HELLENISMOS Λιγο ακομα θα ιδουμε τις αμυγδαλιες ν’ανθιζουν τα μαρμαρα να λαμπουν στον ηλιο τη θαλασσα να κυματιζει Λιγο ακομα, να σηκωθουμε λιγο ψηλοτερα. A little farther we will see the almond trees blossoming the marble gleaming in the sun the sea breaking into waves A little farther, let us rise a little higher
Giorgos Seferis, Nobel Poet Laureate
s we gather together to celebrate our Hellenic culture and offer thanks for our community, it is appropriate to recall the origins of Greek generosity. We all have heard that “the Greeks had a word for it.” In the case of philanthropy they had three key words for a generous person--euergetes, megalopsychos, and philanthropos. These terms have a long history in Greek tradition in its Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine expressions. The roots of a tradition of benefaction in Hellenic culture go back to the time of Homer, but it was Aristotle in his Nicomachean Ethics who clearly set forth two virtues for well born men, namely liberality and magnificence (megaloprepeia) related to the art of spending, giving, and receiving properly. Acts of magnificence provided for the “bread and circuses” of the ancient urban economies, they might include the offering of a city-wide feast, or the dedication of a public building such as the Library of Celsus in Ephesus. These were not considered charitable acts, but rather a way to display social status, pride in your city, and to promote the political interests of an ambitious
individual. Such activities were considered part of the proper practices of elite citizens who had individual responsibility for the collective body, the polis. Their actions were motivated by philotimia, the noble desire for glory and honors. It has been said that the Greek doctrine of magnificence is the self-portrait of Greek civilization. The Greek word for benefactor, euerget?s, had a long run in Hellenic history, and applied to kings, aristocrats, and local ruling elites. In the Byzantine period, Christ himself is invoked as euergetes in the Lamentations of the Holy Friday service.1 Those who through their money and public activity “did good to the city” (euergetein t?n polin) were honored with decrees and statues in towns and cities throughout the eastern Mediterranean. He who was virtuous and generous, Aristotle called megalopsychos, or great-souled. 2 This concept is represented on a spectacular floor mosaic found in the fifth century A.D. house in the great metropolis of Antioch in ancient Syria. At the center of a large dining room is the image of a lovely woman dressed in finery with jeweled collar and pearl earrings, is identified by a Greek label as Megalopsychia, and most likely refers to her gesture of dispersing coins. Surprisingly, we find Aristotle’s term still in use and meaningful to the Greek speaking people of Antioch, the city where St. Matthew wrote his gospel and Chrysostom wrote the Divine Liturgy. In Hellenistic times an important virtue of a great ruler was philanthropia, a term used to describe the love of a king for his subjects. But the king’s actions had to justify the love of his people, it was not automatically bestowed.
In Christian writings the term included the quality of mercy and almsgiving and was a virtue expected of saints and emperors, the imitators of Christ, the allruler. In Byzantine society the provisions for churches, hospices (xenodocheion), old age homes (gerokomeion), orphanages, and the like were a means to spiritual salvation. The Emperors and Empresses who dedicated churches in Constantinople are still rec ognized for those magnanimous acts. Today we celebrate with all of you who contributed under the leadership of George and Caterina Sakellaris to this event and to the funds for the new St. Catherine’s Greek Orthodox Church. 1 Encomia or Lamentations. Stanza III.6, “Those he fed with manna; lifted heels of spurning against their Benefactor” 2 Nicomachean Ethics IV.6. “that man is megalopsychos, the great souled, who deems himself worthy of great things and is indeed worthy of them,” Christine Kondoleon, George D. and Margo Behrakis Senior Curator of Greek and Roman Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
HE HOLY GREAT MARTYR CATHERINE THE WISE
St. Catherine was born during the latter part of the third cenWtury in Alexandria in Egypt. Being of royal lineage, she was immersed in the great cultural tradition of Alexandria and was exposed to learning at an early age. Tall, beautiful, cultured, and erudite, Catherine was held in high esteem for her mastery of the arts and sciences of her time. Innately intelligent and inquisitive, she acquainted herself with the writings of the philosophers, poets, physicians, and scientists of the Hellenes. In fact, in recognition of her superb learning, the Church gave her the title “the Wise.” Through the influence of her pious mother Catherine became a Christian in her youth. Her love of learning led her to the study of the sacred Scriptures and the writings of the Church Fathers. She became a devoted follower of the Lord Christ, an exemplary doer of God’s word, and an ardent defender of the Orthodox faith. Wise, modest, and pure Catherine gave her heart to Christ, the Bridegroom of the Church and the Savior of the world. On November 25, 305, while still in the prime of her youth, Catherine was martyred in the city of her birth during the reign of the impious
Roman Emperor Maxentius, who had begun anew a violent series of persecutions against Christians. When the Emperor had come to Alexandria he had an encounter with Catherine. He marveled at her loveliness and wisdom but was dreadfully dismayed by her defense of Christians. Because she was of imperial stock, he did not wish to harm her outrightly but hoped to humiliate her to submission. He ordered that she defend her faith in open debate with the renowned pagan orators and philosophers of Alexandria, hoping that she would be made a spectacle and thereby retreat to her pagan roots. Instead Catherine routed the rhetoricians. The Emperor was moved to wrath and ordered that Catherine be stripped of her imperial garb, flogged, and tortured. But neither the threats nor the tortures were able to sunder Catherine from Christ. Having failed to entice her, the cruel Emperor ordered her decapitation. The holy relics of St. Catherine were later brought to the Monastery of Mt. Sinai, founded in the fourth century in a remote location in the Sinai Peninsula on the site of the Burning Bush at the foot of Mt. Sinai (Exodus 3). Eventually, centuries after acquiring her relics, the Monastery took the name of St. Catherine.
The Icon of St. Catherine Because of her royal lineage, St. Catherine is depicted invariably in imperial garments holding a martyr’s cross. She is often shown seated at a desk upon which is an open book. Other books and a celestial sphere are at her feet, indicating her extensive knowledge and wisdom. She is also portrayed with her left hand resting on a wheel, the symbol of progress but in her case the emblem of her martyrdom. The Apolytikion (Hymn) of St. Catherine Let us extol the alllauded Bride of Christ, the holy Catherine, the guardian of Sinai, who is our helper and support. For, she silenced utterly the subtleties of the impious by the power of the Holy Spirit. And now, crowned a Martyr, she asks great mercy for us all.
Την πανευφημον νυμφην Χρισ του υμνησ ω μεν, Α ικ ατ εριν α ν την θειαν και πολιουχον Σινα, την βοηθειαν ημων και αντιληψιν, οτι εφημωσε λ α μπρως του ς κομψο υ ς τω ν α σεβων του Πν ε υμ ατ ο ς τ η δυ ν α μ ε ι, κ α ι νυν ως μαρτυς στεφθεισα, αι τ ει ται πα σι τ ο μ ε γα ε λ ε ο ς . 11
aint Catherine Church A Brief HistorY Following World War II, a growing number of Greek Orthodox people began to populate the southern and western suburbs of Boston, which, at the time, were being serviced by the clergy of Boston. By the late 1950s, however, it was apparent that a new church was needed at the gateway to the South Shore to serve the spiritual, educational, cultural, and social needs of the growing needs of the faithful living in the cities and towns that constitute the “South Shore.” Thus, in 1958 a group of dedicated families devoted to the Church and to their ancestral heritage organized the “South Shore Hellenic Association” to pursue the establishment of a Greek Orthodox Parish under the jurisdiction of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. While petitioning the Archdiocese for a Charter, the Association sought to purchase property for a church. Finally, in the latter part of 1960 after a period of search, negotiations, and fund raising, the Association purchased the United First Parish Church of Quincy located on
Beale and Farrington Streets and renovated and converted it into an Orthodox church with all the essential liturgical appointments. In due course, the new Church was dedicated to and named after the Great Martyr Catherine, the saintly and wise maiden of Alexandria. The newly established Parish of St. Catherine began functioning on October 23, 1960 with the appointment of an interim priest and a permanent pastor one year later. After two decades of existence, it became evident that the Parish was outgrowing the Beale Street property with its limited possibilities for expansion. Thus, in 1982 the Parish made a bold move and purchased the former six-acre site of the old Pappas Farm and Picnic Grounds just off the main highways in Braintree, MA. The plans for the future church and community center at the Braintree site, however, evolved slowly due to several factors. The fullness of time for the new church and center came at the turn of the century. In 2000, the Parish established a Building Committee to develop plans for the Braintree site.
In 2001 an architect was engaged to design and oversee the construction of the new Center and Church. On October 9, 2004 with great joy the Parish made the transition from Quincy to Braintree. For three plus years (2004-2008) the faithful worshipped in the Grand Hall of the newly built Community Center, the Hall being converted into an interim sanctuary. Thus a new chapter was opened in the life of the Parish. In the summer of 2007 the Parish embarked on Phase II of its building program. After careful planning and new fund-raising activities construction on the new Church began in earnest. Thanks to the hard work of many volunteers and the generous offerings of many contributorsâ€”beginning with the magnanimous gifts of the Grand Patrons and Sponsors of the new Church, George and Caterina Sakellarisâ€”Phase I and II of the building program of the Parish have been brought to a successful conclusion. On March 29 & 30, 2008 with His Eminence Metropolitan Methodios presiding the Parish celebrated The Thyranoixia (The Door Opening Ceremonies) of the new Church and laid claim to the new magnificent
edifice as its permanent house of worship, on the cornerstone of which are inscribed the words: “My House shall be called a House of Prayer for all Peoples” (Is. 56: 7). The new complex of buildings – with its distinctive brick façade, handsome Community Center, and beautiful imposing Byzantine style Church – sits in lovely rustic surroundings with ample parking. The new Church is a unique addition to the architectural landscape of Braintree, a splendid landmark at the gateway to the South Shore, and a beautiful contribution to the presence of Orthodox in New England. While much work remains to be done, including the decoration of the Church and the further beautification of the site, in Braintree the Parish of St. Catherine has found not only a brand new home but also a renewed sense of purpose and mission. The new Church serves to remind us of that mission. Through its architectural style, organizational principles, and decorative program, it expresses tangibly (as all traditional Orthodox temples do) the movement of the Incarnation - the movement of God’s descent into the world, the movement of the bowed heavens– by which the advancement of ALL creation towards its ultimate restoration was begun. As an epiphany of the transfigured world, the church edifice itself has a sacramental character. It is a window unto another reality, a glimpse of the Last Day when the created world “will be set free from its bondage to decay and obtain the glorious liberty of the children of God” (Rom. 8:21) to share in the benefits wrought by the saving work of Jesus Christ.
As You, O Lord, who are the life and the resurrection of all, showed forth both the loveliness of the heavens above and the beauty of the holy tabernacle of Your glory below, so now also make firm this Temple unto the ages of ages. By the intercessions of the Theotokos, receive also our prayers that will be offered unceasingly therein.
ST CATHERINE’S GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH BRAINTREE BOSTON
very Greek has one of these stories. Mine happened in Botswana.
I was a young reporter at the time, stationed in South Africa, and had flown to Gaberone with friends. We’d driven 12 hours through unmarked bush, and were ensconced at a river lodge in Maun, in the Okavango Swamps, a crocodile-infested wilderness. To say we were hundreds, if not thousands of miles from what a reasonable person might consider “civilization,” is to understate the case. Needing to cash a traveler’s check, I found myself directed downriver, to what resembled a small airplane hanger. It was a store selling grain and seeds and rope. The proprietor asked for my passport.. Ellenitha ises te?, he cried, reading my name. His eyes widened. His arms opened. He broke into a crazed grin. “You’re Greek!” he shouted joyfully, inviting me and my friends back that night to join him, his nephews and cousins, all from Sparta, for roast goat in the jungle. So what is it? About the Greeks I mean. Mostly we have traveled to find a better life. We left Greece because our villages were poor, or because Greece suffered from endless wars and famine, from foreign occupation. Greeks also traveled for positive reasons– because we were entrepreneurial
and curious, because there was opportunity in America. Because we always believed that with faith, family loyalty and hard work, we could make a better life. And we often did. The first great migration of Greeks to America – was in 1763, when Florida passed from Spanish into British hands and several influential Englishmen decided to establish a plantation – the ill-fated New Smyrna colony – by bringing in Greek settlers from Asia Minor. Jumping ahead to the early 19th Century, and the Greek War of Independence (1821-1827), there was a remarkable flowering of Greek-American relations when the Hellenic cause garnered an astonishing flowering of support from influential Americans (and Europeans) and when, in this great outpouring of American Philhellenism, 40 Greek orphans were brought to the United States. They were brought both by individual patrons as well as by the American Board of Foreign Missions, which is still located here in Boston at 14 Beacon Street. Many of these orphans grew up to become prominent in America including John Zachos, an educational pioneer among blacks after the civil war and early proponent of education for women and Evangelos Sophocles, who became a professor of Greek at Harvard. Another trickle of Greeks in the 19th Century came from sailors arriving at various US ports, but in the late 1890s and into the 20th Century, the trickle turned into a stream and then into a might river.
There was a great mass migration of Greeks out of the rural villages into the American cities of the Industrial Revolution – Chicago, New York, Boston, Lowell and Lawrence and Bangor, Maine. Some Greeks went West, and as early at 1907, there were a thousand working on the railroads in Utah and Colorado. They worked in the factories and farms of America. They were waiters and had pushcarts and ice cream stores. They opened shops and restaurants and educated their children and were faithful to the Greek Orthodox Church. They fought in both World Wars and there was another great wave of immigration later in the 20th Century, after the Greek civil war. Mostly, Greeks assimilated. They wanted to educate their children and to succeed. But they also wanted to keep their language and their customs and their religion. Their Greekness. Today, over two-thirds of all marriages performed in the Greek Orthodox Church are between people of Greek descent and non-Greek partners. There are third and fourth generation GreekAmericans all over America whose background includes other ethnicities – Italian and Irish, Jewish and French. Second only to the Jews, Greek Americans are educated and wealthy way out of proportion to their demographic numbers. And they retain that joy – in finding another Hellene or a Philhellene, someplace in the world when one least expects it. Like a colleague I was speaking with recently, a New England WASP, who told me when I told him about writing this article. “You know. I’m Greek too. Oneeighth. I had a Greek grandfather”. Maria Karagianis, Director of US Operations for Anatolia College, is a former Boston Globe reporter who writes frequently for magazines.
Intelligible sun of Justice and you, glorifying myrtle, do not, I implore you, do not forget my country! Its high mountains eagleshaped, its volcanos all vines in rows, and itshouses the whiter for neighboring near the blue! Though touching Asia on one side and Europe a little on the other, it stands there alone in the air and alone in the sea! Neither a foreignerâ€™s concept nor a kinsmanâ€™s one love, but mourning, oh, everywhere and the relentless light! My bitter hands circle with the Thunderbolt to the other side of Time, I summon my oId friends with threats and running blood! But the blood has all been ransomed and, oh, the threats quarried, and the winds rush in now, the one against the other! Intelligible sun of Justice and you, glorifying myrtle, do not, I implore you, do not forget my country! The Axion Esti ODYSSEUS ELYTIS
Της δικαιοσυνης ηλιε νοητε και μυρσινη συ δοξαστικη μη παρακαλω σας μη λησμονατε τη χωρα μου! Spiritual sun of Justice and you myrtle of glory do not, I beg you, do not forget my homeland! Odysseus Elytis Nobel Poet Laureate 23
“To create a greater awareness and understanding of the extraordinary achievements of Greek culture from antiquity to the present” The Greek Institute, a non-profit 501(c)3 cultural and educational center, was founded by Dr. Athan Anagnostopoulos, well known educator and translator of Nobel poet laureates George Seferis and Odysseus Elytis, and is managed by Maria Anagnostopoulos. The Greek Institute, located in a neo-classic building at 1038 Massachusetts Avenue in Cambridge at Harvard Square, has been offering high quality programs in Greek culture since the spring of 1990. A chronology of its programs over the last 18 years may be viewed at www.thegreekinstitute.org. Thousands have enjoyed the Greek Institute’s language classes in Homeric, classical and modern Greek, the Author/Lecture series, art exhibitions, Music and Film series, dramatic readings, publications, and collaborations with other cultural and educational institutions both in the United States and Greece. Some of the major, upcoming initiatives of The Greek Institute include:
• A capital campaign which will launch in 2009 to develop the property at 1038 Massachusetts Avenue and create an endowment fund for The Greek Institute. • An increased focus on the arts, especially music. • The expansion of a national and international network, with a focus on the co-sponsorship of events with other Greek-American cultural organizations. • The publication of bilingual editions, especially of modern Greek literature. In addition, Dr. Athan Anagnostopoulos is also the Director of the Thesavros Tis Hellenikes Glosses project - The Treasure of the Greek Language project in Athens Greece, the aim of which is the digital recording and diachronic research of Greek literary, historical, philosophical and other texts from Homer to the present day. The Thesavros project has just entered into an exciting new collaboration with Google. Through this collaboration, advanced search capabilities will soon make the treasures of the whole of Greek literature accessible on the internet. The Greek Institute is the Thesavros’ partner in the United States. For more information on this project, log on to www. thesavros.gr.
We would like to congratulate Caterina and George Sakellaris for envisioning and leading the effort to bring this major event, Pops Goes Hellenic, to the Greek-American community. We are honored to be a part of it. Athan and Maria Anagnostopoulos
f anyone should entertain some uncertainty about the origins of modern Western civilization, let him or her hear the statement I will now read from the funeral oration oj Athenian statesman Pericles, which dates from the fifth century BC. “Our constitution is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people. When it is a question of settling private disputes, everyone is equal before the law. When it is a question of putting one person before another in positions of public responsibility, what counts is not membership. of a particular class, but the actual ability which the man possesses. “No one, so long as he has it in him to be of service to the state, is kept in political obscurity because of poverty. And, just as our political life is free and open, so is our day-to-day life in our relations with each other. “We do not get into a state with our next-door neighbor if he enjoys himself in his own way, nor do we give him the kind of dark looks which, though they do no real harm, still do hurt other people’s feelings .
“We are free and tolerant in our private lives; but in public affairs we keep to the law. This is because it commands our deep respect.” You have just heard seven of the most powerful sentences ever written in any language. In just seven sentences Pericles mentioned almost every major ideal of our society today, including democracy, freedom, equality, justice, tolerance, equal opportunity advancement on the· basis of merit, respect for privacy, civil rights and the rule of law . Though these ideals were first articulated hundreds of years ago, they retain every bit of their potency today. It is true that America provided the example of democracy that inspired Eastern Europe. But it is equally true that Greece provided the example of democracy that inspired America . All this from a small, sunny Mediterranean land that centuries ago exploded with the greatest single burst of creativity mankind has ever known. Each of us has been influenced by Greece. Each of us owes something to Greece. And each of us living in this society today is in some important way a Greek away from the homeland.
Now that you are leaving, take the boy with you too, the boy who saw the light under that plane tree, one day when trumpets resounded and weapons shone and the sweating horses bent to the trough to touch with wet nostrils the green surface of the water. The olive trees with the wrinkles of our fathers the rocks with the wisdom of our fathers and our brotherâ€™s blood alive on the earth were a vital joy, a rich pattern for the souls who knew their prayer. Now that you are leaving, now that the day of payment dawns, now that no one knows whom he will kill and how he will die, take with you the boy who saw the light under the leaves of that plane tree and teach him to study the trees. Giorgos SEFERIS
EPIPHANY, 1937 The flowering sea and the mountains in the moon’s waning the great stone close to the Barbary figs and the asphodels the jar that refused to go dry at the end of day and the closed bed by the cypress trees and your hair golden; the stars of the Swan and that other star, Aldebaran. I’ve kept a hold on my life, kept a hold on my life traveling among yellow trees in driving rain on silent slopes loaded with beech leaves no fire on their peaks; it’s getting dark. I’ve kept a hold on my life; on your left hand a line a scar at your knee, perhaps they exist on the sand of the past summer perhaps they remain there where the north wind blew as I hear an alien voice around the frozen lake. The faces I see do not ask questions nor does the woman bend as she walks giving her child the breast. I climb the mountains; dark ravines; the snow-covered plain, into the distance stretches the snow-covered plain they ask nothing neither time shut up in dumb chapels nor hands outstretched to beg, nor the roads. I’ve kept a hold on my life whispering in a boundless silence I no longer know how to speak nor how to think; whispers like the breathing of the cypress 34
tree that night like the human voice of the night sea on pebbles like the memory of your voice saying “happiness.” I close my eyes looking for the secret meeting place of the waters under the ice the sea’s smile, the closed wells groping with my veins for those veins that escape me there where the waterlilies end and that man who walks blindly across the snows of silence. I’ve kept a hold on my life, with him, looking for the water that touches you heavy drops on green leaves, on your face in the empty garden, drops in the motionless reservoir striking a swan dead in its white wings living trees and your eyes staring. This road has no end, has no relief, however hard you try to recall your childhood years, those who left, those lost in sleep, in the graves of the sea, however much you ask bodies you’ve loved to stoop under the harsh branches of the plane-trees there where a ray of the sun, naked, stood still and a dog leapt and your heart shuddered, the road has no relief; I’ve kept a hold on my life. The snow and the water frozen in the hoofmarks of the horses. GiORGOS SEFERIS 35
To you, Mother of God, champion and leader, I, your city [Constantinople], delivered from sufferings, ascribe the prize of victory and my thanks. And may you, in your invincible power, free me from all kinds of dangers, that I may cry to you: “Hail, wedded maiden and virgin.” “Hail to you through whom joy will shine out; hail to you through whom the curse shall pass away; hail, redemption of fallen Adam; hail, deliverance of the tears of Eve; hail, height unattainable by human thought; hail, depth inviosible even to the eyes of angels; hail to you, the throne of the king; hail to you who bear him, the bearer of all; hail, start that heralds the sun hail, womb of divine incarnation; hail to you through whom creation is reborn; hail to you through whom the Creator becomes a child; hail, wedded maiden and virgin.”
ncient Greek Shipwrecks
The greatest Classical bronze statues in existence today have one thing in common: they were all recovered from the sea. The sea preserves some archaeological artifacts better than any other environment. This fact lies at the foundation of a unique research partnership between American and Greek scientists. The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is cooperating with the Hellenic Ministry of Culture to document ancient shipwrecks in Greece’s national waters. In the past three years WHOI and the Hellenic Ministry of Culture have documented four wrecks in the Aegean, dating from the time of Plato to the Greek War of Independence. WHOI deep submergence technology brings the entire Mediterranean sea floor and its artifacts within view of scientists, regardless of water depth. WHOI’s newest robots like SENTRY (pictured here) can stay submerged for days at a time, searching underwater terrain for shipwrecks. New realms of exploration open when WHOI technology is united with Greek archaeologists’ knowledge. Over the next several years, our common goal is to locate and investigate many dozens of shipwrecks, dating back to the dawn of civilization. In the ancient past sailing was the fastest, most efficient, and safest way to move goods or people. However, it was not perfectly safe, and some fractional percentage of sailing voyages ended in shipwreck. These wrecks represent a random sampling of everything that ever traveled across the Mediterranean. They are the key to understanding the sudden emergence and proliferation of complex societies in the Bronze Age, 3000-1200 B.C. Systematic study of ancient shipwrecks will illuminate the most important event in the human experience: the invention of civilization. Fabulous discoveries await, perhaps including artwork as captivating as the life-sized “Artemision Zeus” bronze statue. Other discoveries may be less photogenic but equally important windows on the past. Our team recently developed
a revolutionary new technique to determine the original contents of amphoras, the ubiquitous ceramic transport jars of antiquity. Combining molecular biology with archaeology, we extracted 2400 year-old DNA from amphoras recovered from a Classical shipwreck. The amphoras appeared completely empty, but ancient DNA identified the cargo as olive products preserved and flavored with oregano. Seaborne trade linked the Mediterraneanâ€™s ancient cultures. Archaeological study of that trade binds todayâ€™s societies with the past, revealing common historical roots. This international partnership draws Greeks and Americans closer together, reminds us of our shared heritage, and builds relationships now and for the future. By combining science and engineering with the humanities, this research offers interdisciplinary and international educational experiences for undergraduate and graduate students. This program is sponsored by private citizens in Greece and the United States, supplemented by government agencies. For more details, visit us on the web at http://www.whoi.edu/sites/ archaeology, or contact Dr. Brendan Foley (firstname.lastname@example.org, tel: 508.289.3766) at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Brendan Foley
Ceramic amphoras transported all manner of goods in the ancient world. A revolutionary new technique developed by WHOI researchers and our Greek partners allows us to determine the original contents of now empty amphoras from ancient DNA preserved within the ceramic
The â€œArtemision Zeusâ€? Classical bronze statue (circa 460 B.C.), recovered from underwater near Euboia, Greece in 1928
reek Ways of Thinking
To indicate the scope and aim of the following pages it will be best to say at once that they are based on a short course of lectures designed for an audience of undergraduates who were reading any subject other than classics. It was assumed that those who were listening knew no Greek, but that an interest in some other subject, such as English, History or mathematics (for there was at least one mathematician among them), or perhaps nothing more than general reading, had given them the impression that Greek ideas were at the bottom of much in later European thought and consequently a desire to know more exactly what these Greek ideas had been in the first place. They had, one might suppose, encountered them already, but in a series of distorting mirrors, according as this or that writer in England, Germany or elsewhere had used them for his own purposed and tinged them with the quality of his own mind and age, or, it may be was unconsciously influenced by them in the formulation of his views. Some had read works of Plato and Aristotle in translation, and must have found parts of them from the climate of a later age and a different country. Acting on these assumptions I tried, and shall now try for any readers who may be in a similar position, to give some account of Greek philosophy from its beginnings, to explain Plato and Aristotle in the light of their predecessors rather than their successors, and to convey some idea of the characteristic features of the Greek way of thinking and outlook on the world. I shall make little or no reference to their influence on thinkers of later Europe or of our own country. This is not due only to the limitations imposed by my own ignorance, but also to a belief that it will be more enjoyable and profitable for a reader to detect such influence and draw comparisons for himself, out of his own reading and sphere of interests. My object will be, by talking about the Greeks for themselves and for their own sake, to give the material for such comparison and a solid basis on which it may rest. A certain work on existentialism shows, so I have read, a ‘genealogical tree’ of the existentialist philosophy. At its root is placed Socrates, apparently on the ground that he was the author of the saying “know thyself’. Apart from the question whether Socrates meant by these words anything like what the twentieth-century Existentialist means, this ignores the fact that the saying was not the invention of Socrates abut a proverbial piece of Greek wisdom whose author, if one must attribute it to someone, can only be said to have been the god Apollo. At any rate it was known to Socrates, and every other Greek, as one of the age-old precepts which were inscribed on the walls of Apollo’s temple at Delphi. That it belonged to the teaching of Apolline religion is not unimportant, and the example, though small, will serve to illustrate the sort of distortion which even a brief out line of ancient thought may help to prevent.
The approach which I have suggested should have the advantage of showing up certain important differences between the Greek ways of thought and our own, which tend to e obscured when (for example) Greek atomic science or Plato’s theory of the State are uprooted from their natural soil in the earlier and contemporary Greek world and regarded in isolation as the forerunners of modern atomic physics or political theory. For all the immense debt which Europe, and with Europe England, owe to Greek culture, the Greeks remain in many respects a remarkably Foreign people, and to get inside their minds requires a real effort, for it means unthinking much that has become part and parcel of our mental equipment so that we carry it about with us unquestioningly and for the most part unconsciously. In the great days of Victorian scholarship, when the Classics were regarded as furnishing models, not only intellectual but moral, for the English gentleman to follow, there was perhaps a tendency to overemphasize similarities and lose sight of differences. The scholarship of our own day, in many respects inferior, has this advantage, that it is based both on a more intensive study of Greek habits of thought and linguistic usage and on a more extensive acquaintance with the mental equipment of earlier peoples both in Greece and elsewhere, Thanks in part to the progress of anthropology, and to the work of classical scholars acute enough to see the relevance to their studies of some of the anthropologists’ results, we can claim without arrogance to be in a better position to appreciate the hidden foundations of Greek thought, the presuppositions which they accepted tacitly as we to –day accept the established rules of logic or the fact of the earth’s rotation. And here it must be said frankly, though with no wish to dwell on a difficulty at the outset, that to understand Greek ways of thinking without some knowledge of the Greek language is not easy. Language and thought are inextricably interwoven, and interact on one another. Words have a history and associations, which for those who use them contribute an important part of the meaning, not least because their effect is unconsciously felt rather than intellectually apprehended. Even in contemporary languages, beyond a few words for material objects, it is practically impossible to translate a work so as to give exactly the same impression to a foreigner is given by the original to those who hear it in their own country. With the Greeks, these difficulties are greatly increased by the lapse of time and difference of cultural environment, which when two modern European nations are in question is so largely shared between them. When we have to rely on single-word English equivalents like ‘justice’ or “virtue” without an acquaintance with the various usages of their Greek counterparts in different contexts, we not only lose a great deal of the
content of the Greek words but import our own English associations which are often quite foreign to the intention of the Greek It will therefore be necessary sometimes to introduce Greek terms, and explain as clearly as possible how they were used. If this should have the effect of enticing some to learn Greek, or refurbish any Greek which many have been learned at school and dropped in favour of other things, that will be all to the good. But the present account will continue on the assumption that any Greek word used needs to be explained. Before going further, a few examples would perhaps be helpful to bring out my meaning when I say that a if we want to understand and ancient Greek thinker like Plato it is important to know something of the history, affinities and usage of at any rate the most important of the terms which he employs, rather than resting content with loose English equivalents like ‘justice’, ‘virtue’, and ‘god’, which are all that we find in most translations. I cannot begin better than by a quotation form Cornford’s preface to his own translation of the Republic. Many key words, such as ‘music’, ‘gymnastic’, ‘virtue’, ‘philosophy’, have shifted their meaning or acquired false associations for English ears. One who opened Jowett’s version at random and lighted on the statement that the best guardian for a man’s ‘virtue’ is philosophy tempered with music’, might run away with the idea that, in order to avoid irregular relations with women, he had better play the violin in the intervals of studying metaphysics. There may be sine truth in this; but only after reading widely in other parts of the book would he discover that it was not quite what Plato meant by describing logos. Combined with musike, as the only sure safeguard of arête. Let us take three terms which will be generally agreed to stand for concepts fundamental in the writings of any moral or metaphysical philosopher in which they occur-the words which we translate respectively as of ‘justice’ ‘virtue’ and ‘god’. The word translated ‘justice’ is dike, from which comes an adjective dikaios, ‘just’, and from that again a longer form of the noun, dikaiosyne, and ‘the state of being dikaios’. The last word is the one generally used by Plato in the famous discussion of the nature of ‘justice’ in the Republic. Now the original meaning of dike may have been literally a way or path. Whether or not that is its etymological origin, its earliest significance in Greek, literature is certainly no more than the way in which a certain class of people usually behaves, or the normal course of nature. There is no implication that it is the right way, nor does the word Contain any suggestion of obligation. In the Odyssey, when Penelope is reminding the servants what a good master Odysseus was, she says that he never did or said anything that was cruel or overweening,
nor did he have favourites, ‘as is the dike of lords’ i.e. It is the way they are wont to behave. When Emmaus the swineherd entertains his master unawares, he apologizes for the simplicity of his fare by saying: ‘what I offer is little, though willingly given, for that is the dike of serfs like myself, who go ever in fear.’ It is, he means, the normal thing, what is to be expected. Describing a disease, the medical writer Hippocrates says, ‘Death does not follow these symptoms in the course of dike’, meaning simply, ‘does not normally follow. It was easy for such a word to slip from this purely nonmoral sense of what was to be expected in the normal course of events, and to take on something of the flavour which we imply when we speak of what is expected of a man’, i.e. that he will act decently, pay his debts and so forth. This transition came about early, and in the poetry of Aeschylus, a century before Plato, Dike is already personified as the majestic spirit of righteousness seated on a throne by the side of Zeus. Yet it is impossible that the earlier meaning of the word should have ceased to colour the minds of the men who used it, and who as children had learned to read from the pages of Homer. Indeed a kind of petrified relic remained throughout in the use of accusative, diken, as a preposition to mean ’like’ or ‘after the manner of ‘. At the conclusion of the attempts to define ’justice’ in the Republic, after several definitions have been rejected which more or less correspond to our notions of what we mean by the work the one which is finally accepted in this: justice, dikaiolsyne, the stated of the man who follows kike, is no more than ‘minding your own business’, doing the thing, or following the way, which is properly your own, and not mixing yourself up in the ways of other people and trying to do their jobs for them. Does it sometimes seem to us rather a mouse like result to be born of such mountains of discussion? If so, it may make it a little more interesting to reflect that what Plato has done is to reject the meanings of the word which were current in his own day, and with a possibly unconscious historical sense to go back to the original meaning of the work. It was rooted in the class-distinctions of the old Homeric aristocracy, where right action was summed up in a man’s knowing his proper place and sticking to it, and to Plato, who was founding a new aristocracy, class-distinctions based this time on a clearly thought-out division of functions determined by psychological considerations, but class-distinctions nevertheless were the mainstay of the state. Our second example is the word generally rendered ‘virtue’. This is arête. It is used in the plural as well as the singular, and the first ting to grasp about it is that, as Aristotle said, it is a relative term, not one used absolutely s the English ‘virtue’ is. Arête meant being
good at something and it was natural for a Greek on hearing the word to ask: “The arête of what or whom? It is commonly followed by a dependent genitive or a limiting adjective. (I make no apology for introducing these grammatical terms, for the point I want to bring home is that grammar and thought, language and philosophy, are inextricably intertwined, and that, while it is only too easy to dismiss something as a ‘purely linguistic matter’, there can in fact be no such thing as a divorce between the expression of a thought and its content.) Arete then is a word which by itself is incomplete. There is the arête of wrestlers, riders, generals, shoemakers, slaves. There is political arête, domestic arête, military arête. It meant in fact’ efficiency’. In the fifth century B .C. a class of itinerant teachers arose, the Sophists, who claimed to impart arête, especially that of the politician and the public speaker. This did not mean that their teaching was primary ethical, though the more conservative of them certainly included morality in their conception of political virtue. What they wished to emphasize was it practical and immediately useful nature. Arete was vocational, and the correspondence course in business efficiency, had it existed in ancient Greece. Would undoubtedly have had the word arête prominently displayed in its advertisements. It could of course be used by itself when there was no doubt of the meaning. So used it would be understood to stand for the kind of excellence most prized by a particular community. Thus among Homer’s warrior -chiefs it stood for valour. Its use by Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle had an element of novelty. They qualified it by the adjective anthropine, ‘human,’ thus giving it a general sense –the excellence of a man as such, efficiency in living-and surprised people by suggesting that they did not know what this was, but that it was something which must be searched for. The search meant- note the legacy of arête as a word of practical import-the discovery of the function-ergon, the work or job-of man. Just as a soldier, a politician and a shoemaker have a certain function, so, they argued, there must be a general function which we all have to perform in virtue of our common humanity. Find that out, and you will know in what human excellence or arête consists. This generalization, which alone brings the meaning of the word anywhere near so that of ‘virtue’, was to some extent and innovation of the philosophers and even with them the influence of its essentially practical import never, disappeared. Arete then meant first of all skill or efficiency at a particular job, and it will be agreed that such efficiency depends on a proper understanding or knowledge of the job in hand. It is not therefore surprising that when the philosophers generalized the notion to include the proper performance of his function by any human being as such, its connexion with knowledge should have persisted. Everyone has heard of
the”Socratic paradox’ his statement that ‘virtue is knowledge’. Perhaps it begins to look a little less paradoxical when we see that what it would naturally mean to a contemporary was more like: “You can’t be efficient unless you take the trouble to learn the job.” The third example is the Greek word for god-theos. When we are trying to understand Plato’s religious views, we as students of religion or philosophy attach importance to the question of whether he was a polytheist or monotheist-two words invented, from Greek roots indeed, but in modern times, to cover a modern, non-Greek classification. We compare the words of Plato (often in translation) with those of Christian, Indian or other theologians. Count of his native language, bearing in mind a good point made by the German scholar Wilamowitz that theos, the Greek word which we have in mind when we speak of Plato’s god, has primarily a predicative force. That is to say, the Greeks did not, As Christians or Jews did, first assert the existence of God and then proceed to enumerate his attributes, saying “God is good’, “God is love’ and so forth. Rather they were so impressed or awed by the things in life or nature remarkable either for joy or fear That they said “this is a god’ or ‘that is a god’. The Christian says “God is love’, the Greek ‘Love is theos’, or ‘a god’. As another writer has explained it: ‘by saying that love, or victory, is god, or, to be more accurate, a god, was meant first and foremost that it is more than human, not subject to death, everlasting…Any power, any force we see at work in the world, which is not born with us and will continue after we are gone could thus be called a god, and most of them were. In this state of mind, and with this sensitiveness to the superhuman character of many things which happen to us, and which give us, it may be, sudden stabs of joy or pain which we do not understand a Greek poet could write lines like: ‘recognition between friends is theos’. It is a state of mind which obviously has no small bearing on the much-discussed question of monotheism or polytheism in Plato, if indeed it does not rob the question of meaning altogether. Cornford in his inaugural lecture at Cambridge remarked that philosophical discussion in any given epoch is governed to a surprising extent by a set of assumptions which are seldom or never mentioned. These assumptions are ‘that groundwork of current conceptions shared by all men of any given culture and never mentioned because it is taken for granted as obvious’. He quotes Whitehead as writing: “When you are criticizing the philosophy of an epoch, do not chiefly direct your attention to those intellectual positions which its exponents feel it necessary explicitly to defend. There will be some fundamental assumptions which adherents of all the variant systems within the epoch unconsciously presuppose.’ That is where knowledge of the language comes in. By studying the ways in which the Greeks used their wordsnot only the philosophers, but poets and orators and
historians in a variety of contexts and situationswe are able to get a certain insight into the unconscious presuppositions of the epoch in which they lived. As another example of the unconscious presuppositions of the epoch, we may remind ourselves how close were the Greeks in early times, and many of the common people throughout the classical period, to the magical stage of thought. Magic is a primitive form of applied science. Whether or not spirits or gods are thought to enter at some stage into the process, their actions are compelled by the man in possession of the proper magical technique no less than if they were inanimate objects. The sorcerer sets in train a certain sequence of events, and cause and effect then follow with the same certainty as if one took good aim with a rifle and pulled the trigger. Applied science is based on laws of nature. So was magic, though its laws were such as we have ceased to believe in. Fundamental was the law of sympathy, which posited a natural connexion between certain things which to us seem to have no such connexion at all. Its effect was that where two tings are thus connected, then whatever one of them does or suffers the other will inevitably do or suffer too. This sort of connexion exists between a man and his image or portrait. It exists also between the man and any thing which once was part of him like hairtrimmings or nail-parings, or even clothes which through close on tact have become charged with his personality. Hence the will-known practices of ill-treating a doll which has been given the name of an enemy, or turning (with the proper incantations) his hair or a bread of his coat. Sympathy exists moreover between things or people and their names. Even to write the name of an enemy on a lead plate, transfix it and bury it (thus consigning it to the power of the underworld), could injure or kill him. This is a practice which, though primitive in the extreme, was rife in the neighborhood of Athens itself in the fourth century B.C. that is in the lifetimes of Plato and Aristotle To people who think like this, the name is clearly as real as the thing, and belongs very closely to it.” A name,” as somebody has said ‘is as much a part of a person as limb.’ Now Plato’s dialogue Cratylus deals with the origin of language, and is largely concerned with the question whether the names of things belong to them ‘by nature’ or ‘by convention’ whether they are attached as a natural part of the thing or only arbitrarily imposed by man. The question sounds nonsensical, and there seems to be a thick screen between us and people who could spend hours discussing it. But it becomes more interesting in the light of what I have been saying, and of the works of anthropologists like those of the French school represented by Levy-Bruhl, who argues for what he calls the pre-logical mentality of primitive man,
a stage of human development when the actual processes of thought are different from ours and what we call logic has no place. He has been criticized for this, and I think rightly. It is not that the human mind ever worked on entirely different lines, but simply that in the then state of knowledge the premises from which men reasoned were so different that they inevitably came to what are in our eyes very odd conclusions. The results are the same in either case. Certain things are connected or even identified in their minds in what we regard as an unreasonable way. The point of view of Cratylus in Plato’s dialogue betrays just the state of mind in which magical association is possible when he says: ‘It seems to me quite simple. The man who knows the names knows the things’ Socrates asks him if he is to understand him as meaning that the man discovered a name has discovered the thing of which it is the name, and he agrees that that is exactly what he wants to convey. It is interesting how, when he is driven back by the argument, he finally resorts to a supernatural explanation of the origin of words; “I think the truest account of these matters is this, Socrates, that some power greater than human laid down the first names for things, so that they must inevitably be the right ones.’ Similar conceptions may help when we come later to consider the conception of logos in Heraclitus, which seems so puzzlingly to be at the same time the word he utters, the truth which it contains, and the external reality which he conceives himself to be describing, and to which he gave the name of fire. The Pythagoreans, being a religious brotherhood as well as a philosophical school, show many traces of it. The earlier of them maintained that ‘things were numbers’. To demonstrate it they said: Look! 1 is a point (.), 2 a line ( ____ ) , 3 a surface (/_\) , and 4 a solid. Thus you have solid bodies generated from numbers.’ We may call this an unwarrantable and indeed incomprehensible leap form the abstract intellectual conceptions of mathematics to the solid realities of nature. The pyramid which they have made of the number 4 is not a pyramid of stone or wood, but non-material, a mere concept of the mind. Aristotle was already too far removed from their mentality to understand it, and complained that they ‘made weightless entities the elements of entities which had weight’. But the anthropologist tell us again: “Pre-logical mentality, which has no abstract concepts at command…does not distinctly separate the number from the objects numbered.’ Numbers in fact like everything else—whether objects or what we should distinguish from objects as mere conventional symbols, words or names – are endowed with magical properties and affinities of their own. Some knowledge of these facts should help us to approach these early Pythagoreans a little more sympathetically.
Before leaving this subject a warning must be uttered (strange as it may seem) against giving too much weight to what I have been saying. Pythagoras was not a primitive. The analogy with the primitive mind takes us a certain way and not further. He was a mathematical genius. He discovered among other things that the concordant notes in the musical octave correspond to fixed mathematical ratios, and what the ration were. His mathematical bent had a profound influence on all his thought. Yet his unconscious assumptions were moulding it too, and the sort of considerations here put forward, if cautiously and critically applied to what we know of his doctrines, may help to let us into the Greek thinkers were a kind of superior medicinemen wit a dash of rational thought thrown in, it will have been worse than useless. What it should do is to give some idea of the difficulties with which they had to contend, and so if anything heighten our appreciation of their achievements when we come to them. Moreover the history of Greek thought is in one of its aspects the process of emancipation from such popular preconceptions, many of which can be studied to â€“ day among the peasants of modern Greece, and this in itself made some reference to them advisable as an introduction. In making an historical study of the philosophy of a certain epoch, we must of course adopt a definition of the word which will apply to the thought of that time. Let us describe it therefore in a way which might not be agreed upon by all who call themselves philosophers to-day, but which is suitable in considering the philosophers of Greece I myself should claim nevertheless, even though prepared for disagreement, that the divisions of its subject â€“matter which I shall adopt for our present purposes are as relevant to the intellectual problems of to-day as they were to those of the ancients. It has two main sides, and as it reaches maturity develops a third. 1. Speculative or scientific. This is manâ€™s attempt to explain the universe in which he lives, the macrocosm. Nowadays the special sciences of nature have developed so far that they are distinguished from philosophy and the latter term is reserved, in this aspect of it, for metaphysics. But we shall be speaking of a time when science and philosophy were both in their infancy and no line was drawn between them. 2. Practical (including ethical and political). The study of man himself, the microcosm, his nature and place in the world, his relations with his fellows. The motive for this is not usually, as with speculation about the nature of the universe, pure curiosity, but the practical one of finding out how human life and conduct can be improved. Chronologically we shall find that in Greece the first appeared before the second, though here we must dis-
tinguish between casual reflections on human life and conduct, on the one hand, and moral philosophy on the other. “Moral reflection, in consequence of the demands of life lived in common, preceded reflection about nature, whereas critical reflection on the principles of conduct, on account of these same demands, only begins late.’ That remark of Henri Berr in his preface to Robin’s Greek Thought, was made with a general application. Apply it to Greece, and we see that the gnomic and didactic poetry of a Hesiod , Solon or Theognis—full of saws and aphorisms—precedes the beginnings of natural philosophy on Ionia in the sixth century. On the other hand, for anything that can be called a philosophy of human conduct—an attempt to base our actions on a systematic co-ordination of knowledge and theory—we must wait until the close of the fifth century. It comes with the sophists and Socrates, when the first wave of enthusiasm over natural philosophy had spent itself, and the confidence of its adherents was being shaken by skepticism. 3. I said that as philosophy grows up it develops a third side. This is critical philosophy, including logic and epistemology or theory of knowledge. It is only at a comparatively advanced stage of thought that people begin to ask themselves about the efficiency of the instruments with which they have been provided by nature for getting into touch with the world outside. What is our knowledge ultimately based on? Is it the evidence of the senses? We know that the senses may sometimes delude. Have we any proof that they ever bring us into contact with reality? Are our mental processes sound? We had better get to work on these processes themselves, analyze and test them before we allow ourselves to think any more about the world outside. These are the questions that belong to critical philosophy. It takes thought itself for its subject-matter. It is philosophy become self-conscious. The way is paved for it as soon as a philosopher begins to doubt the evidence of the senses, as Heraclitus and Parmenides did in their different ways in Greece of the early fifth century. It did not make much progress until the later years of Plato, but it will be interesting as we go on to see the need for such a science gradually making itself felt. Returning to the first two branches of philosophy the metaphysical and the ethical – some philosophers will be equally interested in both and succeed in combing them in one single, integrated system. That was the aim of Plato, whose philosophic purpose was to combat two complementary tendencies of his age: (i) intellectual skepticism, which denied the possibility of knowledge on the ground that there were no lasting realities to be known: (ii) moral anarchy, the view that there were no permanent and universal standards of conduct, no higher criteria of action than what happened to seem best to a particular man at a particular moment. As a comprehensive solution to the double problem he offered his doctrine of Forms, to which we shall come in its cue place.
More commonly, different thinkers are attracted to one or other of the two sides, as Socrates to the sphere of conduct of Anaxagoras to cosmic speculations. Usually also the whole thought of a particular age will incline more to one than to the other for it depends in part at least on the state of society. Philosophers do not thinking a void, and their results may be described as a product of Temperament x experience x previous philosophies. In other words they are the action of a certain temperament to the external world as it presents itself to that particular man, influenced, in the case of most philosophers, by reflection on the remains of previous thinkers. And we may be sure that, just as no two men’s temperaments are exactly alike, so no two men’s external worlds-i.e. experience-are exactly alike. That is why the answers to the ultimate questions of philosophy have been so widely different. Two men of contrasting temperament are bound to give different answers to philosophical questions. Indeed it is probable that the answers will not even be contradictory; they will simply be impossible to correlate at all. They will not only differ in content, they will be different kinds of answer. An example may make this clearer. Suppose two men are arguing about what the world is made of. One says it is all water, the other that it is all air. Then they are both answering the same question in the same way, and simply giving contradictory answers. They have a basis for argument, each may adduce facts of heir common observation in support of his view and there is a chance that one may end by convincing the other, but suppose the question-What after all is the world? – is being debated on a less crudely material, more philosophic level, and one man asserts that it is positive and negative charges of electricity, the other that it is a thought in the mind of God. It is unlikely that the two could spend a profitable hour of argument or make much progress together. They are different sorts of men. The second is probably quite ready to admit what the first says about electricity, but will not allow it to affect his answer. Similarly the first, though more likely to deny the truth of what the other says, will probably reply that it may or may not be true, but in any case is irrelevant. The two answers belong to the two everlastingly opposed philosophical types, which betray themselves by their replies to what Aristotle called the eternal question: What is reality? This is not such an impossible question as it sounds. It simply means: in considering anything, whether it be the whole universe or a particular object in it, what do you regard as essential to it, which you would mention at once of asked the question ‘what is it?’ and what do you regard as secondary and unimportant? Anyone can easily find out to which of the two types he belongs. Suppose the question to be ‘What is this desk? And consider which
of the two following answers appeals to you as the most immediately relevant: (a) wood, (b) something to put books and papers on. The two answers, it will be seen, are not contradictory. They are of different kinds. And the immediate and instinctive choice of one rather than the other shows one to be by temperament inclined to materialism or to teleology. The two types may be clearly discerned among the ancient Greeks. Some defined things with reference to their matter or as the Greeks also called it, â€œtheout- of- which.â€™ Others saw the essential in purpose or function n, with which they included form, for ( as is pointed out e.g. by Plato in the Cratylus) structure sub serves function and is dependent on it. The desk has the shape it has because of the purpose it has to serve. A shuttle is so shaped because it has to perform a certain function for the weaver. And so the primary opposition which presented itself to the Greek mind was that between matter and form, always with the notion of function included in that of form. And in answering the eternal question, the Ionian thinkers and later the atomists gave their reply in terms of matter, the Pythagoreans, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle in terms of form. This division of philosophers into materialists and teleologists-matter-philosophers and formphilosophers-is perhaps the most fundamental that can be made in any age, our own included. Since, moreover, both sides are clearly and vigorously represented in the Greek tradition from the start, we shall do well to deep the distinction in the forefront of our minds.
yprus is in the eastern Mediterranean at the intersection of three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. Because of its geostratigic position the island has for thousands of years been a magnet for colonizers and conquerors, pirates and crusaders. Phoenicians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Lusignans and the Turks in turn have all left their mark on its history. The settlement, however of Mycenaean’s in the 12th century B.C. gave the island its Greek character, which was maintained despite the influences and subjugations it went through during its chequered history. In 1878 the British took over from the Ottoman Turks until Cyprus became independent in 1960. On 20 July 1974 Turkey using as a pretext a military coup to overthrow President Makarios, and in violation of all principles of International Law and the UN Charter invaded Cyprus and occupied almost 40% of its territory. Turkey’s military aggression was condemned by the whole international community while plethora of UN General Assembly and Security Council resolutions were adopted calling for an end to the invasion and occupation. Turkey has since defied these calls asking for the withdrawal of its troops from the island. The invasion and occupation had disastrous consequences: thousands of Greek Cypriots lost their homes and properties and became refugees in the own country and over a thousand Greek Cypriots went missing; the human rights violations of all Cypriots are still being violated, the cultural and religious heritage in the occupied part is being destroyed and thousands of Turkish settlers are being brought to Cyprus in order to change its demographic character in the occupied part. Despite these difficulties Cypriot resilience, hard work, entrepreneurial skills and the determination of the people of Cyprus have managed in the early years after the invasion to achieve an economic miracle. Cyprus today with its population of 755,000 is a modern island nation that retains an essentially Mediterranean character. Its 9,251 square kilometers encompass citrus and olive groves, pine forested mountains and of Europe’s cleanest beaches. Because of its excellent climate and its rich culture heritage that dates back 11,000 years, Cyprus, a full member of the European Union since 2004, has been one of the most wanted destinations for tourists around the world.
Cyprus has a strong and vigorous economy and it is emerging as an important centre in the maritime sector and in transit trade. It is also an international services and business centre with comparative advantages of a very sophisticated work pool, sound business and legal environment and closeness to the countries of the region. It is a stable democracy and an open society, a member of the European Union and a firm believer in European principles and values. Furthermore, apart from a free market economy, liberal democratic status, and secure legal environment, Cyprus has excellent relations with its neighbors, with both Arab countries and Israel , making it a reliable partner for all types of activities throughout the region. Unfortunately, however, Cyprus remains divided since 1974. Successive efforts under the aegis of the United Nations to resolve the Cyprus problem and reunited the country and its people, Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots alike, have failed as a result of the negative stance of the Turkish side which has sought a settlement that in effect would leave Cyprus permanently divided. Since the election of President Demetris Christofias to the Presidency, a new glimpse of hope has risen for a solution of the problem. Currently, a new effort is underway under the UN auspices which hopefully will lead to tangible results. President Christofias has aptly demonstrated his good will and determination to leave no stone unturned in order to find a solution. A reciprocal attitude from Turkey and the Turkish Cypriot leadership is required so that the road to a settlement for a common future of peace and prosperity of both Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots can be opened.
Hail Girl Burning and hail Girl Verdant Hail Girl Unrepenting, with the prow’s sword Hail you who walk and the footprints vanish Hail you who wake and the miracles are born Hail 0 Wild One of the depths’ paradise Hail 0 Holy One of the islands’ wilderness Hail Mother of Dreams, Girl of the Open Seas Hail 0 Anchor-bearer, Girl of the Five Stars Hail you of the flowing hair, gilding the wind Hail you of the lovely voice, tamer of demons Hail you who ordain the Monthly Ritual of the Gardens Hail you who fasten the Serpent’s belt of stars. Hail 0 Girl of the just and modest sword Hail 0 Girl prophetic and daedalic. The Axion Esti ODYSSEUS ELYTIS
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Congratulations and Love to The Heart of Our Hearts Vasilia “Bess” Pappas 2002 Ellis Island Medal of Honor Recipient from the children of the Hellenic Cardiac Fund Children’s Hospital Boston
Bess and Chris Pappas with some of the program’s former patients at a celebration in Athens, Greece.
300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 phone 617-355-5886
George B. Ferentinos
In honor and in memory of my beloved parents, George and Catherine Poulos Ferentinos, who dreamed the dream, followed their hearts and made the journey.
George and Catherine Poulos Ferentinos (above) were both born in Lagada, Chios, Greece.
Vasilia and her little brother Nicholas in front of Georgeâ€™s Variety Store in Malden, Massachusetts. The children are first generation Americans.
Before his family arrived from Greece, George prepared a home for them. Above, his daughters, Kay and Maria in front of their new home.
Vasilia â€œBessâ€? Pappas 2002 Ellis Island Medal of Honor Recipient
Vasilia “Bess” Pappas
It is with great pride that we join in paying tribute to our special friend and colleague Vasilia “Bess” Pappas founder and director of the Hellenic Cardiac Fund for Children and send our congratulations to all the distinguished honorees. The Cardiovascular Program
Children’s Hospital Boston and Children’s Hospital Trust, the philanthropic resource for Children’s, congratulate Vasilia “Bess” Pappas, founder and director of the Hellenic Cardiac Fund, and celebrate the Hellenic Cardiac Fund’s 25th anniversary of giving health and hope to Greek and Greek-American children.
138 Harvard Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 phone 617-355-6890
THERMOPYLAE Honor to those who in their lives are committed and guard their Thermopylae. Never stirring from duty; just and upright in all their deeds, but with pity and compassion too; generous whenever they are rich, and when they are poor, again a little generous, again helping as much as they are able; always speaking the truth, but without rancor for those who lie. And they merit greater honor when they foresee (and many do foresee) that Ephialtes will finally appear, and in the end the Medes will go through. Constantine Cavafy
Dr. John Lingos and Sonia Wisotsky Lingos established their Family Foundation in the 1992 in appreciation of the support extended to them by church, family and community, and to ensure continued vitality for the charitable causes they championed throughout their lives as Brockton residents. Their mission was to promote what they viewed as the major tenets of their own success and happiness - the central role of the Orthodox Church, the contributions of public education, and the rich traditions of the liberal arts. The Lingos girls and their families strive to honor this vision by furthering the reach of the John and Sonia Lingos Family Foundation within the scope of contemporary society; and in cherishing the memory of their parents, they applaud the goals of â€œPops Goes Hellenic.â€?
John and Sonia Lingos Family Foundation
Treasure your heritage past present future Do you have living relatives or friends born prior to 1922 Greek Genocide Research Study be a participant meaningfulworld.com
In Honor of Father Calivasâ€™ Devotion and Leadership to the Church made manifest by the vibrant Saint Catherineâ€™s Parish Congratulations Peter and Kara Georgiopoulos
We support Pops Goes hellenic
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GREAT JOB GEORGE AND CATERINA SAKELLARIS COSTAS & ANN PERDIKAKIS RHEA, GIANA & DEAN CRANSTON, RI
In honor of our friend, George Sakellaris, founder of Ameresco, Inc. Rath, Young and Pignatelli, PC
usic is connected to Greekness in a very exceptional and unique way. The very word “music” [μουσική] derives from the Greek “Muse” [Mούσα]. In ancient Greece, the word mousike was used to mean any of the arts or sciences governed by the nine Muses. Muses were the immortal goddesses, daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne [memory], who gave inspiration to artists musicians, writers and poets. The leader of the Muses and director of their choir, Apollo (Apollon Musegetes) functioned as the patron god of music and poetry. Hermes created the lyre for him, and the instrument became a common attribute of Apollo. “Lyric” poetry meant poetry sung to the lyre. Even the Greek word for tragedy [τραγωδία] incorporates the noun ode, “the art of singing. “ Music encompassed a narrow concept of melody to mark a close union with poetry among other artistic and literary forms. Ancient Greeks considered the two practically synonymous. Plato, for example, held that song [melos] was made up of speech, rhythm, and harmony. Taking it a step further, in Timaeus, Plato employed music as a cosmological paradigm, while in the Republic and the Laws he was also concerned with practical issues such as the influence of music on behavior and the types of music that should be allowed in an enlightened civilization. Likewise, in the eighth book of Politics, Aristotle elaborated on the pedagogical function of music and pointed out its effect in the development of character. Above all, music had a divine origin: its inventors and earliest practitioners were gods and demigods, such as Apollo, Amphion, Orpheus, and the elusive Muses, and their music had magical powers. People thought it could heal sickness, purify the body and mind and work miracles. It is the magical powers of Greek music that the Pops Goes Hellenic concert attempts to put to work. Even though it is impossible to contain centuries of musical creation in a single concert program, the magic breaks out of each and every note. Greek music brings Hellenes in Greece and around the world “back home” where “home” is more of a state of mind rather than a geographical denotation. Beyond words, Greek music arouses a deep, inexplicable feeling because it speaks to the core of our existence. It is the music that sends us wandering in the noisy narrow streets of downtown Athens on a warm August night, it is the music that flies us over mountain villages on the dry landscape of southern Greece across vineyards that grow on the rocky fields, and sails us in deep blue seas through sandy shores, pebbled bays, under the blazing sun. It is the music that astounds us, when walking down the street, we briefly encounter history in the shiny Corinthian marble ruins. The music that breaks out of a colorful folk fete where circular dances awake a Dionysian sensation.
Greek music celebrates humanity, in its glory and its gloominess. It captures the feeling of our very being, the essence of our fluid identities. From the ancient Epitaph of Seikilos, to the mystical Byzantine chants and hymns, to folk music, to rebetiko, to Greek art song, to contemporary serious and popular genres, , music converses in a language that everybody can feel because passion feels the same around the world. Passion flows in Manos Hadjidakisâ€™s Ballad of the Senses and reverie emerges from the colorful Street of Dreams. As the journey continues, through the streets and quarters of Greek music, moving along bucolic landscapes, the tunes of folk songs can be heard from afar: My Red Apple [Milo mou kokino] and Gerakina songs that sing and celebrate playfully everyday life and love. Faithful to the folk tradition yet imaginative and provocative, contemporary composers such as Markopoulos (Who Pays the Ferryman, Angel with a Gun) and Liaropoulos [Elegia III] provide two distinct propositions with a wealth of folk elements. Closer to laiko [popular urban song] musical idiom, Ypomoni, Strose to Stroma sou gia Dyo and Suite V.M. illustrate, in their original form, the integration of the bouzouki into the Greek art song tradition. Initially used in rebetika, Greek songs associated with urban low-life, marginality and outlaws, the bouzouki later broke out of this framework to become an integral part of Greek art music. The classically trained Theodorakis, Hadjidakis and Xarhakos, all of whom began incorporating elements of that music into their own work during the 1960s, elevating the earthiest strains of Greek popular urban song into respected art forms, recognized the rebetika for their musical potential. Rebetiko occupies a similar place in Greek culture to that of the tango in Argentina or to flamenco in Spain. In a different manifestation of Greek magic, Chariots of Fire represents a special tribute to an internationally acclaimed, award-winning strain of Greek orchestral music. If passion and feeling have a voice in the contemporary Greek and International music scene, this voice belongs to Haris Alexiou, known as â€œHaroulaâ€? to her devoted fans. Only a female vocalist as gracious and as expressive as Alexiou could work magic this special evening. Haris Alexiou, with her deep, throaty Byzantine voice and sensitive expression has not only sung Greek folk songs, rebetika, urban music from Asia Minor (smyrneika), Greek Art song, but also a wide international repertoire. A singer of international caliber, who easily manages to sell out the Olympia in Paris and packs theaters around the world, is presenting her favorite songs in this tribute to Greek music and culture. No strangers to musical magic, the Boston Pops under the enchanted baton of Keith Lockhart are challenged to interpret a different music idiom and to lead the celebration of Hellenism through music. The Pops Goes Hellenic concert has all the ingredients that will sparkle magic for one night to remember, in the heart of Boston at the Boston Symphony Hall.
I resided in a country that came from the other, the real one, as the dream comes from the facts of my life. It too I named Greece and I drew it on paper so I could look at it. It seemed so little; so elusive. As time went by I kept trying it out: with certain sudden earthquakes, certain old thoroughbred storms. I kept changing the position of things to rid them of all value. I studied the Vigilant and the Solitary so that I might be found worthy of making brown hillcrests, little Monasteries, fountains. I even produced an entire orchard full of citrus trees that smelled of Heraclitus and Archilochus. But the fragrance was so strong I got scared. So I very slowly took to setting words like gems to cover this country I love. Lest someone see its beauty. Or suspect that maybe it does not exist. Odysseus Elytis, â€œThe Little Seafarerâ€?
A rich cultural evening showcasing the best of our Hellenic culture and â€œpnevmaâ€?
Thank you George and Kathy for your vision and perseverance in this most worthy mission
George and Kathy, Thank you for an inspirational evening of celebration for Hellenes and Philhellenes and for your devotion to Saint Catherineâ€™s Church James C. Alex, MD, FACS The Weston Center for Cosmetic Surgery Weston, Massachusetts
Haris Alexiou appeared in the Greek musical scene in the early ‘70s. Her charismatic voice, combined with a unique way of performing and a strong scenic presence, very soon led her to the top. Today she is still at the top, always working hard, always seeking new ways of expression and always giving prestige and value to the contemporary light and popular Greek music. She has worked with the most important Greek songwriters, has performed at the greatest musical theatres in all five continents and has received several important awards. She has had over thirty her own albums recorded, has participated in albums of other artits, either renowned or young and promising, being always open to new ways in music. The first important step in her career was her participation whith George Dalaras in the album “Mikra Asia” (Asia Minor”) written by Apostolos Caldaras and Pythagoras in 1972. A historic album, the biggest hit of the ‘70s and rightfully included in “MINOS‐EMI’s 100 Greatest Hit of the Century. In 1973 Haris participates in the albums “Kalimera ilie” (“Good Morning, Sun”) by Manos Loizos and Lefteris Papadopoulos,”Byzantinos Esperinos” (“Byzantine Vesper”) by Apostolos Kaldaras and Lefteris Papadopoulos and Odos Aristotelous” (Aristotelous Street) by Yannis Spanos and Papadopoulos. Meeting Manos Loizos was the beginning of a lifelong friendship and a prolific cooperation. In 1975, her first personal album “12 ‘Laika’ Songs” is released. One of them, “Dimitroula” becomes an all time standard.The same year, she appears in “boites” in Plaka, imposing a new way of presenting songs, completelydifferent from the conventional big night clubs. It is the first year after the fall of the military junta, atime for the political songs and the revival of “rebetika” songs, and Haris Alexiou sings traditional songs, ballads, modern songs, folk songs and rebetika. For long periods of time, she appears with George Dalaras, Dimitra Galani, Basilis Papakonstantinou and Yannis Parios. Her concerts in stadiums and theatres, with songs written by Loizos, Papadopoulos, Nikolopoulos, Spanos, Theodorakis, Kuyumdjis and others, are extremely successful. Her popularity reaches its peak. Since then, she is “Haroula of Greece”. In 1979, the album,”Ta tragoudia tis Haroulas”( “Haroula’s Songs”) is released. Manos Loizos had written the music and the lyrics were written by Manolis Rassoulis and Pythagoras. From this album,”o Fantaros” ( “The Soldier”) immediately becomes a big hit, while “ Ola se thymizoun”(“All Things Remind Me of You”) is considered one the most beautiful Greek ballads of all time. The ‘80s start with two enormous hits: “Fevgo” (“I’m Leaving”) and “Ximeroni” (“The Day Breaks”).
“Songs of Yesterday”, her album together with Dimitra Galani includes ballads which fascinate the public. At the same time she records traditional and folk songs, rebetika and laika, and gives concerts both in Greece and abroad. 1983 is the year of the album “Tsilika”, a collector’s item, with old rebetika songs written between 1900 and 1935.1986 is the year of her first cooperation with composer Thanos Mikroutsikos. The album is entitled “IAgapi ine zali” (“Dizzy with Love”) with lyrics by Alkis Alkeos, Nikos Kavadias, Andreas Mikroutsikos and Babis Tsikliropoulos The title song becomes an enormous hit. “Eleni” and “Erotikon” from thesame album, are also extremely successful. The same year Haroula conquers the French public appearing in “Theatre de la Ville”, getting dithyrambic reviews from the French press. After that she gives concerts in Cyprus, Tunisia, Germany and many towns all over Greece. In 1987, world famous Greek composer Manos Hadjidakis invites her to appear in his club “Sirius” with the “Unpredictable Songs”. He directs her and later he goes to the recording studio with her. Thesummerofthisyear,shesingsinHadjdakis concerts in many Greek towns. In 1988 she works with “Fatme” a group of young and talented artists. She also works with Paolo Conte, well known Italian singer ang songwriter. They appear together at the Palace Theatre of Athens. She has two of his songs recorded with Greek lyrics by Lina Nikolakopoulou. In 1989, “The Show in on”. It is the musical show which she presents for two years, together with Dimitra Galani and Yannis Parios, in Athens and Thessaloniki. An album with the same title resulted from this work. In 1989, “The Show in on”. It is the musical show which she presents for two years, together with Dimitra Galani and Yannis Parios, in Athens and Thessaloniki. An album with the same title resulted from this work. 1990 begins with her second cooperation with Thanos Mikroutsikos. The album is entitled “This Cologne Lingers on for Years” with lyrics by Lina Nikolakopoulou. In October of the same year, she participates in the most Important concert of the decade in Peace and Friendship Stadium of Athens. In this festive concert, called “Our Own Night”, all the big names of the Greek show business are present. Yannis Parios, Thanos Mikroutsikos, Dimitra Galani, Chris Nikolopoulos. Alkistis Protopsalti, George Sarris, George Zambetas, Lakis Lazopoulos and the legendary Melina Merkouri.
In 1991 she appears in Attikon Theatre of Athens with a special show Called “In Three Acts”. In the first act she sings songs by Hadjidakis, Loizos, Mikroutsikos and Brecht‐Weill. In the second act she hosts certain groups of modern Greek music and presents songs written by herself. The third act is a medley with her hits, old and new. She then presents this show in the State Theatre of Northern Greece, which for the first time accepted a Greek singer in its stage. With her concerts, sets new standards for musical shows, using state of the art sound and light equipment and impressive decors. In autumn 1991, together with Costas Hadjis, presents a show directed by Maouro Bolognini at Rex Theatre in Athens and Radio City in Thessaloniki. “Alexiou Sings Hadjis” is the album that follows. In 1992 she starts her cooperation with Polygram, successfully presenting a new style in her songs. The album”Di’ efchon”( “L’orale” )with music by Nikos Antypas and lyrics by Lina Nikolakopoulou comes as something quite fresh in the Greek discography, giving a new thrust to Haroula’s already long career. In 1993 the above album is released in Japan, Belgium, France and Israel by Polygram Intenational. The French TV channel “MCM International” films and shows her concert at Lycabetus Theatre. The same year she travels around the world with concerts in Cyprus, USA, Canada, Israel, several European countries, finishing in Paris at the Mogador Theatre. In 1994 her album “Hey!” is released with music by Nikos Antypas and lyrics by Lefteris Papadopoulos and Aris Davarakis.The summer of the same year, she appears in Herod Atticus Odeon with a show directed by Mauro Bolognini. In October, it’s her first and extremely successful appearance in Japan. In 1995, the album “88 Nefelis Street” is released. The songs of this album are all written by herself. For this album, in April 1995, at the Palais de Congress in Paris, she receives the “Prix Adami”, an award given every Year by Charles Cross Academy to distinguished artists. The same year, she opens Studio Nefeli where she presents her new songs, creating a new “Cafe Theatre” atmosphere. Dimitri Papajoannou is the director of the show. In 1996, she writes then lyric for “Nefeli’s Tango” on Loreena McKennit’s music. This song along with other live recordings from her concerts around the world, is included in the album “Around the World ‘92‐’96”. Nefeli’s Tango”, for several months is one of the ten top songs of World Music in Europe.
In summer 1997, responding to the invitation of Olympic Games Committee “Athens 2004”, she gives a concert at Pnyka Hill very close to Acropolis. Such is the success of this concert, so she has to repeat it twice at the same location. 1998 is the year of “The Game of Love”, her second album with songs written only by herself. The recording took place at the Studio Guillaume Tell in Paris with Greek and foreign musicians. The same year, she tours Northern and South America with Nikos Papazoglou. In December she appears in Athens at Diogenis Studio which is reconstructed in order to meet the demands of the show she presented with Chris Nikolopoulos. The show is is directed by Dimitri Papajoannoy again. In October 1999, she sings along with Turkish famous lady singer Sezen Aksu, both in Athens and Istanbul, for the victims of the earthquakes which afflicted the two countries that year, under the auspice of the Ministry of Culture. This cooperation is repeated in summer 2000 in Istanbul and Izmir. In September 2000, the album “Whispers is released. It includes her favourite songs performed by her and a piano only. In October, she presents these songs in Music Palace of Athens and in the ancient Epidaurus Odeon accompanied by a small musical ensemble. The same year, she founds her own record company, “Estia”, in order to produce all her future ventures in discography. In December, the first album is released entitled “Strange Light”. In this album she meets again songwriters with whom she has successfully worked in the past. “Strange Light” becomes “Lumiere Etrange” and is released all over Europe by Universal‐France. At the same time, Haroula tours Europe giving concerts at the most prestigious theatres, conquering both audiences and critics. Her tour ends with a triumphal appearance at Theatre Olympia in Paris. 2002 is another creative year for Haroula. She appears on the Keramikos Music Hall, this time singing more “laika” songs. In this show, Lavrentis Macheritsas and other younger artists participate. The result is the album “Keramikos Live”. In 2003 the album “To the end of your heaven” went four times platinum and WORLD MUSIC AWARDS, one of the most significant institutions of the international music industry, presented Haris Alexiou with the award for The Best Selling Greek Artist for the season 2003‐2004. 2004, the Olympic Games are held in Athens. Haris Alexiou, sings at the closing ceremony, along with D. Galani, Marinella, Y. Parios, G. Dalaras. In October 2004, the retrospective compilation album titled “Anthology” was released. This double CD is comprised of 38 songs from her previous albums and of two new ones. Alexiou herself selected
the included songs, not only choosing the most popular ones, but also bearing in mind the significance of each song for herself. In April 2005 remastered and repackaged editions of her 16 albums under the banner of MINOS EMI were released. The albums were reprinted, digitally remastered, and the new editions were meticulously designed (including the lyrics, many informative texts and original photos from the time of the first release). In 2006 Haris Alexiou is back with “Sour cherry and bitter orange”, an album depicting the traditional aspects of contemporary music. Thodoris Papadopoulos, Smaro Papadopoulou and Makis Seviloglou wrote the music and the lyrics, suggesting a return to our roots. An album that, despite its unusual content, managed to go platinum, just a few months after it was released, receiving people’s recognition and love.During the summer she made a series of special appearances.Along with Dimitra Galani, she gave two concerts dedicated to Sofia Vembo at Herodion, an eventorganized by Athens Festival. She gave four sold‐out concerts along with Sokratis Malamas and Alkinoos Ioannidis, celebrating “Melodia” radio station’s 25 years of broadcasting, at Lycabettus theatre in Athens and at “Palais des sports” in Thessaloniki. These concerts were recorded and a double CD and DVD edition will be released in March 2007. At the end of 2006 Haris Alexiou undertook a major tour around Europe, giving a series of concerts and promoting the international release of her album, “Anthology”. From the 26th of February till the 3rd of March 2007, she will be appearing at “the Athens Concert Hall” for five unique concerts, directed by Panos Papadopoulos. The songs will be orchestrated by Kostas Papadoukas and the big orchestra conducted by Alexandros Myrat. From Greece to Australia, from Russia to Africa, from America to Japan, Haris Alexiou travels around and shows the world the feeling of the Greek song. She firmly believes that the Greek song, through its poets and composers, made her to love and better understand the history and the culture of her country.
At the young age of four, Anastatia (Tasia) Malliaras expressed her love and interest for music and began her musical journey as a member of the Cantate Childrenâ€™s Choir, performing in many U.S. cities and training with numerous directors and composers of choral music. As a student and member of the church youth choir she began to represent her parish at Diocese and ethnic events throughout Chicago. Continuing with private vocal and piano instruction she is now fifteen years old and her accomplishments in music are numerous. She has a versatile vocal range which enables her to sing in many styles. Her repertoire is extensive and she sings in many different languages. As a sophomore she is a member of Varsity Singers and recently after a very competitive audition process represented her high school at the Illinois Music Educators Association District One Festival. For three consecutive years she competed in the Illinois Grade School Music Association taking First Place/Perfect Score each year. Tasia was also honored in receiving First Place at the Grandquist Music Competition. As a member of the Philharmonic Orchestra at school she has held the position of principal violin and enthusiastically continues to showcase her talents in school and community musical theater productions in which she has held lead roles. She recently was delighted to be a piano accompanist for senior soloists and looks forward to returning to Church Bible Camp each year to help young students with hymnology. Tasia is a carefree, fun-loving, young lady, a disciplined and enthusiastic musician who is tireless in the pursuit of her dreams and is certain her life will never be without music.
Diane Kochilas is one of the world’s foremost authorities on Greek cuisine. She is an American of Greek descent, a born-and-bred New Yorker, but she has lived in Greece since the early 1990s. Now, she divides her time between three places: New York City, Athens, and Ikaria, a beautiful, peaceful island in the eastern Aegean where she runs a small restaurant and cooking school each summer at Villa Thanassi. During the rest of the year, Diane can be seen as a consulting chef at Diatiritaio, a restaurant serving highend Greek cuisine in downtown Athens or organizing special events at Milos in New York. Diane has helped organize cheese tastings, wine tastings, olive oil tastings and kakavia festivals at the famed New York restaurant. In Athens, Diane is the city’s most “feared” and ferocious restaurant critic. Her weekly columns on both food and restaurants appear in the country’s largest daily newspaper, Ta Nea. She writes frequently for American newspapers and magazines, including: the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, Saveur, and Gourmet. She has written three books on Greek cuisine: The Food and Wine of Greece (St. Martin’s Press, 1990) The Greek Vegetarian (St. Martin’s Press, 1996), and The Glorious Foods of Greece (William Morrow, 2001). Her books are widely recognized as standard bearers of Greek cuisine internationally. She also travels worldwide frequently to teach and promote Greek cooking and culture.
In the United States, her twice yearly cooking tours take her to the likes of Peter Kump’s New York Cooking School, The Silo in New Milford, CT and many others. In Athens, Diane teaches Greek cooking to Greeks and foreigners alike at Kallisti, a restaurant in downtown Athens and Elliniki Etaireia, in the Plaka. She has also taught Greek cuisine internationally, at The Hattori School of Cooking in Tokyo. Under the auspices of the International Olive Oil Council, Diane organized a culinary excursion through one of Greece’s least known regions, bringing more than 80 foreign journalists in contact with local home cooks, local chefs, olive oil producers, wine makers, cheese makers, local confection producers and more. Diane has also made numerous television appearances. In the United States, she has appeared on The Today Show, Cooking Live with Sarah Moulton, From Martha’s Kitchen with Martha Stewart and Home Cooking with Amy Coleman. HCS viewers are invited to read her article, “Greeks: Nuts About Nuts,” and two recipes from her latest book, Meze, in a brief article titled, “Meze. Small Plates to Savor and Share from the Mediterranean Table, In Meze, Diane takes you on a spirited journey across Greece and the rest of the Mediterranean, exploring these simple and simply irresistible dishes. The recipes are robust, dear, and easy to follow. These uncomplicated dishes are charged with flavor and based on fresh, accessible ingredients. The results are spectacular. Meze makes every meal a party, and no one knows how to throw a party better than the Greeks. You’ll find tangy, skewered meats and juicy meatballs, delicious seafood dishes from simple steamed mussels to creamy ouzo-flavored shrimp. You’ll find a healthful selection of aromatic bean dishes, and a recipe for the best fried potatoes in the world, Greek fries, which are hand cut and cooked in olive oil. The convivial and festive nature of the meze table is reflected in Diane’s warm, inviting style. The innate attractiveness of the food -- the colors, textures, and shapes -- are captured in brilliant photographs that evoke the sunny, warm Mediterranean dime. Whether you make just a few dishes for informal entertaining, or create an entire meal of meze, Diane Kochilas makes it possible to bring the spirit of fun and sharing the essence of meze throughout Greece and the Mediterranean -- to your own table at home. Now you can enjoy the food and fun of a meze feast. Meze, the small plates of just about everything from seafood, meat, and vegetables to handheld pies, colorful salads, nuts, olives, and cheeses, is the food of hospitality and conviviality, food meant to be shared with friends and family and savored with wines and spirits.
PANAGIOTIS LIAROPOULOS, Pops Goes Hellenic Music Director Panagiotis Liaropoulos was born in Athens, Greece. He holds a Doctoral Degree in Composition from Boston University where he studied with Theodore Antoniou and Lukas Foss. He pursued his graduate studies on a Fulbright Grant and he was the recipient of the 2001 Boston University Award for Outstanding Achievement in Theory and Composition. Dr. Liaropoulos completed his undergraduate studies in Music Studies/Musicology in the School of Fine Arts at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. He also holds degrees in Harmony, Counterpoint, Fugue, Composition, and Piano from the National Conservatory of Athens, Greece. His compositions include music for solo instruments, various ensembles, chorus, and orchestra and his works have been performed and awarded in Europe and the United States. Among his national and international distinctions are the first prize in the ALEA III International Composition Competition (2002) for his piece Orientations Beta, the second prize in the prestigious Dimitri Mitropoulos International Composition Competition (2005) for his Concerto for Flute and Orchestra and the first prize at the Composersâ€™ National Workshop at Athens Megaron Concert Hall in Athens, Greece (1999). In addition, he has been the recipient of several awards, scholarships, and residencies, that include, among others, a Distinction at the Uuno Clami International Composition Competition (Finland, 2004) for his piece Journal Intime dâ€™ Un Avril Invisible for Mezzo Soprano and Chamber Orchestra, and residencies at the Aspen Music Festival and School (2004), and the Yaddo Artistic Community (2005). For the past two decades, Dr. Liaropoulos has been composing works of several different styles and mediums. By drawing his inspiration and creative ideas from both the Western and the Eastern musical traditions, he has established a compositional style that is based on the dramatic interaction of diverse musical elements deriving from these traditions. This compositional approach led him to the creation of a distinctive musical language founded on the sophisticated integration of Western contemporary compositional theories, techniques and processes with elements drawn from the musical legacy of Greece, Byzantium, the Balkans, and the Eastern Mediterranean, and with principles drawn from the ritualistic character of the ancient Greek drama. Dr. Liaropoulos has received several commissions from distinguished ensembles, musical organizations, and performers that include, among others, the Albany Symphony Orchestra, the Alea III Contemporary Music Ensemble, the Greek Ensemble for Contemporary Music, the Athens Megaron Concert Hall, the Louisiana Sinfonieta, the New Paths in Music Festival, the Aspen Music Festival, the Boston University Symphony and Chamber Orchestra, the Kassatt String
Quartet, and the Neopolitan Chamber Orchestra. Dr. Liaropoulos currently serves as a faculty member in the Department of Performing Arts at the University of Massachusetts Boston. He also performs as a freelance pianist specializing in a wide repertoire that includes classical music, contemporary genres such as pop, jazz and ethnic music, as well as traditional and modern Greek music. He is also the founder and music director of the Greek Music Ensemble, a Boston-based group that focuses on performing Greek art music as well as other ethnic music of the Eastern Mediterranean. The group aspires to promote Greek art music as part of the World Music scene. To this end, the Greek Music Ensemble specializes in performing selected genres of Greek music that have informed and shaped the history of Greek twentieth century art music. The groupâ€™s approach to performance is based on a critical exploration and interpretation of the unique stylistic and technical aspects of genuine Greek music, and on a highly skilled, elaborate and inspired presentation of it, that represents its true spirit and stylistic nuances. My composition Elegia III, which is included in the Pops Goes Hellenic concert program, belongs to a series of works I have composed in which the character of the music acquires declamatory, narrative and highly dramatic characteristics. The main inspiration for Elegia III was an improvised clarinet solo recorded by a Greek folk clarinetist. Most of the motivic and thematic material of the piece is drawn from the original folk clarinet solo, elements of which are echoed in several different points within the piece. Like much of my later music, Elegia III is more profoundly influenced by the Greek folk and Byzantine music legacy. The flexibility and vast imagination of traditional folk players, the mysticism of Byzantine music, and the ritualistic and dramatic character of ancient Greek theater have been points of departure for most of my works. The integration of stylistic and technical aspects of these musical and dramatic traditions on the one hand, and contemporary compositional techniques and procedures on the other, was the goal of my compositional approach.
Eleftherios Kalkanis was born in Athens, Greece. At the age of ten he received a scholarship to study violoncello at the Piraeus Conservatory. He also pursued studies in music theory and obtained diplomas in Harmony, Counterpoint, Fugue, as well as Violoncello and Composition. He received his MA and BA from the Department of Orchestral and Choir Conducting at the University of Indianapolis. Mr. Kalkanis has collaborated with the major Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis and participated in concerts held at several world-renown theaters and concert halls in Greece, Europe, and the United States. Other collaborative work includes arrangements of works for major Greek composers such as Manos Hadjidakis, Dionysis Savopoulos, Giannis Marcopoulos and many others. He has also composed orchestral music, opera, concertos, chamber music, as well as music for contemporary dance performances, theater and film. As a conductor, he has directed operas, operettas, masses, oratorios, Greek art music, musicals, chamber orchestras and works for orchestra from the Greek and international repertory in Greece and abroad. From 1996 to 2003 Mr. Kalkanis has served as the Artistic Director for the eighteen music ensembles of the Municipality of Athens. Currently, he serves as the principal conductor of the Symphony Orchestra and the Chamber Orchestra of the City of Athens, directing many concerts in Greece, Cyprus, Europe and America. He has produced many music programs on public and private radio and television stations. Since 1995 he has been the Artistic Director of the Conservatory of Agia Varvara and Professor of Orchestral Conducting, Composition, Analysis, Orchestration, and Film and Theater Music Composition at the University of Indianapolis, Athens.
Mikis Theodorakis was born in the island of Chios in 1925. He studied music in Athens with Philoktitis Economides. As a political activist, he participated with the communist side in the Greek Civil War (1944–9) and was imprisoned and exiled (1947–52). In 1954 he enrolled at the Paris Conservatoire, studying with Olivier Messiaen and Eugène Bigot. In Paris, he wrote music for film and collaborated with the Royal Ballet, the Covent Garden and the Stuttgart Ballet. He won the first prize at the Moscow Music Festival (1957), the American Copley Prize for the European Composer (1959) and the first prize of the International Institute of Music in London. His work combined orchestral writing with elements from Byzantine chant, folk and urban popular song, to create unique works of personal style such as his monumental To Axion Esti [Worth of Being] (1959–64). He composed symphonic, choral, ballet, chamber and film music. He returned to Greece in 1960. Theodorakis turned to popular music through concerns over musical accessibility and involvement, and his first published song cycle, Epitaphios (1960), to texts by Yiannis Ritsos, gave new dimensions to the popular Greek song. Music, poetry and the bouzouki, combined to form the entechno laïko tragoudi [popular art song]. During the 1960s, Theodorakis composed song cycles, metasymphonic works (which combine symphonic and choral writing with popular song), ballet, music for drama, theatre and film. These include Axion Esti, Elektra (1960), Romiosini [Hellenism] (1966), Mauthausen (1967) and Zorbas o Ellenas [‘Zorba the Greek’], (1964). In an attempt to make symphonic music and the works of other Greek contemporary composers more accessible to the public, he founded the Athens Little Orchestra (1967) and the Piraeus Musical Organization. In 1967, Greece fell under the 7-year military dictatorship and Theodorakis was arrested and imprisoned, his music was banned from public performances and he was exiled to Paris. While in exile he composed some of his best song cycles, inspired by the brutalities of the junta (Ta tragoudia tou Andrea [The Songs of Andreas] (1968), and Tragoudia tou agona [Songs of the Struggle] (1970–71). With the fall of the dictatorship (1974), he returned to Greece and participated in the restoration of democracy. In 1983 he became a minister of state and received the Lenin Peace Prize. From 1960 to 1980, he wrote mainly song cycles, but returned in the early 1980s to large symphonic and choral forms. [Adapted from: EVAGORAS KARAGEORGIS: “Theodorakis, Mikis, ” Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 12/5/2008), http://www.grovemusic.com]
Manos Hadjidakis was born in Xanthi in 1925 and ! died in Athens in 1994. Hadjidakis helped usher in a new era of Greek music in the post-WWII period, elevating the earthiest strains of Greek folk and popular song into respected art forms. In the process, he found tremendous popular success in Greece, chiefly through his work as a popular songwriter, and became known to international audiences through his movie soundtracks, winning an Oscar in 1960. He also composed contemporary classical pieces for small and large ensembles, often inspired by Greek poetry, and wrote for theater and ballet. Many of his songs, larger compositions, and recordings are considered classics in Greece, and cornerstones of the country’s modern popular music. He remained a highly respected intellectual and cultural figure in Greece up until his death in 1994. He started piano lessons at age four, and later learned the violin and accordion as well. Hadjidakis worked a succession of odd jobs to support his family, but managed to study advanced music theory and composition as a teenager, also enrolling at the University of Athens to study philosophy. In 1943, he met the revered surrealist poet Nikos Gatsos, who would become his favorite lyricist and worked with him on the vast majority of his vocal compositions. Hadjidakis first found an outlet for his compositional ability when he connected with the Art Theatre of Athens, and contributed music to its 1944 production of Alexis Solomos’ The Last White Crow. He wrote his first film score, for Free Slaves, in1946. In 1948, Hadjidakis gave a high-profile academic lecture praising “rembetiko,” the popular urban song form that was the province of the urban lower class and was regarded as borderline immoral by the conservative intelligentsia. The country’s musical establishment was scandalized, but Hadjidakis had mapped out the path that would make him one of modern Greece’s most cherished musical figures. In 1950, he had begun to compose music for theatrical productions of classic Greek tragedies, starting with Aeschylus’ Orestes trilogy. In 1955, he scored the motion picture Stella, which would prove to be one of his major successes in that area. Starring actress Melina Mercouri, whom Hadjidakis had known from her days in the theater, sang portions of the soundtrack, and would become one of Hadjidakis’ most valued interpreters. In 1959, Hadjidakis began working with the young, up-and-coming Nana Mouskouri, for whom he would supply music on a regular basis. The following year, he reunited with Mercouri on the Jules Dassin-directed film Never on Sunday. It was a breakthrough international hit that won Hadjidakis an Oscar for his title
song, which became a smash success in many parts of the world. In 1962, he staged the controversial musical Street of Dreams, now regarded as a landmark of Greek theater for its frank subject matter, and completed revisions on his score for Aristophanes’ Ornithes, which subsequently ranked among his finest compositions. Hadjidakis scored two more internationally prominent films in Elia Kazan’s America, America (1963) and Jules Dassin’s Topkapi (1964), and struck up a lengthy partnership with choreographer Maurice Béjart of 20th Century Ballets, who collaborated on the composer’s forays into ballet from then on. Hadjidakis also founded the Athens Experimental Orchestra in 1964, which provided a vehicle for his own work and that of avant-garde Greek composers like Iannis Xenakis. In 1966, Hadjidakis traveled to New York for the Broadway premiere of Illya Darling, the stage version of Never on Sunday. He wound up staying there until 1972, in part because of the repressive military junta that took over the Greek government. While in America, he completed several more major compositions, including the song cycle Magnus Eroticus, which set 12 Greek poems modern and ancient to music; still fascinated by popular song, he also recorded the LP Reflections with the New York Rock and Roll Ensemble. Hadjidakis returned to Greece in 1972, and when the military dictatorship fell, he took a number of highranking cultural positions: directing the State Orchestra (through 1981) and the classical-oriented channel of the national radio (1982), as well as becoming deputy director of the national opera (until 1977). He started several music festivals and competitions in the late ‘70s and early ‘80s, and in 1985 started his own record company (Sirius) and cultural magazine. In 1989, he founded and directed the Orchestra of Colors, a symphonic group devoted to unconventional works. By this time, he was suffering from heart problems, which would eventually claim his life on June 15, 1994 . [Adapted from: Steve Huey, “Manos Hadjidakis,” All Music Guide
Giannis Markopoulos was born in 1939 in Ierapetra, Crete. He learned the mandolin as a boy and at age 13 began studying the violin and the clarinet. He left Crete after graduating from high school in 1956 to study music in the Athens Conservatory where he also began his career in composition. He had an international hit with the theme music from the British TV series Who Pays the Ferryman. He began writing scores for movies with Poia Einai i Margarita [Who is Margarita] at the outset of the 1960s. His third film assignment, Young Aphrodites (1963) got wide distribution in the United States. Markopoulos moved to London in the wake of the 1967 military coup in Greece. He returned to Greece in 1970 and began establishing himself as a popular composer with a series of ambitious musical works. In 1974 he recorded the Thessalian Cycle and Songs of my Father with Lizetta Nikolaou. In 1975 he recorded Independently and The Dedication and in 1976 Oropedio which received much acclaim in Greece. Almost all of his compositions are based on lyrics by Greek poets as Giorgos Seferis, Odysseas Elytis, Yannis Ritsos, Kostas Georgousopoulos, and others.
! Stavros Xarhakos was born in Athens in 1939. He studied music at the Athens Conservatory. He emerged in the Greek music scene around 1963, composing music for the theatre and cinema. Among his collaborators was popular lyricist Lefteris Papadopoulos. In 1967 he went to Paris to study with Nadia Boulanger. He stayed there for four years, and went on to study with David Diamond at the Juilliard School of Music in New York. In the early 70â€™s he met Leonard Bernstein with whom he collabrated in a number of concerts. While Xarhakos mainly composed in the style of Greek popular music, called Laiko, he also composed in the classical music genre, and wrote music for ballet, film and theater. His musical output comprises forty-two albums, twenty-one film scores and music for fifteen TV productions. Internationally, he is known as the composer for the Rembetiko music score, and for composing the music for the 1983 BBC TV mini series, The Dark Side of the Sun. Xarhakos was later involved in politics and elected twice Member of the Greek Parliament. In May 1994 he was awarded an honorary doctorate of Fine Arts at Adelphi University in New York. In 1994 he was appointed Atistic Director of the Greek Music State Orchestra.
Vangelis Papathanasiou was born ! in Volos in 1943. His musical talents first became obvious at the age of four. His parents tried to encourage him to study with a professional teacher, but he did not respond well to formal education as he was generally unwilling to follow instructions. Papathanasiou explains: “I have always felt that you should not borrow knowledge from others, because personal experience and development are of utmost significance.” After leaving school he formed with some friends the group Formynx. In the early 60’s this band packed Greek stadiums with thousands of music-hungry fans. Vangelis was virtually the first artist that brought western pop music to his home country. Formynx was soon Greece’s most popular musical group. During the dictatorship years Vangelis moved to Paris. Together with Demis Roussos and Loukas Sideras he formed the band Aphrodite’s Child. This group scored an immediate world-wide hit with their first release, Rain and Tears . Aphrodite’s Child went on to release several further European numberone singles over the course of three years. The band split up after their controversial double album. Vangelis remained in Paris for a while, recording film soundtracks for the French director Frederic Rossif (among these L’Apocalypse Des Animaux, and La Fete Sauvage) and giving an amazing performance at the “Olympia” to promote his first solo album, Earth. In 1974 he moved to London in the midst of a storm of rumors that he would be joining the group Yes as Rick Wakemen’s replacement on keyboards. After rehearsing with Yes for several weeks Vangelis left, explaining that his musical theory and directions and the
group’s were too far apart. It was during his stint with Yes that he and Jon Anderson became friends and collaborators. Vangelis soon signed a recording contract with RCA, and assembled his own studio known as ‘Nemo Studios.’ Nemo Studios is near London’s Marble Arch, and Vangelis is referring to it as his “laboratory.” The first album cut here was Heaven and Hell.
Honorary Guests His Eminence Archbishop Demetrios of America His Excellency Ambassador Andreas Kakouris His Excellency Ambassador Alexandros Mallias Senator Edward M. Kennedy Senator John Kerry Honorary Co-Chair His Eminence Metropolitan Methodios of Boston Co-Chairs George P. Sakellaris & Caterina PapouliasSakellaris National Committee Arthur C. and Madeline K. Anton George D. & Margo Behrakis Nicholas J. Bouras John & Mae Calamos John A. & Margo C. Catsimatidis Leo P. & Evanthea N. Condakes Ike T. & Fanoula Gulas Michael & Mary Jaharis Peter T. & Helen Kikis Dr. Thomas C. & Alexis Lelon Dr. Anthony J. & Dr. Maria A. Limberakis John A. & Marisa Payiavlas Chris & Georgia Skeadas Alexander G. & Faye Spanos Angelo K. & Sofia Tsakopoulos Stephen G. & Thelma S. Yeonas Event Directors Dr. Panagiotis Liaropoulos - Music Spiro Carras - film & Media John Samellas - eMarketing Thanasis Gounaris - Graphic Design
Pops Goes Hellenic Committee Michael Alavi & Barbara Tagaris-Alavi Dr. James Alex George & Marlena Alex Athan & Maria Anagnostopoulos Nick & Anna Andreosatos John Blathras Themis & Demetra Boretos James Bournazos Elizabeth Bourne Robert Brandt & Betty Georgaklis Father Alkiviadis & Presvytera Mia Calivas Peter & Eleni Canellos George & Margo Chryssis Mary Cleary George & Crystal Condakes Lynn Dale John & Eleftheria Dallas George & Karen Danis Nick Davos Joe & Cynthia DeAngelis David & Carolyn DelGizzi Ioannis & Mina Demestihas Gregory & Ann Demetrakas Pericles & Suzanne Diamantopoulos Arthur & Patti Dukakis Andreas & Marge Evriviades Joseph Farina & Angela Koutoulakis Mary Gomatos Georgia Gounari Panayota Gounari Joanne Hatzopoulos Alan & Karen Ims Nicholas & Penelope Kanellos Katherine Karagianis Liz Karagianis Maria Karagianis Emilios Karakostas George & Vicky Karalis 145
Dimitri Karpouzis Vasilis & Maria Kazis Kelly Kehoe Vasilis Kesaris Dr. Christine Kondoleon Diana Kono Dr. Lyn Konugres-Coupounas John Kopelas George A. Koufos & Kathryn Fenerlis-Koufos Arthur & Vaia Koumantzelis Nicholas & Pamela Lazares Sofia Lingos Robert & Deborah Marini Georgia Marinis Tim Marken George & Eva Markos Dan Mathieu Ioannis & Beth Miaoulis John & Janice Panagako Nick Paleologos Taki & Elaine Pantazopoulos Dr. Serefim & Efigenia Papagianis Chris & Angeliki Papantoniou Arthur & Becky Pappas Christina Pappas George & Demetra Pappas Leonidas & Panagiota Pappas Stephanie Pappas Vaggellis Pappas Yiota Pappas Costas & Ann Perdidakis Evangelos & Pauline Petras Nicholas & Mary Philopoulos John Psaros
Dimitrios & Tacia Rozanitis Arthur & Vasiliki Sakellaris Charles & Diane Seremetis Christopher & Dori Seremetis Demetrios & Pauline Seremetis Nick & Diane Seremetis Peter Spiliakos Charles & Maria Spiropoulos Jed & Alexis Swan Amalia Tagaris Michael & Lynne Taylor Father Nicholas & Presvytera Diane Triantafilou George Triantaris Peter Trogos George Tsipakis, Jr. Christos Tsaganis John Vemis Nicholas & Mindy Verenis Louis & Zacharie Vinios Themis Vulgaris Stuart & Elaine Ward Andrew Webb & Tania Lingos-Webb Colin & Nansi O. Widen Marc White Jr. & Stephanie Andrews Emanuel & Areti P. Zacharakis Clotilde Zannetos John & Irene Zervas Fred Zotos
ITHAKA As you set out for Ithaka hope your road is a long one, full of adventure, full of discovery. Laistrygonians, Cyclops, angry Poseidon-don’t be afraid of them: you’ll never find the things like that on your way as long as you keep thoughts raised high, as long as a rare excitement stirs your spirit and your body. Laistrygonians, Cyclops, wild Poseidonyou won’t encounter them unless you bring them along inside your soul, unless your soul sets them up in front of you. Hope your road is a long one. May there be many summer mornings when, with what pleasure, what joy, you enter harbors you’re seeing for the first time; may you stop at Phoenician trading stations to buy fine things, mother of pearl and coral, amber and ebony. sensual perfume of every kind- as many sensual perfumes as you can; and may you visit many Egyptian cities to learn and go on learning from their scholars.
Keep Ithaka always in your mind. Arriving there is what you’re destined for. But don’t hurry the journey at all. Better if it lasts for years, so you’re old by the time you reach the island, wealthy with all you’ve gained on the way, not expecting Ithaka to make you rich. Ithaka gave you the marvelous journey. Without her you wouldn’t have set out. She has nothing left to give you now. And if you find her poor, Ithaka won’t have fooled you. Wise as you will have become, so full of experience, you’ll have understood by then what these Ithakas mean Constantine P. Cavafy