf wnfaxmif taumiftxnfazmfjcif;jzpfcJh&ygonf/ Ad r mef a wmf B uD ; pwif wnf a qmuf M ujcif ; ½lyg½HkAdrmefawmfBuD; pOD;r*FvmyEéufwifyGJudk 1330 jynfh waygif;vqef; 7 &uf? 1968 ck? azazmf0g&D 22 &uf? paeaeY eHeuf 10 em&DtcsdefwGif oHCmawmf 27 yg;? oDv&Sif q&mBuD; 27 yg; y&d owf tvSLU'g,um 'g,dumrrsm; rsm;pGmwdkYESihf r*FvmyEéufudk csjr§Kyf pwifawmfrlcJhMuygonf/ xkdYaemuf aqmufvkyfa&;vkyfief;rsm; wpf0ufcefY NyD;pD;NyD; 6 ESpaf usmf umvta&muf ouú&mZf 1337 ckEpS f ewfawmfvrS qufvuf í tusKd;aqmifq&mawmf rif;uif;jrapwDFausmif;? OD;yPdwtm; aus;Zl;&Sif bdk;uav;0q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;u apmihfa&SmufrI wm0efcH tjzpf wm0efay;tyfxm;cJhí tusKd;aqmif Oyoumrsm;ESihf yl;wGJ aqmif&Gufvsuf uav;0q&mawmfbk&m;BuD; rdefYMum;csuftwdkif; qufvuftaumiftxnfazmf wnfaqmufcJhMuygonf/ Ad r mef a wmf B uD ; a&puf c satmif y G J r *F v mobif 1341 ckESpf jymodkvjynhfaeY 1980 jynhfESpf ZEé0g&D 1 &uf t*FgaeYwGif AdrmefawmfBuD; txnfudk,fBuD; twGif;tjyif tacsmoyf vkyfief;rsm;ESihfwuG tNcHt&HtaqmuftODrsm;? ausmif;'umOD;pdk;wif (jrefrmha&eH) a':cifwD rdom;pkwdkY\ ukodkvfjzpfaom uav;0q&m awmfbk&m;BuD; oDwif;oHk;awmfrl&m ]ax&m0go} wkdufausmif;awmfESihf trsm;aumif;rI qGr;f pm;ausmif;Bu;D ygNy;D pD;atmifjrifco hJ nfjzpfí ¤if;ESpf wydkYwGJvqef; 4 &ufaeY rS vqef; 11 &ufaeYwdkifatmif (8) &ufwdkif wdkif AdrmefawmfBuD; a&pufcsatmifyGJ tcrf;tem;BuD;udk txl;pnfum; odkufNrdKufpGm qifETJusif;ycJhMuonf[k AdrmefawmfBuD; wnfaqmufrI ordkif;rSwfwrf;wGif zwf½IodjrifcJh&ygonf/ vuf & S d A d r mef a wmf B uD ; \ y"meem,uq&mawmf B uD ; ,ckvuf&Sd rHk&GmNrdKU (½lyg½Hk) ok"r®pm&DAdrmefawmfBuD;wGif OD;aqmiftkyfcsKyfawmfrlaom y"meem,uq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;rSm b'´EÅaumovÓPax&ft&Sifoljrwf jzpfawmfrlygonf/ q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;rSm jrefrmEkdifiHvHk;qkfdif&m r[mv,fwD 0dyóemjyefyY mG ;a&; A[dt k zGUJ csKyw f iG f OD;aqmifem,utjzpfvnf;aumif;

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jrefrmEkdifiHawmfa'ot&yf&yfwdk Y ü t&n0goDawm&yfrSDvsufaeavh&Sdawmfrlaom

r[maAm"dNrdKifq&mawmf 0e0goDaO,s"r®omrdr[max&f a&;om;pD & if a wmf r l a o omm "ar® m 0g'uxm

omoemawmfBu;D \ a&aomufjrpfo;kH oG,f (omoemjyKvk y f i ef ; tyd k i f ; ) (,cif t ywf r S t quf ) þtyd k i f ; \ vd k & if ; tcsKyf þtydkif;onf omoejyKvkyfief;udk pdppfjy&mtydkif; jzpfjcif; aMumih f omoemjyKvk y f i ef ; onf bmud k a c:oenf ; ? tar;ud k aumufcsufcsjyzdkY vdkonf/ omoemjyKvkyfief;onf..... (u) bHkAdrmefeef;jyóm'fBuD;rsm; xD;xD;rm;rm; ay:aygufvm&ef vnf;r[kw/f (c) csD;usL;pum; vlajymrsm;vsufu vlolav;yg; MuufysHrus pnfum;vm&efvnf;r[kwf/ (*) crf;em;0ihfxnf ypönf;Opömtjc,ftvS,fwdkYjzihf pHy,fEkdif&ef twGufvnf; r[kwfacs/ wpf z ef . ..xd k r [k w f w d k Y E S i h f rnf o k d Y r Q rywf o uf a om acgif;aqmifonf rdrdudk,fawmfwdkif bk&m;tqHk;tr omoemawmf oHk;0udk.... onmodrSonf ynmododkY? wpfzef ynmodrSonf ynm&SdodkY? tenf;qHk; "r®&o cHpm;EkdifcGihf &aponftxd taumif;qHk; 0drkwdå&o cHpm;EkdifcGihf &aponftxd oGm;vrf;azmufEkdif&rnf/ xdkYaemuf aemufyg a0ae,swu Ykd v kd nf; rdru d Rr;f aom xdo k mG ;vrf; twdik ;f tenf;qHk;"r®&o cHpm;EkdifcGihf&aponftxd ydkYaqmifEkdifpGrf;&Sd &rnf/ þü "r®&oqdo k nfrmS aomwmyef ou'g*grf tem*grfw\ Ykd cHpm;cGihfwnf;/ þü 0drkwdå&oqdkonfrSm &[EÅmwpfql\ cHpm;ydkifcGihfwnf;/ xdkodkY cHpm;cGihf &ap&mü yg&rDonf pum;ajym\/ xdkyg&rDum; owd todwdkYü wnf\/ owd\ aphpyftm;? pl;pdkuftm;? odydkiftm; oHk;rsKd;onf yg&rD tEkt&ihfudk cGJa0ydkif;jcm;ay;aom wdkif;'kwfud&d,mwnf;/ 1/ tMuifolonf r*¾ifvrf; xrf;vsufu oGm;&mü owdtrSwf \ aphpyftm;jzihfom oGm;\/ xd k o l \ rS w f Ó Pf o nf 0d k ; w0g;rQom jzpf & m xd k o l \ todonfvnf; cGifvHk;ydkif r[kwf&um; oGm;vrf;rqHk;wwf/ okdYaMumihf... ¤if;tm; yg&rDEkol[líom orkwftyf\/ 2/ tMuifolonf r*¾ifvrf; xrf;vsufu oGm;&mü owd t rS w f \ aph p yf t m;tMum; pl ; pd k u f t m;yg

pdkufcsíoGm;\/ xdkol\ rSwfÓPfonf oJuGJ½HkrQjzpf&m xdkol\ todonf vnf; olq Y idk &f mudprö Quo kd m od&um; oGm;vrf;rqH;k wqH;k 0,f xpfwwf \/ odkYaMumihf.... ¤if;tm; yg&rD tv,ftvwf&Sdol[lí orkwftyf\/ 3/ tMuifolonfum; r*¾ifvrf; xrf;vsufu oGm;&mü owd trSwf aphpyftm;wGif pl;pdkuftm;vnf; jr§KyfoGif;ay;xm;\/ jzpforQ t&S d jzpf o avmuf v nf ; od o d a e\/ ysuf o rQ t&S d ü vnf ; ysufoavmufyif ododaebd\/ xdkol\ rSwfÓPfum; taumif;udkvnf;aumif;? tqdk;udk vnf;aumif;? taMumif;udv k nf;aumif;? tusK;d udv k nf;aumif;? tdwo f eG f zmarSmuf awmufavQmufBuD; odydkifae&um; oGm;vrf;qHkonfom jzpf & \/ odkYaMumihf... ¤if;udkum; yg&rD&ihfaeol[lí orkwftyfacs\/ þü odapvdkonfrSm... yg&rD[lonf owdtodudkom qdkvdkNyD; xdktrSwf xdktodwdkY \ a&SUa&SUonf aemufaemufwdkYtwGuf jznhfay;xm;NyD; jzpfaeNyD; xdk trSwf\ xdk;azmufay;xm;rItwdkif;vQif todvrf;tpüom ar;wif aejcif;? tv,f0,f ar;wifaejcif;? tqHk;xd aygufajrmufjcif;[laom ed,mrwnf;/ odkYaMumihf odum© wif0efxrf; xdv k rf;oGm;wdo Yk nf rdrw d Ykd vuf0,f&dS owd todwdkYudk xdxdrdrd toHk;csum..... rdrv d nf; oDvü olwpfyg;wdu Yk v dk nf; oDvü wnfapí odum© oHk;qihf rSefaomtusihfjzihf opömvrf; zGihfMuygavukef/ oDv*kPfa&mif wajymifajymif wnfaxmifzefMuyg? udk,fawmhraqmif trsm;aqmif rajymifrGJwwfpGm? ud k , f v nf ; usih f a qmif rsm;usih f a qmif xG # f a cgif oDvwdik rf nfom/

ÄÄÄ þ qdktyfcJhNyD;aom tpDt&ifjzihf tydkif;(1) omoemjyK vkyfief;[laom qdkzG,f&mpum; NyD;qHk;jcif;odkY a&mufNyDwnf;/ (quf v uf a zmf j yygrnf )


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"r®0D&onf "r®opömudk ñTefjyonf/

omoemawmfESihf avsmfuefoiUfjrwfaom Opömo,e r[mo,e cif a rmif r d k ; (awmif B uD ; ) ]]pdefjcL;Mumanmif? yv’ifaqmifum;? vlYabmif ewfabmif? umrabmifü? xkwfaqmifOpöm? o,emESihf? r[mo,e? ajymqdkMu\? Ak'¨tvdk? xkwfjyqdkrl? awmifndK&pfoef;? ausmif;ocFrf;ESihf? awmwef; &dyfom? aeNyD;umvQif? psmeormywf? 0ifpm;vwfí? av;&yfjA[®pdk&f? &Tef;&Tef;pdkvsuf? psmefudk0ifpm;? wenf;tm;jzihf? jrwfzsm;zv? t&[wå udk? rQwyGm;rsm;? zdkvf0ifpm;í? oGm;vmwHkYacguf? pBuøavQmufESihf? &yfapmufxdkifum? usdef;pufygrl? Opömo,e? r[mo,e[k? 'dAÁjA[®? t&d,vQi?f ac:MuoH;k yg;? ynwfxm;onf? rSwo f m; MunfnKd z, G &f muk}d } omoemawmf E S i h f avsmf u ef o ih f j rwf a om Opö m o,e r[mo,eum; (1) 'dAÁOpömo,e r[mo,e- ewfüjzpfaom jrihfjrwfaom ae&m/ (2) jA[®Opömo,e romo,e-jA[®müjzpfaom jrihfjrwfaom ae&m/ (3) t&d, Opömo,e r[mo,e-t&d,mwdkY\ jrihfjrwfaom ae&m/ þoHk;yg;aywnf;/ (1) 'd A Á O pö m o,e r[mo,e av;rsKd ; 'dAÁOpömo,e r[mo,eü? 'dAÁpuFr? 'dAÁ|me? 'dAÁtmoe? 'dAÁo,e[lí av;rsKd;cGJjcm;\? xdkwGif(u) yxrpsmef? 'kwd,psmef? wwd,psmef? pwkw¬psmef? þ½lypsmef av;yg;udk 0ifpm;vsuf pBuaø vQmufygu xdpk smefav;yg;onf 'dApÁ uFrrnf\/ ewfüjzpfaom pBuørnf\/ xdkpsmefav;yg;0ifpm;í xNyD;aemuf pBuøoGm;ygu 'dAÁpuFrrnf\/ (c) ½lypsmefav;yg; 0ifpm;vsufvnf;aumif;? ¤if;orm ywf r S x NyD ; aemuf &yf y gu psmef a v;yg;onf 'dAÁXmernf\/ ewfüjzpfaom &yf&mXmernf\/ (*) ½lypsmefav;yg; 0ifpm;vsufvnf;aumif;? ¤if;orm ywfrSxNyD; aemufvnf;aumif;? xdkifygu ¤if;psmef av;yg;onf 'dAÁtmoernf\/ ewfüjzpfaom xdkif&mt&yfrnf\/ (C) ½lypsmefav;yg; 0ifpm;vsufvnf;aumif;? ¤if;orm ywfrS xNyD; aemufvnf;aumif;? tdyfygu ¤if;psmef av;yg;onf 'd A Á o ,ernf \ / ewf ü jzpf a om tdyf&mrnf\/ þav;yg;wdo Yk nf ewfüjzpfaom 'dAOÁ pömo,e r[mo,ewdYk aywnf;/ (2) jA[® O pö m o,e r[mo,eav;rsKd ; jA[®Opömo,e r[mo,eü jA[®puFr? Xme? tmoe? o,e [lí av;rsKd;cGJjcm;xm;\/ xdkwGif

(u)

arwåmpsmef0ifpm;vsufvnf;aumif;? ¤if;psmeform ywf r S xNyD ; aemuf v nf ; aumif ; ? u½k P mpsmef ? rk'w d mpsmef? Oayu©mpsmef0if pm;vsuv f nf;aumif;? ¤if;psmeformywfwdkYrS xNyD;aemufvnf;aumif;? pBuøoGm;ygu ¤if;psmefav;yg;onf jA[®puFr rnf\/ jA[®mwdkY\ Opömjzpfaom pBuørnf\/ (c) jA[®0d[m&psmefav;yg;0ifpm;vsufvnf;aumif;? ¤if;psmeformywfav;yg;rS xNy;D aemufvnf;aumif;? &yfygu ¤if;psmefav;yg; onf jA[®mwdkY\ Opöm jzpfaom &yf&mrnf\/ (*) jA[®0[ d m& psmefav;yg;udk 0ifpm;vsuv f nf;aumif;? ¤if ; psmef o rmywf r S x NyD ; aemuf v nf ; aumif ; ? xdkifygu ¤if;psmefav;yg;onf jA[® tmoernf\/ jA[®mwdkY\ xdkif&m(ae&mxdkif)rnf\/ (C) jA[®m0d[m&psmefav;yg;ud0k ifpm;vsuv f nf;aumif;? ¤if;psmefo rmywf r S x NyD ; aemuf ü vnf ; aumif ; ? tdyfygu ¤if;psmefav;yg;onf jA[® o,ernf\/ jA[®mwdkY\ Opömjzpfaom tdyf&mrnf\/ þav;yg;wdkYonf jA[®Opömo,e r[mo,eaywnf;/ (3) t&d , Opö m o,e r[mo,eum; t&d, Opömo,e? r[mo,eum;? &[EÅmyk*¾dKvf\ jrihfjrwf aomae&maywnf;/ þüvnf; t&d,mpuFr? Xme? tmoe? o,e[l íav;rsKd;cGJavonf/ ]]igonf &m*udky,fjzwfNyD; tjrpfjzwftyfNyD? arm[udk y,fjzwfNyD; tjrpfjzwftyfNyD}} [k &[EÅmonf qifjcif\/ xdkqifjcif jcif;um; t&[wåzvormywf\ aemufü jzpfjcif;aMumihf? ¤if;orm ywfudk jyjcif;udpöNyD;\/ xdkYaMumihf t&[wåzvormywf 0ifpm;vsufvnf;aumif;? 0ifpm;íxNyD;aemufvnf;aumif;? pBuøoGm;ygu ¤if;zvormywfonf t&d,puFrrnf\/ þenf;twdkif; t&[wåzvormywf 0ifpm;vsufvnf; aumif;? 0ifpm;í xNy;D aemufvnf;aumif;? &yfygu? xdik yf gu? tdyyf gu? ¤if;zvormywfonf? t&d,Xme? t&d,tmoe? t&d,o,ernf\/ jrwfaom t&d,m(&[EÅm)yk*¾dKvf\ Opömjzpfaom pBuøoGm;&m &yf&m? xdkif&m? tdyf&mrnf\/ þt&[wåzvormywfonf t&d,Opömo,e r[mo, ejzpfayownf;/ (tH? 3? yg? y? 181-185/ |? 'k? 172-173) cif a rmif r d k ; (awmif B uD ; )


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"r®0D&onf t"r®w&m;z,f&Sm;Edkif&ef jzpfonf/

vrf;cGJ&if 0rf;enf;vdkY ikdrSmvm;¿

ynmEG , f ({&majr- "Ek j zL)

awGUqHkjcif;qdkwm cGJcGmjcif;twGuf jzpfay:vmcJh&wmyg/ b,folrS rac:bJeJY vlYavmuBuD;xJudk a&mufvmMuwJh uREfkyfwdkY vlom;tm;vH;k [m awGUqHjk cif;tprSm NyKH ;MuvdçYk aysmfMuvdkYç MunfEl;aecdkufrSmyJ cGJcGmjcif;qdkwJh vrf;qHkrSm vrf;cGJ&NyDqdkrSjzihf wpfa,mufudk wpfa,muf (igoGm;awmhr,fqdkwJh trSwfeJY) vufjyEIwfqufcsdefrSmawmh NyHK;&dyfawGaysmuf uG,çf aysm&f yd af wG a00g;ç MunfE;l jcif;awGvnf; qd w f o k O f ; cJ h & ygNyD / 'D v d k tcsd e f r sd K ;av;ud k ra&mufrD uREykf -f ar;cGe;f av;wpfck xkwMf unhf vrf ; cG J & if rd y g\/ tJ ' D a r;cG e f ; av;u (vrf 0rf;enf;vkdY idkrSmvm;¿ vm;¿) [lí/ &ufawGç vawGç ESpfawGu tpOfo jzihf ajymif;vJaecJhayr,hf rajymif;vJbJ &Sdae wmuawmh udavomw&m;qdk;awGeJY tpOf ojzihf aysmfarGUaecJhwJh uREfkyfwdkY vlom;tm;vHk; &JU pdwfuav;yg/ b0\t"dyÜg,fESihf b0opöm udk bmwpfckrQravhvm ra&&mwJh &Sifoefjcif; rSm rdef;armom,mvdkY a&&maocsmwJh aojcif; w&m;udk BudKwifrawG;bJ xm;rdwwfMuyg\/ ra&&mwJ h &S i f o ef j cif ; ud k aocsma&&mwJ h aojcif;w&m;u tqHk;owfzdkY tpysdK;rdvkduf csdefrSmawmh aecsifovdkae? aycsifovdkay? arhcsifovdkarhxm;cJhMuwJh uREfkyfwdkYvlom; tm;vH;k [m ork',awGeYJ csnaf ESmifxm;rdcw hJ hJ om;ES i h f o rD ; ZeD ; tyg? rd w f a qG r sm;tqH k ; tm;vHk;udk vufjyzdkY tiftm;r&Sdawmhygbl;/ b,folYudkrS 'l;raxmufcJh&wJh uREfkyf wdkY vlom;tm;vHk;[m aojcif;w&m;&JU a&SUrSm

awmh 'l;axmuftnHhcHzdkY toifhjzpfaeygNyD/ 'g[m bmaMumifhygvJ/ awGUqHk;jcif;tm;vHk;udk tqHk;owfay;rJh cGJcGmjcif;w&m;udk rvdkvm; vd k Y y gbJ / cG J c G m &NyD q d k y g&if 0rf ; enf ; &ygNyD / 0rf;enf;jcif;u o,faqmifvmwJh rsu&f nfawG u woGio f iG f pD;usvmwmudk uREykf w f Ykd vlom; tm;vH;k ESpo f ufMuvdrrhf nfr[kwyf g/ 'ghaMumihf vrf;rcGcJ sib f ;l ç 0rf;renf;csib f ;l ç twlwal ecsif ygw,f/ odkYaomfvnf; vrf;cGJ&rnf? 0rf;enf;& rnfjzpfyg\/ vrf;cGJvdkY 0rf;renf;csifbl;qdkyg&if b0\t"dyÜm,fudk odatmifavhvmrSjzpfay rnf/ b0\ t"dyÜm,fqdkwm bmvJ/ i,fi,f av;uwnf;u usm;ukwfusm;cJBudK;pm;cJhvdkY q&m0efBuD;jzpfvmw,f? q&m0efBuD;jzpfvmNyD qdkawmh i,fi,fu &nf&G,fcsufvnf; jynhfyg NyD/ 'g[m b0\ t"dyÜm,fvm;/ odkYr[kwf i,fi,fav;xJu &nf&G,fcsufBuD;rm;pGmeJY BudK;pm;½kef;uefcJhvdkY ,ckvdkatmifjrifrIawGeJY yxrwef;tqifh&SdaeNyD/ 'g[mvnf; b0\ t"dyÜm,fygvm;/ b0\t"dyÜm,fudk a&&m aocsmatmif tajz&Sm&ygr,f/ vlom;wpfO;D &,fvjYkd zpfvmNyq D ykd g&if ig[m-b0udk t"dymÜ ,f&adS tmif b,fvakd exdik f oihfovJqdkwm pOf;pm;yg/ ,ckvuf&Sdb0rSm NyD ; jynh f p H k j cif ; rsm;pG m eJ Y aexd k i f j cif ; onf y if b0\t"d y Ü m ,f a vm/ 'gqd k & if a&S U b0 qd k w m&S d a ew,f / bmquf v k y f r S m vJ / uk o d k v f u H E S i f h tuk o d k v f u H (wenf ; ) aumif ; usd K ;ES i f h q d k ; usd K ;? NyD ; awmh oH o &m b0 quf p yf a wG ; awmp&mawG u trsm;

BuD Bu;D ygyJ/ ukodkvfuHESihf tukodkvfuHudk jrwfAk'¨ a[mMum;cJhvdkY od&ygw,f/ aumif;wJhtvkyfeJY raumif;wJhtvkyf 'DESpfcsufwnf;eJY b0\ t"dyÜm,fudk em;vnfzdkY tawmfav; eD;pyfae ygNyD/ bmhaMumihfygvJ/ touf&SifpOfumv wpfavQmufvHk; tukodkvfqdkwJh raumif;rI awG u d k tpG r f ; uk e f v k y f a qmif N yD ; b0ud k ed * H k ; csKyf c J h o l [ m tcsnf ; ES D ; &S i f o ef c J h o l jzpfí trsm;vnf; tusdK;r&Sd? udk,fvnf; tusd K ;r&S d / xk d o l \ b0t"d y Ü m ,f q d k o nf bmwpf c k r Qr&S d a omaMumif h t"d y Ü m ,f r J h aocJ h & ol j zpf y g\/ xd k o l r sd K ;ud k b0 t"d y Ü m ,f r J h touf & S i f a exd k i f c J h o l [ l í rS w f , l & ayrnf / b0rSm t"dyÜm,f&Sd&Sd aexdkifjcif;[l onf ukodkvf[kqdkaom aumif;rIuHawGudk rsm;pG m jyKvk y f í tuk o d k v f [ k q d k a om raumif ; rI u H r sm;rS a&S m if M uOf í ig;yg;ç &S p f y g;çud k ; yg;çq,f y g; tp&S d a om oD v w&m;wd k Y u d k xd e f ; od r f ; apmif h a &S m uf í oH o &mb0rS v G w f a jrmuf a Mumif ; jzpf a om 0d y óem bm0emw&m;rsm;ud k ½I r S w f yG m ;rsm;aexd k i f a vh & S d a omol o nf b0ud k t"d y Ü m ,f & S d & S d aexd k i f o l j zpf a y\ y\/ b0t"dyÜm,f[lonf uHoHk;yg;wdkYjzihf raumif;rIrSa&SmifMuOfí aumif;rIrsm;pGmudk jyKvyk jf cif; bm0emw&m;wdu Yk kd yGm;rsm;tm;xkwf jcif;onfyif b0\ t"dyÜm,fjzpfyg\/ b0udk omrefjzwfoef;rIjzihf oGm;aeMuolrsm;tzdYk b0 \ t"dyÜm,fudk odzdkY rvG,fulygay/ twdwfç tem*wfç ypöKyeÜ f umvoH;k yg;wdw Yk iG f b0onf tpOfrjywfvnfywfaeonf/ rqH;k Ekid af om b0 \ vnf y wf j cif ; oabmobm0ud k o d y grS ç em;vnfvufcHygrS b0[m NiD;aiGUp&mtjzpf jrifvmayvdrfhrnf/ xdkuJhodkY b0udk NiD;aiGUp&m tjzpf jrifvmygrS b0\t"dyÜm,fudk odEkdifzdkY pl;prf;Muayvdrhfrnf/ xddkuJhodkY b0\t"dyÜm,f ukd &SmazG&mü vlom;wdo Yk nf rdrw d EYkd iS fh qufpyf aeaom bmoma&;t,ltqrsm;t& xifjrif ,lqrIrsm;onfvnf; trsdK;rsdK;uGJjym;aeMuay vdrhfrnf/ rnfodkYyif t,ltquGJjym;aeapum rl aumif;aomtouf&Sifjcif;jzihf aumif;pGm aexkdifí aumif;rIrsm;udk jyKvkyftm;xkwfol


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf Ak'¨w&m;jzifh avmuudk apmihfa&Smuf&efjzpfonf/ onfom aumif;aomb0\t"dyÜm,fudk azmf aqmifol rnfyg\/ raumif;rIjyKvkyfMuolrsm; udrk l b,fbmom0if b,fvrl sKd ;jzpfap ESpo f uf Muvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg/ aumif;aomtvkyfudk vk y f a qmif a omol tm;omvQif vl t rsm; ESpfoufMuayvdrhfrnf/ b0rS m &S i f o ef a eorQ umvwpf avQmufv H k ; 'geçoD v çbm0emw&m;wd k Y j zih f aexd k i f a vh & S d o l o nf b0\ t"d y Ü m ,f u d k aocsma&&mpGm em;vnfNyD;oljzpfí b0\ t"dyÜm,fudk azmfaqmifolrnfyg\/ xdkolonf b0t"d y Ü m ,f \ a&S U quf w G e f ; tm;aMumih f b0opömudkvnf; qufpyfawG;awm &SmazG ayvdrfhrnf/ pifppftm;jzihf b0opöm[lonf jrwf A k ' ¨ & S m azG a wG U &S d c J h a om opö m av;yg; w&m;yif jzpfyg\/ b0t"dyÜm,fESifh b0opöm udk jrwfAk'¨onf udk,fawmfwdkif &SmazGawGU&SdNyD; oljzpf&um; a0ae,sowå0gwdYk tusKd ;iSmvnf; rsm;pG m a[m Mum;awmf r l c J h a y\/ Ak ' ¨ \ w&m;awmf r sm;ud k rnf o l r qd k (rnf o nh f bmom0if r qd k ) twG i f ; ususç tajccH usus avh v mpl ; prf ; ygu wef z d k ; jzwf í r&aumif ; aom b0\t"d y Ü m ,f E S i h f b0 opömudk udk,fwdkifawGU&Sd odEkdifjrifEdkifayvdrfh rnf / avmuü vl o m;tm;vH k ; onf awGUqHkjcif;taMumif;w&m;aMumifh &SifuGJuGJ& jcif;? aouGJu&JG jcif;[k qdt k yfaom tusKd ;w&m; rsm;onf jzpfay:ívmay\/ b0udkt"dyÜm,f &Sd&Sd jzwfoef;í b0opömudk &SmazGawGU&SdNyD; aom olwo Ykd nf (vrf;cG&J if 0rf;enf;vdYk idrk mS vm;) [laom tar;udk aumif;pGm ajzEdkifMuolrsm; jzpfyg\/ awGUqHkjcif;&SdvdkY cGJcGm&w,fç cspfjcif; &SdvdkY rkef;&w,f? trSef&SdvdkY rSm;&w,f? 0rf;om jcif;&Sv d Ykd 0rf;enf;&w,f? arG;zGm;jcif;&Sv d Ykd aoqH;k jcif;&Sdw,f/ ukodkvfuH&SdvdkY tukodkvfuHqdkwm &Sdw,f/ cE¨mjzpfaMumif;&SdvdkY cE¨mcsKyfaMumif; &Sw d ,f/ 'Dawmh- taMumif;w&m;aMumifh tusKd ; w&m;[m jzpfvm&ovdk taMumif;w&m;csKyf &if tusdK;w&m;vnf; csKyfw,f/ 'Dvdktcsuf rsm;pGmudkodí b0t"dyÜm,f&Sd&Sd jzwfoef;í b0opömudk odaeaomolonf vrf;cGJ&aomf vnf; 0rf;enf;íaomfum; ridak wmhNy/D aMumif; usd K ;w&m;ud k quf p yf o d j rif j cif ; aMumif h wefzdk;r&SdwJh vlYcE¨mudk,fudk t"dyÜm ,f&Sd&Sd toH k ; csNyD ; b0opö m w&m;ud k od j rif E d k i f y g apjcif ; tusd K ;iS m uRJ c d k i f ; EG m ;cd k i f ; cd k i f ; í aMumif ; usd K ;csKyf & m ed A Á m ef o d k Y OD ; wnf u m

ta&muf o G m ;avonf / xd k o l w d k Y o nf 0rf;enf;jcif;? 0rf;omjcif;wdkY\ oabmudk twGif;usus od&Sdxm;olrsm;jzpfí vrf;cGJ jcif;ü 0rf;enf;jcif; idkauR;jcif;onf jzpfay: í rvmawmh a cs/ aeYpOf BuKH awGUae&aom 0wfrI pm;rI aexdkifrIpaom trIudpörsm;ç rsm;pGmudk ajz&Sif; &if; rdrEd iS yhf wfoufqufE, G af eaomol rdrcd spf cifolwdkY xdkrsm;pGmxJrS wpfOD;wpfa,mufonf aojcif;w&m;jzihf vrf;cGJoGm;ygu rdrdonf 0rf;enf;jcif;jzihf xdckdufcHpm;&rIrsm; jzpfay: rvmap&ef r&PEkówdbm0emudk owd w&m; vufuikd x f m;í aeYpOfymG ;rsm;&ef vdt k yf yg\/ w&m;&Sdaomoltm; rw&m;aomtjypf a'gorsm; 0if r vmEd k i f y gay/ w&m;onf Nid r f ; at;\? csrf ; omjcif ; ud k jzpf a p\/ csrf ; ompG m aevd k o l o nf rw&m;trI r sm; udk a&SmifMuOfíw&m;udk ESvHk;oGif;aexdkif &ef vd k t yf y g\/ awG U qH k p Of u mvrS m 0rf ; ajrmuf r I vGeu f aJ omolonf cGcJ mG csed üf 0rf;enf;rI vGeu f J pGm jzpfay:wwf\/ awGUqHpk Ofumvü 0rf;ajrmuf rIjzpfay:pOf owdjyKí ynmjzihf Munhf½Iyg/ owd o nf 0rf ; ajrmuf r I u d k od j cif ; jzpf í ynmonf od & S d x m;aom0rf ; ajrmuf r I a y: ü cG J j cm;a0zef í vuf c H o if h o avmuf o m vufcHayvdrhfrnf/ ¤if;enf;wl 0rf;enf;rIü vnf; owdynmjzihfompD&ifygu 0rf;enf; rIudkvnf; vufcHoihfoavmufom vufcH ayvd r f h r nf / 0rf ; enf ; jcif ; ud k vH k ; 0rvd k vm;yg&if 0rf;ajrmufjcif;udk owdynmjzihf acszsuyf g/ 0rf;ajrmufjcif;csKyq f ;kH vQif 0rf;enf; jcif;onfvnf; csKyfqHk;rSmjzpfyg\/ bk&m;? yapöuAk'¨g? &[EÅmt&Sifjrwf wdkYü 0rf;omjcif;vnf;r&Sd? 0rf;enf;jcif;vnf; r&Sd? taESmiftzGJUrSvGwfNyD;olrsm; jzpfMuyg\/ uREfkyfwdkY ykxkZOfvlom;rsm;taejzihf taESmif tzGJUawGu rsm;vGef;aomaMumihf 0rf;omvdkY &,f a rmvd k u f ç 0rf ; enf ; vd k Y id k a <u;vk d u f e J Y ? 'hgaMumihf &Siaf wmfb&k m;u t½l;awGvYkd a[mwm ayhg/ vrf;cGJwkdif;rSm 0rf;enf;vdkY idkcJh&wJh rsu&f nfawGuvnf; r[mork'&´ mBu;D av;pif; ruawmhygbl;/ ,aeYBuKH cv J w S hJ &Siaf wmfb&k m; &JU omoemawmfjrwfBuD;eJYBuHKcdkuf t½l;aysmuf apwJh w&m;awmfawGukd avhvmrSwo f m;yGm;rsm; tm;xkwfNyD; vrf;cGJ&if 0rf;enf;vdkY ridkrd&av atmif usihfaqmifzdkY tvGefyifta&;BuD;vSyg

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\/ t½l;awGjzpfonhftm;avsmfpGm idkcJh&aygif; rsm;cJhygNyD? &,fcJh&aygif;vnf; rsm;cJhygNyD/ tidk awGwdwf t&,fawGqdwfzdkY 0dyóemw&m; awmfrsm;udo k m yGm;rsm;tm;xkwMf uyg&ef txl; tBuHjyK wdkufwGef;vkduf&ygawmhonf/ owå0grSeforQ w&m;&? at;jrMuygap/ pmud k ; - Ak ' ¨ p mayrsm;/ ynmEG , f ({&majr-"Ek j zL)

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b0rqkH; vrf;rqkH;rkdY rqkH;rSwfwrf; 'DZmwfvrf;wGif wpfcef; 'DrSm&yfygpkdY/

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tvGrf;rowf wpfcef;&yfrkdY r@yfvnf;zsuf vGrf;rqufNyD cef;quf&Snfbl; rMunfEl;rkdY/ OD ; oD v (qef u xef ; ? zm;uef Y )


DHAMMA VIRA FOR YOUTHS

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"r®0D&onf Nidrf;csrf;aompdwfjzpfwnf&ef &Gnf&G,fonf/

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aomom;orD;rsm;tm; rdcifub0eJYtoufukd &if;NyD; arG;xm;Mu&olawGjzpfw,f/ ]]b0[m &,ljcif;r[kwf? ay;qyf ae&wmyg}} vd k Y a jymMuw,f ? NyD ; awmh ]]b0qkw d m ½ke;f uefryI g}} (Life is Struggle) wJ/h ½kef;uefBuKd;pm;rS touf&SifoefrSmyg/ BuKd;pm; vkdolwdkY&JU pdwf"mwf[m oHrPdvkd rmaMum w,f/ a&pkefukd arQmrvkdufbl;/ wufusKd;&if vuf x k d ; avS m f r ,f qk d w J h p d w f " mwf r sKd ; ayh g / em*pfrkefwdkif;wkdufcJhwkef;u rdom;pk0if(11) a,muf&SdwJh tdrfaxmifwpfpkrSm wpfa,mufyJ touf&Sifusef&pfw,f/ tJ'D &Sifoefusef&pf cJhwJhwpfa,mufu vSKdif;Mum;? avMum;rSm ol b ,f v k d B uKd ; pm;½k e f ; uef c J h & ovJ qk d w m jyef a jymjyw,f / ol tcuf t cJ M um;rS m Nidrfae&if;eJY&SifoefcJhwmr[kwfbl;/ tpGrf;ukef ½ke;f uefc&hJ wJt h aMumif; ajymjyygw,f/ ½ke;f uef w,fqkdwmuvnf; tajctae? tcsdeftcgeJY uk d u f n D p G m ½k e f ; uef & wmyg/ tajctae oufom&if oufomovdk? Murf;&ifMurf;ovdk ½kef;uef&wmygyJ/ ½k e f ; uef w J h a e&mrS m BuH U ck d i f w J h pdwf"gwf? NrJNrHwJhZGJvkHYv&SdzkdYawmh vkdygw,f/ uH t &m? ÓPf t &m tpm;xk d ; vk d Y & Ek d i f ayr,fh ZGJUvkHYvae&mudkawmh b,ft&meJYrS tpm;xk d ; vd k Y r &Ek d i f b l ; / uH ç ÓPf ç 0D & d , ok H ; rsKd ; vk H ; eJ Y j ynh f p k H & if ajymp&mawmif rvk d b l ; / atmif j rif B uD ; yG m ;rS m usd e f ; ao

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DHAMMA VIRA FOR YOUTHS "r®0D&onf vkHhvjynfh0jcif;ESifh wnfMunf&J&ifhjcif;ukd jyqkdonf/ vufwpfurf;rSmyg/ vkHYv0D&d,tm;enf;NyD; ,k H M unf c suf a wG r I e f 0 g;ae ol t zk d Y a wmh yef;wdkifqkdwm a0;rSa0;yJayhg/ 0D&d,&Sdol[m pGJNrJwJh,kHMunfrI&Sd&NyD; ,kHMunfwJhtwkdif; taumiftxnfay:atmif vkyfaqmifEkdifpGrf;&Sd&r,f? 0D&d,[m b,fvkd yk*K¾ v d rf sK;d yJjzpfjzpf? tenf;trsm;awmh &Sw d wfMu wmcsn;f yJ/ tiftm;Bu;D wm i,fwmeJrY qkid b f ;l ? tiftm;Bu;D ayr,fh 0D&, d r&S&d if tiftm;enf;ol eJY bmxl;rSmvJ? twlwlyJayhg/ tiftm;enf;oljzpfayr,hfvJ 0D&d, pGrf;tm;BuD;rm;cJh&if tiftm;BuD;oleJYtwlwl jzpfoGm;wmyJ? Oyrm- om;aumifwdkY&JUoeif; jcaoFrh if;jzpfayr,fh 0D&, d rpku d x f u k b f J tdyaf e &if b,fom;aumifrS olYyg;pyfxJ tvkdvkd 0ifvmrSmr[kwfbl;/ tajctaeeJY tcsdeftcg ukdvkdufNyD; 0D&d,pkdufxkwfrS om;aumifukd &rSmyg/ 0D & d , qk d w m tvk d v k d j zpf a y:vm wwf w mrsKd ; r[k w f b l ; / tpOf avh u sih f arG ; xk w f , l & wmrsKd;yg/ atmufyg bk&m; pum;awmfukd owdjyKoihfygw,f/ 1/ tMuifolonf tdyfaysmfae\/ xkdol\ bk e f ; uH yg&rD t&S d e f t 0gwk d Y o nf v nf ; td y f a ysmf a eMuuk e f \ / 2/ tMuif o l o nf td y f & mrS E k d ; vm\/ xk d o l \ bk e f ; uH yg&rD t &S d e f t 0gwd k Y o nf vnf ; vl ; vG e f Y v mMuuk e f \ / 3/ tMuif o l o nf tvk y f v k y f & ef x í xkdif\/ xkdol\ bkef;uHyg&rD t&Sdeft0gwdkY onfvnf;acgif;axmifí xvmMuukef\/ 4/ tMuifolonf vkyfief;cGifokdY pí0if\/ xk d o l \ bk e f ; uH yg&rD t &S d e f t 0gwd k Y o nf vnf ; tusKd ; ay;zk d Y & ef toif h t aetxm; apmih f p m;íaeMuuk e f \ / 5/ tMuif o l o nf vk y f i ef ; qk H ; cef ; wk d i f a&muf NyD ; ajrmuf a tmif ZG J o ef o ef j zih f jyKvk y f \ / (xk d t cgwG i f ) xk d o l \ bk e f ; uH yg&rD t &S d e f t 0gwk d Y o nf v nf ; vef ; vef ; qef ; qef ; jzih f NyKH ; yef ; yG i f h u m tjynh f t 0 tusKd ; ay;Muuk e f a wmh \ / qk d v k d w mu ]]vk y f t m;}} eJ Y ]]vkyftm;c}} 'Gew f aJG ew,fqw dk mygyJ/ ygVdvu dk awmh ]]u ]]urr ®? ur®zv}} wJ h ? ur® qk d w m tvk y f ? ur® z v qk d w m ]]vk y f c }} aygh / wpfpkHwpfa,muf[m tvkyfvkyf&if vkyfc &rSmyJ/ tvkyfrvkyf&if b,fenf;eJYrS vkyfc r&Ekdifbl;/ 'gqkd vkyfcvkdcsif&if tvkyfvkyf&

r,f/ BuD;yGm;csif&if vkHYv0D&d,ukd t&if;wnf NyD; BuKd;pm;&r,f/ ]]wu,fjzpfcsif wu,f vk y f ? t[k w f j zpf & r,f } } qk d w J h p um;&S d N yD ; om;yg/ ,kMH unfcsuf ckid rf mpGmeJv Y yk zf yYdk v J w dk ,f/ vkyt f m;qkw d m um,tm;? ÓPtm; qkdwJhae&rSmvnf; olYtusKd;w&m;eJY ol&Sdwm csnf;yJ/ ÓPtm;enf;&if 0D&d,tm;ykdpkduf &r,f/ ÓPtm;jrihfrm;atmif jyKpkysKd;axmifzkdY vkdw,f/ A[kokwawG? enf;ynmawGqkdwm avhvmvkdY rukefEkdifbl;/ ÓPtm;u 0D&d, tm;xufykdNyD; vloufomw,f/ vkyftm;c ykdjrihfw,f/ um,? ÓPtm; ESpfyg;eJYNyD;jynfhpkH &ifawmh bmrSajymp&mrvkdawmhbl;/ vkv YH ZG(J 0D&, d )ukd prf;a&eJcY idk ;f EIe;f Mu w,f/ prf;a&eJYausmufaqmifwdkY&JUwdkufyGJrSm prf ; a&u tNrJ E k d i f w ,f / cG e f t m;aMumih f r[kwb f ;l / ]ZG}J aMumihEf idk w f myg/ tiftm;rrQ ayr,hf 0D&d,ZGJ&Sd&if atmifjrifEkdifw,fqkdwJh taMumif ; uk d ajymcsif w myg/ tJ ' gaMumih f 0D & d , [m t&m&muk d atmif E k d i f a Mumif ; pGrf;tm;aumif;wpfckyJ qkdwmb,foljiif;vkdY &rS m vJ / 'Dawmh tm;enf;olu tm;BuD;olukd tEkdif&apwwfwm 0D&d,yJr[kwfvm;/ Oyrmtajy;NyKid yf w JG pfcrk mS vdyu f ,keu f jdk ywfjywfom; om; tEkid , f v l u dk o f vkrd sK;d ayhg/ prf;a&eJaY usmuf aqmifwkdufyGJrSmvnf;yJ prf;a&utEkdif&vkduf wm[m ykdNyD;xif&Sm;apwJh om"uwpf&yfjzpf w,f/ vlwikd ;f rSm atmifjrifBu;D yGm;apEkid w f hJ pGrf;tm;awG&Sdaew,f/ tJ'DpGrf;tm;u bmvJ? 0D&, d yJayhg/ 0D&, d [m wGe;f tm;eJv Y nf; wlw,f/ wGe;f tm;rsm;avav tjrihw f ufavavyJ/ tJ'D wGef;tm;ravsmhorQ BuD;yGm;csrf;omaerSmyJqkd wm taotcsmajym&Jw,f/ wGef;tm;(0D&d,) avQmusoGm;&ifawmh &&SdNyD;om;atmifjrifrI tqifhtwef;awGyg wpf[kefxkd;jyKwfusawmh wmyJ/ 0D&d,tm;ukd avQmhcsvkdufwmeJY qif;&J wGi;f xJjyKwu f sNy;D rGaJ wrIeBYJ uKaH wGU&rSmrvGb J ;l / ykdNyD;xif&Sm;atmifajym&&if 0D&d,orm;[m wH w k d i f ; aqmuf o l e J Y w l w ,f / wH w d k i f ; aqmuf o l [ m wjznf ; jznf ; tay:yk d i f ; uk d jrih f w uf o G m ;w,f / 0D & d , enf ; ol u awmh t0D p d w G i f ; wl ; ovk d y J / wpf j znf ; jznf ; atmuf b uf u k d x k d ; usoG m ;w,f / 'D a wmh vl Y b 0&J U twuf t us[m 0D & d , tay: wnf r D S a ewJ h o abmaygh / 0D & d , &S d & if w uf r,f ? 0D & d , r&S d & if u sr,f ? &S i f ; &S i f ; av;yJ /

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'gaMumihf 0D&d,[m atmifjrifBuD;yGm;aMumif; w&m;tppftrSefyJvkdYajymwmayhg/ 0D&d,&Sdol[m NyD;pD;atmifjrifatmif rvkyEf idk w f t hJ &mqkw d mr&Sb d ;l / vkyEf idk w f mcsn;f yJ/ 0D&d,ukd £a`E´&SifvdkYowfrSwfxm;w,f/ ysif;&drI&JU xkd;ESufcsufudk awmifhcHausmfvTm;Ekdif vkdYyg/ NyD;awmh 0D&d,[m aoe*FAsL[m<u,f0 wJh wyfrLS ;wpfO;D vkyd gyJ/ ysi;f &djcif;qkw d hJ qefu Y sif buf&efolukd aMumuf&GHUxdwfvefYrIvkH;0r&SdvdkY ayhg/ tJ'D0D&d,ukdyJ £'d¨yg'fwefckd;&SifwJh/ t&m &mukd NyD;jynhfpkHapwwfvkdYyg/ 0D&d,[m ÓPf aumif;jcif;aMumihf (aAmZÑi)f jzpfwt hJ jyif edAmÁ ef a&mufaMumif;w&m;wpfyg;tygt0ifvnf; jzpfaejyefw,f/ 'gaMumihf BuD;yGm;atmifjrif vk d o l r sm;taeeJ Y 0D & d , eJ Y u if ; uG m NyD ; b,f v k d r S BuD ; yG m ;atmif j rif E k d i f r S m r[k w f b l ; qk d w m &J & J B uD ; ajymEk d i f w mayh g / vlwpfOD;wpfa,mufukd tb,frQ avmuf uH? tb,frQavmufÓPf? tb,f rQavmuf Opömt&if;tESD;&Sd&if atmifjrif rvJ v k d Y taotcsmajymvd k Y r &ayr,h f tb,f r Q0D & d , &S d & if tb,f r Qavmuf txd BuD ; yG m ; atmif j rif E k d i f w ,f q k d w m ud k a wmh taotcsma[mud e f ; xk w f E k d i f y g vd r h f r ,f / bk&m;&Sifu pD;yGm;OpömysufvkdY vSnfh vnf a wmif ; pm;aewJ h ol a X;om;wpf O D ; uk d xko d al X;om;[m yxrt&G,w f unf;u 0D&, d eJBY uK;d pm;cJ&h if Am&mPoD&UJ yxrolaX;jzpfr,f/ 'kwd,t&G,frSm BuKd;pm;&ifvnf;yJ 'kwd,wef; pm; olaX;jzpfr,f/ wwd,t&G,frSBuKd;pm;&if awmif wwd,wef;pm;olaX;jzpfEkdifw,fvkdY 0D&d,ukdtajccHxm;NyD; a[mcJhzl;w,f/ 'gaMumih f vl a wG [ m rd r d w d k Y & J U tem*wf b,f v k d j zpf v mr,f q k d w m rd r d & if ; ES D ; pk d u f x k w f x m;wJ h 0D & d , yrmPuk d MunhfNyD; wGufq a[mudef;xkwfEkdifygw,f/ 0D & d , qk d w m tvk d t avsmuf j zpf v mwm r[k w f b l ; / qif ; &J r S m ? atmuf w ef ; usrS m ? t½IH;ay;vdkuf&vkdY aMumufwwf? vefYwwfwJh pd w f o abmuwpf q if h 0D & d , uk d j zpf a pcJ h ygw,f/ qkdvkdwmu BuD;yGm;csifolawG[m qif;&JrSmukd aMumufwwfMuvkdYygyJ/ qif;&J rSmudkaMumufNyD; csrf ; omok c uk d vk d v m;NyD qkdwmeJY 0D&d,c&D;ukd pwifEkdifNyDvkdY qkdvkd &ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh 0D&, d ESiyfh wfoufNy;D xyfwl aom tusKd;cHpm;EkdifMuygapvdkY/ t&S i f o l & "r® (cG e f r sKd ; EG , f )


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

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taumif;awGUcsifawmh tqdk;a&SUucH yif v ,f u opf a pm0if ; (awmf c sd K uf ) 20^4^2010 aeYrSm pma&;ol\ tdrfa&SUrSm&yfvsuf ukodkvfawmfyg&Sif? ukodkvf awmfyg[laom qGr;f qefcaH omoDv&Sit f oHudk Mum;vkduf&\/ pma&;oltdrfay:rS oGufoGufav; qif;umMunhfvkdufaomtcg touftm;jzihf (60) &G,f oDv&SifBuD;ESpfyg;ESifh touf (40) &G,f a,m*Da&mif 0wfpHk0wfxm;aom qH&Snf &aoh r av;wpf a ,muf u d k aiG (5) usyf p D vSLvkdufaomtcg toufBuD; oDv&SifESpfyg;rS qkay;NyD; toufi,f&aohrav;u qkray;? rsuf E S m n§ d K ;i,f p G m jzih f pma&;ol u d k pd k u f í Munhfaeonf/ pma&;oluvnf; olYrsufESmudk aocsmpGmjyefMunhfrdonf/ pma&;olrSpwifNyD; q&mrav; ]]eE´rmvm}} [kwfvm;/ ]][kwfuJhyg&Sihf? eE´rmvmyg}} pma&;ol u q&mBuD ; wd k Y tvS L cH 'DaeY'rD mS yJ &yfvu kd yf g? uReaf wmf q&mBu;D wdu Yk kd ,ckeHeufpm qGrf;'gejyKyg&ap/ uRefawmh tdraf y:udk <uyg? q&mBu;D wdYk pdwcf sr;f omovdk £&d,mykxf rQwatmifaeyg/ uReaf wmf eE´rm vmESihf pum;ajymOD;r,f/ ]]eE´rmvm- ,ckvdk &aohrb0 jzpf vmwm b,fvt kd aMumif;aMumihjf zpfvmwmvJ? OD;BuD;udk pdwf&Snf&Snfxm;NyD; ajymjyprf;yg/}} ]][kwu f &hJ iS -fh wdw k ekd YJ vd&k if;udyk J ajymjy ygr,f/ 'Dvdk&Sihf- uRefra,musfm; udkjrifhOD;u pD;yGm;a&;vkyfr,f? ihgudk t&if;xkwfay;ygvkdY ajymawmh uRefr,HkNyD; tvG,fwulxkwfay; vkdufw,f/ uRefrqDudk jyefrvmawmhbl;? uRerf pHpk rf;Ny;D vdu k o f mG ;awmh? vku d v f m&rvm; qdkum Budrf;vTwfw,f/ ,ck olu opfawm xGuf ypön;f awGeYJ usyo f ed ;f (4000) av;axmif avmuf csrf;omBuD;yGm;NyD; r,m;av;a,muf ESihftwlaew,f? uRefrudkawmh Oayu©mjyK xm;wJt h jyif pdwq f if;&Jatmif ta0;rS ESyd pf uf aew,f/ usefwmawGawmh rodcsifygeJY? uRefr 0rf;enf;vGef;vdkYyg? uRefr &ifxJrSm urÇmysuf

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DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf b0&SifoefrIudk trSefuefqHk;azmfaqmif&ef jzpfonf/ xdkcdk;oludk toufab;rS csr;f omay;Ny;D ig\ tdro f Ykd ydv Yk u kd yf gavmh[-k tojymwpfaxmifxyk f udk ay;cJ\ h / rif;csi;f a,musmf ;rsm;uvnf; wHp;kd vufaqmif,Nl y;D xdck ;kd oluv kd w T í f olaX;Bu;D \ tdro f Ykd ydv Yk u dk \ f / olaX;Bu;D uvnf; tdraf &muf vmaomf cdk;olvkvifESihf orD;udk vufxyf xd r f ; jrm;ay;\/ ol a X;orD ; uvnf ; cd k ; ol a,musfm;udk tdrfOD;ewfuJhodkY vkyfauR;jyKpk apmifha&Smuf\/ ]]ol , k w f r m cd k ; ol \ tBuH } } vufxyfxrd ;f jrm;Ny;D &uftenf;i,f tMum;rSmyif cdk;olonf yufyufpufpuftBuH udk BuH\/ BuHyHkum; þodkYyifwnf;/ igonf þolaX;orD;udk Mum&Snpf mG aygif;aeygu ihgtwGuf tusKd ;r&S/d olaX;orD; \ ypönf;OpömwdkYudk ig&ygrlum; aumif;avpG/ olaX;orD;udo k wfNy;D t0wfwefqmwdu Yk kd ,lum wpfckaom ol&mwif;ukyfü a&mif;cszvS,fí 0,f,lpm;aomif;jcif;iSm oihf\/ olaX;orD;\ ypö n f ; Opö m wd k Y u d k onf t wk d i f ; ,l v d k Y r &Ed k i f / y&d,m,frm,mjzihf tpmtm[m&udk rpm; raomufbJ tdyf&mütdyfae\/ xd k t cg ol a X;orD ; onf rd r d \ cifyeG ;f vifjzpfaom cd;k ola,musmf ;ud-k cspv f if? cspf v if - tpmtm[m& rpm;raomuf b J aeonfrmS taMumif;tod&Yk o dS enf;/ wpfpw kH pfck aom a&m*gyif&Sdoavm[k ar;\/ ]]cspf E S r - ih g rS m wpf p H k w pf c k a om a&m*gonfr&Sd/ odkYaomf ighudk aESmifzGJUxkwf aqmifvmaomtcg igonf xdak eYü cd;k olwu Ykd kd csowfaom awmif0Srf;0,f apmifha&Smufaom ewftm; tuREkfyftm; taESmiftzGJUrSvGwf atmif aqmif&Gufay;ygu t&Sifewfrif;tm; ylaZmfjcif;trIudk jyKygrnf[k 0efcHrdonf/ xd k o d k Y 0 ef c H x m;aomtaMumif ; aMumif h v nf ; ZD 0 d w d a `E´ t ouf u d k rysuf b J toif c spf ESrudkvnf; xdkewfrif; rçprIaMumihfomvQif &tyfayonf/ 'gaMumihf ewfrif;udk ylaZmfjcif; trIonf jzpfaptH[ h k BurH ad vonf/ xdBk upH nf aom t&monf rjynhfpHkao;aomaMumihf rdrd pdwfü rcsrf;rom&Sd&avonf}} [k jyefajym\/ ]]olaX;orD;onf tarmifcspfvif þodaYk omtaMumif;jzihf pd;k &drNf y;D cg ESv;kH rouf om rcsrf;omonfudk rjyKygvifh/ ewftm; ylaZmfjcif;trIukd tb,f0w¬Kjzihf tvd&k o dS nf[k rdeq Yf akd wmfryl gavm}} ]]cspfESr- a&ra&maom EdkYtazsmf xrif;udk aygufaygufvQifdxnhf? ig;ckajrmuf aom Muuf½Hk;yef;wdkYudk tvdk&Sdonf}}/

]]cspfvif- aumif;NyD? jyKpkpDrHtHh}} [k 0efcHNyD;-olaX;orD;onf ewftm;ylaZmfzG,f &mjzpfaom ypön;f 0w¬KtvH;k pHu k kd pD&ifNy;D umv]]tarmif c spf v if - ewf t m; yl a Zmf j cif ; iS m oGm;MuukeftHh}} [k qdk\/ ]]aumif;NyD- cspfESr? oif\aqGrsdK; nmwdwYkd rygapESi?fh oif\ tvkyt f auR;uRerf wdEYk iS fh twlwuG oGm;Muuket f /hH oif\ ud, k u f kd tzd k ; rsm;pG m xk d u f a om t0wf w ef q mwd k Y u d k qifjref;yg/ igwdkYonf ESpfouf&Tifys0rf;ompGm jrL;wl ; vsuf oG m ;Muuk e f t H h } } [k a jym\/ ol a X;orD ; onf v nf ; rd r d \ t&S i f c if y G e f ; vifajymwdkif;jyK\/ xdkYaemuf awmifajc&if;odkYa&muf aomtcg ]]cspfESr- þawmifajc&if;rS txuf odkY igwkdYESpfa,mufwnf;om wufoGm;Mur,f/ vkdufygvmaom tazmfwdkYudk jyefygap/ ylaZmf zdkY&m jzpfaomcGufudk cspfESr udk,fwdkif ,lcJhyg}} [k ajym\/ cdk;olonf olaX;orD;udk vSnhfywf ac:aqmif N yD ; apm&yygwawmif x uf o d k Y wufcJh\/ olaX;orD;onf cd;k om;wdYk csowf&m jzpf a om awmif x d y f ü &yf w ef Y í - cspf v if oiftvdk&Sdwdkif; ewfrif;tm; ylaZmfyg[k ajym aomtcg? ]]cspfESr- igonf ewfudk ylaZmfvdk aomaMumifh r[kw?f oihu f o kd wfNy;D oif0wfqif xm;aom t0wfwefqmypönf;OpömwdkYudk ,lNyD; vQif xGufajy;jcif;iSm tvdk&Sd\/ xdkYaMumihf oifhtm; vSnhfywfac:aqmifcJhayonf}} [k ajymvQifolaX;orD;onf aotHhaomab;rS vG e f p G m aMumuf o nf j zpf í trsd K ;rsd K ;tzH k z H k awmif;yefaomfvnf; r&ojzihf? olaX;orD; onf aMomf - þtrI o nf 0efav;aomtrI jzpfavpGwum;? ynmrnfonf csufjyKwfí pm;aomuf & jcif ; tvd k Y i S m jyKjyif t yf o nf r[kwfay/ pifppfaomfum; pDppfBuHzefjcif;iSm jyKjyiftyf\/ þolum; igonfjyKtyfaom trIukd odaptH[ h Bk uu H m cd;k om;vif a,musmf ; tay: rm,mjzihf BuHaqmifawmhonf/ ]]ol a X;orD ; \ y&d , m,f r m,m}} tarmifcspv f if- tarmifu h kd rif;csi;f a,musfm; tmPmom;wdkYtm; tojymaiGay; oGif;NyD; toufudka&G;,lcg- tdrfü xdrf;jrm; vufxyfonfhcsdefrS ,cktcsdefxd cspfvifudk ½Ijrifí r0yg/ xdkYaMumihf aemufqHk;taejzihf cspfvifudk tvdk&Sdwdkif; zl;ajr§mfcGihfudk ay;oem; awmfrlyg[k ajym\/ cdk;om;a,musfm;onf oiftvd&k w dS idk ;f tm;&atmif &Scd ;dk zl;ajrmfav[k

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cGifhjyK\/ xd k t cg ol a X;orD ; onf cd k ; om; a,musfm;udk oHk;Budrf vuf,m&pfvSnfhvnfí &Sdcdk;zuf&rf;NyD; cdk;om;a,musfm;\ aemufrSae NyD; wpfbufaomvufjzihf ycHk;üudkifvsuf wpfbufvufrS atmufydk;usdKuf (cg;awmif; usKd u)f aom ykq;kd pGe;f ü udik v f suf awmifacsmuf urf;yg;jywfoYdk wGe;f csvu dk \ f / cd;k om;a,musmf ; onf awmif0Srf;ü xdcdkufykwfcwfrdonfjzpfí tydkif;ydkif;jywfcg ajrBuD;ü us\/ ]]awmif a pmif h e wf u csD ; rG r f ; jcif ; }} xdEk pS Of ;D wd\ Yk tjyKtrltjcif;t&mudk jrif í xd k r d e f ; rtm; awmif a pmif h e wf u aumif;csD;ay;NyD;vQif csD;rGrf;axmremvdkonf jzpfaomaMumihfabm-tdktcsif;wdkY? oaAÁok- tvHk;pHk ukeaf om? Xmaeok- t&mwdüYk / aom yk&ad omxdka,musfm;onf? y@dawm- ynm&Sdonf/ ea[mwd-r[kwf/ ww¬ww¬- xdkxdkodkYaom t&mü? 0dpu©Pm-qifjcifwwfaom? £w¬dydrd e f ; ronf v nf ; ? y@d w m- ynm&S d o nf ? a[mwd- jzpf\[k csD;rGrf;\/ olaX;orD;onf cd;k om;vifa,musmf ; udk awmifapmif;rS wGef;csNyD; tdrfodkY rjyefawmh bJ y&dAZkd w f \ Ykd txHü &[ef;jyKcg 0g'wpfaxmif udk oif,l\/ waeYaomtcg y&dAdkZfq&mBuD; u oifoGm;avmh? oif awGUwdkif;aomolwdkYudk oihf&JU 0g'wpfaxmifudk ar;ygav/ rajzEdkifol onf oihf&JUwynhfjzpfvwåHU? ajzEdkifolonf oif\q&m jzpfvwåHU[k qdkí vTwfvkduf\/ waeY a omtcg &S i f o m&d y k w å & m qGrf;cH<uvmonfESihfawGUí y&dAdkZfu 0g' wpfaxmifudk t&Sifom&dykwå&mrax&fjrwfudk ar;\/ rax&fjrwfrS ajzEdik \ f / &Sio f m&dyw k &å m rax&fjrwfar;aom wpfckaomykpämudk y&dAdkZf r rajzEd k i f í bk & m;&S i f x H a&muf o G m ;\/ aemufqHk; olaX;orD;y&dAdkZfronf udk,fwGif;yl qm udavomudk y,fcGmEdkifaom uk@v auoDax&Dr [lí emrnfxifay:ausmfapm vm\/ cd k ; ol r ,m; ol a X;orD ; av;vnf ; taumif;awGUcsifawmh tqdk;a&SUu cHonf r[k w f y gvm;/ orD ; ]]eE´ r mvm}} vnf ; taumif;awGUcsifvdkY tqkd;a&SUucHwmyJ[kom rSwaf yhguG,}f } ]][kwfuJh&Sihf? [kwfuJhyg}} olawmfaumif;w&m; vltrsm; odEikd f Muygap/ usrf ; ud k ; - ]]"r® y '- a'oemawmf } } yif v ,f u opf a pm0if ;


DHAMMA VIRA FOR YOUTHS

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"r®0D&onf b0&SifoefrI y"meukdy,fí tukokdvfuif;aom &SifoefrItwGufjzpfonf/

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wpfodef;ru rsm;pGmaom urÇmwdkYywfvHk; i&J wpfckodkY ysufpD;usa&muf&mwpfckrS ysufpD; usa&muf&mwpfckodkY vm;a&muf&vwåHUaom a'0'wfudk jrifawmfrl\/ xdkYaMumihf jrwfpGm bk&m;onf oAÁnKwÓPfawmfjzihf odawmf rlí þa'0'wf\ tqHk;tydkif;tjcm;r&Sdaom uHonf igbk&m;\ omoemawmfü &[ef;jyK onf&Sdaomf tqHk;tydkif;tjcm;&SdaomuHonf jzpf vwåHU? qif;&Jonf a&S;qdkcJhNyD;aom tydkif; tjcm;r&Sdaom uHudkaxmufulí tqHk;tydkif; tjcm;ü &SdonfjzpfvwåHU/ r*fzdkvfrSmtcsnf; tES;D jzpfaom þolonf &[ef;rjyKaomf vnf; wpfurÇmvHk; wnfvdrfhrnfomjzpfaom uHudk tm;xkwfvwåHU[k odawmfrlí oem;awmf rlaomaMumihf a'0'wfudk &[ef;jyKay;awmf rl\} vdkYajymvdkufygowJhuG,f/ rd v d E ´ r if ; BuD ; u Munf n d K jrwf E d k ; ½d k a opG m &S d c d k ; NyD ; awmh wpf z ef ]t&S i f b k & m; em*aoe xdkodkYjzpfvQif jrwfpGmbk&m;onf ½dkufykwfNyD;rS qDjzihf okwfvdrf;a,mifwum;? urf;yg;jywfü wGef;csNyD;rS vufurf;a,mif wum;? owf N yD ; rS touf & S n f a Mumif ; ud k &S m a,mif w um;? ,if ; taMumif ; aMumih f xdjk rwfpmG bk&m;onf a&S;OD;pGm qif;&Jukd ay;Ny;D aemufrS csrf;omudk aqmif&Guf\} vdkY olY&JU xifjrifcsufudk ajymvdkufwJhtcgrSm &Sifem*aoeu ]rif;jrwf jrwfpGm bk&m;onf owå0gwdkY\ tpD;tyGm;\ tpGrf; jzihf wGef;csvnf;wGef;csawmfrl\? owå0gwdkY\ tpD;tyGm;\ tpGrf;jzihf owfvnf;owfawmf rl\/ rif;jrwf? jrwfpGmbk&m;onf ½dkufykwfí


DHAMMA VIRA FOR YOUTHS "r®0D&onf udk,fusifhoDvESifh pm&dwåjrifhrm;ap&ef jzpfonf/ omvQif owå0gwd\ Yk tpD;tyGm;udk aqmif&u G f awmfrl\/ wGef;csíomvQif owfíomvQif owå0gwdkY\ tpD;tyGm;udk aqmif&Gufawmfrl \/ rif;jrwf trdtzwdkYonf om;orD;wkdY\ tpD;tyGm;udkomvQif aqmif&GufukefouJhodkY rif;jrwf þtwlomvQif jrwfpGmbk&m;onf owå 0 gwd k Y \ tpD ; tyG m ;\ tpG r f ; jzih f ½dkufykwfvnf; ½dkufykwfawmfrl\/ owfvnf;owfawmfrl\? rif;jrwf jrwfpGmbk&m;onf ½dkufykwfíomvQif owå0g wd k Y \ tpD ; tyG m ;ud k aqmif & G u f a wmf r l \ / tMuiftMuifodkYaom vHkYvjzihf owå0gwdkY\ *kPfaus;Zl;udk wdk;yGm;jcif;onfjzpf\/ xdkodkY aomvHkYvjzifh tvHk;pHkaom owå0gwdkY\ tpD; tyGm;udkomvQif aqmif&Gufawmfrl\/ ]rif;jrwf a'0'wfonf tu,fí &[ef;rjyKonfjzpfjim;tHh? þodkY&[ef;rjyKaomf vljzpfvsuf i&Jüjzpfapwwfaom raumif;rI uHudk rsm;pGmjyKí uka#wpfodef;ru rsm;pGm aom urÇmwdkYywfvHk; i&JwpfckrS i&JwpfckodkY ysuf p D ; usa&muf & m rsm;pG m aom qif ; &J u d k cHpm;&vwåUH ? jrwfpmG bk&m;onf xdt k aMumif;udk odawmfrlonfjzpfí oem;awmf rlaomaMumihf a'0'wfudk &[ef;jyKay;awmf rl\/ igbk&m;\ omoemawmfü &[ef;jyKaom a'0'wf\ qif;&Jonf tqH;k tydik ;f tjcm;&Sd onfjzpfvwåUH }} [k odawmfrlí oem;awmfrl aomaMumihf av;vHaomqif;&Jukd aygYyg;atmif jyKawmfr\ l / ]rif;jrwf Oyrmtm;jzihf Opömtiftm; tNcHt&Htiftm;? bkef;usufoa&tiftm;? aqGrsKd; Ówdtiftm;jzihf tm;tpGrf;&Sdaom a,musfm;onf BuD;av;aom rif;jypfrif;'Pf oih f a &muf a eaom rd r d \ aqG r sKd ; ud k vnf;aumif; taqGcifyGef;udkvnf;aumif;? rdrd\ rsm;pGm rif;uRrf;0ifonf\ tjzpfjzihf pG r f ; &nf o wd å &S d o nf \ tjzpf a Mumih f av;aom'Pfudk aygYyg;atmif jyK\/ rif;jrwf þtwl o mvQif jrwf p G m bk & m;onf uk a # wpfodef;ru rsm;pGmaom urÇmwdkYywfvH;k qif ; &J u d k cH p m;&vwå H U aom a'0'wf u d k &[ef;jyKay;awmfrlvsuf oDv? orm"d? ynm? 0d r k w d å t pG r f ; jzih f pG r f ; aqmif Ek d i f o nf \ tjzpfaMumihf av;vHaom qif;&Judk aygYyg; atmif jyKawmfrl\/ ]rif;jrwf Oyrmwpfenf;aomfum; aq;uk & mü a&m*gud k xk w f y ,f E k d i f a om vd r f r maom aq;orm;onf av;vH a om a&m*gudk tm;&Sdaomaq;\tpGrf;jzihf aygYyg;

atmifjyKouJhodkY rif;jrwf þtwlomvQif uka#wpfoed ;f ru rsm;pGmaom urÇmwdyYk wfv;kH qif;&Jukd cHpm;&vwåUaom a'0'wfukd jrwfpmG bk&m;onf tema&m*g[laom 'ku©udk odjcif; aMumifh &[ef;jyKay;awmfrlvsuf oem;jcif; tiftm;&So d nfjzpfí axmufyt hH yfaom w&m; wnf;[laom aq;tpGrf;jzihf av;vHaom qif;&Judk aygYyg;atmif jyKawmfrl\/ ]rif;jrwf rsm;pGmqif;&JcHpm;&vwåHU aom a'0'wfudk tenf;i,frQ qif;&JcHpm; &rnfudk jyKawmfrlaomf xdkjrwfpGmbk&m;onf wpfpHkwpfckaom raumif;rIodkY jyK&ma&muf oavm} vkdYar;wJhtcgrSm rdvdE´rif;BuD;u ]t&Sifbk&m; wpfpHkwpfckaom raumif;rIodkY jyK&mra&mufyg? t,kwfojzihf EkdYwpfcgn§pfrQ aom raumif;rIrQodkYvnf; ra&muf&myg}} vdkYajzygw,f/ t&S i f e m*aoeu xyf r H N yD ; awmh ]rif;jrwf tMuiftaMumif;aMumihf jrwfpmG bk&m; onf a'0'wf u d k &[ef ; jyKay;awmf r l \ / þtaMumif;udkvnf; oabmrSeftm;jzihf 0efcH avavmh}} rif;jrwf jrwfpmG bk&m;onf a'0'wf udk &[ef;jyKay;awmfr\ l [laom þtaMumif;rS xdx Yk uftvGejf zpfaom tjcm;taMumif;wpfrsK;d udkvnf; emOD;avmh/ rif;jrwf Oyrmtm;jzihf raumif;rIudk jyKusihfaom cdk;olygwnf;? þcdk; oltm; tvdk&Sd&m jypf'Pfudk wyfapawmfrlyg avmh} [k rif;tm;jyMuuke\ f / rif;onf ]tcsi;f xdkodkYjzpfvQif þcdk;oludk NrdKUjyifodkY xkwfvsuf olYowfukef;odkY aqmifukef&m\/ rif ; \xH r S &tyf a om qk & S d a om &,f t yf a om tNcH t &H O pö m pnf ; pd r f & S d a om em,ltyfaom pum;&Sdaom tm;BuD;pGm tvkd &S d w d k i f ; jyKEk d i f a om wpf p H k w pf a ,muf a om a,musmf ;onf xdck ;kd olujkd rif&\/ xdak ,musmf ; onf xdck ;kd oltm; oem;aomaMumihf xdrk if;csi;f a,musfm;wdkYudk ]tcsif;wdkY þcdk;ol\ OD;acgif; udk jzwfojzihf oifwdkYtm; tb,ftusKd;&SdtHh enf;? tcsif;wdkY xdkodkYtusKd;r&SdaomaMumihf þcdk;ol\ vufudkaomfvnf;aumif;? ajcudk aomf v nf ; aumif ; ? jzwf í touf u d k apmihaf &SmufMuukeaf vmh? xdv k ufajcudk jzwfí rowf b J x m;jcif ; taMumif ; aMumih f rif ; \ txHü taMumif;jyefpum;udk igjyKtHh} [k ajymqdk&m\/ xdkrif;csif;a,musfm;wdkYonf rif ; ud k ajymqd k E k d i f & ef tm;tpG r f ; &S d a om xdka,musfm;\pum;jzihf xdkcdk;ol\ vufudk aomfvnf;aumif;? ajcudkaomfvnf;aumif;?

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jzwf í touf u d k apmih f a &S m uf u k e f & m\/ rif;jrwf þodkY jyKvkyfaom xdka,musfm;onf xdkcdk;ol\ cGihfudpöudk jyKonfjzpf&moavm} vkdY &S i f ; jyaecd k u f Mum;jzwf N yD ; ar;awmh rd v d E ´ rif ; BuD ; u puú e f Y r jcm; ]t&S i f b k & m; xdak ,musmf ;onf xdck ;kd oltm; toufay;aom ol y gwnf ; ? touf u d k ay;onf & S d a omf xd k a ,musf m ;tm; jyKcG i h f u d p ö u d k rjyKaom rnfonf tb,frSm&SdygtHhenf;? xdkcdk;ol\ vufajcudkjzwfjcif;ü tMuifqif;&J a0'em onf&Sd\} vdkYajzygw,f/ &Sifem*aoeu ]xdkoem;wwfaom a,musfm;onf xdkqif;&Ja0'emaMumihf wpfpHk wpfckaom raumif;rIodkY a&mufoavm} vdkY ar;awmh rdvdE´rif;BuD;u ]t&Sifbk&m; xdkcdk;ol onf rdrdjyKaom cdk;rIaMumihf qif;&Ja0'emudk cHpm;&\/ toufudkay;aom a,musfm;onf um; wpfpHkwpfckaom raumif;rIudk ra&muf &yg} vdkYajzygw,f/ tJ'Dtajzudk aocsmpGm em;axmifNyD;awmhrS &Sifem*aoeu ]rif;jrwf þtwlomvQif jrwfpmG bk&m;onf oem;awmf rlaomaMumihf ]igbk&m;\ omoemawmfü &[ef;jyKaom a'0'wf\ qif;&Jonf tqHk; tydik ;f tjcm;&So d nf jzpfvwåUH } [koí d a'0'wf udk &[ef;jyKay;awmfrl\/ rif;jrwf a'0'wf\ qif;&Jonf tqHk;tydkif;tjcm;&Sd\? rif;jrwf a'0'wfonf aocgeD;tcgü]avmuoH;k yg;xuf jrwfaom yk*Kd¾ vf jzpfawmfral om or®Kwed wf? Oyywdeå wfwYkd xuf omvGefaom 0dok'd¨ewfjzpfawmfrlaom qHk;r xdkufaomoltaygif;udk aumif;pGmqHk;rawmfrl aom xuf0ef;usit f ydwt f yifr&So d jd rifEidk af om oAÁnKwÓPf&Sif jzpfawmfrlaom t&mru aom bkef;awmfa,musfm;jrwfwdkY\ trSwf vu©Pm&Sad om jrwfpmG bk&m;udk þt½d;k wdjYk zihf vnf;aumif;? þtouf0dÓPfwdkYjzihfvnf; aumif;? qnf;uyfudk;uG,fjcif;odkY uyfa&muf yg\} vdkY toufxufqHk; udk;uG,f&m[lí qnf;uyfavNy/D ]rif ; jrwf a'0'wf o nf urÇ m ud k ajcmuf z d k Y ajcmuf p k j yKí yXr tzd k Y t pk u d k vGeaf omtcgü oHCmudo k if;cG\ J ? ig;zdYk ig;pkwYkd ywfvHk; i&Jüusufí xdki&JrSvGwfonf&Sdaomf t|dó&trnf&Sdaom yapöuAk'¨gjzpfvwåHU? rif;jrwf þodkYjyKaom xdkjrwfpGmbk&m;onf a'0'wf t m; jyKcG i h f u d p ö u d k jyKonf j zpf & m oavm} vdkYar;ygw,f/ rif;BuD;u ]t&Sifbk&m; em*aoe


DHAMMA VIRA FOR YOUTHS

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"r®0D&onf rdrdudk,fudk apmifha&SmufEdkif&eftwGuf jzpfonf/

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oavm? "m;i,fjzihf azmufcGJoavm? wkwfwH jzihf yGwfoyfoavm? qyfjymiefudk vdrf;cJh oavm} vdkYMum;jzwfNyD;ar;vdkufygw,f/ rdvdE´rif;BuD;u ]t&Sifbk&m; r[kwf yg? tusKd;udk tvkd&Sdaom pdwf&Sdonfjzpfí csrf;omjcif;udk tvkd&Sdonfjzpfí xdkjyKvkyfzG,f wdkYudk jyKyg\} vkdYavQmufygowJhuG,f/ tJ'D tcgrSm &Sief m*aoeu ]xdv k el mtm; aq;vdr;f jcif;[laom jyKvkyfzG,fwkdYudk jyKjcif;aMumihfjzpf aom tMuifqif;&Jaom a0'emonf&Sd\/ xd k q if ; &J u d k jzpf a paomaMumih f a&m*gud k xkwfy,fwwfaom xdkaq;orm;onf wpfpHk wpfckaom raumif;rIodkY a&muf&moavm} vkdY xyfNyD;ar;jyefygw,f/ rdvdE´rif;BuD;u tcsdef rqdkif;bJ ]t&Sifbk&m; a&m*gudk y,fxkwfwwf aom aq;orm;onf tusKd;udkvdkaom pdwf&Sd onfjzpfí csrf;omjcif;udk tvdk&Sdonfjzpfí xdkaq;vdrf;jcif;paom jyKvkyfzG,fwdkYudk jykvkyf yg\/ xdkaq;orm;onfxdkodkY vkyfjcif;aMumihf tb,frSm raumif;rIodkY a&mufEkdifygtHhenf; t&S i f b k & m; a&m*gud k y,f x k w f w wf a om xdkaq;orm;onf ewfjynfodkY a&muf&myg\} vdkY xyfNyD;ajzMum;vdkufygw,f/ tJ'DaemufrSm rdvdE´rif;BuD;&JU tajz udk ESpNf cKd uf auseyfpmG em;axmifNy;D &Sief m*ao eu ]rif;jrwf þtwlomvQif jrwfpGmbk&m; onf oem;awmf r l a omaMumih f qif ; &J r S vGwfapjcif;iSm a'0'wfudk &[ef;jyKay;awmf rl\/ rif;jrwf? jrwfpGmbk&m;onf a'0'wfudk &[ef;jyKay;awmfrl\[laom þtaMumif;rS xdx Yk uftvGejf zpfaom tjcm;taMumif;wpfrsK;d udkvnf; emOD;avmh? rif;jrwf Oyrmtm;jzihf a,musf m ;onf ql ; pl ; &m\/ xk d t cgü wpf a ,muf a om a,musf m ;onf xd k o l \ tusKd ; ud k t vd k & S d o nf j zpf í csrf ; omjcif ; ud k tvdk&Sdonfjzpfí xufpGmaomql;jzihfaomf vnf ; aumif ; ? "m;jzih f a omf v nf ; aumif ; xuf0ef;usifrS jzwfcGJí ,dkpD;aomaoG;jzihf xdkql;udk xkwfEIwf&m\/ rif;jrwf xdka,musfm; onf tusKd;rJhudk vdkvm;onfjzpfí xdkql;udk xkwfEIwfoavm} vdkY rdvdE´rif;BuD;udkar;awmh ]t&Sib f &k m; r[kwyf g? t&Sib f &k m; xdak ,musmf ; onf xdkql;udk tu,fí rxkwfEIwfjim;tHh? xdkql;pl;cH&aomolonf xdkql;udk rEIwfxGif aomaMumihf aojcif;okdYvnf;aumif; ao avmufaom qif;&JodkYvnf;aumif; a&muf& yg\} vdkYajzygw,f/ &Sifem*aoeu ]rif;jrwf þtwlo

omvQif jrwfpGmbk&m;onf oem;awmfrlaom aMumihf qif;&JrS vGwfapjcif;iSm a'0'wfudk &[ef;jyKay;awmfrl\/ rif;jrwf jrwfpGmbk&m; onf a'0'wfukd tu,fí &[ef;jyKray;onf jzpfjim;tH?h urÇmuka#wode;f wdyYk wfv;kH a'0'wf onf b0tqufquftm;jzihf i&Jü usufcJh&m \} vdkY ajymvdkufwJhtcgrSm rdvdE´rif;BuD;u ½dkaopGm em;pdkufaxmifNyD;awmh ]t&Sifbk&m; em*aoe jrwfpGmbk&m;onf oHo&m0#fqif; &J[laom jrpfnma&qefodkY ydkYaqmifawmfrlyg ay\/ c&D;rSm;odYk avQmufomG ;aom a'0'wfukd c&D;vrf;rodkY a&mufapawmfrlygay\/ urf;yg; jywfüusa&mufaom a'0'wftm; axmuf wnf&mudk ay;awmfrlygay\/ jrwfpGmbk&m; onf rnD ñ G w f a om c&D ; vrf ; a&muf a om a'0'wfudk nDñTwfaomc&D;odkY wifydkYawmfrlyg ay\/ t&S i f b k & m;em*oae þZeu taMumif;&if;rsK;d wdu Yk v kd nf;aumif; þOyw¬ru Ç ,kwo åd r®myu taMumif;rsm;wku Yd kd vnf;aumif; t&Sifbk&m;uJhodkYaom ynm&Sifudk MuOfxm;í wpfyg;aom olonfaumif;pGmazmfjyjcif;iSm rpGr;f Ekid yf g} vdYk 0rf;ajrmuftm;& auseyfaysm&f iT f pGmeJY ajymvdu k Nf y;D wmeJY wNyKd ief uf aqG;aEG;jcif; udk acwåem;zdkY jyifvkdufowJhuG,f/ a':av;wdv Yk J 'DrmS yJ acwåem;Muwm aygY ? aemuf x yf rd v d E ´ r if ; BuD ; u ar;r,f h taMumif ; t&muawmh pd w f 0 if p m;p&m tvG e f a umif ; r,h f t aMumif ; t&mav;rsm; jzpfrvm;qdw k mudk pdwu f ;l eJaY rQmMf uygOD;vdYk ajym Mum;&if ; rd v d E ´ r if ; BuD ; eJ Y t wl a'0'wf & J U &[ef;jyKay;rItaMumif;t&m A[kow k wd;k yGm;cJh vd k Y Ed k ; Mum;wJ h o l Bud K ;pm;wJ h o l a wG t jzpf aemiftem*wfomoemrSm ½d;k om;wJh Ak'b ¨ mom 0ifawGjzpfMuygapvdkY a':av;qkawmif;ay;yg w,f/ tpOf c if r if B ud K ;pm;vsuf a':av;aiG p E´ m


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf vlrsKd;ra&G; bmomra&G;? vlom;rsKd;EG,ftm;vHk;twGuf jzpfonf/ pmrsuf E S m 7 rS wpfzef½kyfydkif;tjrift& oufawmf (88)ESpfjzpfojzifh ]]tm;tiftpGrf; avQmh ukef crf;í ,dEGrf;rIdifawG rpGrf;EdkifcJhacs}} qdkaom pum;rSm rSefuefygonf/ od k Y & mwG i f q&mawmf b k & m;BuD ; \ pd w f y d k i f ; qk d i f & mt& 0gawmf ( 68)0gumv avhusihfxm;aom q&mawmfBuD;\ BuHhcdkifrI w&m;ESifhtnDaexdkifrIwdkYudk teD;uyfjyKpkol wdkif;? cE¨m0efrpGefYrD q&mawmfBuD;udk awGYqHk uefawmhcGifh&olwdkif; awGY&ygrnf/ q&mawmf B uD ; ES i f h Oygoum*k P f o d z G , f p H k q&mawmfBuD;onf Oygoum*kPf odzG,fpHkw&m;awmfudk a[mMum;cJhygonf/ ,if;w&m;awmfukd omoema&;OD;pD;Xmeu (1996)ckESpfwGif yHkESdyfxkwfa0xm;ygonf/ xdkpmtkyf pm (222)wGif 0dyóem ynm? r*f y nmES i h f j ynf h p k H a tmif tm;xk w f e nf ; ü tNrJESvkH;oGif;&rnhfw&m;ukd ñTefjyawmfrlyg onf/ (u) tedpöukd tNrJESvkH;oGif;ykH (1) tedpöawm? jzpfay:NyD;aemuf csKyfaysmuf ysufpD;oGm;wwfaomaMumihf rNrJaomw&m;yJ vk½Yd rI w S &f r,f? rNrw J t hJ jcif;t&may:vmatmif ESvkH;oGif;½IrSwf&r,f/ (2) yavmuawm? trsKd;rsKd;ysufpD;wwfaom w&m;yJvkdY ESvkH;oGif;½IrSwf&r,f/ (c) 'ku©ukd tNrJESvkH;oGif;ykH (1) 'ku©awm? tjzpftysuf(2)&yfjzihf tNrJ ES d y f p uf c H a e&ojizh f qif ; &J a omw&m;yJ v k d Y ESvkH;oGif;½IrSwf&r,f/ (2) a&m*awm? emusifcHcuf tema&m*gESifh wlaomw&m;yJvkdY ESvkH;oGif;½IrSwf&r,f/ (3) *@awm? twGif;rSm ykyfaqG;aeaom tkdif;trm temaqG;? temysufESihfwlaom w&m;yJvkdY ESvkH;oGif;½IrSwf&r,f/ (4) ov’awm? pl;0ifaeaom jrm;ajimif;ESihf wlaomw&m;yJvkdY ESvkH;oGif;½IrSwf&r,f/ (5) tmCawm? qif;&J'ku©\wnf&mw&m;yJ qkwf,kwfysufpD;rIukd o,faqmifwwfaom raumif;rIEiS w fh al omw&m;yJvYdk ESv;Hk oGi;f ½Irw S f &r,f/ (6) tmAm"awm? ol w pf y g;wd k Y u wGJxlulray;ae&ojzihf olwpfyg;ukdom rSDckd tm;xm;ae&avmufatmif jyif;xefpmG ESyd pf uf wwfaom tema&m*gESihfwlaomw&m;yJvkdY ESvkH;oGif;½IrSwf&r,f/ (*) tewåukd tNrJESvkH;oGif;ykH (1) y&awm? rdrdtvkd&Sdovkd rpDrHEkdifaom

aMumihf jyifyolpdrf;ESihfwlaomw&m;yJvkdY ESvkH; oGif;½IrSwf&r,f/ (2) oknawm? twåaumif toufaumifrS qdwo f Ok ;f aomw&m;yJvYdk ESv;Hk oGi;f ½Irw S &f r,f/ (3) tewåawm? touf&Sifaeaom twå aumifr&Sdaomw&m;? twåaumifr[kwfaom w&m;yJvkdYESvkH;oGif;½IrSwf&r,f/ þw&m;(3)yg;uk d ES v k H ; oG i f ; &wJ h vk&d if;twdck sKyu f awmh t&d,mr*¾ijf zpfay:vm atmif tajccHjzpfwJh oDvr*¾if? orm"dr*¾ifwdkY ukd pwifxlaxmif&r,f/ orm"dr*¾ifxlaxmif rdvYdk pdw0å o d 'k jd¨ zpfwt hJ cg 0dyóemr*¾ijf zpfay: vmatmif Oyg'geu©Em¨ (5)yg;wdu Yk dk tedp?ö 'ku?© tewåtjcif;t&mrsm; xifjrifvmatmif ESvkH; oGif;½IrSwf&r,fvkdY odrSwfxm;MuzkdYygyJ}} [k a[majymñTefjyxm;awmfrlygonf/ rdrda[m onhfw&m;ukd rdrdukd,fwdkiftm;xkwfonf[k ,kHMunfygonf/ q&mawmfBuD; ysHvGefawmfrrlrD (2) &uftvdkwGif oGm;a&mufzl;ajrmfpOfu q&m awmf B uD ; uk d tuJ c wf r d a om xl ; jcm;onh f vu©Pmrsm;ukd azmfjyvkdygonf/ (u) q&mawmfBuD;\rsufpdonf Munfvifae \/ a0'emay:üpdwfr&Sd? a0'emcHpm;rIESihf ywfoufí tqkd;taumif;? tusKd;taMumif; rajymyg/ (c) tedpö? 'ku©? tewå tEkyóemrsm;ukd ola[mjyñTefjyovkd tNrJESvkH;oGif;aeonf[k rSw, f rl yd gonf/ (*) cE¨mtay:ü tedpö? 'ku©? tewåESvkH;oGif; ESit fh nD pGev Yf w T x f m;yk&H ygonf/ tb,fah Mumihf qkad omf tqkwrf mS a&&Sí d ydu k jf zihpf yk x f w k af eyk?H vufraS q;oGi;f yku d u f yfxm;yk?H ESmacgif;rSmvnf; atmufq*D siyf u dk w f yfxm;ykw H u Ykd dk ½Ijrif&ygonf/ jrif&olwdkYu tvGefyifyef;rSmyJ[k ,lq&yg onf/ okdYaomf q&mawmfBuD;u ol\cE¨mukd tedpöoabm trsKd;rsKd;ysufpD;aew,f? 'ku© oabmrufarmp&mr&Sd qif;&Jtwdomjzpf w,f? tewåoabm twåaumifr&Sd twå aumifr[kwf obm0oabmrQom[k tcsdef wdkif;ESvkH;oGif;aeonf[k rSwf,l&ygonf/ twdkcsKH; wifjy&aomf ysHvGefawmfrrlrDuyif tedpöcE¨m? 'ku©cE¨m? tewåcE¨m[k ½Ijrifvsuf pGefYxm;onhf oabmukd awGU&ygonf/ (C) q&mawmfBuD;onf ol\cE¨may:wGif taomuH? b,fvkdjzpfawmhrSmyJ[k pkd;&drfrI t&dyt f a&mifv;Hk 0rawGU&yg/ 0d&ZH? bmvkycf sif bmvkdcsif bmawGvkyfzkdYusefao;onf ponf jzihf ocFg&u©E¨mtay: wG,fwmrIrawGU&yg/

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acrH? q&mawmfBu;D tm; aorif;u (Z&m) tkrd ?I (Asm"d)emrIjzihf ESdyfpufaeonf[kqkdaomfvnf; cE¨ m uk d , f u k d igh c E¨ m [k o abmrxm;? ES v k H ; roG i f ; aom q&mawmf B uD ; twG u f emusifcHcuf ESdyfpufEkdifpGrf;r&Sd[kom ,lq &ygonf / tb,f h a Mumih f q k d a omf (1)em&D ausmfMumq&mawmfBuD; a&SUwGifxkdifí tuJ cwfaeaomfvnf; (uRwf.. uRwf) [laom toH x G u f v suf a0'em\ES d y f p uf r I ' Pf u k d todtrSwjf yKjcif;r&Syd g/ vGepf mG owdaumif;Ny;D onf ; cH E k d i f p G r f ; &S d o nf u k d jrif a wG Y Munf n Kd cJh&ygonf/ q&mawmfBuD;onf Oygoum*kPf odzG,fpkHw&m;awmfwGif yg&Sdaom tedpö 'ku© tewåw&m;udk vufuidk f xm;vsuf aorif;ukd owd & S d & S d &if q k d i f o G m ;Ek d i f a Mumif ; ok H ; oyf ylaZmfryd gonf/ q&mawmf B uD ; toH r Mum;&aom aorif;tm; pdefac:oHukd pdwful;jzihfwifjy& aomftkd aorif;raorcsif; ESdyfpuf&r,hfwm0ef[m toifw h m0efy?J 'gayrJt h oifEydS pf ufwchJ E¨m[m ighcE¨mr[kwf? tNrJysufaeaomtedpöcE¨mom jzpf w ,f (ted p ö ) ? toif E S d y f p uf w J h c E¨ m [m ighcE¨mr[kwf? rufarmp&mr&SdwJh qif;&JcE¨m omjzpfw,f ('k'ku©)? toifESdyfpufwJhcE¨m[m igcE¨mr[kw?f twåaumifr[kwf oabmrQom jzpfwJh cE¨momjzpfw,f/ 'gaMumihf toifESdyfpuforQ igvuf rcH? jrwfpGmbk&m;ay;xm;wJhvufeuf(3)yg; vufuidk x f m;aomightm; cE¨mukt d aMumif;jyKí ESdyfpufjcif;iSm oifpGrf;Ekdifrnfr[kwf? þcE¨mukdpGefY&aomfjim;vnf; Ak'¨u tyfESif;xm;aom vufeuf(3)yg;ukd igpGefYrnf r[kw?f vufeufpeG aYf tmif oifrESyd pf ufEidk v f Qif igEkid í f oif½;HI aptH[ h k jrwfA'k \ ¨ vufeuf(3)yg; ukd vufvTwfawmfrrlaomq&mawmfBuD;onf aorif;vufvrS ;f rrD&modYk OD;wnf<uvSr;f awmf rlavNyD/ 0gawmf (68)0gjzihf (pdwåyg*knwm? um,yg*knwm) pdwfapwodufwdkYukd ajzmifh atmif a vh u sih f x m;aom q&mawmf B uD ; \ OD;wnf&mvrf;onf aorif;vufvSrf;rrD&modkY om jzpfEkdifaMumif; avhvmylaZmfrdygonf/ armif r sKd ; xG e f ; (jrif ; NcH ) usrf ; uk d ; rauG;q&mawmfBu;D \b0jzpfpOfawmftusO;f ESifh tbdPSokwfygVdedó, (tusOf;)? Oyoum*kPf odzG,fpkHw&m;awmf/


DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES

36

"r®0D&onf t&G,foHk;yg; &[ef;&Sifvltm;vHk;twGuf jzpfonf/

arG;ar arwåm okw-a&Tov H iG f rdrd\taoG;tom;rS tpwnfí ,liifyu dk af xG; auR;arG;jyKpak pmihaf &SmufvmcJ&h aom om;orD;rsm;ukd arG;arwdo Yk nf arwåmawG teEÅ? tepfemawGu xm0&ESihf cspfvkdYrqkH;? rkef;vkdYr& aus;Zl;*kPfawGu teaEÅm teEÅ wnf&SdcJhygonf/ avmuwGif rdbwd\ Yk aus;Zl;ukd aus atmifjyefvnfay;qyfEidk zf &Ydk ef rvG,af Mumif;ukd &Sifawmfjrwfbk&m;yif EIwfawmfrS xkwfazmf a[mMum;oGm;cJhygonf/ vdr®maomom;orD;rsm;ukd tcspfykd& ovkd owfjzwf&rf;um; vlrkdufBuD;rsm;ukdvnf; arG;arwdkYonf rpGefYypf&uf? cspfvsuf &Sdae Muygonf/ usrf;*eftaxmuftxm; a'oem rsm;wG i f t*k F v d r mv\rd c if rEÅ m eD ykaPÖ;rBu;D onf vufacsmif;ukjd zwf vluo dk wf aeaom om;vlru dk Bf u;D tm; yaoe'Daumov rif;Bu;D u ppfonfAv dk yf g okid ;f 0kid ;f umESifh tzrf; t&SmxGuv f mNyq D adk omowif;ukd Mum;odaom tcg rdrd\toufESihf cE¨mukd,f riJhuGufEkdifbJ oGufoGufvm xGufumajy; [pfumowday;cJh aom arG;arçarwåmonf rarh&ufEkdifp&m taxmuftxm;wpfckjzpfyg\/ ES p f a wG u Mumanmif ; &moD a wG b,fvkdajymif;aomfvnf; aeYpOf&ufquf rarh &ufvkdY tajctaeeJY tcsdeftcgukd owdrrlEkdif bJ ESpfrTmqkdifa&T&ifrkYdrSm EkdY&nfawGpkdYaecJhwJh t&Sifukrm&uóyr,fawmfBuD;&JUtjzpfrSm BuD;rm;vGef;aom arG;arçarwåm\ jy,k*fwpfck jzpfay\/ tajcrwl b0jcm;um arwåmw&m; Bu;D rm;vGe;f aom rdcifwpfa,muf\taMumif; uk d &S i f a wmf j rwf b k & m;onf ig;&mhig;q,f t0if tyg y'ukovrmP0 ZmwfawmfwGif xkwf azmfa[mMum;xm;ygao; onf/ usd e f p moih f í bD v l ; b0jzpf a e& D v D ;l ronf c&D;oGm;a,musfm; aom tórkcb wpfa,mufukd zrf;,lí odrf;ydkufum vif tjzpf aygif ; oif ; ae\/ bD v l ; ronf xd k a,musfm;udk vdkPf*ltwGif;aeapí tjyifrS ausmufzsmBu;D ESihf ydwu f mxm;Ny;D ? q,fvausmf

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DHAMMA VIRA FOR YOUTHS "r®0D&onf pdwfzdpD;rI uif;a0;aponf/

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bk&m;udk;uG,frSmvm; opfom; udk;uG,frSmvm; cifolZmjrihf

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DHAMMA V IRA ARTICLES

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"r®0D&onf csrf;ajrhaysmf&TifrItwGuf jzpfonf/

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DHAMMA VIRA ARTICLES "r®0D&onf vlom;rsKd;EG,fquftwGuf jzpfonf/ bufu jcif;awmif;udk udkifí tjcm;vufwpf bufu cRef;½dk;udkudkifum xef;yifudk rSDvsuf aqmihfaMumihfxdkifí aeavonf/ þonfudk &aohBuD;\ om;i,f&aohuav;u awGUoGm; \/ olYtjrifü xdkarsmufudk &aohtdkwpfyg;[k xifrd\/ csrf;í rD;vHIcsifojzihf þtem;odkY vma&mufaejcif;jzpfrnf[k ,lqNyD; xdk&aoh [efaqmifxm;aom arsmufudk wJtwGif;odkY vm&ef < uyg vmyg[k zd w f a c:vd k u f o nf / xdkpOfwGif &aohBuD;onf vJavsmif;ae&mrSx í wHcg;aygufrS&yfNyD;Munhfaomf rnfodkYyif ouFef;udk [efaqmifí NcHKxm;ygaomfjim; ol\ rsufESmrSmwu,fharsmufrS arsmuf½kyfjzpf aeonf/ tu,fí onfarsmufudk wJtwGif; 0ifvmcGihfay;cJhaomf rawmfravsmf uysufu ,ufvkyfNyD; wdkYausmif;udk zsufqD;&m\[kqdk um rD;yHrk S rD;pwpfcu k , kd v l u kd Nf y;D &aohBu;D onf xd k a rsmuf & S d & mod k Y ajcmuf v S e f Y y pf c wf v Qif xdkarsmufonf wpfcsKd;wnf;vpfíajy;av onf/ Zmwfaygif;aomf ,ck tHhzG,fol&Jjzpf apaom &aohonf xdktcgu arsmufjzpfcJhzl; \/ ,cktcg &m[kvmonf xkdpOfu &aoh om;i,fjzpfzl;NyD;? ,ckigbk&m;um; xdkpOfu &aohjzpfz;l Ny[ D í l Zmwfuakd ygif;awmfryl gonf/ aZmf a emif usrf ; ud k ; ruú # Zmwf ig;&mh i g;q,f e d y gwf a wmf ? anmif u ef q &mawmf

pmrsuf E S m 36 rS cdk;oludkom twif;tusyf azmfxkwfcdkif;\/ þwGif y'ukovu ajr? rD;? xrif;? av? opfyif? acR;r? om; tm;xm;&m ckepfrsK;d rS ab;jzpfwwfyu kH kd Oyrmjyí ck;d olurkd azmfxw k f ckdif;yg&ef twefwefawmif;yef\/ odkYaomf rif;BuD;u r&t&awmif;qdkaeaomaMumifh? aemufqHk;wGif þtrIü cdk;olrSmrif;BuD;ESifh ya&m[dwfjzpfaMumif; ajymMum;vdkufav\/ tjzpf r S e f u d k o d & aomtcg pk a 0; a&muf&adS eMuaom vlrsm;pGmwko Yd nf rif;Bu;D ESihf yka&m[dwfudk 0dkif;0ef;½dkufESufMu&m ESpfOD;pvHk; xdkae&müyif aoqHk;oGm;MuNyD; vlrsm;pGmu y'ukovudkrif;tjzpfwifajr§muf vdkufMu awmh\/ þtaMumif;t&mwGif taetxm; rwlb0jcm;aeaom tarwpfa,mufu rdru d kd rcifwG,fpGefYy,fum ypfajy;oGm;aomom; aemufodkY aumufaumufvdkufum toufESifh xyfíay;tyfcJhonfh arG;ararwåmo½kyfjy wpfpdwfwpfa'oyifjzpfawmh\/ pma&;olvufvSrf;rD&m ruGma0;vS ao;aom tcsdefumvwpfckqDu tartdk wpfa,mufonf tdrfeD;0ef;usiftodrdwfaqG rsm;\ tvSLyJGjyKvkyfNyD; nbufw&m;yGJodkY oGm;a&mufw&m;em,l&ef ajymqdkaomtcg t&uform;om;vl&rf;um;u cifAsm;Bu;D oGm;&J &ifoGm;Munfh ajcaxmufESpfacsmif;vHk; ½dkufcsKd; ypfvdkufr,f[k Budrf;armif;ajymqdkaomaMumifh rdcifBu;D rSm om;tvdrk us a'gyGaeaomaMumifh

&mpkopf\ pdefac:rIrsKd;pkHukd Nidrf;csrf;aompdwf &J&ifhwnfMunfaom avmutjrifjzifh b0ukd &ifqkdifvsuf atmifjrifpGmjzwfoef;EkdifMuzkdY "r®0D&*sme,f zwfMupkdU

39

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