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Hannah Organ Aubrey Miller


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Tabl e of Cont ent s How did the Moon form? /What is the Moon made of? …………………………………………………………. Page 3 Moon dimensions/Moon Phases ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Page 4 Orbit of the Moon ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Page 5 How does the Moon affect the earth? ……………………………………………………………………………………. Page 6 Timeline of Moon missions …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Page 7 Crossword puzzle ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page 8

Hannah Organ Aubrey Miller


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The moon was formed about 4.6 billion years ago, about the same time as the earth. It was formed when a rogue planet crashed into Earth. Pieces of the planets combined to form the moon, and Earth’s gravity pulled it into orbit.

What is the moon made of? The moon has layers similar to earth. Its core is made from mostly iron. The mantle, as scientists believe, is largely composed of the minerals olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene. It is also more iron rich than earth’s mantle. The crust of the Moon is composed mostly of oxygen, silicon, magnesium, iron, calcium, and aluminum. There are also trace elements like titanium, uranium, thorium, potassium and hydrogen.

Layers of the moon Hannah Organ Aubrey Miller


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The moon has four main phases. The new moon occurs when the moon is between the earth and sun. The side lit up by the sun is facing away from us on earth. The full moon happens when the earth is between the moon and the sun. We can see the entire sunlit side of the moon. The first and third quarter moons (half moons) occurs when the moon is at a 90° angle to the sun, so from earth we see half of the moon lit up and half in shadow. Between each moon phase, the moon is either waxing or waning. Waxing is when the moon appears to be getting larger. Waning is when it appears to be shrinking in illumination.

Moon Mat h! ! The moon’s mass is about 1/80 of Earth’s mass. The diameter of the moon is 2,160 miles. The distance between earth and the moon is 238,900 miles. If you traveled at a constant speed of 1,000 km per hour, the speed of a fast passenger jet, it would take sixteen days to get to the moon!

Hannah Organ Aubrey Miller


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The moon stays in orbit around earth because of the earth’s gravity. The moon travels around the earth at about 1.023 km per second, completing its orbit once every 27.3 days. Also, the moon’s path is not fixed in space, but is very, very slowly shifting east. The moon’s orbit is not perfectly round, but closer to being elliptically shaped. This is different from most other satellites.

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Hannah Organ Aubrey Miller


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The moon has two main effects on Earth: ocean tides and eclipses. The moon does have gravity, although it is not as strong as Earth’s. This gravity pulls on the oceans as it rotates around earth, causing high tides and low tides in certain places at certain times. The moon also causes eclipses. There are two types of eclipses, solar and lunar. A solar eclipse is caused when the moon passes between the earth and the sun and blocks the sunlight for a short time. A lunar eclipse happens when the moon passes through earth’s shadow. Lunar eclipses can only happen with full moons, but are longer and can be seen from a wider area on earth.

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Hannah Organ Aubrey Miller


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January, 1959: Luna 1 launches from the Soviet Union towards the moon but misses its target. Soviet lunar probes had been launched in 1958 but not announced to the public or acknowledged. This set a pattern for the Soviet space program: missions were not announced until they could be hailed as successes.

September, 1959: The Soviets' Luna 2 successfully crashlands on the moon, becoming the first manmade object to reach another planetary body.

November 10, 1968: Zond 6 follows its predecessor's trajectory around the moon and returns with a "skip" reentry, bouncing once off the Earth's atmosphere to reduce the G-forces acting upon the contents. Two more Zond flights will follow in 1969 but they will all be unmanned.

October, 1959: Luna 3 flies around the moon, taking the first photographs of the far side of the moon. Two more Soviet launches the following year will not achieve proper flight paths. Information about them will be suppressed.

March 3-13, 1969: The American Apollo 9 mission tests the Lunar Module for the first time, in Earth orbit.

October 11-12, 1968: After extensive redesign work, Apollo 7, commanded by Wally Schirra (the only astronaut to command Mercury, Gemini and Apollo missions) enters earth orbit in the first test of the spacecraft.

July 20, 1969: Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin become the first men to walk on the moon. They then rendezvous with Michael Collins in the command module for the return to Earth.

May 25, 1961: President John F. Kennedy, in his first State of the Union address, accelerates the space program and sets as a goal a moon landing within the decade.

1960

March 3, 1959: The U.S. sends the unmanned Pioneer 4 to the moon in the first American lunar flyby.

December 21-27, 1968: Apollo 8 completes the first manned orbit of the moon. Frank Borman commands the mission, Jim Lovell acts as navigator and William Anders is photographer and geological observer.

April 16-27, 1972: Apollo 16 lands on the moon and travels almost 17 miles with the lunar rover.

March 31,1966: Luna 10 launches from the Soviet Union. The unmanned probe will achieve lunar orbit -- the first object to do so -- and send information about the moon back to earth.

May 30, 1966: The unmanned American Surveyor 1 craft lands on the moon and transmits photographs and other data back to Earth. September 14, 1968: The Soviet Union sends Zond 5 around the moon and back to Earth in an unmanned test of their circumlunar spacecraft. May 18-26, 1969: Apollo 10 utilizes both the command-service module and the Lunar Module around the moon. Americans Tom Stafford and Gene Cernan descend to within 50,000 feet of the surface of the moon.

November 14-24, 1969: Apollo 12 lands on the moon. Pete Conrad and Alan Bean collect lunar samples, as well as parts of the unmanned Surveyor 3, another American spacecraft that had landed on the moon in April 1967.

January 31-February 9, 1971: Alan Shepard, the first American in space, commands Apollo 14 for the third lunar landing, on February 5.

July 26-August 7, 1971: Apollo 15 lands on the moon with a four-wheel drive lunar rover.

April 11-17,1970: En route to the moon, oxygen tanks explode on Apollo 13's command-service module. Through quick thinking from the crew and mission control, astronauts Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert and Fred Haise manage to survive in the Lunar Module until just before reentry to the earth's atmosphere when they return to the command-service module and land safely. December 7-19, 1972: Gene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt become the last men to walk on the moon in the twentieth century. They remain on the moon for three days (75 hours). Schmitt is the first scientist-astronaut to land on the moon.

Hannah Organ Aubrey Miller

1970


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Magical Moon Magazine

Across 3. The ____ of the moon is 2,160 miles. 6. The shape of the moon's orbit. 7. Eclipse when the moon passes between the earth and sun. 9. A trace element. 10. It would take __ days to get to the moon traveling at 1,000 km per hour. 11. The moon was formed 4.6 ____ years ago.

Down 1. The first and third quarter moons are also called a ____. (2 words) 2. Last name of one of the first people on the moon. 4. This keeps the moon in orbit. 5. When the moon appears to be shrinking. 8. Phase that occurs when the moon is between the earth and sun. (2 words) 12. This is what the moon's core is made out of.

Hannah Organ Aubrey Miller


6TH / MOON / MILLER / ORGAN