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Year A B C

ES1 ST1 St 2 St 3

Term 1 2 3 4

Focus: Exposition Social purpose: Used to argue a case for or against a particular position or point of view Structure: an exposition is organised to include  A statement of position. This usually includes a ‘preview of arguments’.  Arguments. Each argument includes a point and elaboration. The elaboration is supported by evidence. Arguments are ordered by writer’s choice, usually by strong and weak arguments  Reinforcements of statement of position. It restates the position more forcefully in the light of arguments presented Grammar: common grammatical patterns of an exposition include;  General nouns- ears, zoos  Abstract nouns- policy government  Technical words  Relating verbs  Action verbs  Thinking verbs  Modal verbs  Connectives  Evaluative language

Early Stage 1

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3


 Students should be encouraged to discuss issues they are interested in, both in the school and the community.  Teacher models spoken and written expositions  The meaning of terms ‘statements of position’ and ‘arguments’ should be discussed and clarified.  Focus on giving a positions statement in response to a question, rather than yes/no.  Encourage students to support the statement with at least one argument.

 Students will still be dealing mainly with topics of interest within their local community.  They should be encouraged to nominate such issues and discuss them  Model spoken and written expositions  Locate appropriate expositions for students to listen to and read.  Teacher may write model expositions  The meaning of terms ‘statements of position’ and ‘arguments’ should be discussed and clarified.  Students should focus on giving a statement of position and should practice different choices for making it strong  They should focus on developing the argument stages, if possible, and on the final stage- reinforcement of statement of position

Students will still be working with issues arising from local community concerns, as well as those from other KLAs.  They will be introduced to issues that may lie outside their personal experience.  Students should be encouraged to examine more closely how argument stages can be developed more effectively by sing evidence presented by experts, suing statistical information gained from surveys.  Students should be encouraged to question the accuracy of information from different sources and to consider how it can be checked.  Focus on construction a strong ‘statement of position’ and developing a ‘preview of arguments’  Students should focus on the tow parts of the argument stage- point and elaboration.  The ‘reinforcement of statement of position’ stage should be even more emphatic than the statement of position.  Discuss the ordering of the arguments stages. The choice of ordering is theirs. They need to consider which

 Students should work with a wide range of community and key learning area issues, particularly focusing on understanding extensive research in order to develop argument stages effectively  They should focus on how issues leading to exposition texts can be worded  They should be introduced to issues word as statements  They should be able to effectively handle the structure statement of position, argument, reinforcement f statement of position  The emphasis should be on the information/evidence used to develop the argument stage, whether students are reading, speaking or writing expositions.  They should be aware if the need to interrogate evidence and information in expectations  They should be able to identify vague and unsupported claims, and possible misleading or incomplete statistics, and evaluate language used to attempt to position the believer/reader/viewer in a

are their strongest and weakest arguments.

particular way  Their critical literacy skills should come to the fore in this stage of their literacy development


Local and familiar issues in the school and wider community

 Draw on school and local community issues  Begin to focus on issues related to the curriculum.  The teacher should discuss the kind of information needed to develop strong argument stages to support their position statement.  Discuss where to locate needed information.  Information may be recorded on point form on the board, wall chart or on individual proformas. This will provide information for a jointly or independently contrasted text.

Links with other KLA’s

 Health- poster to convince others to recycle  - statement regarding healthy lunches  HSIE- statements about pocket money

 Health- poster to convince others to recycle  - statement regarding healthy lunches  HSIE- statements about pocket money

 Students should undertake research abut issues they are focusing on. It needs to be scaffold by guideline questions, proformas etc.  They may interview and/or survey school and community members about relevant issues.  They may use media materials as a source if information in current issues.  They need to consider the accuracy of any information they use and how they can check it.  They should focus on developing the elaboration art of the argument stage as effectively as possible.  Students should be encouraged t pay close attention to terms such as, ‘the majority’, ‘the minority’; ‘many people’ etc and consider how precise these meanings are.  They should explore how, for example, expositions can be supported by tables showing the results of surveys and other visual images Health- healthy food Science- space exploration

 Students will work with community and key learning areas in expositions  Research skills need to be further developed so that students can speak or write at length in convincing and persuasive ways when developing expositions 

Health- healthy food Science- space exploration

Grammar focus

  

Grammar terminology

Students should be using terms such as  Repeated words  Statement  name

Connectives- firstly, secondly Relating and action verbs statements

 Constructing a sentence for the position statement  Using connectivesfirstly, secondly  Using action, relating and thinking verbs  Using adverbs, and adverbial phrases  Naming technical terms and demonstrating an understanding of their meaning Students should be using terms such as  connective  sentence  verb  adverb  adverbial phrase

 Word families to write about a topic  Using pronouns t refer to people, places and things already introduced  Focusing on information that will be theme of the clause  Using relating, action, and thinking verbs and using evaluative language Students should be using terms such as  word family  referring word  reported speech  theme of clause  relational, action, thinking verb  evaluative language

 Using word chains and word sets  Using a range of connectives\using complex sentences  Changing the beginning focus o9f the clause  Using abstract nouns  Using general nouns  Making noun from verbs  Word chains  S=word sets  Complex sentences  Theme of clause  Active  Passive  Abstract noun

Talking and Listening

Early Stage 1  Provide opportunities for class discussions  Students should talk about local and school issues  They must give reasons for agreeing and disagreeing  Jointly construct spoken expositions with the class about familiar issues  Discuss who this exposition could be presented to- other class, principal, P&C, newsletter

Stage 1  Model expositions for students  Spoken expositions may still be jointly constructed by students working I n pairs or small groups.  Use diagrams, photos or other visual images for support.  Students need to present support information to develop arguments convincingly.  Provide time to practice presentations.  They need to consider who their audience is and develop their presentation accordingly.  Assist them to develop such strategies as varying the softness/loudness of their voice and using hand gestures to gain attention of audience.

Stage 2  Students may research issues in small groups or independently.  They should identify their audience and consider how they can be persuaded.  They should focus on developing structure of expositions clearly.  They should practice various ways of formulating a strong statement.  They should include a preview of arguments and ensure there is a point and elaboration development in the argument stages.  Tables and diagrams may be used to support spoken expositions.  They should practice various ways of formulating a strong reinforcement of statement of position.

Stage 3  Students should develop spoken expositions to resent to their own and other classes.  Individuals or groups should be encouraged to take different positions on the same issue and listeners should be encouraged to note key points in their arguments so they can question speakers when they have finished  Students should listen carefully to what is presented rather than prejudge the speaker’s position because it differs from their own  Students can devise assessment sheets for spoken and written expositions that focus on the nature of the evidence presented and how its accuracy can be checked


 Listens to peer opinions  expresses a personal opinion  Talks with the teacher about school related topics  Talks to the whole class about a topic of interest

 Uses a comment or question to expand on an idea in a discussion.  Engages in group discussions to solve problems

 Justifies a point of view with evidence  Challenges a point of view with evidence  Conducts brief interviews with peers and adults to obtain information about an issue or topic  Participates in class discussion on a variety of topics  Talks briefly to the class after a group discussion on a current topic


 Demonstrates attentive listening  Contributes to class discussions  Uses appropriate bodylanguage and gestures when talking to the class  Talks and listens to others in small groups and whole-class discussions 

 Expresses a personal point of view and listens to the viewpoints of others  Listens and contributes to class discussions on various topics  Experiments with varying voice, tone, volume and pace to indicate emotion  Speaks clearly  Talks to whole class using a prop to assist- pictures etc  Make eye contact with audience

 Responds to different viewpoints in a discussion  Uses tone of speech appropriate to audience  Uses body language and gesture to enhance meaning  engages with the audience and uses appropriate body language when presenting  Plans spoken exposition  May sue notes as prompts when speaking

 Produces a wide range of spoken texts  Recognises when a opinion is being offered as opposed to fact  Listens to sustained argument and identifies supporting evidence  Listens to a short presentation or argument and responds by changing or commenting on a point made  Gives considered reasons for opinions and listens to those of others  Attempts to persuade others in the class to a point of view, presenting a few reasons  Interview community members  Participates in class debates on local issue  Engages in more extended, productive group discussion with greater student autonomy  Takes notes from a range of spoke texts- guest speaker, TV programs, video, CD-ROM  uses a variety of ways to seek relevant information  Speaks with clarity and uses appropriate intonation, volume and pauses when presenting  Uses gesture, posture, facial expression, tone of voice, pace of speaking to engage the interest of an audience



Talks about oral exposition- This is a statement o purpose and this is an argument

 Talks about the structure of an exposition  Talks about how to make a positive statement  Talks about how to make a negative statement that will not offend others  Plans temporal sequence in exposition- firstly, secondly  Plans delivery of an oral exposition

 Identifies the characteristics of an oral exposition

 Recognises the main organisational structures of spoken exposition  Talks about expressive features related to spoken language such as gesture, facial expression as well as voice quality, tone, volume and clarity

 Detects strategies that speakers use to influence an audience g emotive language, one-sided presentation of information, exaggerated claims  Prepares a spoken presentation considering the needs of a familiar audience such as predicting questions and planning answers, eg preparing a case for or against and argument Understand the listener can influence the speaker- the listener can ask questions to clarify meaning

 Talks about the use of pause and repetition for effect in spoken texts  Recognise the main organisational structure of spoken expositions  Considers the needs of a familiar audience on preparation of a spoken presentation, eg predicting likely questions and preparing answers  Observes and discusses the way voice and body language affect audience and can be used to enhance meaning and influence interpretations  Evaluates own oral presentation in terms of such features as tone, volume, intonation, body language  Evaluates speech, taking into account presentation, content and situation


Early Stage 1 Teacher models the stages of an exposition

Stage 1  Teacher explicitly models the stages of an exposition  Uses a number of sources for information- pictures, posters, CD-ROMs, signs, labels, books  Find specific information in factual texts

 Identify nouns and nouns groups during shared reading  Recognise repetition of words in texts

 Uses a number of sources for information- pictures, posters, CD-ROMs, signs, labels, books  Recognises nouns, nouns groups and pronouns in text  Locates information from a variety of texts




Describe the purpose of an exposition

Stage 2  Teacher explicitly models the stages of an exposition  Obtains information fro selected internet/computer sites and other computer graphics and texts  Finds information for purposes in factual texts  Reacts to texts that express a point of view, using supporting arguments  Selects print and nonprint material on an increasing range of topics from school and community libraries and the internet  Identifies words that indicate possibility and probability  Identifies relationships in written sentences signaled by connectives  Identifies evaluative language  Makes brief notes of information on a topic from variety of sources  Locates information from sources such as books, pictures, internet, database, CD-ROMs and media texts  Makes judgments about the appropriateness of information  Recognises and describes the purpose of an exposition  Distinguishes between fact and opinion  Identifies writer’s intended audience  Selects texts relevant to topic

Stage 3  Teacher explicitly models the stages of an exposition  Interprets a variety of factual texts  Interprets a wider range of internet/computer texts and graphics  Evaluates sustained arguments with evidence of various types

 Identifies words that may help readers to distinguish fact form opinion  Identifies a research topic and selects relevant and accurate information  Identifies relevant and valid resources for research

 Identifies typical structure used in different text types such as exposition  Recognises and discusses the purpose of organisational stage of different types of text  Recognises reader response


 Identifies doing, thinking verbs  Identifies repeated words as ways in which topics are develop din information texts  Identifies noun groups and discusses their effect of their use in comparison to using a noun only  Identifies adverbial phrases that tell us more about the action in terms of when, why, how and discusses the effect of this in texts  Identifies pronouns and knows and understands that they are used instead of a noun, and understands the purpose of personal and possessive pronouns

under discussion  Identifies writer’s viewpoint  Recognise the structure of more complex test types  Recognise cohesive links in text- referring words/pronouns  Identify the use of modality in persuasive writing  Identifies word families in texts and discusses hw they build up the topic information  Identifies evaluative language in texts and discusses the effects of such language 

expected by the author  Identifies the structure of persuasive text and features such as modal words and connectives  Identifies how noun groups are a useful resource for condensing information about people, places, tings and ideas  Reflects how writes use modality to create a sense of either definiteness or tentativeness  Identifies and distinguishes word chains in texts and discusses how they build information  Identifies abstract non in texts and discusses their effect  Identifies relative pronouns



Early Stage 1  Jointly construct written exposition about topics that children are interested in  Encourages students to discuss who might read their expositions  Encourage students to discuss how they can use language to influence people about a point of view

Stage 1  Expositions may be jointly or independently written.  Students need to learn to locate information in written texts, films, videos, which can be used to develop effective argument stages.  They need to consider the audience they wish to influence.  They may write their exposition in a letter. This will involve them in learning the conventions of letter writing.

 Contributes to joint construction of text

 Combines ideas in writing.  Uses a framework to take notes, eg matrix, flowchart  Expresses an opinion in writing  Writes notes from texts  Contributes to joint construction of text  Reads own writing to a variety of audiences.  Begins to explore less familiar topics as a basis for writing

Stage 2

Students should write expositions independently at this stage, although they may share research tasks  They should the consider the audience they wish to influence in gathering information to develop argument stages  The elaboration part of the argument should consist of at least several sentences  Expositions may be written in letters and they can be used as models for future writing  Focus on the correct use of stages, presenting information logically, using impersonal style and conjunctions to give text coherence  Use other texts as models for aspects of writing such as text organization  Uses some effective planning stages  Understands and creates notes for relevant writing purposes  Contributes to joint construction writing  Writes a wider range of text types  Structure text types in appropriate stages  Expresses a point of vies in writing and with some

Stage 3  Students should focus on writing clear and forceful statements of position followed by succinct preview of arguments  The point part of the elaboration should be clear and concise and it should be supported by substantial evidence to give arguments as much force as possible  Students should be encouraged to participate in community issues through written expositions, which may take the form of letter writing

 Records information fro ma variety of sources before writing  Contributes to joint construction of writing  Writes sustained arguments and discussions supported by evidence  Writes texts that include technical language  Undertakes research to extend knowledge of subject matter  Writes letters 

supporting arguments  Writes for a chosen audience  Selects relevant information to use in own writing  Writes on familiar and researched topics  Writes letters



 Indicates purpose for writing  Recognises an exposition 


Identifies some stages of the exposition  Talks about the action verbs in a text

 Uses pronoun references accurately  Uses different types of verbs in own writing

 Builds word families in preparation for writing  Identifies nouns, verbs, adverbs in own writing and how these add to the meaning of the text  Combines clauses by sing a variety of conjunctionsbecause, so, when  Uses a variety of connectives  Uses conjunctions to construct cause-effect relationships- so, if, but, because  Uses modal verbs and adverbs in text types to indicate possibility, probability

Prepares banks of words of a particular purpose Uses different types of verbs Uses a variety of connectives and conjunctions Uses cause-effect relationships

 Discusses the purpose for why people write expositions  Examines the stages of an exposition and discusses their function  States the purpose and intended audience before reading  Recognises organisational structure of an exposition  Recognises the stages of an exposition  Discusses the function of an exposition  Recognises different types of verbs in their own writing 

 Understands purpose and stages of an exposition  Identifies audience of a text and adjusts writing accordingly  Talks about research as a way of building up a topic

 Explores options for influencing readers in writing

 Recognises and discusses the organisational structure of an exposition  Recognises different types of adverbial phrases  Identifies nuns, verbs and adverbs in own writing an talks bout their function in making meaning  Indicates how different types f verbs have been used in

 Talks about how persuasive texts have been structured in order to convince the reader about a point of view  Analyses own text for effective use of joining words  Recognises how adverbs and adverbial phrases provide additional

own writing- action, thinking

information in own writing  Identifies use of pronouns and to who or what they refer  Organises how cause and effect relationships are constructed in different sentences through variety of conjunctions, eg because, if