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Science Today

Table of Contents Moon formation, composition, size, and Distance from the Earth-page 3 Moon Phases-page 4 Moon orbit and the moon’s effect on earth-page 5 Missions to the moon Timeline-page 7 Postcard-page 8


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Moon formation, composition, size, and Distance from the Earth There are many ideas of how the moon was formed. One is that a portion of earth’s crust broke off and formed the moon when the earth was young. The second is that the moon came from another part of the galaxy and was sucked into the earth’s gravitational pull and stayed there. Another theory is that the moon was just formed when the earth was out of planetary disks. The moon is made up of many things. The moon is made up of 42% oxygen, 21% silicon, 13% iron, 8% calcium, 7% aluminum, 6% magnesium, and 3% other elements. The moon has a crust, mantle, and core just like the earth. The Moon has a solid iron-rich inner core with a radius of 240 kilometers and a fluid outer core primarily made of liquid iron with a radius of about 300 kilometers. The partially molten boundary layer is about 500 kilometers. The rest is the mantle and crust. The moon is exactly 238,800 miles from earth. The moon is 3475 km or 2172 mi in diameter. The gravity of the moon is 1/6 of the gravity on earth. The moon is bigger than Pluto.

Moon Phases The moon starts at a new moon, then waxing crescent, then First quarter, then waxing gibbous, then full, and then waning gibbous, then third quarter, then waning crescent, and finally comes back to full. Sunlight and the position the moon is in depends on where and how you see the moon. Also where you are in the world contributes to this it is still the same moon just in a different position depending on where you are. Diagram of the moon phases

Moon Orbit and The Moon’s effect on the Earth The moon orbits around the earth in approximately 27.3 days. On average, the Moon is at a distance of about 385000 km from the centre of the Earth, which corresponds to about 60 Earth radii. The Moon moves relative to the stars each hour by an amount roughly equal to its angular diameter, or by about 0.5°. The moon effects the earth in two ways. Its position around the earth allows it to reflect the sun's light into our night. The moon's orbit around the earth lasts about a month giving us different levels of this light. The 'new moon' has little light to offer and the 'full moon' provides us with the best lighting. The second effect comes from the moon's gravitational pull on the earth. As the earth rotates, the moon's pull causes the world's bodies of water to experience 'high tides.' At a given time there are two high tides on earth. The moon controls our tides.

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Missions to the moon timeline

Missions to the moon timeline



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