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Here is something else you need to understand…generally speaking bigger individuals have greater absolutely strength and smaller people possess greater relative strength. This is especially true of highly trained or world class athletes. However, there are a number of formulas that can be used to calibrate for size difference. The Schwartz formula and the Malone formula are the two best formulas available. Both of these formulas can be found at in Appendix G. See, I always have your back. Okay, now let’s look at some of the test that could be used to evaluate isotonic strength.

Evaluating Your Isotonic Muscular Strength Squats Objective: to measure the strength of the quadriceps, hamstrings, gluteus maximum and minus and rhomboids…the primary muscle being the quadriceps. Age level: age 16 through college level. Reliability: Reliability coefficients range from .84 to .96. Objectivity: An objectivity coefficient of .97 was reported by Reico (1992). Validity: Face validity is generally accepted for this test. The test correlates .87 with total body strength when it is used to evaluate elite athletes. (Cotton, Biasiotto, and Chissom 1974) Equipment: Squat rack, Olympic bar, collar and free weights. Directions: I have already given you a pretty good analysis of the squat so this is going to be a little redundant…I will be brief. Although squatting form and efficient biomechanics is an individual matter, there are some principles that can be universally applied to every lifter. Unrack the weight with the bar positioned across the top of your scapula. When you are in position to "set up" with the weight place your feet so that they are three inches beyond shoulder width. When descending with the weight, try to keep your back in an upright position. It's important to keep your calves straight and your knees directly over your feet. Try to keep the weight back over your heels, aligning your position so that your power is centered vertically: It's also a good idea to point your toes slightly outward. This will allow you to lift the weight further back over your heels. It will also help you to flare your knees outward at the bottom of the lift. As soon as you break reach the bottom of the lift (for safety reason it is best to squat above parallel…at least 2 inches above parallel) tilt your back slightly forward, thereby bringing your hips into play to lead your ascent. As you drive the weight upward, gradually drive your thighs


Resting Between Sets Only a few tests of strength that are practical in terms of time, equipment, and cost are presented here. When special...