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Everything Must Go Art and the Market


Contents

Foreword

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Value is Within Us

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Everything Must Go: overview

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Everything Must Go: Artist information Lida Abdul Karmelo Bermejo Walead Beshty Victor Burgin Colin Darke Eric Fischl Meschac Gaba Antonia Hirsch Kathi Hofer Suzanne Mooney Ni Haifeng Raqs Media Collective Amie Siegel Christopher Williams

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52

Acknowledgements

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Foreword

The value of art is constantly in flux and depends not just on the nature of the work itself, but on cultural, financial and historic contexts. Curated by Chris Clarke, Senior Curator at the Lewis Glucksman Gallery and Dr. Declan Jordan, Lecturer in the School of Economics at University College Cork, Everything Must Go explores the relationship between contemporary art, economics and value, raising questions about the very meaning of art, as well as its monetary worth. This guide provides a reflection on the research themes that guided the curators, as well as an introduction to the artists selected for the exhibition. Support for Everything Must Go and the accompanying programme of talks, workshops and curatorial events has been generously provided by the Arts Council of Ireland, Institut fĂźr Auslandsbeziehungen, The Austrian Federal Chancellery, and private philanthropy through Cork University Foundation. Fiona Kearney Director, Lewis Glucksman Gallery

Image: Colin Darke, Capital Paintings, 2004-2007, oil on canvas, detail

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Value is Within Us Declan Jordan In Lady Windermere’s Fan, Lord Darlington describes a cynic as “a man who knows the price of everything and the value of nothing.” It is a charge also often made against economists. To talk about the thorny issues of value, markets, and price in the context of art and culture is to invite charges of philistinism and crudeness. Yet, markets exist for art and artists engage with markets, even where it is to question their effects or challenge them. Everything Must Go prompts us to reflect on the nature of value and how it affects the market for art, and also how we, as individuals, determine value. This is a critical idea because it is central to how we act in our everyday lives. Value is a concept with which economics has always struggled. It goes right to the heart of fundamental ideas in the discipline. Since economics is a study of human behaviour and how individuals make choices in the “ordinary business of life,” the values of those choices is a critical notion. A tenet of economics is that individuals face unlimited wants but limited resources, and so must make choices. This can be extended to the choices made by organisations, businesses, and governments. Do we fund that museum, do we invest in that school, or do we cut taxes? Of course, the choices are not always so stark or mutually exclusive. In addition, the choices we make are not, of course, always obviously economic in nature. For example, we choose one movie instead of another, we choose one partner instead of another, we choose one profession instead of another, or we choose to delay and ponder a work of art instead of starting our journey home.

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Before we can consider how to value something we need to consider Adam Smith’s distinction between value-in-use and value-in-exchange and recognise that things which may have a high value-in-use may have little, if any, value-in-exchange and vice versa. The difficulty with estimating or measuring value arises from the impossibility of observing it, until exchange occurs. We cannot, reliably, estimate the value of a commodity, product or service until it is exchanged for another, and even then the subjectivity of value means we have only identified its minimum value. Shortly before this exhibition opened, Amedeo Modigliani’s Reclining Nude was purchased at auction for $170 million. It is the second highest price ever paid for a work of art. But even this price may undervalue the painting, since we cannot know whether the successful bidder would have been willing to pay more. Marx and Value The Labour Theory of Value, associated most with Karl Marx though it also featured in ‘models’ of classical economists such as Smith and Ricardo, says that the basis of value for any commodity is the amount of labour required to produce it. Expressing value in this way provides us with a mechanism to compare the value of all of the commodities, products, and services that we produce and consume in an economy. It is an intuitive idea, and one that I believe appeals to our sense of fairness. We may, even subconsciously, favour a relationship between something’s value and the effort a person makes in producing it. In a famous case in 1878, the problems of linking labour to value in art came strikingly to the fore. The painter, James Abbott McNeill Whistler, sued the critic, John Ruskin, after a particularly disparaging comment. During the trial, Whistler indicated that the painting in question, Nocturne in Black and Gold – The Falling Rocket had been completed in two days. Ruskin’s lawyer asked if the artist was really asking for two hundred guineas for the “labour of two days,” to which Whistler replied “I ask it for the knowledge I have gained in the

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work of a lifetime.” It seems Ruskin’s lawyer may have been an unsuspecting Marxist. In this exchange we encounter the difficulties posed by a Labour Theory of Value. For example, how is labour to be aggregated between skilled and unskilled? How do we value the creative? How do we account for the importance of tools and technology? Indeed, works of art and/or other unique products are often cited in challenges to the Labour Theory of Value since, in exchange, their observed values clearly vary from the quantity of labour used to produce them. Smith and Ricardo, who were troubled by many examples in the world in practice that deviated from a labour-based value, recognised these problems. Advocates of the Marxist perspective have argued that Marx was concerned with general commodities, and he accepted that demand and supply and the uniqueness of some goods could force values away from their labour-based levels. Subjective Value Perhaps a more useful direction from which to approach the concept of labour is from the ‘demand-side’. The Austrian School approach to value emphasises its subjectivity. Something’s value derives from its ability to satisfy the needs or wants of the person that desires it. As Mises says, “value is not intrinsic, it is not in things. It is within us.” This is a deceptively simple idea, but its simplicity is its power. It implies voluntary exchange can increase well being for everyone engaged in it, since both seller and buyer may place different values on the item being exchanged. Indeed, the subjective nature of value drives entrepreneurialism, since the value or opportunity seen by one person is different from that perceived by another. Where one may see potential, another may see disaster. The Austrian School see value as being derived from an individual’s perception of how well an item satisfies a need as perceived by that individual. If we apply this idea to an artwork it means that it possesses no intrinsic value. Just as the value of

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a product or service remains unobservable until it is exchanged, so an artwork’s value (except to the artist that must create) remains elusive. There are echoes here of the phrase popularly attributed to Ansel Adams, “there are always two people in every photograph: the photographer and the viewer.” It is how the viewer responds and feels about an artwork that provides value, rather than anything intrinsic to the work. Though, we need of course to be wary here. We may hope that purchasers of artworks are moved to act by their responses to them, rather than perhaps their desire to be seen to own a work by a famous or fashionable artist. Though maybe here we get drawn into the concepts of value, price, value, signals and conspicuous consumption. Why we struggle with value It is not just the subjectivity of value that makes it difficult for us to analyse or measure value. Many goods have a private value and a social value. The latter is difficult to ascertain and often goes uncounted. This is important when we consider socially valuable goods such as knowledge, environment, and art. Can there be any way to observe, never mind measure, the value to society and economy of a young person inspired to create by a work of art seen on a gallery wall. A private purchase of that artwork would deprive society of the social benefit. The private sale must undervalue the work, since the social value is not included. In addition, behavioural economists have recently made attempts to understand value even more complex, as they demonstrate that individuals do not behave as ‘rationally’ as economists would hope they did to make our models closer to the world in practice. For example, an endowment effect is now widely accepted as a feature of our decision-making. It means we tend to place a higher value on objects we own relative to objects we do not, and this is not just due to the sentimental value we place on objects. Despite these difficulties with value identification and

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measurement, we know that markets overcome these difficulties where exchange takes place. Where there should be chaos, there is instead a spontaneous order. Nobody is in charge of our market exchanges, but yet they occur with staggering frequency and markets emerge in the least hospitable places and times. Smith suggests this is driven by humans’ urge to “truck and barter.� There is something in our natures that makes us want to exchange and trade with others. This means markets fulfill a need in our societies, irrespective of whether our economies are organized around market models or not. This requires a more nuanced understanding of what a market means. At its most fundamental a market is a means of helping us satisfy our needs. This should not be overlooked in the current disdain for markets that is a response to its elevation to ideology. This exhibition is designed to prompt reflection on what we value, how we value it, the means and outcomes of (global) exchange, and the fairness of the exchanges. While it may be too much to ask that the exhibition provide answers, it will hopefully stimulate lots of good questions and challenge the assumptions we bring to art and the market.

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Everything Must Go Chris Clarke

Everything Must Go explores the relationship between contemporary art, economics and value, emphasing the ways in which monetary and historical value accrues through qualities that might appear peripheral to the artwork itself: context and display, provenance and ownership, reputation and rarity. Value is never fixed; it is determined by the calculations of investors, the impulses of shoppers and the fluctuations of the marketplace. From the homes of private collectors to auction houses, luxury department stores to informal black markets, the exhibition looks at the spaces where objects are validated, appraised or, in some instances, overlooked. In Eric Fischl’s Art Fair paintings, collectors and dealers, critics and curators, mingle amidst a backdrop of contemporary artworks. These large canvases capture the uniquely frenetic atmosphere of the art fair, the hype and expenditure that drives the market and elevates the value of certain works. As a result, the individuals portrayed appear less concerned with the works on show than with networking, making deals, and chatting on their mobile phones. Ni Haifeng’s Reciprocal Fetishism comprises a selection of everyday items, acquired from the home of a prominent art collector, and, in doing so, demonstrates how ownership itself confers an importance to certain objects. His readymade items, including bottle racks, slippers, ceramic jars, Chinese tea, wine glasses and stacks of books, appear commonplace: it is only through their connection to an anonymous (and presumably wealthy) individual and their privileged positioning on museum plinths, that one begins to speculate on their value as ‘artworks’. In

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Suzanne Mooney’s photographs, the artist depicts the physical structures of marketing: stands, platforms, backdrops and arrangements familiar from the displays of high street shops and department stores, yet without the clutter of the actual items for sale. Devoid of their high-end goods, the emphasis is directed towards empty spaces that resemble abstract, formal compositions of light and colour. These ways in which objects are showcased or advertised discretely affects the consumer’s desire to purchase such items. In Meschac Gaba’s series of diptychs, the frames themselves become the focus of attention, embedded with devalued banknotes from the Central Banks of the states of West Africa and addressing ideas of value and revaluation, perceptions of African art, and the politics of museum display. Christopher Williams’ photographs explore the conventions of advertising and the superficiality of surface. His works, including a depiction of the main staircase of the Arts Club Chicago and a triptych of images capturing a camera from different angles, question the mechanisms of communication and the aesthetic codes that influence our understanding of reality. Kathi Hofer also alludes to notions of surface and display in her sculptural installation of gift-wrapped boxes, neatly tied with ribbon and stacked across the gallery floor, while in Walead Beshty’s photographic series The Phenomenology of Shopping, the artist is portrayed as an exhausted shopper, literally collapsing headfirst into the consumer goods that surround him. However, this gesture might also indicate surrender, as if he has become overwhelmed and awed by the vast range of brands on offer. The provenance of an object is another factor that informs the value collectors place upon their possessions. However, this sense of rarity or authenticity often overlooks the conditions of labour and capital investment that produce commodities. Amie Siegel looks at how artworks become integrated within the art economy, with her film Provenance tracing in reverse the global trade in Modernist furniture. From the New York apartments, London town houses, Belgian villas and Paris salons of avid collectors, the film proceeds through auction rooms, preview

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exhibitions, restoration spaces, and cargo shipping containers, to the furniture’s origins in the offices of Chandigarh, the Indian city planned by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret. Siegel’s accompanying film Lot 248 presents another step in the progression, as Provenance itself goes under the hammer at the renowned auction house Christie’s. A very different sort of market is captured in Lida Abdul’s poetic film Brick Sellers of Kabul. A procession of children line up to re-sell the bricks and masonry salvaged from destroyed buildings, offering a glimpse of optimism from the ruins of war-ravaged Afghanistan, and an insight into how markets can emerge in the most inauspicious circumstances. The relationship between economics and everyday life is often complicated by the complexity of financial instruments, the opacity of institutions and the corporate buzzwords and terminology that tend to confuse rather than clarify practices to the non-specialist observer. Kathi Hofer’s installation “The State of Long-term Expectation” restated uses quotes from the economist John Maynard Keynes as slogans on coffee mugs, alongside assorted wrapped gifts and display stands, as a means of representing economic theory as a spatial, sculptural experience. By introducing these statements into settings more reminiscent of meeting rooms or office spaces, she suggests the discordance between such economic ideologies and our working lives. In Victor Burgin’s influential series US 77, the artist combines appropriated texts with photographs of commercial advertisements and spaces to comment on the cultural changes in 1970s American society and the fetishising of women as objects of the male gaze. As in his poster work Possession, which juxtaposes an image of an embracing couple with a statistical quote on the proportion of income controlled by the top 7% of society, Burgin compels viewers to reflect critically on conventions of society that are too often overlooked. A related accentuation of the peripheral is seen in Raqs Media Collective’s text-based artwork Please Do Not Touch the Work of Art, installed across the walls of the Glucksman. By reconfiguring the wording of this simple yet familiar sentence into variations such as “Please the Art of Touch. Do Not Work” or “Touch. Do Not Please the Work of Art”, they create a range

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of poetic, declarative and subversive statements. In capturing the importance of display, provenance, and language in determining value, it is easy to overlook that markets are influenced by latent capital investment and financial speculation. Antonia Hirsch explores such ideas from a historical context by drawing upon the 17th Century Dutch phenomenon of ‘tulipmania’. Set in the tulip auction houses of Aalsmeer, Holland, Hirsch’s freestanding photographic triptych Garden of Earthly Delights depicts a constellation of discarded receipts and papers left on the trading floor. The effect is magnified by the glimmers of light reflected from two used disco balls, situated just behind the screen and subtly evoking the aftermath of a party. In Karmelo Bermejo’s Fiscal Oil Paint series, underlying economic forces are literally absorbed in the work, as the inscription 'Undeclared Income' in the top layer of oil paint is legible only from certain angles and lighting conditions. The artist’s practice is often critical of the marketplace: for instance, Bermejo instructs that, when purchasing his work, the buyer is challenged not to declare the acquisition of the piece and the gallery not to declare its sale. In a previous work, the artist Colin Darke transcribed found objects with writing from Karl Marx's three-volume ‘Das Kapital’. His Capital Paintings are 480 individual canvases of uniform size that depict the objects themselves, without their texts. Resembling a seemingly endless production line, the series of paintings explores the uneasy but interdependent relationship between creativity and consumerism. This tension recurs throughout Everything Must Go. Although the artists often critique ideas around the marketplace in their practices, they still find themselves complicit in its logic, subject to the mechanisms of the economy and shifting trends of what is deemed ‘valuable’. While questioning these notions of value, it is precisely this quality that, in turn, makes others value them.

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Everything Must Go Artist Information

Image: Amie Siegel, Provenance, 2013, HD video, 40’30�, installation view


Lida Abdul Born in Afghanistan, 1973. Lida Abdul’s work fuses the tropes of Western formalism with the numerous aesthetic traditions – Islamic, Buddhist, Hindu, pagan and nomadic – that collectively influence Afghan art and culture. Her work, in media including video, film, photography, installation and performance, often explores ideas of homeland, exile and the effects of conflict on national and personal identity. As the artist explains: “Afghanistan is physically destroyed but its capacity for survival has not diminished.” Abdul’s work has been shown in many international exhibitions including the 2006 São Paulo Biennial; the 2007 Sharjah Biennial; and Documenta 13, Kassel. Having fled her home as a child before the Soviet invasion she was the first artist from her country to represent Afghanistan at the Venice Biennale in 2005. Abdul has exhibited in festivals in Mexico, Spain, Germany, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan, and was a featured artist at the 2004 Central Asian Biennial. For the past few years, Abdul has been working in different parts of Afghanistan on projects exploring the relationship between architecture and identity. Exhibition works Brick Sellers of Kabul 2006, 16mm film transferred to DVD, 6’00” Courtesy of the artist and Giorgio Persano Gallery, Turin

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Lida Abdul, Brick Sellers of Kabul, 2006, 16mm film transferred to DVD, video still

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Karmelo Bermejo Born in Spain, 1979. Karmelo Bermejo produces artworks that challenge and subvert the marketplace by questioning the rules that shape commercial art practices and sales systems as indicators of value. In his Fiscal Oil Paint series, he adopts a Renaissance painting technique, using layers upon layers of glazes to build up a rich opacity of colour, with a final glaze of oil impasto setting the inscription 'Undeclared Income' in the top layer of paint. In this sense, Bermejo’s works carry with them the 'secret noise' of consumerism. Bermejo has presented solo exhibitions at galleries including MARCO, Museo de Arte Contemporånea de Vigo; Maisterravalbuena, Madrid; and Centro Cultural Montehermoso, as well as group exhibitions in Casa del Lago, Mexico City; the 29th Biennial of Graphic Arts, Ljubljana; Museum of Mexico City; CA2M Centro de Arte Dos de Mayo, Madrid; the 2010 Liverpool Biennial; Bloomberg Space, London and the 2014 Yokohama Triennial. Exhibition works Fiscal Oil Paint - Cobalt Violet 2014, oil on canvas Fiscal Oil Paint - Light Gold 2014, oil on canvas Fiscal Oil Paint - Venetian Red 2013, oil on canvas Fiscal Oil Paint - Vermillion 2014, oil on canvas All works courtesy of the artist and Carroll / Fletcher, London

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Karmelo Bermejo, Fiscal Oil Paint - Cobalt Violet, 2014, oil on canvas

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Walead Beshty Born in UK, 1979

Walead Beshty’s practice often addresses the distribution of consumer goods. In previous projects, he used the means of transportation as a way of affecting and altering the work, as in his photographs developed from film that has passed through airport X-ray machines or in his uncrated glass sculptures that become shattered in transit. Throughout his works in sculpture, photography and performance, he explores the ways in which objects accrue and produce meaning through their placement and circulation in the world. Based in Los Angeles, Beshty has exhibited widely in numerous museums and galleries around the world including the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles; the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; the Museum of Modern Art, New York; Tate Britain, London; the Guggenheim Museum, New York; and Kunsthalle Basel, Switzerland. He is represented by Thomas Dane Gallery, London and Regen Projects, Los Angeles.

Exhibition works The Phenomenology of Shopping 2003, C-print photographs Courtesy of the artist and Regen Projects, Los Angeles

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Walead Beshty, The Phenomenology of Shopping, 2003, C-print photographs

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Victor Burgin Born in UK, 1941. In his influential series US 77, Victor Burgin characteristically combines text with black and white photographs of American culture, whose style is reminiscent of glossy magazines. However, the works do not employ found images from magazines, but are meticulously composed photographs, in which the position of the text within the image frame and the black and white of the writing is clearly defined. The text and photograph share common features, which the viewer is invited to decode and reflect on. Victor Burgin studied painting at the Royal College of Art from 1962 to 1965 and philosophy and fine art at Yale University from 1965 to 1967. From the late 1960s he adhered to conceptual art using combinations of photographic images and printed text to examine the relationship between apparent and implicit meaning. Burgin is Professor Emeritus of History of Consciousness at the University of California, Santa Cruz and Emeritus Millard Chair of Fine Art at Goldsmiths College, London. His work is included in the collections of MoMA, New York; The Walker Art Center, Minneapolis; and the British Council Collection. Exhibition works US 77 1977, black and white photographs on hardboard Possession 1976, duotone lithograph British Council Collection

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Victor Burgin, Four-Word Looking panel from US77, 1977, Set of 12 panels, vintage gelatin silver prints

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Colin Darke Born in UK, 1957. Colin Darke’s work is informed by an interest in Marxism and historical instances of popular revolt such as the 1871 Paris Commune. His Capital Paintings evolved from an earlier project entitled Capital where he transcribed by hand the entire three volumes of Karl Marx’s ‘Das Capital’ onto 480 2-dimensional objects randomly selected but mostly identifiable as items deriving from commercial or industrial production. Through rewriting the text, Darke became specifically interested in Marx’s “division of commodity and production into two ‘departments’ – production of the means of production and production of the means of consumption.” Darke studied Fine Art at Goldsmiths College in London and relocated to Northern Ireland in 1988, where he completed his PhD at the University of Ulster in 2010. Darke’s works have been shown at galleries and biennials including the 2003 Venice Biennale; the 2004 Busan Biennial; Manifesta 3, Ljubljana; Temple Bar Gallery, Dublin; Brixton Art Gallery, London; and Golden Thread Gallery, Belfast. He lives and works in Belfast. Exhibition works Capital Paintings 2004-2007, 480 paintings, oil on canvas Courtesy of the artist

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Capital Paintings, 2004-2007, oil on canvas, detail

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Eric Fischl Born in USA, 1948. Eric Fischl came to fame in the 1980s New York art scene through his provocative paintings exploring voyeurism and adolescent sexuality. These large figurative canvases led to Andy Warhol’s description of him in 1985 as “the hot new top artist” and in 2006, his painting Daddy’s Girl sold for $1.9 million. His more recent series of Art Fair paintings takes as its subject the contemporary art world, which, in recent decades, has transformed from an insular scholarly culture into a more market-driven scene, powered by the collecting capital of a new class of international plutocrats. Fischl's paintings, sculptures, drawings and prints have been the subject of numerous solo and major group exhibitions and his work is represented in many museums, as well as prestigious private and corporate collections including MoMA, New York; National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris; and Art Institute of Chicago. Exhibition works Art Fair: Booth #10 Booty 2014, oil on linen Art Fair: Booth #1 EXIT 2014, oil on linen All works courtesy of the artist and Jablonka Maruani Mercier Gallery, Brussels

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Eric Fischl, Art Fair: Booth #10 Booty, 2014, oil on linen

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Meschac Gaba Born in Benin, 1961. Meschac Gaba is one of Africa’s leading artists. Born in Benin the year after the country gained independence from France, his work considers the challenges of creating a post-colonial identity, and has incorporated decommissioned banknotes, ceramic chicken legs, reproductions of ‘classic’ African religious sculpture and puzzle pieces of African flags. Gaba studied at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam from 1996 -1997, where he presented The Draft Room, the first installment of his Museum of Contemporary African Art. The entire work currently belongs to the permanent collection of the Tate Modern, which exhibited it for the first time in the United Kingdom in 2013. His other previous exhibitions include the Dutch Pavilion during the 50th Venice Biennale in 2003 and at the 2010 Liverpool Biennial. His work has also been featured at Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris; Hayward Gallery, London; Studio Museum, Harlem; Mori Art Museum, Tokyo; Ullens Center for Contemporary Art, Beijing; and MoMA PS1, New York. Exhibition works Du mur à la toile, Couleurs de Cotonou N°18 Du mur à la toile, Couleurs de Cotonou N°26 Du mur à la toile, Couleurs de Cotonou N°31 Du mur à la toile, Couleurs de Cotonou N°32 2008, frames, paper and currency CFA All works courtesy of In Situ Fabienne LeClerc, Paris

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Meschac Gaba, Du mur à la toile, Couleurs de Cotonou N°31, 2008, frames, paper and currency CFA

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Antonia Hirsch Born in Germany, 1968. Antonia Hirsch’s practice addresses systems of measurement in an effort to investigate how they function as interfaces between personal experience and a shared social reality. Her work often relates these ordering structures to embodied and visual experiences, considering how the equivocal and often ideological nature of these representational systems is expressed through a level of abstraction. Hirsch is the editor of the anthology ‘Intangible Economies’ and has exhibited in galleries including Salzburger Kunstverein; Contemporary Art Gallery, Vancouver; the Power Plant, Toronto; Tramway, Glasgow; Taipei Fine Arts Museum; Frieze Projects, London; and ZKM Centre for Art and Media, Karlsruhe, and her works are held in the public collections of the Vancouver Art Gallery; National Gallery of Canada; and Sackner Archive of Concrete & Visual Poetry, Miami. She is represented by Republic Gallery, Vancouver. Exhibition works Colour Shift 2012, HD video, 45’00” (looped) Garden of Earthly Delights 2013, canvas print, wood, hardware, carpet, used disco balls, light fixture All works courtesy of the artist and Republic Gallery, Vancouver

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Antonia Hirsch, Garden of Earthly Delights, 2013, canvas print, wood, hardware, carpet, used disco balls, light fixture

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Kathi Hofer Born in Austria, 1981. Kathi Hofer’s practice often explores ideas of design, craft, labour and the processes of production. Her installation “The State of Long-term Expectation” restated incorporates gift-wrapped packages and coffee mugs, bearing corporate catchphrases like ‘re-evaluation’ and ‘long-term prospects’ in different typefaces, colours and font sizes. Whereas the mugs are clearly personal and personalised possessions, the wrapped boxes – desirable things to be handled and exchanged with others – introduce a tension between individual aspirations and social relations. Hofer is an artist and writer based in Vienna. She holds an MA in Philosophy from the University of Vienna and an MFA in Art and Photography from the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna. Her work has been exhibited in galleries such as MAK, Vienna; Galerie im Traklhaus, Salzburg; Kunstbunker, Nurnberg; and HPFA, Berlin. Hofer is represented by Gabriele Senn Galerie, Vienna. Exhibition works Animal Spirits The Battle of Wits The Battle of Wits II Whim, Chance, Sentiment 2013, C-print photographs Gifts 2014, gift wrapping, boxes “The State of Long-term Expectation” restated 2013, office tables, wrapping paper, ribbons, cardboard, acrylic, digital prints on ceramic All works courtesy of the artist and Gabriele Senn Galerie, Vienna

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Kathi Hofer, The Battle of Wits, 2013, C-print photograph

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Suzanne Mooney Born in Ireland, 1976. Suzanne Mooney’s work explores ideas around consumer culture, and, more specifically, display and the formation of desire for the consumable object. These ‘illusory stages of desire’ for things to inhabit are akin to theatrical stages that can be understood within the genre of still life. In her work, Mooney examines, constructs, and re-presents elements from these displays ranging from acrylic props, mirrored plinths, fabric covered steps and wooden platforms all typically found in the presentation of luxury goods within a retail setting. Based in New York, Mooney earned a B.A. in the Theory and Practice of Visual Arts from Chelsea College of Art in 2001 and completed her MA in the Royal College of Art, London in 2005. Her work has been displayed in numerous venues such as Spike Island, Bristol; Gallery of Photography, Dublin; Office of Public Works, Dublin; Contemporary Arts Society, London; Crate Space, Margate; Centro Cultural Conde Duque, Madrid; Biblioteka Uniwersytecka, Warsaw; and Palazzo Della Farnesin, Rome. Exhibition works Display Systems 2009-11, C-print photographs Equilateral Coercion III Equilateral Coercion IV 2012, C-print photographs The Edge of Collapse 2011-12, C-print photographs All works courtesy of the artist

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Suzanne Mooney, Equilateral Coercion III, 2012, C-print

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Ni Haifeng Born in China, 1964. Ni Haifeng’s practice stems from an interest in cultural systems of exchange, return, language, and production. Through the mediums of photography, video, and installation, he draws attention to the cyclical movements of people, products, and goods that are often reflective of patterns of colonialism and globalisation. Aims to subvert the status quo and counteract preconceived notions of art are, in his words, an effort towards reaching a “zero degree of meaning.” The concept of uselessness, seen in the desire to offset “the production of the useful” that is central to consumerism and the dominant economic order, plays a key role within Ni’s practice, lending his works a distinct political and social dimension. Based in Amsterdam and Beijing, Ni’s work has been exhibited in a number of galleries and museums including ZKM Centre for Art and Media, Karlsruhe; Fonds BKVB, Amsterdam; the San Francisco Institute of Art; Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam; Centre for Contemporary Art, Tel Aviv; and National Museum of Contemporary Art, Seoul. He has also exhibited as part of Manifesta 7, Genk; the 2005 Guangzhou Triennial; and the 2004 Shanghai Biennale. Exhibition works Reciprocal Fetishism 2010, unique artwork Courtesy of the artist and In Situ Fabienne LeClerc, Paris

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Ni Haifeng, installation view of Reciprocal Fetishism, 2010, Unique artwork

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Raqs Media Collective Founded in India, 1992. Raqs Media Collective is a group of three media practitioners – Jeebesh Bagchi, Monica Narula and Shuddhabrata Sengupta – based in New Delhi, whose diverse practice includes contemporary art, film, curated exhibitions, publications, staged events, and collaborations with architects, computer programmers, writers and theatre directors. Raqs follows its self-declared imperative of 'kinetic contemplation' to produce a trajectory that is restless in terms of the forms and methods that it deploys even as it achieves a consistency of speculative procedures. Raqs have exhibited their work in numerous international museums and festivals, including the 2015 Venice Biennale; the 2014 Helsinki Photo Biennial, the 2013 Sharjah Biennial, and Documenta 11, 2002 as well as solo exhibitions at National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi; Centro de Arte Dos de Mayo, Madrid; Bonniers Konsthall, Stockholm; Baltimore Museum of Art; Institute for Contemporary Arts, Singapore; Contemporary Art Centre, New Orleans; Tate Britain, London; and Ikon, Birmingham. Exhibition works Please Do Not Touch The Work Of Art 2008, text art Courtesy of the artists

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Raqs Media Collective, Please Do Not Touch The Work Of Art, 2008, text art

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Amie Siegel Born in USA, 1974. Amie Siegel creates artworks that layer concerns with cinema, history, and mapping the undercurrents of economic and political cycles in unexpected ways. Her conceptual films and multichannel installations have been described as “uncanny reflections on absence, historical disorientation, and nostalgia” and, characteristic of Siegel’s multifaceted approach, her works often self-reflexively take on the behaviors of the systems they describe. Siegel’s work has been exhibited in solo and group exhibitions at CCA Wattis, San Francisco; Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego; Kunstmuseum Stuttgart; MoMA PS1, New York; Walker Art Center, Minneapolis; Hayward Gallery, London; and KW Institute for Contemporary Art, Berlin, as well as the 5th Auckland Triennial and the 2008 Whitney Biennial, New York. Her film installation, Provenance, has previously been exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; the University of Michigan Museum of Art; and the Centre for Contemporary Art, Tel Aviv. Exhibition works Lot 248 2013, HD video, 5’25” Proof (Christie’s, 19 October, 2013) 2013, inkjet print, lucite Provenance 2013, HD video, 40’30” All works courtesy of the artist and Simon Preston Gallery, New York

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Amie Siegel, Provenance, 2013, HD video, 40’30”, video still Amie Siegel, Lot 248, 2013, HD video, 5’25”, video still

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Christopher Williams Born in USA, 1956. Christopher Williams’ work is a critical investigation of the medium of photography. Deeply political, historical, and sometimes personal, his photographs are meant to evoke a subtle shift in our perception by questioning the communication mechanisms and aesthetic conventions that influence our understanding of reality. Williams’ photographs often portray obsolete film equipment or elements of advertising and are preoccupied with the ways in which we perceive our contemporary surroundings. Williams’ solo exhibitions have featured in museums including Staatliche Kunsthalle Baden-Baden; Bergen Kunsthall; Kunsthalle Zürich; Museu Serralves, Porto; Secession, Vienna; and Kunstverein Braunschweig. His first major museum survey was exhibited at The Art Institute of Chicago in 2014, MoMA, New York, and Whitechapel Gallery, London in 2015. Exhibition works Kiev 88, 4.6 Ibs. (2.1 Kg) Manufacturer: Zavod Arsenal Factory, Kiev, Ukraine. Date of production: 1983-87, Douglas M. Parker Studio, Glendale, California. March 28, 2003 2003,3 Dye Transfer Prints Main Staircase for the Arts Club Chicago, 1948-51, Steel, travertine marble 359.4 x 458.8 x 609.3cm; 141 1/2 x 180 5/8 x 239 7/8 inches Arts Club commission 1948–1951 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 109 East Ontario Street, Chicago, Illinois, 1951–1995 Repositioned by John Vinci 210 East Ontario Street, Chicago, Illinois, October 1, 1998 1998, silver gelatin print Model #105M - R59C, Keystone Shower Door, 57.4 x 59", Chrome/Raindrop, SKU #109149, #96235. 970 - 084 - 000, (Meiko), Vancouver, B.C., April 6, 2005 (No. 1) 2005, silver gelatin print Private collection / Courtesy Galerie Gisela Capitain

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Christopher Williams, Kiev 88, 4.6 lbs. (2.1 Kg), Manufacturer: Zavod Arsenal Factory, Kiev, Ukraine, Date of production: 1983–87, Photography by the Douglas M. Parker Studio, Glendale, California, March 28, 2003 (No. 3), 2003, 3 Dye Transfer Prints

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Everything Must Go Art and the Market Artists: Lida Abdul, Karmelo Bermejo, Walead Beshty, Victor Burgin, Colin Darke, Eric Fischl, Meschac Gaba, Antonia Hirsch, Kathi Hofer, Suzanne Mooney, Ni Haifeng, Raqs Media Collective, Amie Siegel, and Christopher Williams. Curated by Chris Clarke and Declan Jordan in association with the School of Economics, University College Cork.

Everything Must Go: Art and the Market was presented at the

Lewis Glucksman Gallery, University College Cork from 28 November 2015 - 6 March 2016

A public programme of artists talks, academic discussions, creative workshops, and curatorial events accompanied the exhibition.

Everything Must Go is supported by the Arts Council of Ireland, Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen, The Austrian Federal Chancellery, and private philanthropy through Cork University Foundation. Thanks to: All artists, Aquamarina Adonopoulou, Gianni Alen-Buckley, Asya Bachelis, Stephen Bean, Trish Brennan, Loretta Brennan Glucksman, British Council, Mark Buckeridge, Carroll / Fletcher, François Chantala, CIT / Crawford College of Art & Design, Mike Collins, Cork University Press, Brían Crotty, Louise Crowley, Tadhg Crowley, Martine d'Anglejan-Chatillon, Maura De Salvo, Claire Doyle, Mareta Doyle, Cathal Duane, Diana Eccles, Brian Fay, Simone Feichter, Caroline Fennell, Steve Fletcher, Mark Flynn, Nicholas Fox Weber, Agnieszka Franczok, Valérie Frappier, Nora Geary, Aoife Maria Guinee, Pantea Haghighi, Nicola Heald, Siobhan Higgins, Rachel Hobbs, Jablonka Marauni Mercier Gallery, Damian Jones, Ingrid Klenner, Sandrine Lalonde, Antoine Laurent, Galerie In Situ – Fabienne LeClerc, Ruaidhri Lennon, Jennifer Loh, Aoife Lombard, Erin Manns, Sarah McAuliffe, Katy McKinnon, Stuart McLaughlin, Ciarán Meade, Laurent Mercier, John Ryan Moore, Megan Moriarty, Cillian Moynihan, Michael Murphy, Paula Naughton, Matt Nightingale, Naoise Nunn, Fiona O’Callaghan Desmond, Lisa O’Donovan, Killian O’Dwyer, Lawrence O’Hana, Olga Okunev, Elisabeth Pallentin, Giorgio Persano, Mark Poland, Simon Preston Gallery, Aideen Quirke, Bryne Rasmussen-Smith, Regen Projects, Republic Gallery, Gudrun Schreiber, Julie Senden, Gabriele Senn Galerie, Joseph Strohan, Charlotte Sucher, Catherine Tafur, Jean Van Sinderan-Law, Brigitte Wagner-Halswick, Michael Wiesehöfer, Gerry Wrixon. Catalogue prepared by Fiona Kearney and Chris Clarke. Installation photography by Tomás Tyner. © The artists, authors, and Lewis Glucksman Gallery, 2016. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electrical, mechanical, or otherwise, without first seeking permission of the copyright owners and of the publishers. ISBN:978-1-906642-81-5 Lewis Glucksman Gallery University College Cork Tel: + 353 21 4901844 www.glucksman.org

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Everything Must Go: Art and the Market  

Artists: Lida Abdul, Karmelo Bermejo, Walead Beshty, Victor Burgin, Colin Darke, Eric Fischl, Meschac Gaba, Antonia Hirsch, Kathi Hofer, Suz...

Everything Must Go: Art and the Market  

Artists: Lida Abdul, Karmelo Bermejo, Walead Beshty, Victor Burgin, Colin Darke, Eric Fischl, Meschac Gaba, Antonia Hirsch, Kathi Hofer, Suz...

Profile for glucksman
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