SAMPLE TEACHERS MANUAL LESSON 2 COMPUTER ELEMENTS Estimated Learning Time: 2 sessions Reference: ICT Stages 4 KEY STEPS pages 27-38 Values Formation:
Humility Appreciation Diligence
Learning Objectives At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to: identify the elements of computer system; discuss the elements of computer and show interest in discussing the elements of computer. Routinary Activities
Prayer Enlivener Review of the Past Lesson Lesson Proper Assessment / Evaluation
ICT Integration Computer Literacy Materials Teacher: Seating chart for the computer laboratory; textbooks for distribution; board and chalk; flash cards/ pictures of computer elements PowerPoint presentation of the computer elements
Pupils: Computer Book, notebook, pencil Strategies 1. Show pictures/ actual computer elements 2. Discuss the elements of computer. Motivation 1. 2. 3. 4.
Enlivener PowerPoint Presentation of the Computer elements Flash cards Games
Review of the Past Lesson Who is the Father of Modern Computer? Can you recite at least 5 inventors and their inventions? Lesson Proper A computer is an automatic and electronic machine that: accepts data and instruction from a user (INPUT); manipulate data according to instructions (PROCESS); store the data and instructions (STORAGE); and give meaningful results to the user (OUTPUT); The computer has four elements. They are as follows: 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Peopleware 4. Dataware
HARDWARE - refers to the physical parts of computer. These are the interconnected computer devices which can be seen and touched. Example of computer hardware according to its function: A. Input Devices – accept data and instructions from the users or other computer systems. Two most popular input devices for personal computer: 1. Keyboard – It is the standard input device. It consists of alphanumeric keys, numeric keys, arrow keys, function keys and other special keys for computer operations. 2. Mouse – is the most popular pointing input device. It is used to move across a mat or flat surface to move the cursor on a computer screen. Other input devices Trackball Touchpad Touchscreen Joystick Microphone Speech Recognition Image Scanner Eye Gaze Tracker Touch and Go Magic Trackpad Laser Pen Optical Card Reader
Graphics Tablet Pointing Stick Light Pen Web Camera Barcode Reader
Output devices – These are devices that return processed data back to the user or to another computer system. Below are some examples of output devices: 1. Monitor - displays the texts, videos and graphics information generated by the computer. They are very similar to televisions. Two kinds of monitor CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) 2. Printer – a device that accepts text and graphic output from a computer and transfers the information on paper.
3. Speaker and headphone – These are devices where you can hear sound. Storage Devices Storage devices are computer devices that hold data and information. There are two kinds of storage devices, the primary storage and the secondary storage. 1. Primary storage is also known as main memory. It is the internal storage of a computer that holds data for quick access by the computer’s processor. Examples of the primary storage are the following: a. Read Only Memory (ROM) b. Random Access Memory (RAM) 2. Secondary storage is sometimes called as the Auxiliary storage. It supplements the main memory. It stores data and instructions for future use. Other hardware devices: 1. Motherboard – It is the main circuit board that holds the CPU, RAM and any other computer peripheral. 2. RAM (Random Access Memory) - It temporarily stores data and instructions that are being fed in the computer. 3. AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) and 4. UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) AVR - as the name implies, is a device intended to regulate voltage automatically. UPS - It is also called a battery back-up. It’s a device that helps provides consistent power to a computer system.
SOFTWARE Software refers to a program that tells the computer what to do. These are sets of instructions that run on your machine and for the machine to follow. There are two kinds of software: 1. Operating System Software – This program is used by computer to control all the computer devices and coordinates its own activities. This is the most important software of the computer. Examples of system software: Windows systems such as Windows 7, Windows 8 etc. iOS Linux 2.
Application software – A generic term to any program which is intended for the users in performing specific task.
PEOPLEWARE This element refers to a person who uses computer or to a person who maintains and repairs it. A computer is just a machine invented by the people. It would not work without the help of a person who will use it. Examples of Peopleware: Computer Engineer Computer Teacher Computer Technician Webmaster System Analyst Computer Programmer Call Center Agent
DATAWARE Data consists of raw facts that allows the computer to manipulate and process them to become an information useful to people. Data can be classified as the following: Formatted data – Numerical and alphabetical data Text – series of letter and numbers and other special characters and symbols Image – data in the form of pictures, graph and drawings. Audio – data in the form of sounds Video – data that refers to a movie clip taken by video camera played in the computer. Valuing Appreciation and better care when using the computer by knowing the different computer elements needed to make the computer work. Assessment / Evaluation Knowledge Check (Activity 5 page 35) Process Check (Activity 6 page 36) Understanding Check (Activity 7 page 37) Performance Check (Activity 8 page 38) Please refer to the Answer key for the key to correction.