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Contents UNIT1

My Homeis my Castle





TravelBroad.ens the Mind



Earthis Dearer thanGold



Early to Bed...

p. 28


BetterSafethan Sorry

p. 34





YouAreWhatyou Eat



EveryManto hisTaste

p. 52

U N I T1 O

Spread the News

p. 58


Grommor UNIT1

Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous, StativeVerbs,Prepositions of Place



PastSimple, PastContinuous, PastPerfect, Pastperfect Continuous, Used to



perfect, Future perfect simple, Begoingto, Future continuous, Future Future Continuous, TimeClauses, Type0/1Conditionals

p. 80


-ingForm,Comparisons, - euite- Rather - pretty,Too- Enough Infinitive, Fairly

p. 88


ModalVerbs, Tags............. Question

p. 98


ThePassive, Relative Clauses



Causative Form,Reported Speech, Say- Tell- Ask ...........



Reported Commands, Requests, Suggestions, Quantifiers



Type2 and3 Conditionals, Wishes, HadBetterAffould Rather


U N I T1 O

FuturePerfect, FuturePerfect Continuous, LinkingWords,Both/Neither - Either All/None


MyHomeis myCastle

Matchthe character adjectives to theirmeanings. Usethemto makeup sentences aboutpeopleyou know asin the example. [TT*-ldynamic l2Tl calm l3Tl anxlous lZTl talkative


a i sw i l l i n gt o t a k er i s k sa n dt r y n e wt h i n g s b getsangryveryeasily c worriesabouteverythrng d rarelygetsstressed or angty e likesto chata lot f i sa l w a y sh a p p ya n d i n a g o o dm o o d g i s f u l lo f e n e r g y h alwaysthinksof new ideas,artistic

a. ldentifythe roomsandthenput the objectsin the rightrooms.Someobjectscanbe used morethanonce.Finally describe eachroom. . sink . sofa. armchair . bathtub. wardrobe . cooker. basin. refrigerator . coffeetable o droc(inn t:hlo

o rr rnhn:rd

lSTl adventurous 16Tl creative FTI aggressive lETl cheerful

r hnnlzr:cp

o toilet dishwasher . desk . television " . chair. lamp. prcture. rug. kettle r cabinet. fireplace . four-poster bed

My auntisverydynamic.Sheisalwaysfullof energy.

Completethe sentences by filling in the correct word from the list.


. h a r s h. m o a t . a p p e a l. d r a u g h t. e x t e n s i o n o airy . sculpture. barn . converted. convince

.-,r'-""'.' . -t ,t5f{?4:. r, :; ;, :!'..: ",


" t:1::

1 The artist made a beautiful of an queen Egyptian 2 Living in the countrysidedoesn't really to me. We needed more space, so we built an to ournouse 4 Thewintersin Russia arevery 5 Thisold factoryis being into a blockof flats Thereis a terrible comingfrom u n d e rt h e d o o r Most ancientcastleshad a h e l pk e e po u t e n e m i e s O u r f l a t h a s l a r g ew i n d o w s ,s o i t i s l i g h t a n d T h ec h i l d r e d n e c i d e tdo s l e e pi n t h e whenthey stayedat theirgrandparents' farm 1 0 W e t r i e dt o h e rt h a t s h es h o u l d moveto a smallerflat


Match the itemswith the placewhere they are stored,then makesentences, as in the example. sheetsand towels d i r t yc l o t h e s ,f biscuits/sugar ,t' ,-/ milk ---

cleanclothes crockery your b . Usewordsfromthe listto describe bedroom, livingroomandkitchen.


Milkisstoredin thefridge.


fridge l i n e nc u p b o a r d sideboard warqrope laundrybasket tar0er

Replace the adjectives in boldwith theiropposites.


Replace the phrases in boldwith the correctform of the phrasal verbsfromthe list.

T h eh o u s et h a t i a n e l i v e si n h a s got a veryspaciouslivingroom

. break down . bringup . breakin . bringsthout

2 Thisflat is verycheap 3 I d o n ' tt h i n kt h a t t h i sh o u s er s impractical 4 Thatsofais rathercomfortable 5 We livein a veryquiet area 6 T h a tb u i l d i n gl o o k sa n c i e n t .



i i

Deor Susie, Thonks so much for your letter. Heoring from you olwoys I) mokes me remember hoppy memoriesof the ''1 3 sun'lmerswe usedto spendtogether. Well,now thot l'm 2) raising two childrenof my own, Crossout the odd word. What aspectof housing summers will never be the some again! The boys'school does eachset of words refer to? 3) finished for the summer holidoys/osr week.I hod the great ideo of taking them to see their fovourite bond in - expensive - economical - secure 1 reasonable concert/ost weekendbut it endedin disoster. - three-storey 2 terraced- isolated- semi-detached We were halfwoyto the concertwhen my cor suddenly - tiny - cosy- huge 3 spacious 4) stopped working. I called for help, but the mechanic 4 s m a l-l a u y- s e c u r -e c o m f o r t a b l e couldn't fix the problem,so he had to tow my cor to the - c i t y- o v e r p r i c e- d s u b u r b s 5 village gorage.Well,wemissedthe concertond when we gothome we found thot sorneonehod 5) entered by force ond stolenmyjewellery! The boyswere upsetthot they didnt see their heroes, Lookat the pictures. pairs, In thinkof three but I told them thot I would buy them their new CD when positive andthreenegative thingswhichyoucould they 5) Put it on the morket. I'm reolly upset aboutmy sayabouteachhouse.Thinkabout:cost, 11 jewellery, but I don't supposel'll everseeir ogoin. I convenience,location,speci aI features.Useyour ideas i Well, I hope you're hoving a better week thon I om! j, to makesentences, asin the example. Write ogoin soon. {r! Love. Aaire





:' 'l

4 5

2 3


Matchthe wordsin columnA to the wordsin columnB,thenusesomeof the phrases to complete the sentences.

from mow 0are white Positive:fs#fffryside,

B Positive:JcFi.f#ef Sdfs,

B{iv#te, Negative:is*l*ted,

lte heating money kitchen



House Aislocated in thecountrvside.


the burglary,we fitted o u r h o u s ew i t h a

2 T o n yb u i l th i sh o u s e ., all byhimself. 3 H e i sv e r ys t r o n g H ec a nt e a ra p h o n eb o o ki n h a l f with his


I am a little . . s o I c a n ' tg o s h o p p i n g It'< froozinn



in horo

this week.

preposition, thenmakesentences 12 Tickthecorrect usingthephrases, asintheexample.


isn'tworking I can't believe this radio is broken It is

Complete the sentences with two to fivewords, including the wordsin bold.Donot changethe meaning of the originalsentence. 1 James hasdecided to starthisownbusiness



business Sallyhasa problemwith hayfevereverysummer from Sally . everysummer A firestartedin the localmuseumlatelastnight out A fire l o c am l u s e u ml a t el a s tn i g h t T h a t s o n galwaysremindsme of my first holiday abroad back Thatsong . .. my firstholidayabroad I thinkthis houseis reallyattractiveand interesting appeals T h i sh o u s er e a l l y me My gasand electricity don't costverymuch fuel My . verylow






suitable appeal

suffer fear convtnce sb absent accu5e5D

approve believe oeg

party. Thisdress isn'tsuitablefor a dinner

Speaking A andcomplete thedialogue, 13 a. Lookat picture

1 1 Circlethe correctresponses. 1 A: Excuse me. ls thisseatfree? B: a Yes,can I helpyou? b Yes,it is c l'm sorryto hearthat

A Wheredo you think pictureA wastaken? B 1 ) . .. .. A Canyou describe the pictureto me?


B Yes I can see2)

A How muchisthe rent? B : a No morethan f450 b Justtwo. c lt'sf450 a month

3 A H e l l oM , r sJ e n k i n sT.h i si sT o n yM a l l e t B : a H e l l oM , r M a l l e tW . h a tc a nI d o f o r y o u ? b M r sJ e n k i nssp e a k i n g c T h i si s M r sJ e n k i n s 4


A GoodafternoonCanI helpyou? B : a I hopeso. b That'sfine c N o ta t a l l A Whencanwe viewthe house? B : a How abouttomorrowat 1 o'clock? b l'll seeyou tomorrow,then c l'll sendsomeoneto lookat it rightaway

6 A : H o w m u c ha r ey o uw i l l i n gt o s p e n d ? B : a N o ta t a l l . b Justtwo c No morethan f600


A : D o y o u l i k ew o r k i n gi n t h e g a r d e n ? B: 3) A: Haveyou got a big garden? B: 4) A: Do you llkelivingin a house/flat? B: 5) b. Lookat pictureB and in pairsact out a similar dialogue.

Atlantis dining room, especiallydesignedto be the perfect place for you to enjoy your fish and chips. Every detail in every room of the hotel, even the bathrooms, has been carefully chosento give it a fun and unique atmosphere.


1 In fact so much work has gone into making each of the sixteenrooms special,it is difficult to believe that just one year before it opened the hotel was a run-down building with a huge hole in the roof. After replacing the roof and planning a whole new interior, the owner, aptly named Mrs Sparkle, began to totally transform the place. She says, "It was really hard work redecorating each room, making the curtains, painting the walls and restoring old furniture; but it was fun as well." Now that the work is finished and each room has its own make believe theme, she has no doubts that it was definitelv worth the effort. z

Mrs Sparklealwaysdreamt about living in a doll's house and she is very happy that she has been able to turn this fantasy into a reality. "Now I just want to be able to provide a place where other people's dreams can come true too," she says. 3 There are certainly some amazing rooms to pick from. Guests can choose to stay in the Teddy Bear's Picnic room, the Barbie room, the Ruined Castle room, the Dinosaur den, the Chocolate room or even the African den, which is designedto make you feel like you're deep in the jungle complete with toy monkeys and animal prints. All the rooms are stockedwith toys and books so your children won't get bored, even if the English weather lets you down.

A B i.


4 In addition to the fantastic guest rooms, Sparkles has much more to offer its young visitors. Every time you book a room you can be sure that entertainment,most of which is organisedby Mrs Sparkleherself,is included in the package. To give busy parents a break in the morning, there is the gameshour in the Sparkle'sden, a large play area, and in the evening, puppet shows and story-tellingmean that there is never a dull moment.


5 Sparkleshotel offers a fantasyworld for the whole family to enjoy.So if you want to give your children a holiday to remember or even to relive your own childhood dreams, Sparklesis the place for you.

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The SparklesHotel in Blackpool, England is a family hotel with a difference. What makes it stand out from all the other hotels in town, is that each room has its own individual theme. There is the Cinderella lounse. where

c. In pairs,askandanswerquestions basedon the text. A: WhereisiheSparkles Hotel? B: InBlackpool Whattypeof hotel ?



Listening 1 5 (p,) Youwill heara manapplying for a loan.Listento the interviewandfill in the application form.Thenask andanswelasin the example. What'syour name? JohnMichaels. b. In pairs,takerolesandact out a similar dialogue.


euer-oY|f$ion, s)

)ccuP""- A\ 5) " " ErnploYer'-:-^i^vment: ' Length .eo9u"

oT - Ltr'Y'-

5) SalarY: LOANDflAlLS

'' l,i,^llli*.* an: "r"r'; t; of nevr,,\o

lrr!tt".',T3, ioi of loan: Amount

Communication: Givinq Directions 16

fromthe list. a. Complete the dialogue with phrases . go along/up/down . aVonthecorner. on the lefVrig6l. (ust)past . opposite/across from r . turnrighVleft. takethefirsVsecond o etcrighVleft between at thetrafficlights/stop sign/junction/roundabout . in themiddle of theblock

A: B: A: B:

Excuse me,couldyou tell me how to get to the Parkside restaurant? Of course1) LongStreetand 2) . . . into MillsStreetat the 3) qot Yes.l've that. T h e n ,4 ) . . . . M i l l sS t r e e ta n d t u r n l e f t a t 5 ) Y o u w i l l s e e t h e P a r k s i dree s t a u r a n t 6) l t ' s7 ) . . . . . . . . G i n o ' sP i z z a T h a n ky o u ,

b. In pairs,askfor andgivedirections for the followingsituations. Youareat the museumand you want to go to the ParkHotel Youareat the chemist's and you want to go to the hospital. Youareat the cinemaand vou want to qo to the Fronti6re cafe

Writing*n aCvertiserneni

Advertisements can be found in a newspaper/magazine asclassified ads, on the Internetor on notice ooaros Advertisments normallystartwith information suchas:For rent,For sale,Wantedand end with a name and/or a telephonenumberfor contact A classified ad contains abbreviationsFull verb forms are not normallyused Sometimesthey can includea picture An lnternetad includesa detaileddescriptionlt is usuallycharacterised by full sentences and extensive useof adjectives to attract the reader'sattention lt can also includepicturesand music Advertisements for noticeboardsare rathershort a n di n c l u d e o n l yt h e m a i ni n f o r m a t i o n


modelAWG320hardly washer/dryer, Whirlpool 50 condition-t1 gooO useO, ci'iriinu,After6Pm227-3905

b . Readthe advertisements againand answerthe followingquestions. "l

a. Readthethreeadvertisements below.Lookat thestyleanddecide whereyouwouldfindthem. . OntheInternet r Ina newsoaoer o Ona noticeboard

For rent o..-..-...-..-..

What is beingadvertised in eachcase?

2 Who is goingto readeachadvertisement? 3 lsthe styleusedformalor informal? 4 What informationdoesthe writer includein each advertisement?


a. Lookat the followingabbreviations andfill in the blanks. p/f f/f GCH s/c d/w


{500 pcm, Mitcham, I'{orthLondon. Lge ground lloor studio flat, plf, slc with bathroom, spaciousliving area.Kitchenettehasfridge, mfw, wfm, dlw and gas cooker. Secuity systemand GCH. Suit proJ nls. Closeto bus routesand local shops.Available immediately.

prof n/s pcm

Contact London PropertyManagementLtd at 020 8378 2439

furnished fully Gas ......Heating self-contained d ish mtcro machine professional SmoKer

p e rc a l e n d a r


b. Rewriteadvertisement A usingthe completed expressions above.


acres of Situated on 1'5 real ,n" *ott valuable


Yourflatmatehasjustmovedout andyou needto findsomeone to sharethe rent.Usethe information belowandwritethreedifferent advertisements for:the Internet, the classified sectionof yourlocalnewspaper andthe notice boardin youruniversity cafeteria. Location: Type: Special features:

5610 For more intormatr.u"rniir^ *" at 0207$8 rro Resort Interndional

Large- viewof the park- closeto university and busto the town centre 2 bedroomflat f u l l yf u r n i s h e dg,a sc e n t r ahl e a t i n g , cooker,washingmachine,dishwasher f280 a month

Rent: Special requirements:non-smoker Availability: April l st Contact: R o b e rJt o h n s o nt e. l :0 1 8 6 5 - 5516 8 8




While there's life,there's hope

Usethe adjectives to complete the tables,thenuse yourneighbours. themto describe . tall . broad-shouldered . square. thick. long . snub. wide . double. spiky. bushy. muscular e- m - e l o -q:yns ou d o pud e- h r r t t n n r : l m n n d - c hJ t. a r r i il vdud rE u rrLrr h g t un P rau . l

. blond. oval. in hisearly/late o rosy teens/twenties . short. grey. Curlyr dark. freckle6o plump . gingero medium. hrgh. hooked. fair . overureight

Vocabulary Matchthe descriptions to the people.Write descriptions for the othertwo people.

Age: Height/Build: Hair: Face: Cheeks: Eyebrows:

MrJones isin hislatethirties. Heistallandwell-built with...


Matchthe phrases to the peoplein the pictures, then usethe phrases to talkabouttheirdailyroutines.

g e ru p e a n y t u r no n t h e o v e n s ^"--+i-^,^,;+A *,,.,-l ^^P r o L L r ) E V V r L Ir I I t U ) L ' d t t )

startwork at 4 am performon stage havebreakfast at 1 pm f i n i s hw o r k a t 1 p m startwork at 9 pm p r e p a r0 eo u g n h a v el u n c ha t 8 a m f i n i s hw o r k a t 3 a m get up late w r i t em u s i c aal r r a n g e m e n t s b a k eb r e a d

[tTl ffris personis old with brown eyesand a wide n o s e H e h a ss h o r t g , r e yh a i ra n da m o u s t a c h e ETI fnis personis a young adult with hazeleyes, thick eyebrowsand full lips He hasan ovalface a n dv e r ys h o r td a r kh a i r l g T l r f i s p e r s o ni s a y o u n ga d u l tw i t h l o n gs t r a i g h t b l o n d eh a i r S h e h a s a l o n g f a c e w i t h a r c h e d greeneyes,a smallnoseand a square eyebrows, c hi n ETI fnis personis a youngadultwith an ovalface,a s q u a r ec h i n a n d a w i d e m o u t h H e h a s b r o w n eyesand medium-length wavybrownhair


Fillin the correctwordfromthe listbelow.



. visibleo basement . resume. wasteo vibrations ' financially . transmitted . registered . hearing . electrical

1 She was so sad/nervous/angryabout her interviewthat sheleft herpurseat home 2 Mum was depressed/miserable/furious when she sawwhat a messwe had madein the kitchen 3 He was delightful/excited/interested when he found out that his favouritebandwas cominqto town 4 5he is sucha(n)expressive/easy-going/delighted p e r s o nt h a t n o t h i n gs e e m st o a n n o yh e r 5 Everyone was annoyed/irritated/shocked by the soundof the explosion

1 Whenthe children wentto nursery, shewasable to nercareer 2 The interviewwas by satellite a r o u n dt h e w o r l d . 3 Bellused. speechto teachdeaf muteshow to communicate 4 H e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n tw a s a . of time 5 The wirescarriedthe currentro the socket 6 The young boy lost his as a resultof an accident 7 He the birth of his son at Somerset House 8 Sam livesin a flat near the centreof town 9 The of the train made the windowsshake 10 She has been having problems coping . sinceheraccident


Underline thecorrect word.


Lookat the situations below.Explain howyou wouldfeelandwhy,usingthe adjectives below.

' Upset' angry. wOrried . excitedr irritated . depressed o satrsfied

Replacethe adjectivesin bold with their opposites.


. i n f l u e n t i a.l s t r o n g . h u g e . r e m a r k a b l e . close . exciting. similar

a a a

1 After the accidentI noticed there was a tiny scratchon the cardoor 2 Kathyand Henryhavedifferent tastesin music

a a


3 A l e x a n d eG r r a h a mB e l lw a s a ( n ) o r d i n a r y 4

yourpursewasstolen yourfavourite auntisill yourparentsboughtyou a new car someoneyou know told everyone that you werea liar praisedyourwork a colleague you havebeenstuckin trafficfor an hour you didn't get the job you wanted

lf mypursewasstolen,l'd feel...because ...

Therewas a faint smell of perfumein the air

5 That was the most tiresomeplav l've everseen



Hisfatherisa veryunimportantpersonin thistown.


| like to spendmy holidayswith distant friends

Howarethesepeoplerelatedto you? o yoUfmother's brother andsister .

yourfather'sbrother'ssonand daughter yourgrandmother's brotherand sister y o u rh u s b a n d m 'sother

e louf mother'smotherand father .

yourbrother'ssonand daughter


Matchthe words/phrases, thenusethemto complete the sentences below. authonty from intheclouds c h a l ka n dc h e e s e heart 1 You would neverknow they are twins Thevare He is Britain's eatingdisorders I heardthat Tomwas hisjob yesterday 4 Janeis a daydreamer Shealways When I was at school,we had to learnpassages from Shakespeare


Completethe sentences with two to five words, i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d si n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e m e a n i n go f t h e o r i g i n asl e n t e n c e . 1 Shakespeare is calledone of the greatestwritersof a l lt i m e known Shakespeare of the greatestwritersof all time 2

H e h a dt o l o s ew e i g h tb e c a u soef h i sh e a l t h sake He hadto loseweight h i sh e a l t h


l t t o o k h i n a l o n gt i m et o g e t o v e rh i si l l n e s s from lt took him a longtime to h i si l l n e s s


Samdoesn'twant to playfootballany more interest Samhas , footballanymore




A : l t ' sb a dn e w sl ' m a f r a i dJ, i md i d n ' tg e t t h e j o b B : a W o w ! T h a t ' sa m a z i n!g b O h n o ! T h a t ' sa s h a m e ! c He mustbe veryexcited

Speaking lookatthepicture andcomplete the 13 a. Inpairs, dialogue. Then, readthedialogue aloud.

nAt \/ifUSeS ffOm Ihe lnlernet

transmitted Manycomputer vi'uses tne Internet

1 1 What did peopleuseto do/did not useto do a

hundredyearsago? Usethe promptsand make up sentences, as in the example. o QroWtheirown vegetables / buy frozenvegetables r lravelby steamboat/ travelby plane . payin cash/ payby creditcard . readbooks/ surfthe lnternet . go to the theatre/ go to the cinema

yearsago,peopleusedto growtheirown A hundred vegetables.They didn'tuseto buyfrozenvegetables.

thecorrect response. 12 Circle 1

A l ' m a f r a i dI c a n ' t m a k e i t t o n i g h t ,I h a v et o studyfor my test tomorrow B a T h a t ' sa s h a m e l l t w o n ' t b e t h e s a m e w r t h o u ty o u b Wow! That'sterrificl r


Yn r mrrct hp vorv ovrj{gl I


d y d r i v i n gt e s t ! A G u e sw s h a t ! | j u s tp a s s e m B a W h a ta s h a m e l b Y o um u s tb e t h r i l l e !d c That'stoo bad!



H a v ey o u h e a r d ?S a l l yb r o k eh e rl e gs k l i n g B a O h n o ,h o w a w f u l l b That'sterrific! c S h em u s tb e r e a l l yp l e a s e d l

A: Wheredo you think the picturewas taken? B : l t w a s1 ) What doesit show?Can you describe the picture to me? 2) A : H o wd o y o ut h i n kt h e y o u n gm a nf e e l s ? B : 3) Do you think a degreeis necessary to a successful career? 4) A : Are suchceremonies heldin vourcountrv? B : s)

b. Lookat the pictureandactout a similar dialogue.





a. Thepeoplein the pictures havechanged their lifestyle. Whatdo youthinktheyweredoing before?Readandcheckif yourguesses were correct.

movedto a new area? t u r n e da h o b b yi n t oa b u s i n e s s ? t2-fl ITF r - t l gaveup financialsecurityto work for FTl lf=--r----l rl I t h e i rd r e a m T hadto studyin orderto changecareer?| 6Tl

re-lA-l irr

b. Readthearticle againandfor questions 1-11, choose fromthe speakers A-E.Thespeakers maybe chosenmorethanonce.Theretsan (0)at the beginning. example

nrofor YrrrLr

ru r<rl n v rvavrso tr

nera al lJoLs ut

il il ftag) j


isplanning to expand theirbusiness?FT--l hadto learna newlanguage? rel--l isstartingto become successful? ftT_-l


eu"*#f*#V*{ ffi#,eff}T A

Bill: I was an accountantat a large accountingfirm in the city. I spent all my time glued to the computer screen, even at home. That meant I rarely spent any t i m e w i t h m y f a m i l y .T h e n .o n e day it hit me that I was missing out on the truly important things in life. My kids were growing up fast and I felt I wasn't playing a large enough ,..!.i role in their lives. I knew that it was time to give up the rat race and get back to basics. So, we sold our town house and moved to a cottage in the country, wherq we have a small market garden. Gardening had been a hobby of mine when I was younger but when I was working, I just didn't havethe time. Now I have all the time in the world. Financially, life is more difficult, bu! I think it's safe to say that the whole family is much happier now that we've escapedfrom the hectic pace of citv life. Jean: Ever sinceI can remember, I've enjoyed making my own clothes.My friends were always commenting on my original designs, so I often made clothes for them as well. It never occurred to me that I could make a lMne at it until a friend of a friend askedme to make her wedding dressand offered to pay me. Suddenlymore ,and more people started approachingme and asking me to rnake clothes for them. It soon reached the ;poin!,where I was spending all my spare time at the fwing m4chine and my designs were bringing in more money than my job! I handed in my notice at 'work and rented a small shopwith a flat abovewhich I turned into my workshop. I'm happy to say that businessis booming: I now employ ten people and I'm about to open a secondbranch!

C Ann: I used to work as a sales manager in a large department store. It was quite a good job, but not very rewarding.I knew I wanted to changemy career:the troublewas,.., I didn't know whar to do. Then my { sister suggestedthat I become a

,.,:.,:. .:



Sally: When I finished universigr I decided to take a year off and work abroad. It was a decision which changedmy life. I got a job teaching Engtish in Spain, so I packed my clothes,_sloted everything else and headedfor the Mediterranean.I didn't speak a word of Spanish at first, so it took a while to settle in. The pace of life was different, toe:,much slower and more relaxed 'i i than in England. Most of all, though, I noticed the differencein climate and the way that aflectedmy personality.Being under clear blue skiesand a trlazing sun gave me more ener$/ than I'd ever had befofe.rI I'elt positive and content. After a few months, I knew that I didn't want to leave,so I decided to settle there and sent for the rest of my belongings.I've been here for three yearsnow; I'm fluent in Spanishand I have a tan all year round! Stewarh The most important lessonI've learnt in my life is that you have to take risks. If there is something you really want to do, you have to give it a try, evenif rt means giving up the security of receiving a monthly pay cheque.I had alwayswanted to write, but with all my commitments, I simply couldn't find the time. Finally, I decided to follow my dream and that meant the job had to go. It's been really hard wo1k, but I'm managing to sell enough storles and articles to pay the bills. lrl-or;v; ltherelq:a publisher interestgd in my',1i1s1 novel:Lrfe just Could9ltbe bet!9il ' :, I ' l' I



c. Readthearticleagainandsaywhyeachperson changed his/her lifestyle. Howdo youfeeltowards theirdecisions?


lIt Listening

Communication: lntroductions the dialogue usingthe phrases 1 5 a. Complete aloud. below.Then,in pairs,readthe dialogue . Please callmeTony. do . Thankyou. o Please, . l'd liketo introduce TonvBarton.

talking abouttheir 1$, Qvou willhearfivepeople jobs.Choose whichof thestatements A-Frefers to 1-5.There isoneextraletterthatyou eachspeaker donotneedto use. A B C D E F

A : GoodafternoonPlease, sit down B: 1) A : Beforewe get down to business, let me makethe introductionsLisaEdwards, 2) . Tony'sthe CEOof BartonEnterprises B : It'sgoodto meetyou at last,Mr Barton C : 3) A : And TonyBarton,this is Lisa EO*arOs,senio,

SpeakerFT-] speakert2l-1 SpeakerEl--l

Consultant at Unitech It'sa pleasure to meetyou May I callyou Lisa? 4) Wonderful5o, now that we all know eachother, let's talk about why we are here today Lisa, p e r h a pyso uw o u l dl i k et o s t a r tt h e b a l lr o l l i n g Yes,thankyou.

b. Nowusethe business cardsbelowto actout similar dialogues. fTC


Stewen philips ^rvranagjrrg Djrecfo. fel: rax:

(O9) (O9r





partner. Thisspeakerhasa business Thisspeaker earnsa highsalary Thisspeaker workslong hours Thisspeakerwearscostumes to work Thisspeakerhelpspeopleto loseweight Thisspeakeris not happywith theirjob

speakerF-fl Speakertsr-l

a biogr aphy

Whenwe write a shortbiography of a person,we divideit into four paragraphsIn the introduction,we write the person'sname,date of birth (anddeath)and why he/she is famousor important ln the secondparagraph,we write about his/herfamily background,childhoodand educationIn the third paragraph,we write abouthis/her: careerand achievements ln the conclusionwe write our c o m m e n tas n d f e e l i n gas b o u tt h e p e r s o na n d t h e i rw o r k . We usuallyuse pasttenseswhen we write a biography,

IPAC ComPuters Janet Shaw Design Consultant

1 7 Whichof the pointsbelowshouldbe includedin a shortbiography of a famousperson?

Ontario' Cdada POBox 1921' Ottawa' (613)723141u Tei: (613)7281416 Fu:

. . . . . . . .

,,1 ,.-,'',' ., -'



Rachel Barker Nutritionlst '

zga2 t"l' (oz)oo3 Fax: (02)4632990


importantdates physical description peoplewho influenced his/herlife people how other felt abouthim/her f a m i l yb a c k g r o u n d favouritefoods achievements schooltimetable


. Analysing a ModelText

6dvec Markefing Neil Mirchelt MarketineManager TeL (oil tSZZ4Z8 Fax; rcil BZ 2436


and a. Readthe biography of a famousmusician put the paragraphs in the correctorder.

F a m i l by a c k g r o u n d , c h i l d h o o ad n de d u c a t i o n


George Harrison died of tr cancerat the age of 58. He will alwaysbe remembered asa talented

'''r''b"r"""'''":e:tv{'e"v'!'/. Dateof birth/death, '.4 what

,?r ;19

musician as well as a caring and generousman who was more interestedin making music than being a star. t" the early 1960's,the band changed its name to I The Beatles. Their first single, 'Love Me Do' was a success and 'Beatlemania' was born. In 1970, The Beatles disbandedbut Harrison's solo career was only lust beginning. George went on to releasemany songs, sometimes combining his talents with other famous musicians.He also started his own record and movie companiesand was deeplyinvolved in charitywork. FI" was born in Liverpool, England where his father I worked as a bus driver. When he was 12 years old, he met and became good friends with a boy called Paul McCartney who was a member of John Lennon's band, The Quarrymen.In 1958,George, a gifted guitar player, joined the band too.


""\ ,, j

"di, -1"if..:i f e,L"r "J f Careerand achievements

:& ':& |9,n,rtya*u*.ta'nry:%a*.

D e a t hc, o m m e n tas n d f e e l i n gasb o u th i m




Read therubric below. Whocouldyouwrite about? Whatinformation willyouinclude? # A popularliterarymagazineis going to publisha $ specialedition of the magazine called Twentieth '{, CenturyWriters. You have been asked to write a biography of a famous writerfor the special i edition.

GeorgeHarrison was born in 1943and died in 2001. I He was the youngest member of a famous pop group called The Beatles.He was also well known for his sons writing and guitar playing.

. Making Com plex Sentences

t : b . W h i c hp a r a g r a p hisn c l u d et h e f o l l o w i n g ?

t :

: i r

he is famous for

j t l !

C a r e ear n da c h i e v e m e n t s F a m i l by a c k g r o u nadn dc h i l d h o o d Name,dateof birth/death, what he is famousfor Comments/feelings aboutthe person

l 1


1 He was born in South Africa His family moved b a c kt o E n g l a n idn 18 9 6 (but) 2 Tolkienwent to Oxford UniversityHe studied E n g l i sLha n g u a gaen d L i t e r a t u r e (where) 3 He servedin the BritishArmy He worked on the OxfordEnglishDictionary (after) 4 He wrote manyshort stories He is most famous f or TheLordof theRings (although)

. B r a i n s t o r mil d ne gas 19

Readthe biographical information aboutTolkien and thenusetheinformation to complete thespidergram.

John Ronald ReuelTolkien c 1892- 1973 . famousbooks,Ihe Hobbit andTheLordof theRings . bornin SouthAfrica . f a m i l ym o v e dt o E n g l a n idn 1 8 9 6 o !lew up in Birmingham . studiedEnglishLanguage and Literature at Oxford University . workedon the OxfordEnglish Dictionary o becamea professor at OxfordUniversity . published firstbook TheHobbitin1937 . publishedTheLordof theRings ++a b e t w e e n19 5 4 a n d 19 5 5 o son Christopher published ..* tr*'. * Tolkien's otherworksafter h i sf a t h e rd i e d o creatorof a magicalworld in TheHobbitand TheLord of theRings

Jointhe sentences below,usingthe words in bold.


a. Useyouranswers in Ex.19to answer the questions plan. inthe .t.'. :'rs) i l -:;l i lntroduction (Paral)

Whoareyou goingtowritr about?Whenwas he/she bom?Whm did he/she die?Whatis he/she f amousJor?


(Para 2.) Wherewashelsheborn?'\Mhere did he/shtgrow up? Whercdid ht/shego to school? (Para 3) '\Mhatwerehis/herearlyjobs? What was his m a i nj o b ? W h a td i d h e a c h i e y e ?

Conclusion (Para4)

\Mhendid he/she die? How do yout'eelabout the person?

b. Writeyourbiography usingthe information (120-180 above. words)



TravelBroadens t h eM i n d


snow-capped narrow unspoiled expenSrve ancLent handmade

beaches shops r u rn s Irs souven mountarns SrreerS

b. Lookat the pictures below.Matchthe items fromEx.2ato the photographs, thenmakeup asin the example. sentences,

Vocabulary the ldentifythe objectsbelow,thencomplete sentences.


a. Matchthe adjectives to the nouns.


It'sexciting to walkalongRome's narrowstreets.


Complete the sentences with the correctwords fromthe listbelow. . restored . self-contained . conveniences . award-winning . moors aspiring " . handmade . wander

1 lf you take some with you when you go on holiday, you won't get bittenby insects in the You shouldalwayskeepa carin caseof an emergency D o n ' te v e rg o s u n b a t h i nwg i t h o u t a n da g o o dp a i ro f When you travel abroad you must take your as identification l f t h e y l o s ey o u r , t h e a i r l i n ew i l l payyou compensation When you go to a nature reserve,don't forget your so you will be ableto seethe a n i m a lm s o r ec l e a r l y Unfortunately we forgot our , so w e c o u l d n 'tta k ea n yh o l i d a sy n a p s

16 itlliiltilLt'r nrr uun,,.,.,o,,

1 He is a celehritvhecausehe has written three , novels 2 W e b o u g h ta . r u g a t t h e a r t sa n d craftsfair 3 K e e pa n e y e o n t h e c h i l d r e nD o n ' t l e t t h e m off fl:f:hnvo tha <hon 4 Weliveina... n a n n l o n a i l n ci nn iho 5 B e c a r e f u l !A l o t o f at night W e b o u g h ta n o l d r u n - d o w nV i c t o r i a n h o u s ea n d . . . i t t o i t so r i g i n acl o n d i t i o n H es p e n d a s l l h i sf r e et i m e p r a c t i s i nt gh e p i a n o H e pianist i sa ( n ) Our caravanhasall the : a cooker, a fridge,and evena microwave oven.


Underline the correctword(s), thenmatchthe sentences to the meansof transportin the pictures below. Pleasemake sureyour seat belt is tied/fastened d u r i n gt a k e - o faf n d l a n d i n g b Don'tdrinkand drive/steer Do not pull cord, exceptin caseof a(n) danger, emergency D o n o t t a l k t o / l o o ka t t h e d r i v e w r h i l ev e h i c l e i si n motion e Thelifeboats/lifeguards areon the upperdeck f It is illegal/wrongnot to weara helmet

b. Usethe wordsfromEx.5ato talkaboutthe weatherin yourcountry.


Circle thecorrect response. 1 A: Wouldyou liketo cometo the cinemawith us tonight? B : a l ' m n o t s u r e i ' l l l e ty o u k n o wt o m o r r o w b l ' d r a t h e rn o t , l ' m n o t k e e n o n C h i n e s e food c T h a n k sl ,' d l o v et o


!#* :.1, -

*; =:.,.*

A Haveyou got time for a coffee? B a I'd loveto, but l'm just goingfor a coffee b No thanks,I onlydrinkcoffee c Yes,that'sa greatideaI

3 A : That new band is playingat The Palaisnext


S a t u r d anyi g h t I w a sw o n d e r i n igf y o u ' dl i k et o go B : a T h a tw o u l db e g r e a t I l o v et h e b a l l e t l b I d o n ' t r e a l l yf e e l u p t o i t l ' m a b i t t i r e d today c l ' d r a t h e rn o t l ' m n o t k e e no n p o p m u s t c


4 A: There'sa reallygood play on at the theatre S h a lIl b u yt i c k e t s T B : a S o r r yI ,c a n ' tb u yt h et i c k e t sl ' m w o r k i n ga l l day b T h a tw o u l db e g r e a t ! c l ' m n o t s u r ei f I c a nm a k ei t l ' v eg o t t o b u y ticketsfor the theatre

a . Readthe sentencesbelow and replacethe words in bold with their oppositesfrom the list. . warmer . below . sheltered. wet . freezingcold . dull . heavy. clear I n t h e m o r n i n g ,n o r t h e r na r e a sw i l l e x p e r i e n c e c l o u d ys k i e sw i t h t e m p e r a t u r easr o u n d1 O ' C There may be some light showersin the early evenrn9 F u r t h esro u t h ,i t s h o u l db e m u c hc o o l e rw i t h s o m e c l o u d sl a t e ri n t h e d a y Temperatures are goingto remainabove freezing a l ld a y 5 On Saturday we canexpectit to be boilinghot 6 To summarise, it's goingto be a cool and dry day for mostof the country T h e r ew i l l b e s p e l l so f b r i g h ts u n s h i nteh r o u g h o u t theday Temperatures in exposedareaswill be about2"C 'l 2 3 4


Completethe sentences with two to five words, i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d si n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e m e a n i n go f t h e o r i g i n asl e n t e n c e . 1 | enjoy eating in expensiverestaurants, buying expensive clothesand travelling firstclass finer I enjoy r nl i f e 2 We stayedin a hotel that was very closeto the 0eacn throw We stayedin a hotelthat was , from the beach 3 Therewere a lot of peoplewe wantedto inviteto o u rw e d d i n g extensive We had an for our wedding 4

| wantedto try all the localdishes I d i d n ' tw a n t t o a n yo f t h e l o c a dl i s h e s


5 6 8

5 T h i sc l a yp o t w a sm a d ei n t h e m i d d l ea q e s dates Thisclaypot t h e m i d d l ea g e s


W h e nI h e a rm y c h i l d r e nl a u g h i n ga, l l m y t r o u b l e s areforgotten washed All my troubles w h e nI h e a rm y c h i l d r e n laughing




\.-.'. ,,.^"..,,




" _.-_;

7 T h eh o t e li s i n t h e c e n t r apl a r to f L o n d o n heart Thehotelis London 8


Be sure to make full use of the hotel facilities d u r i n gy o u rs t a y advantageBesurethat you the hotelfacilities duringyourstay

Readthe sentences. Who would saythe following in a hotel:a maid (/14)? a guest(G)?the hotel (HM)? manager W o u l dy o u l i k em e t o m a k eu p y o u r room now? C o u l dI b o o ka d o u b l er o o mf o r n e x t Thursday? l ' m a f r a i db r e a k f a si st n ' ti n c l u d e idn theprice a S h a lIl c h a n g ey o u rt o w e l s ? o How do I dialroomservice? o W h a tt i m ed o e st h e r e s t a u r a notp e n ? . I w i l l c a l ls o m e o n teo h e l py o uw i t h y o u rl u g g a g e . I hopeyou will havea verypleasant staywith us


Tickthe correctpreposition,then makesentences usingthe phrases,as in the example. from ,


with about

: ,,- -: ,,



Close your eyesand imagine the perfect beach. Soft white sand,beautiful blue sea,and the temperature a constant30 degreesCelsius.But wait, there's more: no risk of sunburn, no insects or bugs, no sharks or jel\.fish, and, at regular intervals, the best surfing waves imaginable. Too good to be true? Not anymore.Thanks to modern technology and the miraclesof science,this beach really doesexist and it is on the island of Kyushu in southernJapan. 1 In a resort complex called Seagaiayou will find the Ocean Dome. The Ocean Dome contains,among other things, the world's largestartificial seabesidethe biggestindoor beach.It is roughly the size of six football fields and has an 85-metre shoreline. The soft white sand is actually made of crushed marble chips, which won't stick to your skin, and the water is salt free and chlorinated. The temperature of the water is kept at 28'C and the air is kent at 30"C.

2 The Dome has everythingyou would expectto find on a big tropical island: caves,waterfalls, small islands,palm trees and that's just the beginning.There is a man-made volcano that erupts at regular intervals, waterslides,a wave pool and even a virtual reality raft ride where passengersare tossed,shakenand splashedwith water.

Shehasbeenabsent fromworkfor fivedavs.

Reading 10

a. Thepictures showa newtypeof resort.What do youthinkit is?Howdo the pictures relateto the title of the article? Readthe articleand checkyouranswers.

There is plenty to do for the whole family in Seagaiaand, if you want a break from the beach, you can visit the 'Lost World' rainforest. This is a Jurassic Park style jungle full of artificial creaturesand holographicpirates. There is also a beach carnival held every afternoon with dancers and musicians dressedin colourful Caribbean costumesand in the eveningthere is a spectacularshow put on by aquaticdancers. 4

b. Readthe articleagainandchoose the most suitableheading fromthe listA-l for each paragraph 1-7.Thereisoneextraheading you which do not needto use.Thereis an (0)at the beginning. example

1B L'llL'illlillLuutrruuuunmrrnxilrxrrnn!ilrnrxnil!ilnn!!n

In Seagaiayou don't even have to carry any money with you. Visitors pay an admissionfee at the entrance and are given colour coded barcode tags, which they use instead of cash. This type of holiday is wonderful for anyone who enjoys lying on the 'beach' or swimming in the 'sea' without havins to check the weather forecast .. ,.,:.t *?.b_,,,-.,,.,,,,.,,.....::ll:ll:l?7**..,-.,..,:::,:tzl?,,,t,t,t



Lrsientng 11

Youwill hearpeopletalkingin fivedifferent situations. Forquestions 1-5,choose the best answer, A B,or C. Listento JoantellingPamabout her holiday.Why didn't sheand her husbandenjoythemselves? A S o m e o nh e i t h e rh u s b a n d B H e rh u s b a n w d a si l l C Thefood wasterrible You are at the airport when you hear this conversationbetween a memberof staff and a passenger. What is the woman'sproblem? A S h ec a u g h t h e w r o n gp l a n e B S h ec a n ' tf i n d h e rh a n d b a g C S h eh a si o s th e rl u g g a g e 3 You overheara man talking to his friend. Why d i d t h e m a n m i s sh i st r a i n ? A T h ed e p a r t u rtei m e sh a db e e nc h a n g e d B Hiswatchwaswrong C Thestationwas verybusy 4

A Hisroomls not readyyet B The hotelis full C Thehotelhasdouble-booked hisroom

Naturally, no island holiday is complete without hxury hotels, boutiques and a wide variety of restaurantswith everythingfrom fine dining to fast food, and Seagaiahas them all. There are even several theatres,golf courses and tennis courts. The Ocean Dome feels so real that visitors to the resort still use suntan lotion and wear sunhats even though the 'sunlight' is artificial and harmless.

The Dome itself actually has a roof that opens but it is only used when the weather outside is at the same temperature as the weather inside the dome. It is also quite ironic that the Ocean Dome was built only 300 metres away from the real ocean.Strangelyenough, the real beach is usually quite empty even on hot and sunny days becauseholidaymakersseem to prefer the safety, comfort and predictabilityof the artificial beach.

5 You hear a woman describingher holidayto a friend.What doesshe complainabout? A Herhotelroom B Thebadweather C Thefood in the hotel

C o m m u n i c a t iB on u .y i nSgt a m p s 12

a. Matchcolumn A to columnB,thenin pairsact out thedialogue. A

E] ffi

lzl I

Nowadays,theme parks are springing up everywhereand it looks like virtual reality holidays are going to be the way of the future. After all, they are cleaner, safer and far more convenientthan real holidays.However,can we really compare the experienceof sitting on an artificial beachwith man-madesandunder a fake sun to a day on a real beach? Where is the challenge in surfing manmade waves when you know exactly how big they are going to get and exactlywhen they are going to appear? More importantly, where is the fun in coming back from a seasideholiday without tan lines? llgYt:t..,.. 'zt2lryt&71?t?wv::.:,t?,a/7r..?&. ' ,.""tt''tttt:7v"?t'{"'t'':'ttl:"|t::lttttr\:t":l

You are in a hotelwhen you hearthis conversation between a man and the receptionist. What is the problem?


Excuse me Do y o us e l ls t a m p s ? O h ,w e l ll w a n t t o s e n ds o m e ^^.+--"^lpu)Llot u)

+^ LU

England Letme see Ten, Ithink O h , l ' v eo n l yg o t a t w e n t y - d o l l ab ri l l IET_I Thankyou very much ffi




a T h a t ' lbl e f o u rd o l l a r s . please You'rewelcome Havea niceday H o w m a n yd o y o u need? No probleml'vegot plentyof change That'ssixteen dollarsfor youandten stamps Yes,we do Whereare theyfor?


b. Nowusethe promptsto actout similar dialogues.


America/ Five/ Two p o u n d s / A t ep no u n d note


b. Lookat the pictures andin pairsactout a similar dialogue.

A u s t r a l i/aE i g h/t T h r e e pounds/Afiftypound note

5peaKrng 13

a. Lookat the picture thedialogue. andcomplete


4?.iE: '.tt u

A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

What'sthe p r o b l e m ? It seemsto m et h a t 1 ) Wherearet h e yg o i n g ? They2) How arethey related? I t h i n kt h e y3 ) W h e r ed o y o ut h i n kt h e ya r e ? Somewhere 4) What time of the yearis it? It's5) How do you know? 6)

What do you t h i n kt h e ya r eg o i n gt o d o ? B: Well,7)


A : W h a tw o u l dy o u d o i n a s i m i l asr i t u a t i o n ? B:8)



When we write an articledescribing a festival,eventor celebration we attended, we usually writefour paragraphs I nt h e i n t r o d u c t i o n g e n e r ai ln f o r m a t i oanb o u t we include t h e e v e n ts u c ha si t s n a m e w , h e r ea n dw h e ni t i s h e l da n d what the celebration is for In the secondparagraphwe write about the preparations for the event ln the third paragraphwe describethe aciual event itself In the c o n c l u s i o nw , e w r i t e o u r i m p r e s s i o n rse, a c t i o n sa n d recommendations We usuallyusepresenttensesto write aboutsomethingthat happens everyyearor continues for some time and past tenses to describeour actual experiences at the event We useadjectives to makeour description moreinterestingWe can alsousethe passive

when theu'out] -0":"::lf'l,tl.:'n"'.l l'':'" . TopicSentences


Readthe articleand fill in the blankswith the correcttopic sentencefrom the list below.

A Thepreparations take months B T h ef e s t i v awl a sf u n ,e n t e r t a i n i nagn de d u c a t i o n a l a T h eM i l w a u k e e N a t i v eA m e r i c a nI n d i a nF e s t i v ai sl t r u l ya n a m a z i n g event D The celebrations began at 4pm and there was plentyto seeand do






for three days in September every year, ! thousands gather in Milwaukee, USA, to celebrateIndian culture. Last year, I was luclqi enough to attend the festival and experience it for myself.

. spicy. colourful. spectacular o loud ' mouth-watering r 6;3tt;.ul . local. traditional . lively. handmade . culturalo delicious . annual

Dance teamsfrom all over the country ! practise to compete in the tribal Pow Wow dancecontest.Indian craftsmenwork to produce the many traditional items on display.Then, in the week before the festival, the stalls are put up and the food is prepared, so that eveq4hingwill be ready for the big day. I uirlt"O a traditional Indian village, watched skilled I craftsmen carve totem poles, and even learned how to do tribal Indian dancing. It was also a great opportunity to sample some traditional native dishes,like corn bread and buffalo burgers. It was a wonderful way to learn about Native I American culture and celebratethe end of summer.

Usethe adjectives in the listto definethe nounsthat follow.Someadiectives canbe used morethanonce.



b. Complete the paragraphs with adjectives from Ex.17a. The ChindoFestival is a(n) 1) festivalheldeveryyearin springThelocal peoplewear 2) costumesand performfolk dancesand musicTheyeat 3) Koreanfood and have a greattime

b . Whatdid the writerthinkof the festival? How you do know?Underline the words/phrases whichshowthe writer'sopinion.

The VeniceCarnjvalis a(n)4) festival whichlastsfor ten daysin winter everyyear Peoplewear 5) m a s k sa n d p a r a d et h r o u g ht h e s t r e e t s Thereare lotsof 6) concerts a n db a l l st o a t t e n d

Whattensesdoesthe writeruse?Whv?

. Pa r a g r a p Plha n n i n g 1 5 a. Belowisthe planfor a festivaldescription. Matchthe paragraphs to the information. Paragraphs Para1 Para2 P a r a3 Para4

Information A Description of the actualevent B l m p r e s s i o an ns d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s C Nameof festival, where/when/ why it takesplace D Preparatlons for festival

b. Readthe articleagainandmakenotesfor each paragraph. Then,talkaboutthe Milwaukee NativeAmerican IndianFestival. 16

Rewritethe followingparagraph, puttingthe verbs in boldin the passive. Whichparagraph fromthe planin Ex.15is it?

festival food costumes

Thepeopleof Rotterdam, Holland,hold :'rl r %=. 'q& a(n)7) summerfestivalThere ,rr :L --. is lois of 8) musicand the :i#3 people put on 9) . . costumes ..) and dancein the streetsand squaresof t a. the city. 18

a . R e a dt h e r u b r i cb e l o wa n d t h e n a n s w e rt h e q u e s t i o n si n t h e p l a n . S A travelmagazine is goingto publish a special feature andhasaskedits readers to sendin articles f on festivals a festivalthey have attendedwhich is f describing important in theircountry. I

t;t :::

lntroduction (Paral)

'What is theJestivalcalled?Where/When/Why d o e si t t a k ep l a c e 2

Main Body (Para2) (Para3)

'What preparations take place? What actuallyhappensat thef estival?

Conclusion (Para4)

What areyour intpressions, f edings, recomm endations?

b. Writeyourarticlein 120-180 words.Youcan usethe articlein Ex.14aasa model.


-1':i'' !i1 il,l !alj ..:...1. .i

Earthis Dearer than Gold

iri j'":




Matchthe wordsin A andB to formcompound nouns,thenusethemto complete the sentences below. A

% -qqrbd'



acid g\oba\ fossr\ so\ar endanqered ener9Y o\\ ozone

k4t f ue\s :rr' sP\\\)

sPec\es crists po\!eI

b. Whichof the problems belowdo the headlines andoictures referto?

raln \aVer warming

. airpollution . deforestation . drought r waterpollution c. Whichof the followingshouldwe do to fight airpollution? Canyouaddideasof yourown?

a I

. r sc a u s r nag risein oceanlevels 2 Aerosol sprays are helping f ^ d a < f r n r r t h o

. . . . . . .

We must find alternativesourcesof power to avoida(n) d a m a g e so u r l a k e s r, i v e r sa n d forestsaswell as our buildings Energyfrom the sun can be used to produce p o l l u t eo u r s e a sa n d b e a c h e s ^^,1 t,;tl dilu KilrmanySeacteatures 7 Unfortunately, whaleshavebecomea(n) 6

8 W e a r e r u n n i n go u t o f h:va tn st:rt



rrsinn niher

, so cnr rrroq nf nnrnior

(A-D)tothe pictures (1-4). Matchthe headlines


usepublictransport moreoften polluting finecompanies theair reuse an0recycte stopproducing andusingCFC's develop cleanenergy cars userenewable sources of energy conserve energy at homeandat work

Underline the correctword. Solarbatteriescan captureand renew/storethe s u n ' se n e r g y Nuclearenergy/power stations are considered d a n g e r o ubsy m a n yp e o p l e 5o manypeopleareswitchingto organicfood that it isverydifficultfor the public/supply to meetthe demand/need We will soonrun out of fossilfuelsso we mustfind newer/alternative formsof energy Wind twirlings/turbinesdo not disturbcattle,so wind farms provide good grazing/hunting grounds power plants/farmsmust take care Hydroelectric not to flood the neighbourhood/surrounding area lf we don't start usingreusable/renewable forms o f e n e r g ys o o n ,t h e p r i c eo f f u e l i s g o i n gt o g o u p / s k yh i g h .


a. Whatcanwe do to becomemore environmentally aware?Usethe listof Dosand Don'tsIomakeup sentences, thenmatchthem to the pictures.


A: Do you think you could be more careful T U I UT E1

B: a b c

Of courseSorryaboutthat l ' v eh a de n o u g h I s h o u l dt h r n ks o ,t o o

A : H o wa b o u ts t a r t i n ga c l e a n - ucpa m p a i g n ? B : a l ' d l o v et o g o b That'snot a bad idea. c R i g ht h e n A: Thankyou verymuch B : a W h yn o t ? b Alright c N o ta t a l l


Matchthe wordsin ColumnA to thosein Column B,thenusethe phrases to complete the sentences below. A

the lion's havebutterflies t a k et h e b u l l t a k em y h a t lose 1 J o h nd e c i d e tdo

B off to i n h e rs t o m a c h neart share bythe horns and

^ . t . A ; - t - ^ - - r ^ . - ^pay dsK nrsDossror a - . , flse

I really Cathy She h a sm a d et h e g a r d e nl o o kb e a u t i f u l T h ee x p l o r e rdsi d n ' t evenwhen theirfood supplies ranout 4 Sarahwasso nervousthat she beforeher interview. 5 Ann workedveryhardon the projectso sheshould get of the bonusmoney

efi"{ut o separate and recycle rubbish o u s ea h a n d - h e lhdo s e ' t a k ep u b l i ct r a n s p o r t u switchoff lightswhen leaving a room

" p u t a l lr u b b i s hi n t h e sameilrn o l e a v es p r i n k l e o r sn a l ld a y . useca[ everyday ' l e a v et h e l i g h t so n a l lt h e time

putalltherubbish Weshouldn't in thesame bin.Weshould separate andrecycle it,(picture B) b. In pairs,suggest otherwaysto helpthe environment.



Tickthe correctpreposition,then makesentences usingthe phrases,as in the example.

Circlethe correctresponse. 1 A: Areyoubusytonight, Bob? B: a lf youreally wantto b I don'tthinkso Why? c Doyouthinkthat's a goodidea? 2 A C a nI t a l k t o y o uf o r a m o m e n tp, l e a s e ? B a That'stoo bad b N o ta t a l l c Yes,I supposeso

3 A : What'sthe matter? B : a l ' m f e du p

Shewas gratefulto her teacherfor hisguidanceand pattence.

b l'd loveto c That'stoo bad


Lookat the pictures andusethe promptsto compare andcontrast them.

Reading Which you of these should 10 a. Lookat thepictures. findout aboutbeforeyouvisita foreign countrv? Givereasons.

. . .

busy/quiet healthy/unhealthy clean/dirty




nniqrr/noarofr rl

o safe/dangerous


G u i d eB o o k s


o . Youaregoingto readan articleabouttourism. (1-7),choose Forquestions the correctanswer A,B,CorD.

Picture Ashows a busytownwhereas ...



a. Lookat the pictureandin pairs,complete the dialogue.

A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

W h a td o y o ut h i n kt h e p i c t u r es h o w s ? 1) Wheredo you 2) C e n t r aAl m e r i c a How doesthe picturemakeyou feel? Well,3) W h yd o y o ut h i n ki h i si s h a p p e n i n g ? I t m i g h t4 ) W h a td o y o ut h i n kn e e d st o b e d o n e ? I t h i n k5 )

, c t o u t s i m i l a rd i a l o g u e as b o u tt h e b . I n p a i r sa picturesbelow.

I l l L :I L r t r r - . - - "


Many of us look forward to our summer holidays all year. We can't wait to get awayfrom our everydaylives,to visit new places,try new things,orjust to relax and lie in the sun.But how many of us think about the effect our holidays have on the placeswe visit? Although tourism has many benefits, such as bringing extra money into the local economy,there are alsonegative effects. Tourism can do all sorts of damage to the environment, the culture and the people of a country, especially in places which aren't prepared for large numbers of holidayrnakers.In recent years there has been a large increase in the number of independent travellers who want to get off the beaten track, and this has meant that many remote destinationsare having to adjust to new visitors. It certainly isn't all bad news though. The last few years have also seen a huge increase in 'eco-tourism'. This is 17 tourism where holidaymakerstry to have a positive effect on the people and places that they visit. If you are really committed to this idea, then you can spend your holidays helping out on an organic farm in Britain, or taking part in conservationprojects in Africa or the Amazon rainforest. Don't worry, though, if this doesn't sound like your idea of a holiday. Wherever you go and whatever you want to do, there are still ways to make sure that you have the best possibleimpact on your holiday destination. If you are headingoff to a place for the first time, it is an excellentidea to find out as much about it as you can. A guidebookis a great placeto start.As well aslearning about the local placesof interest,you can read about the wayyou will be expectedto behave and dress.This can saveyou from making embarrassingmistakes and means that you are less likely to upset or offend your hosts.Don't stop at the guideboo( though. If you can, listen to some music or

1 Tourismdoesthe most damagein countries A where there has been an increasein ecotouilsm B whicharen'treadyfor a lot of tourists C w h e r et h e r ea r e a l o t o f p e o p l et r a v e l l i n og n t h e i ro w n D which havea stronglocaleconomy

Festiva ls


2 W h a t i s m e a n tb y ' e c o - t o u r i s mi n' l i n e 1 7 ? A Helping o u t o n o r g a n i cf a r m s B Helpingto conserve the rainforests C Havinga positiveeffecton the environment D Helpingplacesto get usedto new visitors 3 What shouldyou do beforeyou take your ecoholidays? A B u ya g u i d e b o o k B Learnhow to dress C Findout aboutthe localattractions D L e a r na b o u ty o u rd e s t i n a t i o n



T r a d i t i o nD a li s h e s

:ead some literafure from your chosen destination. Knowing a little about the place that you are visiting before r ou leave can make your holiday much more enjoyable ,,r.hen you arrive. It is also important to think about how you spend your inoneywhen you are on holiday. Whenever you can, try to :ut it into the local people's hands. You can do this by ;ating and drinking local products rather than imported "rrands, stayingin locally owned accommodationand using .ocal guides. In some parts of the world, you might be :elatively well off compared to the local population. Even n placeswhere you are expectedto haggle or bargain,you should alwayspay a fair price for things. Remember that 'n'hatmight be a very small amount of money to you, can 48 inake a big difference to somepeople. Another important thing for the eco-touristis to have as iittle effect on the local environment as possible.This is easyto do if you follow some common-senseadvice.Don't teave litter lying around and use biodegradable products rr'heneverpossible. If resourceslike water or fuel are in short supply, then use as little of these as you can, and of course you should never buy products made from rare plants or endangeredanimals. If you are luclcyenough to risit a truly exotic destination such as a coral reef, remote mountain or desert region, or a rainforest then you should try to leave it exactlyas you found it, so that future visitors can enjoy it just asyou did. Eco-tourism organisations say that respecting the culture and environment of the places that you visit will lead to much more rewarding and enjoyableholidays.If we try to encouragethe local economy,leave the environment undamaged and are aware of the different laws and attitudes in the placeswe visit, then all of us can enjoy our 'eco-holidays' much better now and in the future. With more and more of us planning holidays in new locations everyyear, we should all do our bit to make sure that we are alwayswelcomewhereverwe go.


How can a tourist help the economy of a country? A Bargainfor everything they buy B Buy the goods and servicesprovidedby the r o c apr e o p l e C Paya fair pricefor everything D B u ye x p e n s i vi m e p o r t e db r a n d s W h a t i s m e a n tb y ' c a n m a k ea b i g d i f f e r e n c e to somepeople'in lines48 and 49? A Youcanchangetheirlives B Youcanhelpto preserve theirlocalenvironment C Youcan helpthem to havea betterlife D Youcanbe fair What do eco-touristorganisationssay about tourism? A lf we show consideration for the placeand people,we will havea moresatisfying holiday B l f w e v i s i t u n u s u a lp l a c e sw , e s h o u l dl e a v e themjust aswe foundthem C lf we havea holidayin a new place,we should makesurewe will be welcomethere D lf we visita foreigncountry,we shouldtry to supportthe localeconomy The writer'sattitude to eco-tourismis A hopeful B disappointing C interesting D supportive

What was the writer'spurpose?How muchdo you agreewith his/herpoints?



Listening 11

i, .7You aboutfiveevents.For will hearinformation questions 1-5,decidewhicheventA-F istaking placeon eachday.Useeacheventonlyonce.There is oneeventwhichyoudo not needto use. A B C D E F

Youcan planttrees Y o uc a nc l e a nu p a l o c a l a k e Youcanhelpcollectrubbish You can cycleeverywhere plant Youcanvisita recycling



r . . .



lz | | tuesoay

l3Tl wednesday FTI thursday FTI rriday

Sorry to havebeena nuisance O h .l a ms o r r y Youare,asa matterof fact lsanything thematter?

A : H e l l o.,J o h nC o u l dI h a v ea q u i c kw o r d w i t h y o u , please? B : S u r e 1) A: Well,actually,l've beenmeaningto speakto you aboutthe noisefrom yourhouse B: NoiseA ? r ew e b e i n gt o o l o u d ? A : W e l l ,y e s 2 ) We'vebeenhavingtroublesleeping 3).... ldidn'trealise y o u c o u l dh e a ra n y t h i n g It's the musicyou play late at night that's the pro0rem. 'Oh, B: OK We'lltry to keepit down 4)

You can learn how to be energyefficient

Communication: R e p o rti nagmi ssi nagn i ma l 12

below,then a. Fillin the gapswith the sentences in pairs,readthedialogue aloud.

a. Matchthe exchanges, then in pairs,readthe d i a l o g u ea l o u d . A can I helpyou, madam? ofr dear What kindof dog is it? I see Hassheevergonemissingbefore? t\ow, let me makea noteof yourdetails. was shewearinga collar? ETI can I haveyournameand telephoneplease? FTI oon't get upsetMrsBrown l'm surewe'llfind her [iTl ETl l3Tl FTI ETI

Don'tworryaboutit Thanks, John b. Nowusethe promptsto actout similar dialogues.

B a No l'm veryworried b Yes she'soot a redonewith her nameand address on it Y e s S h e i l aB r o w n A n d m y t e l e p h o n en u m b e ri s 2296188 q Erm yes l'm afraidmy dog hasgonemissing e O h ,t h a n ky o u T S h e ' sa L a b r a d o rS h e ' sg o t g o l d e nf u r a n d b i g brown eyes T h a n ky o u


Gary/ noise- motorbike / wakesme up everymorning/ a problemwith engine/ get fixed

S u s a /n n o i s e- k i d s / c a n ' t think/ hearourselves s h o u t i n ga n ds c r e a m i n/ g t e l lb e q u i e t

b . Now usethe promptsto act out similar dialogues.

Writinganinfcrmal ietter"of advice

"+' : -?:ffi: .'\\'l''' . _ 1 .1 . , r l i-:.i .


tabby- brownand blackg r e e ne y e s/ b l u ec o l l a -r n a m ea n d p h o n en u m b e r

^ z_o

poodle- white- browneyes/ browncollar- address and p n o n en u m o e r

, When we write an informalletterof advice,we usually t write four paragraphsIn the introductionwe express the problemor ! 1 sympathyand say that we understand 2 - 3), : i that we thinkwe canhelp.Inthe mainbody(Paras I and give our reasonsWe write ! ! we make suggestions each suggestion in a separateparagraph.In the . we writeour closingremarks, andsignoff. i conclusion, ! i.*

- .___",--_.-, ""_*. _.,.,.


a. Readthe letterof advice belowandunderline the correctverb.Thenanswerthe

to thecorrect reasons. 16 Matchthesuggestions Then,makecomplete sentences, asintheexample. Suggestions fjT-l Ouya toy bone for it l2Tl tate it for a longwalkeverymorningandevening [3Tl moveinto a housewith a garden School ETI take it to Dog Obedience Reasons

I am so glad to hear that you 1) havi"t deciding to move to London, It'Il be great to have a friend , ' trom home living here. We'll be able to do thingstogether ; like we 2) would/usedto. In your letter you 3) asked/were ' askingme to giveyou someadviceaboutfinding a flat; here aresomesuggestions. ' If I were you, I would start by 4) checks/checkingthe : classified advertisementsin the London papers. For i example,the 'Daily Mail' and the 'EveningStandard'have :1argesectionswith housesand flats for rent. That way,you ; rvill be ableto seewhat is availablefor rent at the moment. I Another good idea is to contact an estate agent. : GoldshmidtandHowland5) have/arehavingofficesall over i London.That way you can get a list of all the placesin the i areayou want at a priceyou can afford. . I hope this 6) helps/ishelping. Pleaselet me know how i thingsturn out. Ifyou needanythingelse,pleasecall. , Love, Mandv r t*.

a l e a v ey o u rp u p p yo u t s i d ed u r i n gt h e d a y b i t w o n ' t w a n t t o r u n a r o u n ds o m u c hd u r i n gt h e day c you won't haveto trainit yourself d it won't chewyourfurnitureor shoes 1- d lf I wereyou, I'dbuya toyboneforit.Thatwayitwont your chew furniture or shoes.

1 7 a . Readthe rubricbelow and then answerthe q u e s t i o n si n t h e p l a n .


w gt

Your friend hasjust written you a letter askingfor advice.Readthe extractfrom the letter below,then writea letterof advice to vourfriend.

Howore you?I'msonyI hoven'twrittenfor so longbut sinceI stortedmy new job I'vebeen very busyActuolly,I'mwritingbecouseI need yourcdvice.We hovejustgot o puppyond I'm

1 What isthe styleof the letter?Why? 2 What arethe suggestions (andreasons) given? 3 What advicewouldvou oiveto Fiona?

+ l!:l

b. Readthe letter againand fill in the reasons. ,t:a



checkclassified advertisements

i :


contactan estate agent 15

Usethe expressions in the box to give advicein the followingsituations. o Yourfrrendhaslosthis/herwalleVpurse o Yourfriendwantsto go abroadfor the firsttime r Yourfriendlosthis/heroassoort

'1 *i*: .=r=F

Haveyou everthoughtof .. / lf I wereyou A n o t h e rg o o di d e ai s / W h yd o n ' ty o u / T h e

lntroduction Dear+ your friend's first name (Para1) What is the problem?Canyou help?

MainBody (Para2) (Para3)

What is your first suggestion? What is the reason? What is your secondsuggestion?'What is the reason?

Conclusion (Para4) How canJou encourage your t'riend? Love/Good luck, etc YourJirst name

b. Useyouranswers to writeyourletter.Youcan usethe letterin Ex.14aasa model.


Earlyto Bed a


Matchthe verbsin ColumnA to the words/ phrases B.Thenusethecompleted in Column phrases to talkaboutyourdailyroutine. A go


+-1.^ tdNc




Whatisthe problemwith a. Lookat the pictures. person? each


do watch il tccL

B my hair/myface my teeth tnebus to bed unch/dinner breakfasVl to work/school my friends TV/avideo my homework

my... I usually wakeupat.... First,lwash


Fillin the correctword. . sensitive . sociable . optimrstic . ambitious . impatient . cheerful . easy-going . reliable 1 W e n d yi s a l w a y s m i l i n gs;h e ' s u c ha person 2 S a l l yn e v e rc o m p l a i nasb o u ta n y t h i n g5. h e i s v e r y




person He goes out 3 Tom is a very with friendsalmosteveryday 4 Stevealwayslookson the bright side He is very

fron (an)earache. LittleBillyissuffering shoulddo? b. Whatdo youthinkeachperson prompts. the Choose from o takento thedoctor. stayin bed o putd plaster on . takeanaspirin . liedownandrest o putdn ice-pack on it gotanearache, betakento thedoctor. lf Billy's heshould 2


CarolgetsupsetveryeasilyI think she is a bit too

G r e g w a n t s t o b e g e n e r a lm a n a g e ro f t h e man compano y n ed a y H e ' sa v e r y. . , 5 h e h a t e sw a i t i n g i n 8 J a n e tr s s o qu e u e s 7

Whatarethe followingusedfor?Usethe prompts asin the example. to makeup sentences, . taketemperature . listento chestr weigh . giveinjections

- -^t ^)Ldtc)




5 YoucantrustTonyto do anythingHe is extremely

ourselves. Scales areused toweigh

with the correctwords Comolete the sentences fromthe list. . hurtsr pain r bruise. aches. suffers. injury was not 1 T h e d o c t o rs a i dt h a t J o h n ' s senou5 z I h i t m y h a n do n t h e d e s k l t r e a l l y 5 tn my chest I think I I havegot a shouldseea doctor 4 Sandra from hayfevereverysummer Haveyou got anytablets? 5 My head o n h i sk n e e 6 A n d r e wh a da b i g p u r p l e afterhe fell off hisbike


Readthe sentences andmatchthemwith the pictures. Thenguessthe hobbies.

5 A : I'vedecidedto stop drinkingcoffee B : a Haveyou?Why? b O hn o l c D i dy o u ?T h a t ' sg r e a t

thingsgrow . . f tTl t lovewatching ETI t feelgreatwhenl'mouton thewater [:Tl t buyallthe latestbestsellers lZT--]cettingout intonatureisveryrelaxing catchanythingl [5T_-]I rarely ETI t lovetryingnewrecipes


A O h n o ! T h ep h o t o c o p i ei sr b r o k e na g a i n ! B a I d o n ' tb e l i e v iet l b l t ' ss o u n f a i r ! c W h a td i d I d o ?

7 A : We don't know what to get Ben for his birthday B : a O h ,f o r g e ti t ! b R e a l l y ?l s h e h a v i n ga p a r t y ? c W h y d o n ' ty o u a s kh i sw i f e ?



A l ' v ej u s tb o u g h ta n e w c a r B : a I don't believe it! | thoughtyouwerebrokel b That'sa completewasteof timel c R e a l l yW ? o u l dy o u l i k et h a t ?



Thebosswantsto seeyou in hisoffice B : a Thatsoundsinteresting b lt'sa completewasteof time c O h n o ! W h a td i d I d o ?

Complete the sentences belowwith two to five words,including thewordin bold.Donotchange the meaning of theoriginal sentence. I ate my lunchtoo fastand now l'vegot a stomach ache indigestion l'm


Circlethe correctresponse. A: Thisnew dietisamazing, l'velost5 kilosalready B : a T h a t ' sg r e a t ! b Are you? c That'snot fairl


A I t h i n k l ' m c o m i n gd o w nw i t h t h e f l u B : a T h a ts o u n d si n t e r e s t i n g b c

Really? Haveyou got a temperature? I d o n ' tk n o ww h a tt o d o l

3 A : I would loveto livein Alaska B : a R e a l l yW ? hy? b I d o n ' tu n d e r s t a n! d c That'sgood 4

A: You misseda greatpartylastnight B : a W h a t m a k e sy o ut h i n kt h a t ? b W h a t h a p p e n ende x t ? c R e a l l yT?e l m l e a l la b o u ti t

because I ate my lunchtoo fast A c c i d e n tj su s t s e e mt o h a p p e nt o h i m ,s o l ' m n o t s u r p r i s ehde ' si n h o s p i t a l prone He'sreally , so l ' m n o t s u r p r i s ehde ' si n h o s p i t a l W a t c h i n g d o c u m e n t a r i e sa b o u t e n d a n g e r e d animalsalwaysmakesme feeisad depressed I always , watchdocumentaries about e n d a n g e r eadn i m a l s Slmonwas latefor work because therewasa train S I TK IE


S i m o nw a sl a t e a t r a i ns t r i k e

A n n l i k e sc h o c o l a tae l o t fond Ann chocolate He did not intendto leavebeforehe finishedthe report intention He beforehe finishedthe report Y o us h o u l ds t o ps m o k i n g give You smoKrng S t a nd i d n ' td o w h a t h e h a dp r o m i s eido d o went Stan word



B: A : H a v ev o u e v e re x o e r i e n c eads i m i l asr i t u a t i o n ? B : 4) A : W h a td i d y o u d o ? B : ),

Matchthe following,thencomplete the sentences. muscle nose travel heart splitting sore high food


parn h^-,1.-h^ I tcouoLt


porsonrng bleed

for the b. In pairs, actout similar dialogues pictures below.


th roat temperalure

He was very worried about taking the ferry to Francebecause he alwavssuffersfrom o n b o a t sa n dp l a n e s 2 Thedoctorsaidmv dadwas at riskof s o h e s h o u l de a t a healthierdiet and get moreexercise You havegot a very Youshouldstayin bedtoday After overdoingit at the gym,Stevewas suffering from i n h i sl o w e rb a c k Zoehad a reallybad caseof . aftereatingthat seafood M a r t i nw a s h i t i n t h e f a c eb y a t e n n i sb a l l L u c k i l y h e w a s n ' ts e r i o u s h l yu r t b u t h e h a da s l i g h t 7 8

| didn'tgo to work yesterday because I hada really , . . and had lostmy voice Fredwants us to turn the musicdown because he'sgota .. ...

)peaKrng '!0

a. Lookat the pictureandcomplete the dialogue.

Reading 11

A: B: A: B: A:


W h e r e ' tsh e w o m a n ? S h es e e m s1 ) What'swrongwith her? I ' m n o t s u r e S h ec o u l d2 ) What advicewouldyou giveher?

a. Lookat the picture. Wheredo youthinkthe youngboyis?Whatiswrongwith him?Read the articleto findout. b. Readthe articleagain.Seven sentences have beenremoved fromthe article.Choose from the sentences A-l the onewhichbestfitseach gap 1-7.Thereisonesentence whichyoudo (0)at the not needto use.Thereisan example beginning.


Becausehe was so young, the doctors decidedthat Timothy should be given the implant as soon as possible.

"I have to admit, I was very worried," saysSandra, "but only hours after he came out of theatre, he was playing with the other children on the ward and I knew he was going to be fine! I couldn't wait to find out whether or not the operation had been successful."

Cut Loud Timothy Stevenshas lived most of his ,rJein a silent world. Until sir months ago, he had never heard his mother's -,oice, never listened to music and never heard the sound of birds singing rr the laughter of his pla5.nnates. ;--f;t t - H i s m o t h e r .S a n d r a , | knew |



-hat something was wrong with her babyson,becausehe did not have the :ame reactions as other babies. "If I iidn't look into Tim's eyes,he didn't :eem to know I was there," she says. \l'hen he was eight months old, Sandratook Timothy to the hospital :nd explained why she was worried. The doctors carried out hearing tests .nd decided that Timothy must be a _ ' . i l e D a c K \ ^ al rr d .| ,

children and that they always think the worst," she smiles. "I knew I was dght about Tim, but it took almost two years before the doctors would agreewith me." However, even Sandra had not imagined that Timothy's condition could be as seriousas it was. T;--r----r Ir | | D o c l o r st o l d S a n d r at h a t there was no chancethat his hearing would ever improve.

Sandrawas shockedto learn that the Sandra insisted that the hospital only hope for Timothy was to have a ihould send Timothy to a specialist bionic implant. ,rlr rtore tests.Unfortunately, it was a The electrodeswould send F-[l -rng time before a specialistwould electric signals to his brain, which .ee him. Finally, when he was almost would allow him to hear them as 'ti a::: .,:,:. l.o years old, Timothy and his sounds. nother went to a children's hospital The implant would not allow Timothy .r Manchester where the staff had -'t: to hear perfectly,but it would be the :1enty of experiencein dealing with only way for him to ever have a :;af children. chance of overcoming his deafness. ---r--r - | | A t l a s t "s o m e o n eb e l i e v e dh e r After checking that there was no ',-,hen she told them that her son was serious risk involved, Sandra put ieaf. "Doctors often think that Timothy's name on the waiting list for nothers worry too much about their





The moment of truth came on Timothy's third birthday, when the doctors switchedon the implant for the very first time. Timothy played with toys in the doctor's surgery while a speech therapist played different sounds and checked his reactions. When Sandra said, "Hello Timothy," and he Iooked into her eyes,she cried tearsof happiness. T i m o t h-y i-s n" o'w e n j o y i n ga l i t e f u l l o f s o u n d .l 6 | lHeisalsoarrending the local nursery school where he likes nothing more than to make as much noise as possible as he plays with his friends. Timothy celebrated his fourth birthday last week. E--T---t ,,-' H e i sd r i v i n g m e m a dw i r h |7 | | the noise he makes," Iaughs Sandra, "and that's something I never imagined I would complain about! For me, though, the greatestgift of all is to hear my son talking and to know that he can hear me when I soeak to him."

.....','.?!...:"t"t':"t9ttk7s...:,.,:u,,.., "

He has alreadylearntseveralwords and phrases w h i c ha l l o wh i mt o c o m m u n i c a w t ei t h h i sm o t h e r H i s p r e s e n t si n c l u d e d a v a r i e t y o f m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e nw t sh i c hh e l o v e st o p l a yw i t h Sandrawas relievedto find peoplewho would l i s t e nt o h e r D A full examination s h o w e d t h a t T i m o t h yw a s completely deaf However, Sandraknewthat the problemwas more s e r i o utsh a nt h a t T i m o t h yi so n l ya b l et o c o m m u n i c a tbey u s i n gs i g n language

Threemonthsbeforehis thrrd birthday,he went i n t o h o s p i t atl o h a v et h e o p e r a t i o nt h a t w o u l d c h a n g eh i sl i f e H Timothywas borndeaf I T h i sw o u l d m e a n h a v i n ga n o p e r a t i o nt o p u t a specralreceiver in Timothy'shead,with electrodes connected to the nervesin hisears


Answerthe questions.

1 W h e r ec o u l dy o u r e a ds u c ha n a r t i c l e ? 2 What do you thinkthe writer'spurposewas? 3 C a ny o us u g g e sat n a l t e r n a t i vt ei t l ef o r t h e a r t i c l e ?






You are going to listento a radiointerview about robot surgeons.Forquestions1-7,mark the sentencesas f (true)or F(false).


1 T h e r ea r er o b o ts u r g e o nisn a l l h o s p i t a l s 2 Doctorsoperateby remotecontrol 3 C o m p u t e rcsa r r yo u Lv e r yo ' e c i s e movements 4 Therobotslook likecranes 5 A camera t a k e sp h o t o g r a p hosf t h e patient 6 7

R o b o t cs a r r yo u t a l l k i n d so f o p e r a t i o n s Doctorswill haveto learnmanynew r nIn g s

Whenwe write a note we usuallyusea veryinformalstyle and write in very short or incompletesentencesWe do not alwaysuse definiteor indefinrtearticlesWhen we write an e-mailwe usethe form of a letter We usuallyuse an informalstylein personal e-mailsand a formalstylefor b u s i n e ses- m a i l sW e u s u a l luy s em e m o si n c o m p a n i easn d officesto passon informationto employeesWe use a formal,factualstyle

C o m m u n i c a t i volna:k i nagn

. Analysing M odelTexts

a p p o rn l me n t

1 3 a.

phrases, Fillin the missing thenin pairs, read thedialogue aloud. . . . .

yournameandadoress, please What's Please letusknowif youdecide to cancel Bookmein forWednesday l'd liketo makeanappointment

:r u


Lookat the pieces of writing1-3.Whichis a) a memo?b) an e-mail? c) a note?



.., , ,


e Ta; ##'.i#




- j$,rp*rr*:*



S err: ntbit'i

Dear Sally, Thanks for inviting us loS ueeke'o, we boll- tacl o I'm including the photos attactment. There's a great Jim in front of the pool. v v .-


. L l. - | ov


come. I'11 Take

Receptionist: Hello CentralClinic Can I he p you? Patient:Yes,1) to see D r E v a n sp,l e a s e Receptionist:Wednesday at 10amisthe firstappointment available Otherwise, thereisnextMondayat noon Patient:fhesoonerthe better,please2) i f t h i si sp o s s i b l e Receptionist:3) Patient: MaggieSmith;42 KnowleAvenue Receptionist: Right Seeyou on Wednesday, at 1Oam 4) the appointment Patient: I will Thankyou verymuch

b. Now usethe promptsto act out similardialogues. o Dr Barret/ Tuesday 4pm - nextFriday 9am . Dr Sandford / Thursday 2pm- nextWednesday 1l am


- t^9

and let

p a L tLtr


we'd you

f a r


know the

to your party g'â&#x201A;Źot r'm-. we took in an one of you and

t ; , ^ a V tc




n ! i r | r h r rt u- d y







$ill llt, / ot c\ner\avrt\ dackre,backb5 11rtr ,1,:1,,, ,/ drnnef S \\ t\e ove\

/dont forgetto feed cat

. Discuss & Write


therubric andanswer thequestions 17 a. Read below. ICB

To: From: Date: Subject:

All Employees Arthur Jones, asst mgr 15 February, 2... Use of mobile phones in the office

o Please be advised that all employees with mobile phones are required to keep them turned off during working hours. o If you need to be contacted while at work, you can be reached through the main switchboardon 726742I. o This number is to be used for emergencies only. We appreciateyour co-operation in this matter. ,t&


. Style of 1 5 a. Matchthestyleof writingto thepieces writingin Ex.14. A incomplete sentences, veryinformal B informationgivenin an officeor business setting; formal C informal,chatty b. Readthe note to the secretaryand rewrite it in the styleof an officememo. Mise7hi7ys, t tellDeyt ugre about budSr,tmeehng-on Mondal1am o .

allmvcta.ltendandbe onfime ooffee anddouglnvt9eewed

fhanks, Mr Jaoobg

:!: Thecompanywhereyou work is havinga retirement of the company. i partyfor the VicePresident Theparty will be heldat the RoyalHotel.Youhavebeenput in : chargeof organising the party. Write a memo to all staffmembers informing them " of the time, date and locationof the partyand tellingthem that food and drinkswill be served. Also, informthem that they can make a small contributionto the Vice President'sretirement present andthattheyshouldgivethe moneyto you or yoursecretary. o Writea noteto yoursecretary, tellinghim/herthat you'rein a meetingand reminding him/herto call the catering company andarrange a meetingwith themfor the nextdayat 11am. o Write an e-mailto your superviso;who is on holiday, andlet him/herknowaboutthe party.

thefollowing ina noteform. 16 Rewrite


D e a rP a t r i c i a , l ' m g o i n gt o t h e c i n e m aw i t h S h e i l aI b o r r o w e d your redscarf l'veleft the carkeysin the firstdrawerof your d e s ki n c a s ey o u n e e dt h e m J a m e sc a l l e dH e s a i dh e m i g h t c o m e b y H e ' l lc a l l b a c kl a t e r l f y o u ' r eh u n g r y there are chickensandwiches in the fridge I won't be late- around10 o'clockat the latest LCUIO

1 Whoareyouwriting to? 2 Whatstylewillyouusefor eachpieceof writing?

Whv? Whatinformation willyouneedto include in each piece of writing? Writethe memo,noteande-mailusingthe information in Ex.17a,aswellasyourown ideas.


Better Safe thanSorcy

A : I r e a l l yl i k et h a t s o n g l B : 5 od o I l ' l l


A: l'veneveruseda laptopcomputerbefore the same B : O h , i t ' s e a s yJ u s t way you do with your regularPC

3 Vocabulary

Crossout the oddword(s)in eachgroup.Then,use wordsto makeup sentences the remaining describing eachobject,asin the example. 1 cooker:

oven- rlngs- knobs- jd{

- femotecontfolmorqtr- Screen Key0oar0 p l u g- c o r d- t e m p e r a t u rceo n t r o-l 3 iron: door lens- cover- shutter- tray 4 camera: l i d- h a n d l e- s p o u t- a e r i a l 5 kettle: - drawers - screens 6 refrioerator:door- shelves 7 blender: switch lid blades light 7 rnmnrrtar

Lookat the pictures.Whichof thesedo you have in yourkitchen? Whatdo you useeachof the objectsfor?

A cookerhasgotan oven,ringson topandknobsthatare usedto controltemperature.


and identifythe type of crime Readthe sentences in the example. described, as 1 S h e c o p i e ds o m e o n ee l s e ' ss i g n a t u r eo n t o t h e cheque {{*rqeryJ T h e a r m e dm e n s t o r m e di n t o t h e b a n ka n d t r i e d to steala largeamountof money The customsofficer calledthe police after he f o u n d a b a g o f d i a m o n d si n t h e m a n ' sl u g g a g e T h e yh e l dt h e p i l o ta t g u n p o i nat n do r d e r e dh i mt o fly to the locationtheywanted H e t h r e w a l i t m a t c ht h r o u g ht h e w i n d o w a n d then ran off Themanwas caughttryingto stealtwo CD-ROMs

1- A A blenderis usedto blend/mixfood.


Usethe phrasalverbsto completethe exchanges, asin the example. r t u r no n . t u r nd o w n . t u r no f f . t u r n u p . p l u gi n . l o go n . l o g o f f 1 A: I can'tconcentrateTheTV istoo loud B: All right,l'll fui'rit d*n'r 2


r satellite . fingerprints . preserve o automatically . proof . fined . privacy it

A : I t h i n k l ' l l s t a yu p a n d w a t c h t h e e n d o f t h i s film all the B: OK Don't forget to lightsbeforeyou go to bed

5 A: Hurry up We're supposedto be there at 7 o'clock! B : O K J u s tg i v em e a m t n u t et o


the lnternet

moneyfor the safereturnof the 8 Theydemanded twochildren usingthe wordsbelow. Complete the sentences

A : D i dy o u h e a ra b o u tt h e h i j a c k i n g ? the radio B: No Let's

3 A: Why isn'tthe toasterworking? B : O h ,s i l l ym e ! | f o r g o tt o

Whenwe got home,we were horrifiedto find the window brokenand all our valuables tolen

the policetake your 1 When you get arrested, keep them on file . and 2 3

f 2 O 0f o r p a r k i n gi l l e g a l l y H ew a s lawand I t i s a p o l i c e m a nj 'osb t o order

4 Someoeonlethinkthat hiddencameras invade our 5 Whenyou usean ATM,your bankaccountis updated

6 Theyhadto let the suspectgo because they could find no that he had committed


Lastsummerwas so hot that we decidedto nave a i r c o n d i t i o n i npgu t i n installed We had lastsummerbecause it was so hot 5 The escapedprisonersjumped onto a bus and madethe drivertakethem acrossthe border hijacked The busto get across the border 6 Car rentalcompaniescan use specialtechnology to find out wheretheircarsare locate C a rr e n t acl o m p a n i ecsa n t h e i rc a r s

thecrime 7 We can now get up-to-the-minute newsfrom around theworldvia


Complete the headlines usingthe wordsbelow. . charged. robbed. accused . sentenced o < tt q n o r t < . r h o : t a . l

Supermarket bandit et4e, *eett,e,

t4 @4r: &P.e.M&d.


't ?.?e?.?a i*&.:r%w W u4.8p1'@ W.{.,'tqp .&.*da*,&:*WW.

I I I I r | | f I t:

f rt:




ilpl0yee ....*r........*......Of afSOn.

f {':::"r 3:i;::" i:-::::: :Ti^i-,::',-" * ,]


'-"-if ltarn8ll




stoaltnghef car' 'w*,*,*i)-*-).*:::,.Y3:*',#:;'iffi


;'"*.*" l g u t h

"*"*"*- *-'i-i^'


t ! . r " " ' r *

.,,,,,,....,,a..,..,"., l|llruod dryllghl. 7


v 't0


Completeeachof the sentences with two to five words, includingthe word in bold. Do not change t h e m e a n i n go f t h e o r i g i n asl e n t e n c e . 1 L a s tn i g h ts o m e o n e h i t h e ro v e rt h e h e a da n ds t o l e h e rh a n d b a g mugged She l a s tn i g h t 2 P e t e cr o p i e dt h e P i c a s saon ds o l di t a sa n o r i g i n a l forged Peter a n ds o l di t a sa n o r i g i n a l 3 The policegot a descriptionof the thief from someonewho saw him escape witness Thepolicegot a description of the thief .

Circlethe correctresponse. A : W h e r ed i dt h e a c c i d e nht a p p e n ? B: a lt'sdifficultto say b About fifteenminutesago c A t E l ma n d D i x o n

Pofiticlan's son *I


A : C a ny o u t e l l m e h o w t o g e t t o t h e M c l a u g h l i n Gallery? B : a l ' m g o l n gn o w b Sorry?Canyou repeatthat? c l ' m s o r r yt,h e l i n ei se n g a g e d A: Didyou likethe outfit I wore yesterday? B : a T h a t ' sa n i n t e r e s t i nqgu e s t i o n b Let me see c To be honest,I can'treallyrememberit A : H e l l oc, a nI s p e a kt o J e n n yp l e a s e ? B : a W o u l dy o u l i k et o l e a v ea m e s s a g e ? b l'm sorry,you must havedialledthe wrong number c Thankyou for waiting A: What'sSarah's sister's name? B: a lcan'trememberl b I d o n ' tt h i n ks o c W h a td o y o u m e a n ? A : H o wc o u l dy o u l o s et h e t i c k e t s ! B : a W h a t ' st h e p r o b l e m ? b l t w a s n ' tm e ! | g a v et h e mt o S a m ! c l ' l lt h i n ko f i t i n a m i n u t e A: What can I do for you? B: a I want to reporta robbery b Can I take a message? c Okay l'vedonethat 8 A : D i da n y o n ew i t n e s st h e b u r g l a r y ? B: a No,that'snot what I mean b l ' l lt h i n ko f i t i n a m i n u t e . c I d o n ' tt h i n ks o

hj;n o<r:no



in the two columns. Matchthe words/phrases below. the sentences Then,usethemto complete a n ds o u n d inmind a o l u em o o n a n dt i d y mattersworse

o n c er n to make clean koon


B : I cansee2)

, nd 1 I d i d n ' th a v ee n o u g hm o n e yt o p a yf o r l u n c h a I had forgotten my creditcard 2 We hardlyevergo to the cinemaWe go

A W h a td o y o ut h i n kt h e w o m a nb o u g h t ? B : S h em i g h t3 ) A H o wi ss h ep a y i n g ? B : 4) A H o wo f t e nd o y o u g o s h o p p i n g ? B


A Where? B b)

3 Themissingboywas found t o h i sP a r e n t s a n dr e t u r n e d . W h i l ey o ua r ed r i v i n g , that you are beingwatchedby CCTVcamerason the motorway Carolisveryneat Herhomeis always


A : W h e r ed o y o ut h i n kt h e p i c t u r ew a st a k e n ? B : I t h i n k1 ) A : C a ny o u d e s c r i bteh e p i c t u r e ?


Howdo youpay? 7)

andactout similar b . Lookat the pictures dialogues.

thenmakesentences Tickthe correctpreposition, asin the example. usingthe phrases,






aware nervouS married raugn notoIouS

pay keeptrack

worry in Hewasn't awareof thefactthatshehada degree psychology. Qo:r..,| inn I rY I \LUV

Speaking 11


thedialogue. andcomplete a. Lookat the picture

Whichare the three most importantfactorswe shouldconsiderwhen buyinga car?Choose, then compareyour list to your partner's. It should:

o I o a a o o I

b e e c o n o m i c taol r u n b e e n v i r o n m e n t aflrliye n d l y be fast be efficient b e c h e a pt o b u y havea powerfulengine havelotsof accessories r u no n p e t r o l

0 . Lookat the title of the article.What couldthe

articlebe about?Readand checkyour answers.


'13 Read thearticle again. Forquestions 1-7,choose thecorrect answer, A, B,Cor D.


ffimwffi Many of the world's cities lie under a permanent blanket of smog. People are conceffled about global rvarming,and fuel pricesjust keep going up and up. It's no surprisetherefore, that in recent years,car manufacturers have been put under pressure to invent a vehicle that is both cheaper to run and better for the environment. Finally, after much trial and error, it seemsas though they might be making progress, and the future of the car industry is beginning to look a little 'greener'. One of the first ideas which car manufacturerstried, rvas to replace engines which run on fossil fuels with electric motors. Unfortunately, these vehicles had several drawbacks and they didn't sell very well. The problems were that the batteries of these electric cars ran out very quickly and took a long time to recharge. Also, the replacementenergypackswere very expensive. However, the idea of electric cars has not been scrappedaltogether.Car manufacturershave improved the concept so that environmentally friendly cars can now be efficient and economical as well. This is where the hybrid car, which has both an electric motor and a traditional petrol engine,comesin. The electric motor never needsto be recharged and it is much better for the planet than a traditionalcar. In a hybrid car, the engine is controlled by a computer which determines whether the car runs on petrol, electricity; or both. When the car needs maximum power, for example,if it is acceleratingor climbing a steep hill, it uses all of its resources,whereas at steady speedsit runs only on petro'I.When slowing down or braking, the electric motor recharges its batteries. Hybrid cars are better for the environment because the electric motor can help out whenever it is needed and they have a much smaller engine than a traditional car. Also, hybrid cars on the market are made using materials such as aluminium and carbon fibre, which makes them extremely light. Both of these factors mean that they use far less petrol than normal cars, so they produce less pollution. Of course,hybrid cars aren't perfect; they still run on fossil fuel and so pollute the environment to some extent. However, they may be the first step along the road to cleaner, 'greener' cars. Car manufacturers are already working on vehicles which run on hydrogen. The only emissionfrom these cars is harmlesswater vapour. These are still some way in the future, though, as designersneed to think of cheap and safeways of producing, transporting and storing hydrogen,but at last, it looks like we might be headingin the right direction.

1 Car manufacturersare trying to invent a new vehiclebecause A today'scarsproducetoo muchpoisonous gas B it is difficultto drivein cities. C today'scarsusetoo muchfuel D t h e c a ri n d u s t r iys i n t r o u b l e Vehicleswhich ran on electricmotors A movedveryfast B were madeof piecesof scrap C were not verypopular D h a dt o h a v et h e i re n g i n e rse p l a c e d . The electricmotor in hybridcars A doesn'tneedto recharge its batteries B hasits own petrolengine C takesa longtime to be recharged. D needsreplacement energypacks The computerin a hybridcar A p o w e r st h e e n g i n e B h e l p st h e c a rt o g o u p h i l l s C keepsthe carrunningat a steadyspeed D decideshow the carshouldbe poweredat any g r v e nt i m e Hybridcarsare better for the planetbecause A they usedifferentfuelto normalcars B they are madeof specialmaterials C t h e e l e c t r im c o t o ri ss m a l l etrh a na n o r m a l engrne D they producelessharmfulgases Hybridcarsare not the idealsolutionbecause A they producecarbonfibre B they do not makethe roadscleaner. C they alsousepetrol. D t h e ya r em a d ef r o ma l u m i n i u m 7

Carswhich run on hydrogenare not available yet because A it is hardto drivethem in the rightdirection. B it is difficultto storehydrogen C they producetoo muchwatervapour D thereis no futurefor them

thequestions. 14 Answer a What was the writer's nrrrnoseTWas he/she successfu |? C a ny o u n a m ea n ye n v i r o n m e n t aflrliye n d l ym e a n s of transport? Whichdo you use? I n p a i r s ,t h i n k o f a n e w e n v i r o n m e n t afl rl yi e n d l y meansof transportDrawa pictureand preparean advertisement for it, statingits good points


A : A n d t h e r e ' sq u i t ea b i t o f 3 ) In i t l ' m s u r et h e o w n e rw i l l b e l o o k i n gf o r i t B : S o , y o u ' v es e a r c h e tdh e c o n t e n t sh, a v ey o u , s ir ? A : E r ,w e l l ,I h a d a q u i c kl o o k ,b u t I d i d n ' tt o u c h a n y t h i n!g B: Ah,here'a s n a m e- o n t h e 4 ) A : G r e a t D o y o u n e e dm e t o s i g na n y t h i n g ? B: Yes,you can signthis form And you'd better leaveyour number,in casea rewardis offered A : G o o di d e a !

I ictpninn 15

Listento the conversation betweenAdamand questions Lisa.For 1-7,choose the bestanswer, A,BorC. Why doesn'tAdam like usingcomputers? A H ec u t sh i m s e l f B H ed o e s n ' ut n d e r s t a nt d hem C He alwaysdropsthem In the future, life will be easierbecause A everything will be computerised B p e o p l ew i l ls u r v i vw e i t h o u tc o m p u t e ' s C p e o p l ew o n ' t n o t i c ec o m p u t e r s

b . N o w u s et h e p r o m p t st o a c t o u t s i m i l a r dialogues.

Adam thinks he won't get a job in the future oecauSe A he hasa negativeattitude B i t w i l lt a k eh i my e a r st o u p g r a d eh i ss k i l l s C h e w o n ' t b e a b l et o u s et h e n e wt e c h n o l o g y Peoplewill be able to earn more money in the future because A theywill work fewerhours B t h e yw i l l b e a b l et o d o m o r et h a no n ej o b a t a time C c o m p u t e rws i l l d o t h e i rw o r k f o r t h e m

b r i e f c a s-et h e s t a t i o n/ n o wallet/ palmtopcomputer/ n a m eo n a b u s i n e scsa r d

Televisions will be better in the future because A t h e yw i l l b e m o r ef r i e n d l y B theywill havebuttons C theywill be controlledby voice


h a n d b a -g b u ss t o p/ n o identification / jewellery / n a m eo n a n e n v e l o n p

At thegarage a. Putthe exchanges in the correctordetthen,in pairs, readthedialogue aloud.

How doesAdam feel when he readsabout the futu re? A extremely worried B veryhappy (-

trttarlv mi<arrhlo

Lisabelievesthat people A w i l l c h a n g ei n t h e f u t u r e B w i l l l e a r nn e ww a y so f d o i n gt h i n g s C arescaredof the future

C o m m u n i c a t iHoann:d i n g i n a mi ssi nigte m 1 6 a . F i llinth eg a p s

with drive* licence,creditcard, wollet,money Then,in pairs, readthe dialogue aloud.


A: Good evening, officer I just found this 1) o n t h e p a v e m e not u t s i d e the cafe Ah Let'shavea l o o k i n s i d eO h d e a r T h e r e ' s n o t h i n gw i t h t h e person'sname and address, not evena 2)

A c o o d m o r n i n gm a d a m FTI W h a tc a nI d o f o r y o u ? ET--lot courseWhat'sthe problem?

ETI umr

you're Yes,

rightl'lljustpumpthem up foryou youare You're th"ru FTI ready to go it! Drive ETI oon'tmention safely !

B a O h ,t h a t w o u l db e great O h ,l w i l l Goodbye! WonderfulThanks everso much I t h i n kt h e ym a y needa bit moreair i nt h e m C o u l dy o u c h e c k tho trrroc nlo:co7

Nowusetheprompts to actouta similar dialogue. a

check theoil/ mightneedchanging / change it foryou

t \vAv/ rr ii tLi n| n tg

b. Rewritethe pointsin Ex.19ain a paragraph, usingappropriate linkingwords/phrases.

.a G..Sll :','.ri!



Wewrite instructions, we usethe imperative form -"hen i t h e v e r ba n d w e u s u a l l yl e a v eo u t a r t i c l e sT h e p o i n t s rust alwaysbe written ln the correctorderone afterthe : :ther We can use numbers or bullets before each r lstruction We usuallyuse linkingwords/phrases (first, :fter that, then, next,finallyetc)to organise the pointsor : : - o w t h e o r d e ro f e v e n t s



a. Lookat the instructions for takinga picture with a digitalcamera andfill in the verbs. o Download. Hold . press (X2) . Lineup . Look. Wait

below.Insert themissing 8 Lookat theinstructions wordsthentryandguess whattheobjectis. o allow o first r when r then To chargebattery: 1

i n s e r ct h a r g epr l u gi n t o b a s ew i t h arrowfacingup p l u g c h a r g i n gu n i t j n t o a p o w e r





it to chargefor 6-8 hours(youcan u s ei t w h i l ei t i sc h a r g i n g ) f u l l yc h a r g e di ,t w i l l p r o v i d eu p t o 1 0 0 h o u r ss t a n d b yo r 5 h o u r st a l k i n g


instructions explain howto 19 a. Thefollowing withdraw cashfromanATM(automatic teller machine). Putthepointsintothecorrect order.

button halfwaywhen s h u t t e ra l l t h e w a y w h e n t h e

5 6

thecamera s t i l lu n t i li t b e e p s u n t i l t h e l i g h t changesback to t h e i m a g ef r o mt h e c a m e r a

b. Lookat the instructionsfor downloadinga pictureonto a computer.Make the sentences shorte4then put the pointsinto the correct or0er. I f I


rh. screenwill ask you if you want a n o t h e r transaction'yes/No,

Wt.r"nthe 'menu,screenappears, choosethe option 'withdraw cash, I fn" nextscreenwill askyou how muchyou wanr to withdfaw I P u ty o u rc a r di n t ot h e m a c h i n e I r f , u m a c h i n ew i l l g r v e y o u y o u r m o n e y a n d a withdrawalslipshowinga recordof yourtransactron. _ the arrowkeyon the sideof the screennexrro ! Press t h e a m o u n ty o u n e e d t U O "i n y o u rp e r s o n ai dl e n t i f i c a t i onnu m b e (r p l N ) ! I C h o o r "' N o ' a n d t h e s c r e e n w i l l t e l ly o u t o t a k ey o u r card


Yo, haveto select'download' Sauethe picturein a file Vo, must clickthe cameraicon on the computer screen Y o , m u s tt u r n o n t h e c o m p u t e r Vo, mustconnectthe camerato the computer



therubric andanswer thequestions. 21 a. Read Youhavebeentakingphotography lessons. Nowyour teacher hasaskedyouto writeinstructions on howto takethe perfectpicture. 1 What adverbswill you useto put the instructions inorder? 2 W h a tv e r bt e n s e w s i l ly o u u s e ? b. Write the instructionsin 40-80words.

:'v"4t:::*,6.,,ttu?.,f*t*qr,t ,.*r76rr.,.%,.1i.,?:,.*.a..,,,.,, .*' r.,,.r"<*_


Wise, Penny Foolish 3 Pound

Crossout the odd word. Which group of goodsdo the restof the words belongto? t 2 3 4 5

\/^--1,-.' 'l-r', v u L d t _ . / ut o t y

Wherewould a. ldentifythe shopsin the pictures. youexpectto hearthe following? o . . . . . .

b. Wherecan you buy eachof theseitems?What canyou do with eachof theseitems?

lstherea bracelet to match? Twoloaves of rye,please Haveyougotthisin a large? CanI tryontheotherone? please? Couldyoucutit intoportions, Doyoudeliver? included in theprice? Aretheframes

hammer,screwdriver, n@d{t, Oritt table,book,chair,dresser d ,r e s s r i n g ,e a r r i n g sn,e c k l a c e screwdriver, bread,meat,pasta washingpowder,bleach,flowers, polish furniture


6 towel,deodorant,shampoo, toothpaste paper,ribbons 7 pen,envelopes, 8 j u m p e ru, m b r e l l ac,o a t ,s h i r t 9 lipstick,CD player,cooker,fridge


Completethe sentences with the correctword from the list. . delightedo conservative . dedicated. bear . w o v e n . b u d g e t . i m p o r t e d. a m b i t i o u s . s e n t i m e n t a. l g e n u i n e l y 1 Unfortunately, I can't afford it becausel'm on a tiqht 2 Thisring might not be expensive, but it's of great , , v a l u et o m e 3 He'sdeterminedto succeedbecausehe's a very , man 4 Tonyis really to hiscareer i n m i n dt h a t t h e s h o p sw i l l 5 Please b e c l o s e do n S u n d a y 6 S a l l yw a s w i t h t h e b o u q u e to f flowersshereceived 7 Anita was surprisedwhen she won firstprize rug at the 8 He boughta colourful fleamarket personwho doesn't 9 He'sa very l i k en e w i d e a sa t a l l 1 0 S h ec o u l d n ' tf i n d w h a t s h e w a n t e dh e r e ,s o s h e h a dt o h a v ei t s p e c i a l l y

b. Whatcanyoubuyin eachshop?



lettersto form a. Fillin the missing compound nouns, asin theexample. ,w'ssti!ng : h i. q-h -t . llow-

rh 4


,, roiler

I 004r0

m a c hr n e milk spray gel scarf

5 lce


6 I comPuter

tre 5


00rt|e0 mineral


: 9 , : 10 '


laptop pierced 9!lP-:9ll linen leather


Replacethe adjectivesin bold with their opposites. . modern . expensive. boring . local . fresh . cool . fantastic. tight 1 Thatwas one of the most interestingfilmsI have everseen 2 We got a very warm welcomewhen we finally arrived 3 This restaurantis great,if you like international c ur S r n e 4 | t h i n kh e rn e w d r e s sl o o k sd r e a d f u l 5 Shealwaysbuyscheapclothes 6 T h i sd i s h t a k e sh a l f a n h o u r t o c o o k i f y o u u s e frozenvegetables

7 8


p r e f e ras n t i q u ef u r n i t u r e Myhusband My trousersaretoo loose

5 A : W h i c hb l o u s ed o y o u t h i n k I the r e do r t h e p i n ko n e ? B: a I thinkthe redone looksbetteron you b Anyhow,pinkdoesn'tsuityou

a. Matchthe description of the clothes to the pictures below.

6 A : F r a n k ' rse a l l yu p s e tw i t h m e , I s h o u l d n 'ht a v e b e e ns o r u d et o h i m B : a H o wa b o u ta s k i n gF r a n ka b o u ti t ? b Y o us h o u l da p o l o g i steo h i m

short-sleeved, yellowcotton dress with


w h i t ec o l l a r b l a c ks u i t t 5 t I checked shirt t i g h tw h i t e T-shirt TET-I stripedcotton shorts f;-f-socks r v t I l-T_l tra Iners

7 A: Shall I make reservations at that new Thai restau rant? B : a Y o us h o u l dc a l lt h e r e s t a u r a nf itr s t b Troubleis,it'sa littleexpensive





8 A: l'vedecidedto take Frenchlessons. B : a l t h i n k t h a t ' sa g r e a ti d e a ! b Anyway,you aregood at languages


Completethe sentences with two to five words, i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d si n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e meaningof the originalsentence. 1 Janewill take careof the babywhilewe'reaway after Jane whilewe'reaway Yournew trouserslook great,they are exactlythe r i g h ts i z e glove Yournew trousers ..; . they lookgreat

b. Talkabouteachperson's clothes. A - George iswearing a blueTshirt, striped cottonshorts, ...

7 8

Writedownfiveitemsof clothingyouhavein yourwardrobeanddescribe them. Circlethe correctresponse. 1 A: Do youthinkI should get Marya CDfor her birthday? a H o wa b o u tt h a t o n e ? b Y e sb , u t m a k es u r ei t i s n ' to n es h e ' sa l r e a d y got

2 A . Let'shavethe partytomorrownight B : a Troubleis, most people will have made b


o t h e rp l a n sb y n o w I t h i n ky o us h o u l d

A T h es a l e s m asna i dI c o u l d n 'et x c h a n gteh e s h i r t you boughtfor me

B a Y o u s h o u l d g o b a c k a n d s p e a kt o t h e b 4

manager How aboutwaitinguntiltomorrow?

A'. I thought you wanted to go to the cinema tonight B: a Anyway,it doesn'tmatterto me b I d i d ,b u t t h e r ei s n ' ta n y t h i n g o o do n

Thepoliceareinvestigating the case l o o k i n g T h ep o l i c e . the case I r e a l l ya p p r e c i a tael ly o u rh e l p grateful l'm really a l ly o u rh e l p I a s k e dC a r oal n ds h es a i dw e c o u l dw e a rj e a n sa n d trainersto the party casual Carolsaidwe . to the party J i mt o o k h i ss u i tt o t h e d r yc l e a n e r ' s had Jim . at the dry cleaner's S h ec a nt h i n ka b o u tn o t h i n ge l s eb u t h e rc a r e e r obsessed She . ..

n e rc a r e e r

I r e t u r n e dt h e b l o u s eb e c a u s et h e r e w a s a b i g m a r ko n t h e b a c k stain I took the blouseback to the shop because it on the back 9 The managerrefusedto giveme my moneyback, eventhouqhthe mirrorwascracked refund I couldn't for the crackedmirror 10 Mostwomenwear m?ke-upbecause theywant to look better e n h a n c e W o m e nu s u a l lw y e a rm a k e - u p appearance


Matchthe words/ohrases in columnA to thosein columnB.Then,usethe phrases to complete the sentences. A

8 A f t e r t h e e a r t h q u a k ew, e h a d a n e n g i n e elro o k t h e b u i l d i n gt o m a k es u r et h a t t h e r e w a sn o s e r i o udsa m a g e



u n d e ry o u rh a t h i ss h o e s duty h i ss h i r t n o rt h e r e the record

be off lose n e i t h e hr e r e off be In keepit


l f h e k e e p si n v e s t i n g a l l h i s m o n e yi n t h e s t o c k m a r k e th, e ' sg o i n gt o H e a g r e e dt o t h e i n t e r v i e w o n l y i f e v e r y t h i n hg e s a i dw a s l ' m a f r a i dP o l i c C e o n s t a b lH earrison rgnt now I t h i n kM a r c i ai sg o i n gt o b e p r o m o t e db, u t n o o n e et5eKnows,50 I w o u i d n ' tw a n t t o w h e n h i sf a t h e rf i n d so u t t h a t h e c r a s h etdh e c a r S h e h a s t o s n e n dm o r e [ i m e o n h e r h o m e w o r k Whethershewantsto or not, is


A : W h a tcanyou seein the picture? B: 1) A: B: A: B:




W h a ta r et h e yd o i n g ? 2) W h a td o y o ut h i n kt h e yh a v eb e e nd o i n g ?

3) A : W h a tc o u l dt h e yh a v eb o u g h t ? B : 4) A : How do they feel?Why? B : s) A : What arethey goingio do next?

Tickthe correctpreposition, thenmakesentences usingthe phrases, in as theexample.


a. Lookat the picture andcomplete the dialogue.



B : 6) A : How often d o y o ug o s h o p p i n gW ? h ow i t h ? B : 7)

dedicated object part prorecr t a k ep r i d e

b. Lookat the pictures andin pairsactout similar dialogues.


delighted prease0

l'mproudofmydaughter. She's thebestinherclass.

thephrasal verbs. 12 Complete 1 | havepromised to look myneighbour's c a tw h i l es h ei so n h o l i d a y 2 T h ep o l i c el e t h i m with a warning 3 They looked him becausehe wasn't interested in poetry 4 D o n ' tr e l yo n L a r r yh, e ' l lo n l yl e t y o u 5 Mary hireda privatedetectiveto look h e rhu s b a n d 'dsi s a p p e a r a n c e 6 S h el e t , a l o u ds c r e a m w h e nt h e m o u s e ran over her foot 7 Mary had to let . h e rs k i r tb e c a u sseh e ' d g a i n e dw e i g h t


Reading 14

a. Lookat thetitleof thearticle on p. 43.What do youexpectto readin it? b. Lookat thestarsignsandin pairssuggest an gift for each.Readthe articleto see appropriate if yourguesses werecorrect.


a. Readthe articleagain.Forquestions 1-14, choosefromthe starsignsA-F.Someof the starsignsmaybe chosenmorethanonce. Whenmorethanoneansweris required, these maybe givenin anyorder. People who werebornunderthisstarsign: get boredveryquickly wouldappreciate beinggivena book do notlikeoldthings don'treally mindwhatyougivethem enjoyplaying withnewmachines

fTIDI FI t2-fl FI FTI FTl reTl

want to be famous do not appreciate fakejewellery do not likereceiving giftsfor their nome enjoykeepingin touchwith others liketo be secretive areusuallyartistic would liketo be giventickets

FI Fl-l toT_l t - |


FT|l FIT-I ETI F3T_-l [4t_l

b. Wherecouldyou readsuchan article? Doyou agreewith the writer?

licteninn 16

At the Bank

Youwill heara radiointerview aboutcredit cards.Forquestions 1-8, complete the noteswhich summarise whatthe speakers say.Youwill needto writea wordor a shortphrasein eachbox.

phrases, thenin pairs, read 18 a. Fillinthemissing thedialogue aloud. oThat's fine.. That's right.o Certainly, sir . Thank you,sir A: l'd liketo depositthis chequeinto my savings

Peonleoften oet a lot of offers for credit cardsas soon as


theyaref It isa goodideato geta creditcardfrom

m m

Somepeopleapplyfor creditcardsbecause theyare D e l a y i ntgh e p a y m e not f c r e d i ct a r db i l l sm e a n st h a t y o u p a y mininterest C r e d i ct o m p a n i em s a k eF

B: 2) from

Now,if you couldjust fill out this depositslip A : O K D o l s i g nh e r e ? B: 3)

p e o p l ew h o c a n ' ta f f o r dt o p a yt h e i rb i l s C r e d i ct a r d sa r eu s e f uw l h e ny o u d o n ' th a v ea n y



item of every

b. Now usethe promptsbelow to act out a similar dialogue.

you buywith yourcreditcard : :: r.:,.'r

r.:r. !i'::a1.r:11.i!i,::ir


Communication: Applying fora credit card 17

a. Fillin the gapswith: passport,information,pay slip,opplicotion,licence. Then,in pairs,readthe dialogue aloud.

Customer: l'd liketo applyfor a creditcard,please BankClerkRight.l'll needsomedetailsbeforeI can process y o u r1 ) . . . C u s t o m e r : O h , l s eWeh a t d o y o u n e e d t, h e n ? BankClerk l'll needto seetwo differentformsof photo lD Customer: OK l've got my driving2) and mv 3) BankClerkfhat's fine l'lljust makea copyof them Customer: Do you needanyother4) . . .. .. . .? BankClerk:Yes I needyour most recent5) Customer: Oh, l've got that here BankClerk Great Well,yourcardshouldbe with us in about ten days.We'llcallyou as soonas it arrives you CustomerThank b. Now usethe promptsbelow to act out similar dialogues. .



a p p l yf o r a l o a n/ a f o r mo f l D a n da b a n k statement/ threemostrecentpayslips/ loan shouldbe grantedin abouttwo weeks applyfor a secondmortgage/ a form of lD and tax statement/ documentshowingproofof ownershipof house/ mortgageshouldbe approvedin aboutfifteendays

haro'c r roraint

A : O h ,t h a n k s B : 4 ) . . . . . ... .

a r p d i t r : r d c h o l n v n r I t n n a v f n . e x n p r ^ s i v et h i . r n s o v e r a

moftime Youshould always ffi


B : 1 ) Do you haveyourbankbookwith you? A : O h ,n o I d i d n ' tt h i n kI w o u l dn e e di t B: Well,do you havesomethingwith youraccount n u m b e ro n i t ? A: Erm Let me see Oh yes,l'vegot a bank statementhere

withdrawtwenty pounds/ forgottenbankbook/ formof photolD/ passport / fill out withdrawalslip

Writinga firstperson narrative n ' 4

/4f-trtlI *-;\\_\i"'#

\\ "' WhenwEwritea firstperson narrative, we beginwith an introductionto set the scenewith informationabout who/where/whenand why The main body has two or more paragraphs describing the eventsin chronological order The conclusiontellswhat happenedat the end of the story and includesfeelingsand comments We normally writethe storyusingthe pasttensesand a variety of adjectives and adverbs to makeit moreinteresting

' Analysing A ModelText 19

a. Readthestoryon p. 45 andunderline the correcttense.

' B e g i n n i n/gEsn d i n g s b. Readthe storyagainanddecidewhich techniques havebeenusedby the writerto starVfinish the story. o USI'rg the senses ... . . . usingdirectspeech . askinga rhetorical question . addressing the readerdirectly. . . .. . referringto one'sfeelingsor moods . d e s c r i b i npge o p l e 'rse a c t i o n s / f e e l i n.g.s. ...

Ar:f,*nrfo*rr***ir:q fxptrri*r?*e Have you ever been really embarrassed? Well, I have. It was last week. I was at an expensive restaurant and I l) finished/had just finisheda deliciousmealwith a neu clientW . h i l em y g u e s rw a si n t h e F o y e rm a k i n g a n i m p o r r a n t phone call, I decided to pay the bil.

Mr Lewiswas very relievedthat I had fornO f,ii:ii briefcaseHiscreditcardsand personal identification wereinside oecause 5 | gave it to my daughter.She said it was wnat she'dalwayswanted ano

. Discuss & Write 22

Readthe newspaper articlebelow,thenput the sentences that followin the correctorder. ;f,;


t .tâ&#x201A;Ź'-'

I 2) reached/wasreaching into


p#rl::Yli"n#H:fffilll,ljil itwasn,r,r,...

Llt my purse but it wasn'tin there either. I emptie-dmv ;rocketsonto the table,but I couldn't find mv cr'edircard ..nylyhere.I 4) didn't know/hadn'tknown whar tu do. checkingmy purseto see __lvhgnmy gxest returned,I rn'as .'I had enoughmoneyto pay rhebill in cash.Unfortunately, - didn't evenhaveenoughfoi the taxi home.So,I wentto the - )\,erto callmy boss.When he heardmy problem,he 5) had oeenlaughing/laughedand told me to wair for a driver to .flng me the companycreditcard. A littie while later a driver 6) arrived/wasarriving at rhe testaurantand gave me the card. "Thank you, sir. you've .aled the day!"I saidgratefullyasI went ro pay rhebili.



a mistake andgave #tt fiNffH rtlfril$nemade thewrong bag"shetolcl 0urepofer. Davidcrey,the fltyflnfifff rjfiL|lmanager of the jelvellery

LastSaturdayattemaon shop,was $o grateful MrsSmithbaught a ilO whensherelumedtheril silver bracelettot her fhat he gaveher a {5W

ilirce's birthday and gold bracelof.FIerniece, walked away witha{5,WA Jenny Potfer, saidit was pair galrl o{ andrlianand thebestpre$ent $hehad I,tl earilngs. gttl "The salcs evethad! il


. Adjectives 20

I Ll LJ I E I f

Fillin the missing adjectives fromthe listbelow. . delicious o urgent. embarrassing . best o expensive 1 My mosi . experience waswhenI forgotto wearmy shoesandwentto workwith myslrppers onI

2 | hadt:

'ti"ri:i:orthe rirm tomake an |"uu:

That was the most mealI have everhad.I wish I couldcookaswell asyou do My husband b o u g h tm e a n pair of earringsfor my birthday I t h i n k t h a t a o n e y e a rm e m b e r s h iapt t h a t n e w g y m i st h e presentfor Angela



fhe salesgirl madea mistake Themanagergavehera goldbraceletworth f 5OO MrsSmith'sniecehada wonderfulbirthdaypresent Vrr Smithleftthe storewith a f 5,000pairof earrings V r r S m i t hw e n t t o t h e j e w e l l e rsyh o p . HrtoSmithreturnedthe earrings Virr Smithboughta braceletworth f 1O

a. Read therubric andanswer thequestions inthe plan. Yourlocalnewspaper isholdinga shortstory competition you and have decidedto enter.yourstory * muststartwith thewords"Haveyoueverhada really wonderful surprise?"

1f 1i:! q*


. Linkers below using thewords inbold. 21 Jointhesentences My guestwas makinga phonecall I decidedto p a yt h e b i l l white H e h e a r dm y p r o b l e mH . e l a u g h e da n dt o l d m e t o wait for him wnen Luckily, the shopswere still open I took the bus into town and went backto the shop so

(Para l)

Who/Whatis the storyabout?Where/'Whn d i d i t t a k ep l a c e ?

MainBody (Paras2-3) What happened Jirst/nextetc?What wasthe climax?

Conclusion lPara4)

'Whathappmed in the end?How did you Jeel?What dreyour commentsor reactions?

b. Writeyourstoryin 120-180 words. Usethe storyin Ex.19asa model.


YouAreWhat youEat


a. Fillin the tablebelowto showhow thesefoods canbe cooked. Then,askandanswer, asin the example.

I "'t--Vocabulary ldentifythe a. Whatcanyouseein the picture? foodsandcomplete the table.

A: Howdoyoulikeyourchicken cookedT B: lpreferit grilled. A: Doyou?I don't.I preferroasted chicken. b . Whatdo you liketo put on yourfood?Askand answerasin the example. . salt. pepper o mustard r ketchup . oil . vinegar


A: I liketoputketchup onmychips. B: Metoo,butsometimes I Itkesaltandvineqar instead.



Replace the wordsin boldwith wordsfrombelow, asin the example. Somewordscanbe usedmore thanonce. . slice. jar . piece. cUp. 162fo packet o tube r bottle 1 2 3 4 5

Can I havesomebread?aslice/lsaf a{ Wouldyou likesomecake? . Do you haveany toothpaste? Can I get you somecoffee? Couldyouget somespaghettifromthe supermarket? I thoughtwe hadsomecokein the fridge

7 D o w e n e e da n yj a m ? 8 W o u l dy o u l i k es o m ec h e e s ien y o u rs a n d w i c h ?


Completethe sentencesusingthe words below. . a c c o m p a n i e.da l e r t . g u a r a n t e e. p e a k . f l e x i b l e . boost . absorb. unprocessed o vital e stockup

meat & poultry: dairyproducts: f i sh : shellfish: fruit: vegetables:cauliflower o t h e r :. . . . . . . . . ... . . .

b. Add threemorefoodsto eachcategory. c. Howoften do you eatthesefoods?


1 lt is t o e a t a b a l a n c e dd i e t a n d exerciseregularlyif you want to stay fit and healthy 2 Benlikesto eat somethingsweetto hisenergylevelsin the lateafternoon 3 A good review will that the restaurant will be a success 4 S h el i k e st o h a v ea c u p o f m i l k b ya pieceof cakewhen shecomeshomefromschoor 5 Make surethat you with enough you for food the trip betore set sail 6 lt's bestto exercise when yourenergylevelis at its

t 7 The body can quickly


A: Goodafternoon. MayI takeyourorder? please. B: Yes l'dlikethetortillachipsanddip,followed by

. carbohydrates containedin fruit a n dg r a i n sa r ee s s e n t i taol a h e a l t h yd i e t Some people drink coffee to help them sta,

thespaghetti, A: Andwhatwouldyou likefordessert? B: I thinkl'll try theicecreamsundae.

10 lf youwarmup beforeyouexercise, yourmuscles willbemore


(1-9)to the Starters, a. Matchthe pictures Main (A-l)in the menubelow. Courses andDesserts Thenactout dialogues, asin the example.

b. Whichof thesefoods are:sweet?salty?sour? bitter?spicy?creamy?juicy?


Circlethe correctresponse. 1 A : W e a r eg o i n gc a m p i n gi n t h e S o u t ho f F r a n c e W o u l dy o u l i k et o j o i n u s ? B : a T h a n k sf o r a s k i n gb, u t l ' m n o t v e r yk e e no n camprng b lt'sa greatway to get closerto nature 2 A. Hey, welcome back How was your trip to Singapore? B : a l t w a st e r r i b l yd i s a p p o i n t i n g b I wouldn'twastemy time 3 A : M y s i s t e ri s c o m i n go v e r f o r d i n n e rt o n i g h t W h y d o n ' ty o uj o i n u s ? a I s u p p o sseo b l ' d l o v et o , b u t l ' m a f r a i dI c a n ' t 4

A W h a t d i dy o ut h i n ko f t h e n e w B r a dP i t tf i l m ? B : a You'vegot to seeitl b l t ' sw e l lw o r t h a v i s i t l

5 A: We are all going out afterwork. Do you fancy coming? B : a N o ,I d o n ' tw a n t t o d o t h a t b Why not? 6 A : We're thinkingof getting a microwaveoven Do you think it'sworth it? B : a You musttry it lt'sso easy b lt'sgreatfor cookingmealsquickly. 7

you can 8 A: Why don't you comeoveron Sunday? h e l pm e c l e a no u t t h e a t t i c B : a T h a n k sb, u t l ' d r a t h e rn o t b l'd loveto, thank you verymuchfor inviting mel

Starters H

A Are you goingto Tony'sNewYear'sEvepartyT B : a I s u p p o sseo b Sorry,I can'tremember

rortiliachipsand dip

peasoup !+gi

I lClChef,ssaiad

MainCourse , I-Tp] Borosnese bread f-fEl i::l:,1 steakwith andsarirc

riceandsreen beans

:_1T:r i-rFr >reak with bakedpotato

and broccoli


Tickthe correctpreposition,then makesentences usingthe phrases,as in the example.

rely recover reply rich readv refrain

, on {


: from



Youcanrelyon mefor thehelpyou need.



1 He'sa professional chef, so preparingeverything f o r t h e d i n n e rp a r t yw i l l b e for him Don't t e l l i n gy o u rp a r e n t tsh a t y o u b r o k et h e w i n d o w ; t h e y a r e g o i n g t o f i n d o u t sooneror later keepgoingon I don't know why my grandparents I t h i n kl i f ei s a l o t e a s i e r a b o u t. . now than it was 60 yearsago 4 T h e p o l i c ea r r i v e da n d s o o n h a d t h e s i t u a t i o n

with two to five words, Completethe sentences i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d si n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e m e a n i n go f t h e o r i g i n a sl e n t e n c e . 'l

I fell asleephalfwaythrough the film becauseit w a ss o b o r i n g Thefilmwasso boringthat nodded halfwaythrough 2 | t h o u g h tT i n aw a sm a r r j e d lwas , under t h a t T i n aw a s m a r r i e d It is very importantto make sure that you are g e t t i n gt h e n e c e s s avr yi t a m i n a s n d m i n e r a lw s hen y o u a r eo n a 0 r e r M a k i n gs u r e y o u a r e g e t t i n gt h e vital n e c e s s a rvyi t a m i n sa n d m i n e r a l s on a diet , v ; i l r x e r c i s e l h e l py o u A h e a l t h yd i e t a n d r e g u l a e stayfit and loseweight accompanieA d h e a l t h yd i e t . w i l l h e l py o u s t a y f i t a n d l o s ew e i g h t Watch out f o r p i c k p o c k e twsh e n y o u u s e p u b l i c transport alert

5 T h ec h i l d r e n were a f t e rt h e i r l o n g sreep 6 H i s d o n a t i o ni s c o m p a r e dt o t h e amountthat is neededto feedthe poor 7 Whenthe lawyersawthat herclientwas not to be t r u s t e ds, h ed r o p p e dh i m l i k e 8 ..... . , n e m a n a g e ot o f i n i s h h i s n e w novel

>peaKlng 10

a. Lookat the picture andcomplete thedialogue.

Youshouldalwaysbe whenyou use

publictransport 6 T h e p h o n erangjust as I was about to leavethe house point lwas t h e h o u s ew h e nt h e p h o n er a n g 7 Y o u rn e i g h b o u rasr e s o n o i s y !| d o n ' t k n o w h o w you canlivehere put I d o n ' t k n o wh o w y o u c a n n o i s yn e i g h b o u r s , R

Tn ho : nnnd drricr vnrr shnrld rnn.pnl',r'e


w h a t y o u a r ed o i n ga n d b e a b l et o r e a c tq u i c k l yi f <nmaihinn

, y r- n, a, -v .n.aYa i-E- - - r 0 n a p p e n S


You needfast o)



-^^-^^+"-+;^^ tO be a

LUI lLEr rLro Lrur I

g o o dd r i v e r

A : W h e r ed o y o ut h i n kt h e p i c t u r ew a st a k e n ? B: 1) A : C a ny o u d e s c r i biet ? B"2). A : W h a td o y o ut h i n kt h e ya r ec e l e b r a t i n g ? B: 3) A : W h a ta r et h e ye a t i n g ? B: 4) yourbirthday? A: How do you celebrate R. 9 .

q\ J ,

A: Whatfooddoyouusually serve? B: 6)


in the two columns. Matchthe words/phrases Then,usethe phrases to complete the sentences. the good pur under o uruP

f u l lo f a hot ovqil



vv rq LU

of cake a l lo d d s beans control intheocean old days off

b. Lookat the pictures andin pairs,actout similar dialogues.

Reading Whatdoyouexpect to readin 1"1 a. Readthetitleof thearticle. the article? Whatillnesses isanovenrueight personlikelyto sufferfrom? b. Youaregoingto readanarticleabouta womannamed Kathy.Fiveparagraphs havebeenremoved fromthe article. Choose fromthe paragraphs A-G the onewhichbestfits eachgap1-5.Thereisoneparagraph whichyoudo not needto use.Thereisanexample (0)at the beginning. Kathyis on a specialdiet. ShewCighs45kgand her targetweight is 50kg.Very few peopletry to put on weight,but Kathy has a very good as anore&a. Kathy took thosewords to heart and begana diet which would last for the next twenty years of her life. She quickly lost a lot of weight and beganto look too thin. Her mother was very worried and took her to seethe doctor. "In those days,anorexiawasnot taken seriously,"says Kathy. "The doctor just told me to go home and eat plenty of big dinners!"

and soon her friends beganto ask her if shewas i11."I thought they werejealous of me for being so thin," she smilessadly,',butactually I looked awful." she was twenty-three, Kathy married an engineer Steven. They had two children, David, who is now twelve, and Christine,who is ten. "I ate normally while I was pregnant,"Kathy says,'but as soon as the babieswere born, I started starvingmyself

Iife. It was about a young woman who had died of cancer. "I suddenlyrealisedthat I had everythingI could ask for and I was throwing it all away. While other people were fighting for their

her that many teenagersseem to believe that it is attractive to be dangerouslythin. The fascination with celebrities and their weight is one issuethat she feels very strongly about. "I believe that there is a link between media images and eating disorders.It makes me angry that the media only showsthe positive side of thinness."




'-J i

g+ a: -:.--

Kathy and her family are relieved and happy that she has managed to overcome her problem and now her main ambition is to prevent others from going through the same nightmare. "I am very lucky," she says. "A lot of people never recover from anorexia. Now, if I can savejust one person from the horrors of eating disorders, it will make my experienceseem worthwhile. "

A When Kathyleft schoollaterthat year,she b e g a n a m o d e l l i n gc o u r s e U n f o r t u n a t e l y , this only made her problem worse "Modelling w a s p o s s i b ltyh e w o r s t c a r e e rI c o u l d h a v e c h o s e n , "s h e a d m i t s " I w a s s u r r o u n d ebdy g i r l sw h o w e r ee v e nt h i n n e r t h a n m e ,a n d i t m a d em e f e e lt e r r i b l e" Kathywasstilllivingat homewith herfamily, so she found it difficultto go without food lnstead, shewouldeat andthen makeherself "l realised sickstraightafteru,rards that it was wrong," she says I didn't know what anorexia or bulimia were,but I knewthat I had a problemThetroublewasI couldn'tstop" She feelsthat magazinesnot only fail to inform their readersabout how celebrities s t a ys o f a s h i o n a b sl yl i mb u t a l s oa b o u tt h e risksof excessive dieting " I want childrento u n d e r s t a n dt h a t t h e i r h e a l t h i s m o r e important than trying to conform to a c e r t a i ni m a g e , "s a i dK a t h y " A l l I e v e ra t e w a ss a l a da n d a p p l e s ,K " athy admits "l drankwaterand blackcoffeeand I usedto run up and down the stairstryingto burnoff the few calories I gained" But even t h o u g hh e r b o n e ss h o w e dt h r o u g hh e rs k i n and she was dangerouslyunderweight, Kathystillbelieved that shewasfat Kathy'sproblemsbeganwhen shewassixteen yearsold Shehad alwaysbeenconscious of her figure,but had neverthoughtof dieting until one summer's day at schoolAs shesat on a lowwallin the playground enjoying an ice creamfrom the schoolcanteen,a teacher jokinglytold herthat shewouldget fat if she atetoo manysweets Thanksto the good adviceher doctorgave her, Kathy was able to recoverfrom her illnessShebeganeatinghealthymealsand stoppedweighingherselfSoonshe had put on ten kilosandwas beginning to looklikea h e a l t h hy u m a nb e i n ga g a i n . At that verymoment,Kathymadeup hermind to get overher illnessShegaveup exercising, stoppedmakingherselfsickandstartedwriting a bookabouther experiences. Shealsogavea talk on eatingdisorders at herchildren's school It wassucha success that shewasinvitedto visit otherschools aroundthe country c. Readthe articleagain.What role did advertisingand careerplay in Kathy's obsessionwith her weight? What advice would you give to those sufferingfrom anorexia?


b . Now usethe promptsto act out a similar




with a scientist Youwill heara radiointerview food. engineered who istalkingaboutgenetically (true) questions f or as For 1-6, markthe sentences F(false).

a o a

Booking a cater ing company

1 D r S t e v e ntsh i n k st h a t g e n e t i c a l l y enoineered foodshaveseveral advantages 2 I n t h e U 5 ,5 0 %o f a l lc o r nc r o p sa r e nonotir:llv



Corncan be alteredto producea poison w h i c hk i l l sc a t e r p i l l a r s 4 K i l l i n gc a t e r p i l l acr o s u l dp u t o t h e ra n i m a l s in danger 5 T h eo n l ya d v a n t a goef g e n e t i ce n g i n e e r i n g i st h a t i t m a k e sf a r m e r rsi c h e r 6 G e n e t ie c n g i n e e r i ncgo u l ds t o pp e o o l e g o f r o m i n gh u n g r y 3

menlL a. Fillin the gapswith: snacks,services, bookings.Then in pairs,readthe dialogue aloud.

Caterer: Hello,Cathy'sCaterersHow canI helpyou? W o m a nO: h , h e l l o l ' d l i k et o b o o ky o u r 1 ) party my daughter's Caterer:When will you be holdingthe party?


W o m a n : O2n5 t hJ u n e fine We don't haveanyother2) Caterer:fhat's f o r t h a t d a y N o w ,h o w m a n yg u e s t sw i l l b e a t t e n d i n g ? Woman:Around 50, I think Most of them will be quite y o u n g W e ' v eh i r e da m a g i c i atno k e e pt h e c h i l d r e a nm u s e d Caterer:Sounds liketheywon't want to sit down to eat Woman:It'sa smallparty;3) on traysis what I h a di n m i n d Caterer: OK, l'm sure we can come up with something t o d a ya n d t h e n y o u s p e c i a lI ' l l s e n dy o u a 4 ) pop in nextweekto discuss the details can great Thanks Woman:Ihal's

C o m mn ui c a t i o S n :h o p p i n g 13

m i n c e/ h a l fa k i l o/ f 2 1 0 a k i l o lambchops/ a kilo/ f3 50 a kilo steak/ two kilos/ f4 70 a kilo

Thenin pairs,readthe a. Matchthe exchanges. dialogue aloud.

0 . Now usethe promptsto act out a similar

dialogue. g o l d e na n n i v e r s apr a y r t y/ 3 O t hM a y/ a r o u n d1 0 0 g u e s t /s a l la g e s/ h i r e da b a n d/ l o t so f d a n c i n g / <t:nd-rrn hrrffpt mp:l



Goodafternoon What canI get you?



I2 |




I W O K i l O SH e r e y O U

are AnythingelseT Yes,thesewere broughtin fresh j u s tt h i sm o r n i n g

of course tstharall? That'llbe{3 40 then, please

Yes,haveyou got anygreenpeppers? O h ,a n da k i l oo f ontonS l ' d l i k et w o k i l o so f ^^+-+^^PULdLUE),


^l^--^ PIEOJC

d Y e s ,I t h i n ks o e Hereyouare Thank youverymuch Oh,lovelyCouldI heva

fnr rr nle:<o?

t 1:



we usea formalstyle Whenwe writea letterof complaint, We begin the letterwith Dear Sir/Madam In the first paragraph,we stateour reasonfor writing In the second, we stateour complaints and third and fourth paragraphs, givejustifications. for eachpoint We starta new paragraph we we want to complainabout In the last paragraph, the actionwhichwe thinkshouldbe taken We end suggest the letterwith Yoursfaithfullv.andour full name

' An a l V s ran lqVo d e l T e xt ^


the correctlinking 1 5 a. Readthe letterandunderline words.Then,statethetopicof eachparagraph.


.:.. : :..'

1 I feelI mustcomplainabout 2 | suggestthat you improveyourstandards 3 A l l i n a l l , t h e w h o l e e x p e r i e n cwe a s s o m e w n a t unsatisfactory 4 l'm afraidto saythat the service was not as good as might be expected 5 lf thingsdo not improvein the future,l,m afraidI maybe forcedto take my business elsewhere

I i:.:::.?..

) e a r5 i r / M a d a m , in I received service the about complain I am writingto

uo,"uot'*uirt"1lttt"J;;rrwasunabre to findthepeti

1) Firstly/Furthermot'' tv ' one of your -'ight5tdrr food section,so I asked he simply:plut"' io tf'u lnsteadof showrngn't awaY shruggedandwalked at the I standingin a queue 2) Then/However'after the end only ' minutes't ieached checkoutfor overlfteJn and I l that her shift was over to be told by the cashier queue would haveto lotn another

. Analysing theRubr ic 17

A s i f t h a t w a s n o t O t O " * ' n n ' w h e n l f i n a l l y mme a n a'g e d ' the cashierovercharged to pay for my groceries' mistake'she *fttn I pointedout her 3) However/D"'plt"' but was rudeand unfriendly no, apologise , O1O upset by the I was extremely, As you tun '*untt' be shopptngtn and I will certainlynot : treatmentI recetved wili improveyour again I hopethat you : yoursupermarket your staffwill be more ': staff trainingmethods'and that from now on to customers t O"fit. anOtretptut -,Youtt faithfullY' -.MavisEdwards +a t .



Complaints FT-] Satadwas not fresh Vegetables had not been wa5ne0 l2Tl npple piewasstateand dry FTI Steakwastough and chewy

. Discuss & Write

a . S t u d yt h e c o m p l a i n t b s e l o wa n d m a t c ht h e m i l d complaintsto the strongoneswith the same meantng.

18 F-fl t am writingin connection with l2Tl I believeI maybe entited to a ETI rne treatmentwe received was a little disappointing IZT--It nopethat you will try ro ETI tn additionto this, ETI t am afraidthat I probabty wiil not

b. Readthe table and matchthe complaintsto the justifications.

A WhenI complained, the waiterbroughtme another steakwhichwasas badasthe firstone B Waiterclaimedthat it had beenfreshlymadethat mornrng C Foundpiecesof dirt on the lettuceleaves

. Style


Youhada mealin a restaurant. you did not Howeveq enjoyyourmealdueto a numberof problems. Writea : letterof complaint to the manager of the restaurant.


':-, '

b. Readthe letteragainandreplace the highlighted phrases with alternative ones.


a . R e a dt h e r u b r i cb e l o wa n d u n d e r l i n et h e k e y wor0s.

Usethe information in Ex.17, aswellasthe plan below,to writeyourletterof complaint (120-1g0 words).Youcanusethe letterin Ex.15aasa model.

*l r

)): 't

Dear Sir/Madam


S t r o n gc o m p l a i n t s

( P a r al )

a I was extremely upsetby the service we received b To makemattersworse, c I am writingto express my strongdissaiisfaction with d I c a na s s u r yeo ut h a t I w i l l n o t e I d e m a n da f I stronglyrecommend that you


W h y a r ey o u w r i t i n g t h e l e t t e r ?

(Paras2.-4) WhaLareyour contplaintsand justiJicotions?

Conclusion (Para5)

'What actiondo yotr suggestshouldbt tahen?

Yoursfaith [ully Y o u rJ u l l n a m e


EveryMan to hisTaste

S h eh a sn e v e b r e e na t s u c ha h i g h b e f o r eI; t h i n ks h e ' sg o i n gt o f a i n t I feel a senseof wheneverI do s o m e t h i nw g ell 8 His o f t h e p r o b l e mi s q u i t e differentto mine He h i m s e laf t t h e t o p o f t h e s k i p u s h i n g s l o p eb e f o r e h i m s e lof f f 1 0 Extremekayakingis a sport

Vocabulary a. Lookat the pictures andlabelthe sports/ activities, asin the example.


Labelthe pictures, thenusethe promptsto make up sentences asin the example. r how r Arro\^/ . racoreto shuttlecock . clubs. ball . skateboard . bat . bal,

) Cqtieqry'


g S

Youneeda bowand arrowtodoarchery.

4 b. Howdo youfeelaboutthe activities above? I Usethe expressions: I omkeenon,I don'tfoncy, hoteetc,asin the example. Youcanaddyour own ideas.

1 A : E x c u sm e e ,w a i t e r C o u l dy o u b r i n gu s t h e b i l l , please? B : a C e r t a i n l sy i,r b Let me see

I don'tfancycollecting stamps.

2 A: Wouldit be OK if Sharonstayedfor dinner? B : a T h a tw o u l db e r i g h t b Of course

Complete the sentences usingthe wordsin the list. . lunacy. nerve-racking . instincto elation . altitude. interpretation . steadied . torrents . paddles . high-risk 1 He always his canoecarefully alongthedangerous rrver 2 Somepeoplethinkthat doingextreme sportsis sheer 3 Hissurvival keepshimsafeeven in themostdangerous situations 4 , . . . . of watergushed intothe river 5 lt wasthe most l've experience everhadl


Circle thecorrect response.

3 A : W o u l dy o u m i n di f I c a m ei n l a t et o m o r r o w ?| haveto go to the bank B : a l ' d r a t h e yr o uw e n t b Actually,I needyou to comein early 4

A : W o u l dy o u m i n di f I o p e n e dt h e w i n d o w ? B : a l ' d r a t h e yr o u d i d n ' t b Actually,I did

5 A: Would it be OK if I borrowedyour new CD player? B : a S o r r yl ,' l lb e u s i n gi t b l ' m a f r a i dl ' m n o t


a. ldentifythe sportsin the pictures. Thenmatch themto the speech bubbles.


MatchcolumnA to columnB,thenusethe completed phrases to complete the sentences. A run come second close hit

B r a i no r s h i n e t h e w i n do u t o f o n e ' ss a i l s shave off one'sfeet theroad to none

+-l-^ TqNE

We'd better soon if we want to get thereon time Therewere so many customersin the shop that the salesassistants were 3 W h e nJ a n el o s th e rj o b , i t r e a l l y. . 4 frustrating,when b u s ho r a p o n d relaxingway to

Yourmum makesthe bestdesserts. her lemontart IS

I had a really on the way over here;a car nearlyran me overas I was crossing the road



When thingsget difficultyou haveto focuson the s u m m i ta n d p i c t u r ey o u r s e lsf t a n d i n gt h e r e T h e n a n y t h i n gi s p o s s i b l e


It'sall aboutteamwork There's no pointin having the bestgoal-scorer in the leagueif the defence isn'tplaying well lf we'regoingto win a big match, theneveryplayerneedsto do theirbit .


I ' m t a l l a n d l ' m a g o o dj u m p e ra n d s h o o t e rb u t that isn't enoughfor me I don't want to be a good player,I want to be the best, the next

o ambitious o determined . co-operative . patient Youneedto beco-operative toplayfootball. Tickthe correctpreposition, thenmakesentences usingthe phrases, asin the example.



I with ; i


I find that I get more tired looking after the childrenthan I do workingin an office exhaustingI find lookingafter the childrena lot

Youmustn'tgiveup, thingswill get bettersoon towel Don't thingswill get bettersoon

b. Usethe adjectives belowto makeup sentences, asin theexample.


Complete the sentences with two to fivewords. including thewordsin bold.Donot change the meaning of theoriginal sentence.

in an office

M i c h a eJl o r d a nn, o t h i n ge l s ew i l l d o


EverySundaywe go to the beach,

-...'.-':."-..--.-. in i at i




l r 1

: ,,.

t ':







. -._": !- : - - " ' ,,

"".' "*"-"":'"" :-: .' -." ". '. . : t " " " " " 1 " 'i



L i n d ad i d n ' tt a k el o n gt o g e t u s e dt o h e rn e wj o b . ropes l t d i d n ' tt a k eL i n d al o n g a t h e rn e wj o b . Visitingthe EiffelTowerwasthe mostexcitingpart of my trip to Paris highlight The to Pariswas visitingthe EiffelTower Most of my relativeswere in the entertainment b u s i n e ssso, a c t i n gc a m en a t u r a l ltyo m e blood Actingwas

necause mostof myrelatives wereinthe entertainmentbusiness 6 Joealwayscheersme up wheneverI get depressed got as d ) ihe's lc 5 g u L ssuch o5rLtve d ULr d a ppositive attitude LULuue.

o p t i m i s tJi o ceisso uPtlllllsLlc JOel55o

managesto cheerme up wheneverI ,:


Hewassentenced totwomonths in prison.


Speaking !

. soundtrack. classico stars . performances . novel . screen. office . character


a. Lookat the picture andcomplete the dialogue.

Next weekend, the Rex is giving you another opportunlty to catch HighFidelity.This witty film is based on the best-selling.l) by Nick H o r n b ya n d2 ) J o h nC u s a c k Cusack's 3) , Rob,is a recordshopowner who spendsmost of his time discussing lists of his favouriterecords lt is impossiblenot to enjoy this touching film. Excellent4) from the whole cast and, as would be expected,a fantastic 5) make High Fidelity a mooern 6)


lf you missedit first time around,or you just want ro e n j o yi t o n t h e b i g 7 ) a g a i n ,t h e n y o u can book tickets in advance by calling our box 8) on 0168 350 467 There will be s h o w i n g sa t 8 3 O p ma n d 11 O O p mo n b o t h S a t u r d a y a n dS u n d a y




l - l a ' < n l n i n n : -h-r,r,n, n. -o o i ,UffiP

A: B: A: B:

2) l f I w e r eh i m ,l ' d f e e l3 ) Haveyou 4) N o ,n e v e r


\ A / h , a st n o r l s d o v o r r l i k e ?

A 5 ) -"'-'-'


------\,_.__* ,...-.



b. Lookat the pictures andin pairsactout similar dialogues.

Fillin the missing verbsto complete the sentences. 1 We all went to the airport so that we could Joeoff p o l i c e 2 The c a u g h t h e b a n kr o b b e r s away from the sceneof the crime 3 John . u p h i so w n b u s i n e swsh e n h e was 30 Many birdsfly south beforewinter . . In Thpv'vp dcridad




moneyso that they can buya new car We . . . ., i n t o G o r d o na t t h e s h o p p i n g matl


Fillin the correctword,thenmakesentences using the ohrases. . sporting . smash_hit . natjonal r phone. present . ma0tc 1 2 t o prize 3 .....

message a

4 5 6

t un e s trick event


12 Fillin:win,goinoreorn. 1 .. aprize;2 a n e l e c t i o n4; 6 . c o n t r o l ;7 living


e x p e r i e n c3e ; w e i g h t ;5 awar, p r a i s e8; . . . . a

Reading 14

a. Lookat the title of the articleandthe picture. WhatdoesTonydo?Whatkindof treasure do youthinkhe seeks? Readthe articleandcheck yourguesses. b. Readthe articleagain.Seven sentences have beenremoved fromthe article.Choose from the sentences A-H the onewhichbestfitseach gap1-6.Thereisonesentence whichyoudo (0)at the not needto use.Thereisan example beginning.

T#ru&' T$â&#x201A;Źg Kffig&$ffiffitr ffitrffiKtrffi

up, but I felt sure it must be valuable."


Tony McKenzie has a rather unusual hobby. Every Saturday and Sunday, he gets up at six o'clock in the morning, packs some sandwichesand a flask of tea into a backpackand headsout to the fields behind his housewith his favourite toy - a metal detector. "We bought him the metal detector for his fortieth birthday," sayshis wife Carol. "He had alwayswanted one, but we never realisedhe would use it as much ashe does!"

Many of us find it difficult to understand how wandering around in a muddy field for hours on end can possiblybe enjoyable,but Tony saysthat there is nothing he would rather do. He doesn't like football or fishing, but when he is out and about with his metal detector,he feels asthough nothing elsematters. T:T-

II I | "He usually finds silly little things, like tin cans and pieces of machinery," Iaughs Carol. "Whatever he finds, he brings home, cleans,and keeps in a special box which he has in the garage.The children think he is crazy." However, Tony's family may now have to admit that his pastime is not quite so silly after all. After years of uncovering worthless items, Tony has finally achieved everytreasureseeker'sdream and found somethingrather special buried in the ground. His great discoverywas a little figure of a horse which may be worth thousandsof pounds. "I'll never forget the day I found my first piece of real treasure,"smilesTony. "I was in a field I'd never been to before. t-tl Then, just as I was about to give up and go home, I picked up a signal." Tony immediately felt very excited and began digging in the damp earth. Suddenly, he saw a tiny metal shape, covered in mud. "When I scrapedoff the dirt, I could see that it was a tiny horse," says Tony. "It was beautifully made and looked very old. I didn't want to get my hopes

A I e n d e du p w i t h a b o u tf 3 0 , 0 0 0w , h i c hi ss t i l la b i g w i n d f a lflo r m e Even Tony's wildest dreams could not have p r e p a r ehdi m f o r t h e t r u t h ,t h o u g h So,what kind of 'treasure'doesTonyfind on his e x p e d i t i o nt os t h e l o c a cl o u n t r y s i d e ? He spendseveryweekendsearchingfor buried treasure, whateverthe weather Tony'schildrenusedto wish that their dad would g i v eu p h i ss t r a n g eh o b b y l ' d b e e ns e a r c h i nagl l d a y ,b u t t h e o n l yt h i n g sl ' o managedto dig up werea few bitsof rubbish

IJ I | "When I took it to the museum to have it valued, I got a huge surprise," he laughs. 'I would have been overjoyed if the figure had been worth a hundred pounds or so.I never imagined for a minute that it would be valued at over f60,000. That's hke a lottery win! It's unbelievable!"

Nothing as old or aswell-preservedhasbeen Fl-l found in Britain before, becausemost statuesfrom around that time were destroyedback in the 16th century. Tony took the statue to the British Museum in London, where historianswere amazedto seesuch a rare artefact in such good condition. The British Museum decided to purchasethe statuefrom Tony and displayit to the public. What does Tony plan to do with his new-found wealth? "Well, actually, I'm not as rich as you might think," he chuckles."When a piece of treasure is dug up on someone else'sland, half of the value goesto the person who found it, and the other half goesto the landowner. ll-J--l I'planning to buy Carol a new car and take tne?hdon a wonderful holiday." Will Tonybe taking the metal detector awaywith him? "No way!" saysCarol. "We won't be teasinghim as much about his hobby anymore,but I will insist that we have a holiday from it for a while and spend some time together as a family. Mind you, I think the children will be more keen to keep Tony company on his weekend treasure hunts now that they've seen that they can be fruitfull" Tony doesn't think that he will ever find anything as amazing as the little horse again, but this hasn't stopped him from enjoying Saturdays and Sundayswith his metal detector. "It's not about money for me," he says." 6l-l i | I'll never give up my hobby ,;i, because it gives me hours of pleasure. You can't put a price on that!"


I j u s t l o v e f i n d i n gt h i n g s ,n o m a t t e rw h a t t h e i r v a l u em i g h tb e The expertswho valuedTony'sfind, told him that it was a very precious12th centurystatuewhich had greathistorical importance

Answerthe questions. 'l 2

How doesTonyfeelabout hishobby?Why? W h a t d o y o u t h i n k a b o u t h i s h o b b y ?H o w m u c h doesit matchyour personality? N a m es o m eo t h e ru n u s u ahl o b b i e s .


Listening 15

Youwillhearfivepeople talkingaboutextreme sports. Forspeakers 1-5,choose fromthelistA-F whichstatement applies to whichspeaker. There is oneextraletterwhichvoudonotneedto use. Which speaker: A prefersnot to be part of a team? B h a sb e e ni n l u r e d ? C n o l o n g e rp a r t i c i p a t e s ? D h a sb e e nf i l m e dd o i n ga n extremesport? E l i k e st o e n t e rc o m n e t i t i o n s ? F onlyasksclosefriendsto be on t h e i rt e a m ?

S p e a k e rFTI S p e a k e rt t | | Speaker t?a_-] t - t l Speaker Speaker Fl_-] ffi


Communication: AttheDocto/s 16

a. MatchcolumnA to columnB,thenin pairsact out thedialogue. A


Now,then What seemsto be the problem?

t-;T--l tzt I

Hmm let'shave a lookat you Yes, I thinkyou'reright W e c a n ' tb e s u r e untilwe get it Xr a y e dl ' l la s kt h e nurseto takeyou down to the X-ray room now W e l l ,t h e ny o u ' l l comebackhere a n d l ' l lp u t y o u r arm in plasterfor you




a I si t a b a db r e a k ? b O K T h a n ky o u doctor My arm hurtsterribly I t h i n kl ' v eb r o k e ni t O h ,a l r i g h tA n d w h a t will happenafter that?

Man: Nello We'reinterested in joiningthe golf club Can you tell us what we haveto do, please? Receptionist: Well,you paya joiningfee and then thereis a n a d d i t i o n aaln n u acl h a r g e Man:1) Receptionist: plus Dailyaccess to the club,yourown locker, t h e u s eo f t h e o t h e rf a c i l i t i essu c ha ss p a .s a u n aa n dc a f e Man:2\ Receptionist: lt'sall in this brochureWhy don't you have a l o o ka n dt h i n ka b o u ti t ? Man:Thankyou,that'sa good idea 3) Neitherof us haveeverplayedgolf before Receptionist: We do have tutors, but there is an extra charcrefor lessonsYou can read about that in the brochure, too Man:Grea|Thankyou for your help

b . U s et h e p r o m p t st o a c t o u t a s i m i l a rd i a l o g u e . l o i ng y m/ p a yj o i n i n gf e e/ a d d i t i o n aml o n t h l yf e e/ a c c e s s t o a l lt h e e q u i p m e n it n, c l u d i npgo o la n d) a c u z z/ i t r a i n e r s/ ? e x t r ac h a r g ef o r t r a i n i n gs e s s i o n s \vAv t/ trLi tt ti nt Yn

b. Now usethe promptsto act out similar dialogues. . r

a n k l e/ s p r a i n eidt wrist/ fracturedit

J o i n i nagC l u b 17

a. Fillin the missing sentences, thenin pairs, read the dialogue aloud. . . .


Bytheway,do youhavea professional available for lessons? Andhowmuchdoesmembership cost? Andwhatdoesthatinclude?

q#aâ&#x201A;Ź Whenwe write a news report,we alwaysgiveit a short, e y e - c a t c h i n gh e a d l i n e I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n ,w h i c h s u m m a r i s et sh e e v e n t ,w e g i v e i n f o r m a t i o na b o u t t h e t i m e , p l a c ea n d p e o p l ei n v o l v e d I n t h e m a i n b o d y , consistingof two or more paragraphs, we describethe e v e n t i n m o r e d e t a i l ,i n c l u d i n gi n f o r m a t i o na b o u t t h e i n c i d e n tasn dp e o p l ei n v o l v e dI n t h e c o n c l u s i o nw,e w r i t e people'scommentson the event and/oraction(s)to be taken The languagewe usein newsreportsis descriptive r n r i t h f r o n r r o n i r r < o n f t,h,,o- p a s s r vveo r c e

. A n a l y s i nag l V o d e l T e x t thenewsreportbelowandputthe 18 Read paragraphs inthecorrect order.

. Headlines 21

Read theextracts fromthenewsreports andmatch themto theheadlines. There isoneextraheadline whichyoudo notneedto use.


1 FactoryGoesUp In Flames A I lTony Morris. 34. was driving a blue Ford Escort 2 M i s s i n Jge w e l F rvhen he turned the corner and crashed into a mini6iiii :,,, :. s ound travellingintheoppositedirection.Apasser-bywho 3 LocalShopkeeper WinsLottery witnessed the accident said that the minibus had been 4 CleverBurglars Arrestedat Last ,",":',":,, at almost twice the legal speedlimit. gglg ] B I lA policeman at the scene commented that the ,:, A|] Clive Warner, 57, was celebratinglast nrght after street lighting in the area was not up to standard and that lt. winningover f6O,OOO I in the NatiJnalLott.ry dru* the council should expect more accidentsin future if they i1.'j yr Warner,who runs Warner,sHardwarein did not make improvements. Field -=-i----. Road,Barton,was stunned when his numberscame (rl man was seriously injured in a collision at the | lA lll . u p o n t n e s c r e e n. . . '"' '''t" corner of Main Street and Green Road in Riverton late !:. t' "" ',';,,rr,..,, .- . , ,,.:r,t,,,,':""':""',:::...yesterdayevening. lil --=-t-----ght at a factorYin DraYford' l) | lMr Morris was on his way to meet friends in a td Poundsworth of damage il1, restaurant when the accident happened. He is said to be $i.;l.l to have started when an making a quick recoveryat Riverton County Hospital. The t*:, set light to a Pileof achinerY driver of the minibus escapedunharmed, but has been p, ' \ . r u b b i s h. . ,, chargedwith dangerousdriving. $;, :.,,;::.,Sll:. .i'.,",'"':.\:".r..,,,,,....,,.,:..:.-..,_.,,,,..-. e e l o n g i n gt o L a d y l C| | A d i a m o n dn e c k l a c b WrexhamManorwas recovered 1 yesterday Now read the news report again and choose the y o u n q two c h i l d r e nJ. a m i e H a r p e r , 6 , 19 I , most suitableheadline. Newton,7, were playingin a field near ,l :t ''\ the f 5,000pieceof 'tr.. ".whenthey uncovered " ttn.-2.,-.,,.,,:*aq,_ A Dangerous DriverInjured B Accidentat Mainand Green

. Discuss & Write

C PoorStreetLighting


. Direct/Reported Speech thereported speech inthenews 20 a. Underline report in Ex.18,then rewritethe sentences as directspeech.

a. Readthe rubricandanswer the questions in the plan. at yourlocalnewspaper. Youhave ff Youarea reporter been asked to write a news report for the missing ff inEx21. ? headline . .'..:...: i'


b. Changethe directspeechbelow into reported speech. 1 2 3 4

5 6

"Theboysare luckyto be alive Theybehavedvery " saidthe policeman bravely, Thefirecouldhavebeenprevented. People should be muchmorecareful,"saidthe firefighter " l a m v e r yg r a t e f utlo t h e p o l i c ef o r a l l t h e i rh e l p T h e yh a v eb e e nw o n d e r f u"l ,s a i dM r sW i l l i s " l w o u l d l l k e t o g i v e t h e c h i l d r e na r e w a r d I t h o u g h tI w o u l dn e v e sr e em y c a ta g a i n", s a i dM i s s Carter "Thatnecklaceis worth a fortune I am so glad it w a sf o u n di n o n e p i e c e", s a i dL a d yH a m i l t o n "Thesemen belongbehindbars Theyhavecaused a n u n b e l i e v a b laem o u n t o f d a m a g e , "s a i d t h e policeman




Introduction (Paral)

Whathappened? Whenand wheredid it happen?



(Paras2-3) 'WhatotherinJormationshouldyou tell the readeraboutthe incident/people involted?

Conclusion (Para4)

What commentsweremadeaboutthe incident?'What Jutureactionwill be taken?

b. Writea newsreportfor the missing headline in 120-180 wordsusingthe planandthe text in Ex.18asa model.

57 I

Spread the News


a. Thepeoplebelowarereadingthe newspaper. Whatsectionaretheyreading: entertainment? business? sports? localnews?horoscopes? international news?

f -


Vocabulary a. Complete the headlines with the correctword

20 peoPle feared rnissing or dead after massive in LA.


f h e W o r l dH e a l t h -,a,-;:. '':: will holda .t,i"Organisation ::1, meetingto discuss the . . .a t t a a. i < n f i n h r . . ^

''. I ne recent Increase i n o i l p r i c e sh a sh a d negaliveeffecton the stockmarket

t o B r e n t w o osdh o p p i n g centre. ; *"

"'-t',.,.:,::,::.:.:,;::,:.ri:;:;Ll4tl'',.t,, Gemini:Nota

#urff'cgffg causâ&#x201A;Źs severe


good day to makea ''.$,,,,', ,,.,1' :.',...... .. financialinvestmentYouwill ::,.

damage to coaslal areas


in Hawaii.

hearfrom an old friend,but .,: United ::r :.'a.,. :' Manchester do not mistakefriendship,.,t:,r' ,,..won the FACup. 'ri '"'l:a,,;. . for romance. La: "' t:t:.ll:: :.:: :..:,: :,:,.,.:l :,:: :; ::a

b. Namethreemorenewspaper sections.



Localresidentsforced to abandontheir homesas erupts on Montserrat.

. ending. scriptr plot r enjoyable . cast 1 The written versionof the film was excellent 2 T h ef i l m h a da p o o rf i n i s h 3 The people who acted in the film gave great performances



b. In pairs, usethe headlines to askandanswer, as in theexample. A: Didyouhearaboutthehurricane inHawaii? B: No,whathappened? A: Thepapersaysit causedsevere damageto coastal areas.


Crossout the oddword

Replace the wordsin boldwith the wordsbelow.

Thestorywas rathercomplicated and hardto follow

5 T h e f i l m w a s c e r t a i n l ys o m e t h i n gw e a l l l i k e d


Tickthe correctpreposition,then makesentences u s i n gt h e p h r a s e sa,s i n t h e e x a m p l e .

. 9 b 9 ' , ! .t o I r VOte


1 flood: bank- fire- river- rain - water2 volcano:eruption- evacuation mountain - winds- pile-up - motorway 3 caraccident: collide 4 arson:flamesfire waves smoke

-L O- ^P -OrU.TtE^ not r r<erl

r valid




Willyouvoteformein themeeting?





Fillin the correctword

3 A : D i dy o u h e a rt h a t F r a n ki s m o v i n gt o C a n a d a ? B: a Are you sure? b That'sfine 4 A: Guesswhat! lt'sa holidaytomorrow so we don't haveschool B: a That'sfine b No, really?

. vouch. after . download. ears. bring. 6u1 . vote . showed. compromise . valid 1 | don't know who to for in the next electton 2 H e rc h i l d r e n o u t t h e b e s ti n h e r 3 He takes his father Theyare both t a l e n t e dm u s i c i a n s 4 Management was forcedto take a . r np a y 5 We waited for over an hour but Janet never . ...up 6 This ticket is . . . .. . . for six matinee performances 7 | need to these files onto my laptop 8 The peacetalkswent on for three daysbeforea couldbe reached 9 | have known Bill for many years, so I can for hishonesty 1 0 W h e nl t o l d h i m a b o u tm y i d e at o s t a r ta b u s i n e s s , h e w a sa l l

5 A : D o n ' tt e l la n y o n eI t o l dy o u ,b u t J i mi s g o i n gt o askLizto marryhim B : a l w o n ' t t e lal s o u l . b No problem 6 A : l ' m s o r r yl ' m s o l a t e B : a T e lm l e b No problem 7 A : W e ' l lm e e to u t s i d et h e c i n e m a B: a Okay.Seeyou there b That'sfine Where? 8 A : l ' m c a l l i n ga b o u tt h e p a r t yo n S a t u r d a y B: a GreatW ! h e r es h a lw l e go? b l'm sorryI can'tmakeit



Underlinethe correctword.

A special latest get there'smoreto it on

1 He was offered a job at the local fast food restaurant, but he turnedhisnoseup/down at it 2 She had only beenworkingat the hotel for two days,so shewasstillwet behindthe eyes/ears 3 Sheinsisted on buyinga designer weddingdress,so herfatherhadto paythrough/inthe nosefor it 4 Shewas walkingpast the jeweller's shopwhen a s t u n n l n gd i a m o n db r a c e l ect a u g h t / g l i m p s ehde r My passportis only valid/correctfor ten years, then I haveto get it renewed 6 | would likea job whichinvolves travelbut, on the other hand/side,I wouldn'twant to be awayfrom m yc h i l d r e n 7 That was especially/undoubtedly the best film we'veeverseen 8 Just becausehe graduatedfrom university,he thinkshe can look/seedown his noseat the rest of us

Circlethe correctresponse. 1 A: l'vegot the mostamazingnews l'vejust been accentedinto medicalschool! B: a Are you sure? b Really? That'swonderfull 2 A: You'llneverbelieve who cameroundyesterday! B: a Telm l e b I won't tell a soul

B usedto than meetsthe eye the market new5 effects

1 T h en e w c o m p u t egr a m ew i l l b e . . . . . . I nJ u n e 2 The in StarWars wereamazing 3 l ' m a f r a i dy o u ' l jl u s t h a v et o . . .. . the new layout 4 | alwaysreadthe morningpaperto keepup with the 5 ThewholestoryisverystrangeI think



Matchthe words in columnA to the words in columnB, then usethe expressions to complete the sentences.


Complete the sentences with two to fivewords, including thewordin bold.Donot change the meaning of the originalsentence. 1 Manyexpertssaythat electronic bookswill be usedmuchmorein thefuture predicting Experts more and more people will use electronic booksin the future 2 ln the future, the Internetwill providefor the needsof moreusersthan everbefore cater ln the future,the Internetwill . than everbefore

3 They will have to think of a way to solvethe p r o 0 l e m5 o o n ,

b. Lookat the picture andin pairsactout a similar dialogue.


T h e yw i l l h a v e a way to solvethe problemsoon 4 T h e n u m b e ro f p e o p l ew o r k i n ga t t h e c o m p a n y h a sb e e nc u t i n h a l fs i n c eF e b r u a r y halved T h e n u m b e ro f p e o p l ew o r k i n ga t thecompany s i n c eF e b r u a r y 5 To many people,this meansthat a new type of rnmnrtpr


i < rrn- ', n r n g

T om a n yp e o p l et,h i sm e a n s a new type of g a m e computer E l e c t r o npi cu b l i s h i nigs a n i n d u s t r tyh a t i s g r o w i n g veryfastat the moment booming Electronicpublishing a t t h e p r e s e nt ti m e W o u l dy o u l i k et o r e p l a c yeo u r n e w s p a p ewr i t h a computerscreen? e x c h a n g e W o u l dy o u l i k et o arrival


2 anmnrrtor qrroenT


b. Lookat the subheadings andthinkof two questions youwouldliketo askabouteach circus. Readthe articleandseeif voucan answer them.

Speaking 11

a. ln pairs, thinkof wordsrelated to the circus. yourlistto thatof anotherpair. Compare

a. Lookat thepicture the dialoEue. andcomplete


a. Readthe article again.Forquestions 1-13, choosefromthe circuses A-D. Eachcircusmay be chosenmorethanonce.Whenmorethan oneansweris required, thesemaybe givenin anyorder. According to the articlewhichcircus(es):

i n c l u d ecsu l t u r ael l e m e n tfsr o mi t s h o m e countryin its shows?


h a sb e e nr u n b y t h e s a m ef a m i l yf o r m a n y years?


hasperformers whichcanbe hiredfor cnaai:l n..r<innc7

A B: A B: A B: A B:

W h e r e1 ) I t m i g h tb e i n 2 ) W h a t3 ) I canseetrees Onetree4) H o wd i d i t 5 ) 6) Haveyou everexperienced 7) 8)

FTI Ft-t

organises manydifferentcircusshows at once?


performers? doesn'thaveprofessional

? ?


a r er u n f o r a g o o dc a u s e T


l o l I

include c o m e d yi n t h e i rs h o w s ?


hastouredthreedifferent continents?


includes trained animals in itsshows?


hasencouraged othergroups to copyits success?


hasmusicspecially writtenfor itsshows?


doesn't charge for entrance to thecircus? Ff-l


Ringling Bros.and Barnumand Bailey The RinglingBros. and Barnumand Bailey circus is you would expecta circusto be, with all the everything clowns,acrobats,and performinganimalsthat you could imagine.This is hardlysurprisingsince the circus is a familybusinessthat datesback more than130years.The computerised lightand soundshow might be right up to date but otheraspectsof the show havehardlychanged at all for morethana century.Audiences todayarejust as impressedas ever by Sara and her trainedtigers,the troop of eight performingelephants,and the gravity defyingtricks of the high wire artists.And if all this isn't enough,then there are the clownswho alwayshave the audienceroaringwith laughterat theircomedyroutines. A visit to the RinglingBros.and Barnumand Baileycircus certainlymakesfor a nightto remember. After all,it is, as 'The the organisers describeit, GreatestShowOn Earth@.' Cirquedu Soleil Cirquedu Soleilwas foundedby a groupof friendsin Canadain 1984,and sincethen it has gonefrom strength to strength.This is not a traditionalcircusas there are no animalsinvolvedin the show,just a uniquemix of breathtakingacrobatics,tumbling gymnastic displays, masterfuljugglingand impressivecontortionists. Cirque du Soleilstartedas a smallshow which touredeuebec in Canada,but due to its hugepopularity it has grown tremendously. Todaythe companyorganisesup to eight shows at any one time all around the world, and employs 2400 people. They have three permanent crrcusesin speciallydesignedbuildings,two in Las Vegasand one in DisneyWorld in Florida,and their other shows tour the US, Asra and Europe. The organisation employsthe best composersand costume designers,so that each of the shows has its own dramaticmusical score and fantasticcostumeswhich bring peopleback to see the shows againand agarn. Sincethat humblebeginningin 1984,almost30 million peoplehave enjoyedone of Cirquedu Soleil'soriginal and entertaining shows. The Big Apple Circus The Big Apple Circusis a non-profitorganisation based in New Yorkand dedicatedto raisingmoneyand working with sick children.The circus organisesa traditional show undera big top in New york. They have also put on showsin US citiessuchas Bostonand Washinqton.

What's more, you can evenhire performers from the Big Apple Circusto perform at yourschool,business or party.The organisation also puts on a specialshow each year for deaf and blind childrencalled 'Circus of the Senses@.' However,the foundersPaul Binderand MichaelChristensen are mosl proud of their 'Big Apple CircusClown Care Unit@.' In this programme, specially trained clowns entertain criticallyill childrenin twenty-one hospitalsaroundthe United States.As Christensensays, "A child's natural need to laughcan get lost in the tangleof hospital procedures."With their shows,which includereo nose transplantsand chocolate milk transfusions,the Big Appleclownstry to bringlaughterbackto thesechildren. CircusEthiopia The first show that CircusEthiopiaput on in Addis Ababa in 1991was a very simple affair. A few ropes were tied togetherto form the ring and a car stereo providedthe sound.However,the free show which was put on by a group of school children,who performed jugglingand tight rope walking,was a some acrobatics, huge success.Now,the free Sundayshow has become a traditionin Ethiopra's capitaland can attractup to 5000 spectators.Marc La Chance,a Canadianteachingin Addis Ababa,wantedto give the childrenthat he worked with a brighterfuture. He came up with the idea of Circus Ethiopiaafter teachingsome childrenrn his neighbourhood basic circusskills.Sincethen,the idea has spreadand spreadand now nine other cities in Ethiopiahave their own versionof the circus,which are supported by international charities. Thousands of school childrenare involvedwith the circus,where they are providedwith food and tutors to make sure they don't missout on theireducation. Theyare alsoencouraged to teach at a crrcusschool,which allowsthem to earn an income.The shows that they put on have developed over the years, and now many traditionalEthiopian dancesand songs are includedin their routineqivino CircusEthiopiaits own uniquecircusstyle.

b. Arethereanycircuses in yourcountry? Choose oneandtalkaboutit.


At the library

Lrsrenrn9 aboutan 14 \,,llistento a manmakinga statement just questions 1-9 For witnessed. he has accident the notes. complete NameofWitness: W - ess: Aooressotvvltn lll


a. Fillin the gapswith:duefine,owe,overdue, aloud. then,in pairs,readthedialogue


Occupation of Witness At the time of the accidenthe was

3 S a wt o u r b u sp u l l i n go u t o f Sawredcarspeeding

A: B: A: B: A: B: A:

Redcarcrashedinto Driverof redcar F

at the

b u sd r i v e r to Witnessis prepared to makea statement Policecancallwitness 9

Hello l'm returningthesebooks a bit 1) R i g h tO h d e a rT h e y ' r e I know I was on holidayand I forgot about them W e l l ,y o u ' l lh a v et o p a ya s m a l2l ) ? Alright How muchdo | 3) Letme see.Fourbooks...that'll be f2 OK Hereyou are And l'd liketo take this book out, please. . . . b a c ko n t h e 2 7 t h R i g h tT h i so n ei s4 ) of this month T h a n ky o u

Atthenewsaqent's Communtcation:

o . Now usethe promptsbelow to act out o similar 15


a. Matchthe then, exchanges, in pairs,readthe dialogue aloud.

videos/ was ill- forgotaboutthem/ two videosf6 / takethisvideoout / due backin a week

Writinga rcvicw -"+F,Tf

+r.1 .,."t':,i 1-'



Excuse me. Do you haveanyTV magazines?

haveboughtone lzT-l otr dearI knewI should yesterday

then l'lltakea newspaper, lSTl On,really? Mailwillbefine lZT-l or',theDaily A C e r t a i n l sy i,r W h i c ho n ew o u l dy o u l i k e ? B No, l'm sorryWe'vesoldout c Hereyou are,then That's50 pence,please D Well,there'sa W guidein mostof the newspapers,

: Whenwe write a reviewof a book,film or play,we usually write four paragraphs In the first paragraph, we summarise b a c k g r o u n di n f o r m a t i o ns u c h a s t h e t i t l e , type, setting,etc In the name of the author/director, the mainpointsof the secondparagraph,we summarise ,e p l o t i n c h r o n o l o g i coarl d e r I n t h e t h i r d p a r a g r a p hw p l o t , m a in g e n e r a l o n t h e c o m m e n t s u s u a l l yi n c l u d e in the etc Finally, the acting/directing/writing, characters, positive last paragraph,we write our recommendation,

if that'sanyuse

D . Now usethe promptsto act out o similar

dialogue. puzzlebooks/ Crosswords in someof Crossword / Takea Break/ 60 pence the magazines


' Analysr ng a ModelText 17

to Readthe bookreviewandmatchthe paragraphs the topics. [Tl Recommendation information ETI gackground l:T_-]vain pointsof plot lZTl ceneralcomments


a. Usethe adjectives belowto complete the table. . brilliant . fantastic r pleasant . fine . dull . nice. wonderful . superb. marvellous ' unexciting o uninteresting

@ tlarry Potter and the Cobtet of Fire, by lK Rowling, is an excellent story which takes place in Britain.This thrilling book is about Harry Potter,the teenagewizard, and is the fourth book in the famousHarry potterseries. @ fne magic begins as Harry is about to return to Hogwarts school for his fourth year of educationas a wizard.Thisyear,there is a new interestfor the students. Headmaster,Albus Dumbledore,announcesthat the excitingbut dangerousTriwizardTournament- a series of tasksfor three chosenwizardsto complete- will take placeat Hogwarts.Harry hasto take part, eventhough it may meanriskinghis life. The book is well-written,with realisticand tr entertainingdialogue.Its rangeof characters, from the funny to the frightening,are so believablethat you will feel as thoughyou are at Harry'ssideas he experiences greateradventuresthan ever before. Don't miss the chance to read this fascinating E and imaginativestory. lts plot is guaranteedto keepyou turning the pages.Harry Potter and the Coblet of Fire hasto be readto be believed!

Whichphrases referto 18 a. Lookat thelistbelow. books? films? both? Background . Thefilm/bookis set in o Thefilm/booktellsthe storyof o Thebook/novel waswrittenby o lt is a comedy/horror film/lovestory , o Thefilm is directedby M a i n P o i n t so f t h e p l o t n Thestoryconcerns/is abouVbegins n T h ep l o t i s( r a t h e rb) o r i n g / t h r r l l i n g u Theplot hasan unexpected twist G e n e r aC l omments o It is beautifully/poorly/ badlywritten c Thescriptis dull/exciting . Thecastisexcellent . Theheroof the storyis playedby . T h ef i l m i sf u l lo f b r e a t h t a k i nsgc e n e s ,

b. Usethe adjectivesfrom Ex.19aand phrases from Ex.18ato write a positiveor negative recommendation for the followingfilms. 1 D r D o l i t t l e( C o m e d y*)* * Dr Dolittleisa fantasticcomedy. Don't missit! 2 G h o s tT r a i n( T h r i l l e*r*) * 3 C h a i no f F o o l s( C o m e d y*)* 4 S t a rW a r s( S c i e n cFei c t i o n*)* * ** 5 TheStoryof Us(Romance) * 6 FearCity(Horror)

. Discuss & Write 20

a. Readthe rubricbelowand answerthe questions in theplan. .., Yourteacherhasaskedyouto writea reviewabouta .,i.filmyou haverecently seenfor yourschoolmagazrne. iil write yourreview,givinga briefsummary of the plot i andsaying whyyouthinkothersmightenjoyit. ..v

i!{;" }J-r "--

lntroduction (Paral)

Backgroundinformati on W h a ti s t h e t i t l e o f t h eJ i l n ? Who plays tht heroof the story? What type of filn is it? Whereis it set?

M ainBody (Pam 2)

Main points of the plot How doesthe storybegin? Who are the leadingcharacters? W h a to r et h em o s ti m p o r t d n p t o i n t so Jt h e story? GeneralCommenrs Whot canlou sa)tabotttthe castlspeciol efJects/scenes?

Recommendation o D o n ' tm i s si t l t i sw e l lw o r t hs e e i n g o I w o u l d n ' tr e c o m m e nidt b e c a u s e . I highly/thorough r el yc o m m e nidt ' It'sboundto be a box-officehit " l t i sa h i g h l ye n t e r t a i n i nr ge a d o lt'sa boreto read


b. Readthe reviewin Ex,'17againand replacethe phrasesin bold with appropriatephrasesfrom the list.

b. Writeyourreviewin 120-180 words.youcanuse the planandthe reviewin Ex.17asa model.

Conclusion (Para4)

Recommendatron W h yd i d y o u l i h t t h ef i l m ? Wouldyou recommend it to otherpeople?



E= L=E-#= Presen Sti m p l e We usethe presentsimple: a a a a a

for permanentstates Tomworksfora construction company. for dailyroutines,repeatedand habitualactionsHeplaystennistwiceaweek. for generaltruthsand lawsof nature,Thesunsetsin thewest. for ti metablesand programmes Thefirstflight to London Ieavesat 9 am. for sportingcommentaries, reviewsand narrationsGerrardinterceptsandpassesittoHeskey.

Timeexpressions usedwith the presentsimple: usually, often,always,everyday/week/month/year etc, in the morning/afternoon/evening, at nighVtheweekend, on Fridays etc

Present Continuous We usethe presentcontinuous: .

foractionstakingplaceatoraroundthemomentofspe Tai nkai ni sgd o i n g h e r h o m e w o r k a t t h e m o m e n t .


for fixedarrangements in the nearfuture l'mgoingtothedentisttomorrow.(l'vealreadybookedanappointment.)


for currentlychangingand developing situationsThenumberof burglariesisincreasing.


with adverbssuchas alwaysto expressangeror irritationat a repeatedaclton You'realwaysforgettingtoclose thedoor.

Timeexpressions usedwith the presentcontinuous: now,at the moment,at present,thesedays,nowadays, still,today,tonightetc Note: .

Always+ presentsimple r " everytime" I alwayshovebreakfast beforeI go to work.


Always+ presentcontinuous+ "all the time" - "too/veryoften" You'realwayscomploining!


W e c a n n o tu s en e v e r. . .a g a i nw i t h t h e p r e s e nst i m p l e . I'm nevergoingcampingwithyouagain (NOT@in.)

Present Perfect We use the presentperfect: .

for an actionwhichstartedin the pastand continuesup to the present,especially with stativeverbssuchas be, have,like,know,etc I haveknownDaveforyears.


for a recentlycompletedactionwhoseresultisvisiblein the present AnewFrenchrestauranthasjustopenedin BridgeStreet.We'regoingtherefor dinnertomorrow.


f o r a n a c t i o nt h a t h a p p e n eadt a n u n s t a t e tdi m e i n t h e p a s t T h ee m p h a s i s o n t h e a c t i o nT h et i m et h a t i t occurredis unimportantor unknown I haveonlyvisited Portugal once.(When?Unstatedtime )

Timeexpressions usedwith the presentperfect: just,ever,never,so far,today,thisweek/monthetc, how long,lately,recently, for,since,already, always, still(in negations), etc


# ffirmffi}ffiffitr 3= #=

Present Perfect Contin uous We usethe presentperfectcontinuous: o

' o n

t o p u t e m p h a s iosn t h e d u r a t i o no f a n a c t i o nw h i c h s t a r t e di n t h e p a s ta n d c o n t i n u eusp t o t h e p r e s e n t , especiallywith wordsand expressions suchas for, since,all morning/day/yearetc Theboyshavebeenplaying footballforhours. f o r a n a c t i o nw h i c hs t a r t e di n t h e p a s ta n dw h i c hl a s t e df o r s o m et i m e T h ea c t i o nm a ys t i l lb e c o n t r n u i nogr havefinishedalreadywith the resultvrsiblein the present Ken isreallytired.He hasbeenworkinghardall week. to express anger,irritation,or annoyan ce Theyhovebeenlistening to thatloudmusic all night. for repeatedactionsin the pastcontinuingto the presentI have been takingspanishlessons at niqhtschool.

Note:with the verbslive,work, teachand feel we can usethe presentperfect or the presentperfect continuous with no difference in meaningHehastaught/hasbeenteachingattheschool formorethan twenryyears Timeexpressions usedwith the presentperfectcontinuous: for,since,how long,lately,recently Note: ' alreadyis usedin statements afterthe

auxiliary verband in questions afterthe mainverb I havealreadyfinished. Haveyou finishedalready?

' '

yet is usedin negativesentences aftera negativecontracted auxiliary verbor at the end of the sentence Shehasn'tyet finishedthereport.Shehasn,tfinishedthereportyet. s t i l li s u s e d i n s t a t e m e n t s a n d q u e s t i o n s a f t e r t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b o r b e f o r e t h e m a i n v e r b I a m s t ip l ta i n t i n g t h e house'Hestilllivesin HongKong However,still comesbeforethe auxiliaryverb rn negatrons shestil hasn,tfinished herhomework.

Stative Verbs stativeverbsare verbswhich describea stateratherthan an action,and so they do not havea contrnuous tense Theseverbsare: ' ' ' '

verbsof the senses(see,hear,taste, feel, look, sound erc);t canhear the trainapproaching. verbsof perception (know believe.understand,realise,remember,forget etc); lunderstand whatvouare saytng. v e r b s w h i c h e x p r e s s l i k e s a n d d i s l i k e sl o( vl i ek ,eh, a t e , e n j o y , p r e f e r e t cT)h; e c h i l d r e n e n j o y r e a d i n g and someotherverbs(be,contain,include,belong,fit, need,matter,cost, own, want, weigh,wish, have. keep etc) ThatcarbelongstoJoe.



c* #=#

tenseswhen they describe actionsratherthan states Someof theseverbsareusedin continuous PresentContinuous

PresentSimple - permanentstate) (= character Sheis verypatient. I thinkit'sa wonderful film.(= I believe) pool.(= they possess) Theyhave(got)a swimming

Heis beingverygood.(= he is behaving) g) l'm thinking ofbuyinga newhouse.(= l'm considerin (= they areenjoying They're havinga wonderful holrday. themselves)

(= sheappearsto be) Yourmotherlooksverytired

Thearchitect islookingat thep/ans.(= hs ischecking/

I canseeyourhousefromhere.(= I usemy eyes) I seewhatyou mean(= | understand)

examining) (= areyou meeting?) Areyouseeingthedentisttomorrow? You're isno onethere.(= you are seeingthings.There

Thisblousefeels likesilk.(= it hasthe textureof) (= it hasa delicious flavour) Thischickentastesdelicious.

ing) Mum isfeelingTim'sforehead.(= she is Louch Thechefis tastingthesoupto seerfit isalright(= he is


testingthe flavour) These flowers smellnice.(= they havea nicesmell) Sheappearsto beveryangry.(= sheseemsto be)

(= sheis sniffing) She's smellingtheroses.

(= they arethe rightsize) Theseshoesfitneperfectly.

Peterisfittingnewlocks on all thedoors.(= he rsattaching)

(= vvg3t. Weareappearingat CentralParknextweekend. performing)

Note: n

tensesto express a specificpreference Theverbenjoycan be usedin continuous (general (specific going preference) preference) BUf I enjoy sailrng lh enjoyingthisfilma lot.


feel (= experrence a particular emotion),hurt and achecan Theverbslook (whenwe referto sb'sappearance), w i t h n o i n m e a n i n g difference b e u s e di n t h e c o n t i n u o uosr t h e s i m p l et e n s e s Youlookwonderfultoday.or Youarelookingwonderfultoday. Shefeelssick.or Shersfeelinqsick.

P r e o o s i t i oonf P s lace r sn i c hd e s c br e w h e e s o m e [ h i nogr s o m e o n ies T h e s ep r e p o s i t i o rasr e : P r e p o s i t i o nosf P l a c ea " ep r e p o s i t i o w '#s*


* - :-'











in front of




Underlinethe correcttense.


1 Vicky looks/is looking for a new flat at the moment. 2 Shewants/iswanting to decoratethe kitchentnts

Putthe verbsin brackets intothe correctpresent tense. .


3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10



. come . decorate. like . work . do . study r P l 6 Yr r e a d . w a i t . t h i n k


A : What 8) B : Macbeth | 9)



(the story/ ..

( o i n ) h i sf a m i l y (move)to Africa


A: We 7) . (have) dinner at G i a n n i 'tso n i g h tw o u l dy o u l i k et o c o m e ? B: Sorry,but | 8) . (visit)Sally


A: | 9) . (not/understand)this c o u r s ea t a l l . l t 1 0 ) (be) reallydifficult B: Why 11) (you/not/ask) for help?

. . o .

tomorrow? t h e l i v i n gr o o m , I i t w i l lt a k ea l ld a y

A : Hurryup! We 6) . . B : oK,oK| 7)

A: 5o, how 4) . end)? B : I n t h e e n d ,R o g e 5 r) and they 6)

buy/new home putdown/carpets move/furniture unpack/crockery

A: Havetheyboughta newhome?

for you

B: Yes, theyhave.Havethey...etc

t:: l,i


? . Macbethand we . i t i n m y E n g l i schl a s s

Matchthe columns andthen usefor/sinceto write complete sentences by puttingthe verbin brackets intothe correcttense. (work)here lTTdl James (9o) He Cornwall l2T_l every summer you [:T_-] t (noVsee) lZT_l lt (rain) ETI We(only/wait) lGT__loiane(not/visit)us


Lookat the picture thenaskandanswer usingthe prompts, as in theexample.

A: We1) footballlater,would you l i k et o c o m e ? B: Sorry,I can't | 2) at the petrol stationon Saturday afternoons A: What 3) . B: | 4) 5)


B: | 2) (know) he 3) (not like) the place he's living in moment,doeshe?

How longhaveyou beenwaiting/youwaited for him? | am going/goto the gym thisafternoon. H e h a sb e e nl i v i n g / i sl i v i n gi n L o n d o na l l h i sl i f e . Stevethinks/isthinkingabout buyinga new car Sarahhas worked/isworking there for a couple of yearsnow Kellygoes/isgoing to Romeeveryyear Theplaystarts/hasstartedat nineo'clock. The Webbershave bought/havebeen buying a new housein the countrv

Completethe dialoguesusingthe verbsbelow in either the presentsimpleor the presentcontinuous tense.


A: Phil1) house.

a Paul'spartylast month

b c d e f

shegot hernewjob a few minutes thelastthreemonths hewasa youngboy hours

/-d Jameshas beenworkingherefor the lastthree months.


Putthe verbsin brackets intothe correcttense. 1 A : Wherehaveyou been?| (stand)herefor an hour B : l ' m s o r r yI ' m n o t u s u a l ltyh i sl a t e 2 A Why areyou in sucha hurry? B : Because my train (leave)in ten minutes You .. (always/borrow)my clothesI B : Yes,but I (always/give) them backt 4 A lsJane (still/look)for a job? B : Yes,unfortunately, she (not/find)oneyet 5 A : What'sthe matter? B: . (lose)my keys



ci:: E=l=#j

6 7


A B: A B: A B:

9 A: B:

Why'sTimwet) (wash)the car He,, W h a t ' st h a t t e r r i b l en o i s e ? (rehearse) It'sJane,she h e rs o n gf o r t h e s c h o opl l a ya l la f t e r n o oIn D i dy o us e eh o w m u c hJ i ma t ea t l u n c h ? I know,I (never/see)anyone eat a whole chicken before! W h a tt i m es h a l Il p i c ky o u u p ? A r o u n d7 , b e c a u steh e p l a y (start)at 7:30

1 0 A : l s M r S a u n d e rsst i l lh e r e ? B: Yes He y o u f o r o v e ra n h o u r !


Lookat the weekendactivities andmaketrue sentences aboutyoursellasin the example. ,l((iyr,1.:t..-*l


I x****

'' a


rarely sometimes often usuaily always

(wait)to see

,-pbt ba;el;dl-'


Lookat the pictures. to In pairs,usethe adjectives questions, askandanswer asin theexample.

i"., with friends

. hannv . hored. srrpssed . tired . relaxed ,,-YY/




iili"" i^ -i,.il


!. playing uitar

gotothebeach I sometimes at theweekend.


Lookat the changes in Paul's diaryfor Monday. ln pairsaskandanswer, asin the example.

MondayNovember 4

3 4 5 6 8 9

A: Howdoes Simone feel? problems B: She feels stressed. I thinksheishaving at work.


09:0a breakfast meetingwith A;d@renFaffiffifr (personnel manager) 10:00 i@(Tuesday afternoon) posruon 11:00 interview applicants forsales 12:00 lunchwithwifeandmotheiln-law (Wednesday 13:A0 morning) | 4:00 seedentist(GP) reade-mail(10:00) @ | 6:00 meettng withdesigndepartment | 7:A0 flay squashwithJg{ryGatph)

1 A: ls Paulhavinga breakfast meetingwith the department managers at 9:00? B: No,he isn't.He is havinga meetingwith the personnel manager.


:f= li=== 1 0 Readthe postcardandput theverbsin brackets intothe correcttense.

thenin pairs makeupas 12 Lookat thepictures, manysentences aspossible foreachoneusing prepositions of place, asintheexample.

ot:.;= ,,

"t.. :i\ ..


Deor Ann, How ore you?I l) . (write) to you The hotel 2) (b.) from lomoica. mognificent. It's very hot here.We 3) (get) o greattonlThe kids4) . (hove) a greot time. They 5) (spend) most of the doy by the seo. Right now they 5) (build) o sondcostle. (So) fishingwithTim.They John,7) 8) (go) ftshingolmosteverydoy. We 9) (notldo) much srghtseeingyeq but tomorrowwe | 0) (go) on o trip round the islond.We I I) . (look to) it We 12) . (come) forward bock on I 5th August. Hope you are OK. Seeyou soon. Love, Suson

A Thetableisin frontof thesofa. Thelampisonthewall,nextto theflowers.



l .


U S eO T-F"nv n " -l't s n 11

Fillin goneto,beentoor beenin.

. Error Correction

2 5

4 5 6 7 8

Tony has the post office to 0 u y s o m es t a m p sH e ' l lb e b a c ks o o n Louisehasnever Spainbefore I h a v e n ' st e e nM i k ea l l w e e k H e ' s NewYorkon business lt's the first time that l've r e s t a u r a nbtu t l ' l ld e f i n i t e lbye c o m i n gb a c ka g a i n | thought MissStephens was in her office Do you know whereshe's Haveyou t h e n e w c i n e m ay e t ? Sorry I couldn't call you back earlier a meetingall afternoon We've J i m ' sf l a t t w i c e s i n c eh e move0In

outtheincorrect wordineach sentence. 13 Cross 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Jameshasbeenworkedherefor morethan a year Thebookshopis overtherenearto the bakery | believe what shedoessays S h eh a sb e e nt o l i v i n gi n L o n d o nf o r t h e l a s tt w o years We haven'tbeento that restaurant for sincea long time L a u r ai s b e e n v i s i t i n gh e r g r a n d p a r e n tast t h e weeKeno Sallyhasfounda beautifulnew flat yet W h a ta r ey o u b e d o i n gt o m o r r o wn i g h t ?



EffiU5* ' WordFormation

-al: (nation + national) -ic: (artist ) arti stic) -ous: (fame--+famous) -y'.(thirst t thirsty)

. KeyWordTransformations

)y: (day : i6ily1 -ful: (peace--+peaceful) -less:(hope--+hopeless) -ive: (effect + effective)

Thesuffixes-ful, -lessand -ive can be addedto both nounsand verbsto form adiectives


Studythe examples. In eachcasethe secondsentencehas a similarmeaningto the firstsentence.


Paulstartedworkingheretwo yearsago been Paulhasbeenworking herefor two years


| havenevervisitedGermanybefore first This is the first time I have ever visited Germany


lt's morethan a monthsinceI saw her seen I haven'tseenher for morethan a month

Formthe correctadjective fromthe wordin bold.

It'sa large northof the country

city in the


I d i d n ' tl i k et h e f o o d ,I t h o u g h ti t w a s a bit too Sam

always buys the . newspaper

yourlivingroom? Whendid you redecorate yourliving ago How long ago did you redecorate room?

SALT I haven'tbeenshoppingfor threeweeks

local WEEK

last ; {.,

I lastwentshopping threeweeksago


Jane is such an person,she'salwaysrunningaround d o i n gs o m e t h i n g


Followinga diet and gettingplentyof exercise is the best way to loseweight


He reallywantedto buythe carbut it was too


L, .+




may ;-


finished EXPENSE

t) dt)u




a coupleof weeks .



The dentistpromisedthat the whole procedure would be completely


PAIN 1 ' l He's a . lawyer Everyone in town knowshim

12 It's

Shernovedto NewYorkfour yearsago. living She in New Yorkfor four years


exgiting Shewasa woman

Jason writingthat reportyet.

I lastphonedJoea coupleof weeksago

be ,,^-,,

Completethe sentences with two to fivewords, including the wordin bold.Do not changethe meaning of the originalsentence. 1 Jason isstillwritinothatreoort

Jumpinginto the riverto savethe younggirlwas sucha t h i n gt o d o White-water rafting

to argue with him He alwaysdoeswhat he wants anyway


Whendid you movehouse? ago How you movehouse? Cathystartedlearningltalianfiveyearsago. been Cathy fiveyears Tomalwaysgetsto work on time late Tom for work. I haven'ttalkedto him for a week since lt'sa week him. Shehasn'ttidiedherroomsinceMonday last She Monday



i 1 Evehasn'tfounda new flat yet. looking Eveis still lookingfor a new flat




:-==:ij:i:= ' O p e nC l o z e 16

Choice " \,4ultiple Cloze

Readthe text belowandthinkof the wordwhichbestfrtseachsoace. Use onlyonewordin eachspace. Thereisan (0)at thebeginning. example

' :a":'

::' i',,:.:.:

| ...,,1..,, ,,:.,,11::,:l

ArchitectFrank Lloyd Wright 0) ft+: designed s e v e r aul n u s u aal n d e y e - c a t c h i nbgu i l d i n g sb,u t Fallingwater, in Pennsylvania, USA, is probably oneof 1) m o s ta m a z i n gd e s i g n sW h e n y o u t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i ot hna t t h i s b u i l d r n g '1 wasbuilt2) 936 when the architectwas nearlyseventy yearsold, it isevenmoreamazing At 3) glance,the structuremay look a little brt 4) a pile of concreLb elocks, which is about 5) fall into the stream below However,the house is a lot safer 6) it looks The large stone slabsare s e c u r e l ya n c h o r e dt o t h e h r l l s i d ea, n d t h e h e a v i e s te c t i o ni s a c t u a l lby u i l to n s o l i dg r o u n d 7) thoughthe front sectionof the house hangs8) the water,it is in no dangerof c o l l a p s i n ga,s e a c h f l o o r o f t h e b u i l d i n gh a s 9) own supportsystemThe front door of t h e h o u s ei s s e t b a c k1 0 ) t h e o u t e rw a l l As 11) a s v i s i t o rw s a l kt h r o u g ht h i sd o o r , theynoticea balconyin the far corner12) offersa magnificent view of the waterfallThe g r o u n df l o o r 1 3 ) c o n t a r nas d i n i n ga r e a and fireplace, aswell ascomfortable placesto sit 14) admire the spectacularscenery s u r r o u n d i nt g h e h o u s eF a l l i n g w a t iesrt h e e n v y

t arrary*7t?/t?.W.tft1,'/4



Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA,B,Cor D which bestfitseachspace. (0)at the beginning. Thereisan example

Renovating Yourhouse Houseprices,0) ririg taxes,very rarelygo down, so if you find 1) i n a p o s i t i o nw h e r ey o u n e e dm o r el i v i n gs p a c e2, ) r e n o v a t i n gM a n yf a m i l i e sn o w a d a yas r e f i n d i n gt h a t t h e i r h o m e sa r e too 3) Whether they 4) a secondbathroom,more storagespaceor an extra bedroom,a lot of peopleare 5) to r e n o v a tteh e i rh o m e si n s t e a d o f b u y i n gs o m e t h i n bg i g g e r The6) for thistrendare,for the mostpart,financialThecost o f b u y i n ga n e w h o m ea n d t h e p r o b l e mosf m o v i n gh o u s ea r ee n o u g h to makeanybodythink twice beforedecidingto relocate Renovating a l l o w sy o u t o s t a yi n y o u r o w n n e i g h b o u r h o oadn d i n y o u r 7 ) h o m ew h i l em a k i n gi t m o r ep r a c t i c aaln dc o m f o r t a b lteo l i v ei n A l t h o u g h i t i s t e m p t i n gt o 8 ) and do the renovations yoursef, it is alwaysa good ideato 9) a professionalTherewill b e t h i n g sy o u h a v e n ' t h o u g h ta b o u t o r l u s t m i g h t n o t b e a w a r eo f , s u c ha s s u p p o r t i n sgt r u c t u r e sg ,o v e r n m e nzto n i n gr e g u l a t i o nos r, h o w t h e s er e n o v a t i o nmsi g h ta f f e c ta n y1 0 ) c h a n g eyso u m i g h tw a n t t o m a k e A p r o f e s s i o nwaill l a l s ob e a b l et o h e l py o u w o r k w i t h i ny o u r you11) b u d g e ta n da d v i s e i n s u r a n cree q u i r e m e n t s A n o t h e ra d v a n t a goef r e n o v a t i nigs t h a t w h i l et h e w o r k i s g o i n go n y o u c a n u p g r a d e y o u r p l u m b i n g a n d e l e c t r i c acl o n n e c t i o n sa s 12) a sa d d i n gi n s u l a t i o nl t ' sa l s oa g o o dt r m et o 1 3 ) alr c o n d i t i o n i n cge, n t r ahl e a t i n go r a h o m es e c u r i tsyy s t e m S o ,w h e t h e ry o u w a n t a ' h o m eo f f i c e ' a , ' g r a n n yf l a t ' o r j u s t m o r e storage s p a c e1, 4 ) a g o o dl o o ka r o u n dy o u rh o u s et,h e s o l u t i o n y o ui n t h e f a c e m i g h tb e 1 5 )

0 A such 1 A oneself 2 A consider ? A cosy 4 A have 5 A thinking 6 A reasons 7 A real 8 A make 9 A hire 1 0 A past 11 A o n t z A long 1 3 A input 1 4 A make 1 5 A seeing


like themselves think spacrous buy

B B B B B ehnn<inn B m e a nnr9 5 ts n e w B try P rent B fut ure E to B much B install B rry B staring

D D D D D D f ^,,"^^-^L D Pur PU)c) C own D C frnd D C buy D C old D C over D C soon D C build D L 0 0 D C punching D C C C C C

yourself remember expensive use wanting

s o your d o cramped need needing findings only attempt borrow added for well fix take falling




W e u s et h e p a s tc o n t i n u o u s : ' .

. .

for an actionwhichwas in progress at a statedtime in the past We don't mentionwhen the actionstartedor finishedAt 8 o'clockthis morninglwasgettinEreadyforwork. f o r a n a c t i o nw h i c hw a si n p r o g r e swsh e na n o t h e ar c t i o ni n t e r r u p t eidt W e u s et h e p a s tc o n t i n u o ufso r t h e (longeraction)and the pastsimplefor the actionwhich interruptedit (shorteraction)They actionin progress werewalkingto thestationwhentheysawtheaccident for two or moresimultaneous actionsin the past Thechildrenwereplayinginthegardenwhiletheirmotherwas trimmingthehedges. t o d e s c r i b e t h e a t m o s p h e r e , s e t t i n g e t c a n d t o g i v e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t iW o nhteonalswt o rkye u p l f o u n d thesunwasshiningand thetemperature wasrisingfast.Lizwasmakingbreakfast in thekitchenwhile.JohnandSarah weredrinkingcoffeeon thebalcony.


&ffir*gffiffiffir &mffi%ffi

,l,i l,;l l

We use usedto + infinitiveto refer to past habits or states. I n s u c hc a s e u s s e dt o c a nb e r e p l a c ebdy t h e p a s ts i m p l ew i t h n o c h a n g ei n m e a n i n g I usedto go to Waleson holidayeveryyear. WhenI wasyounger, WhenI wasyounger, I wentto Waleson holidayeveryyear.

given.Use usingthe timeexpressions complete eachof the sentences Tony,Lyn,SteveandSally, Foreachperson, eachexpression onlyonce. 1 o at the time o sincehe was a youngboy . b y t h e t i m e h e w a s3 0 . a b o u ts i xm o n t h sa g o a b c d J_

= 1... >l


I first met Tony H ew a sw o r k i n gi n a n l t a l i a nr e s t a u r a n t H eh a dd r e a m e o d f b e i n ga c h e f . . He plannedto openhisown restaurant

. by the time shearrived. for ages . a coupleof daysago . until9 o'clock Lynand I arrangedto go to the cinema b We had beentalkingabout seeingthe latest EthanHawkefilm c Unfortunately, her busdidn'tarrive d T h ef i l m h a da l r e a dsyt a r t e d. . ,

a Stevecrashedhiscarinto a wall .. b H ew a sd r i v i n gh o m e becauseit had c The roadswereverydangerous b e e ns n o w t n g how slipperyit was d Hesaidhe didn't realise . when shewasyounger. for hours . a coupleof timesa week . lastweek a b c d

I saw Sallyat the gym S h es a i ds h eh a db e e ng o i n g. Sheusedto be veryactive .. lt wasgoodto seeherandwe talked




E*n*ffi 2

Fillin the correctpasttenseof the verbsin brackets.


Underline word. thecorrect

(you/do)yesterday? (play)squashwith Pete

1 A: What B: |

(you/speak) to Kate? ( s l e e pw ) h e nI c a l l e d

2 A. B : N o ,s h e

3 A : 5 u el o o k e dr e a l l yt i r e dy e s t e r d adyi,d n ' ts h e ? (study)all B: Yes,she n i g h tf o r t h e e x a m ( y o u / m e e tP) h i l ? 4 A: When B : A c o u p l eo f y e a r sa g o ,w e (not/ live)hereverylongat the time


(you/be)ill lastweek? (have)a really

5 A: B: Yes,| b a dc o l da l lw e e k

8 9

6 A : l ' m r e a l l yh a p p yT o mg o t t h a tj o b ( l o o k )f o r a g e s B : I know,he 7 4 . Why wereyou late? B : O h ,J e n n y (still/get)readyat 9 o'clock '1 the film at 1 o'clock? B : N o .i t

Usethe promptsbelowto askandanswer questions, asin the example. Youmayuseyour own ideasaswell.

(finish)by then

Completethe sentences about yourself. 1 2 3 4 5


6 (you/still/watch)

8 A :



W e h a d j u s t / l a t e l yf i n i s h e de a rn g w i e n l h e y arrived Were you watching the French film on TV earlier/before? He had beenworkingthere since/fortwo and a h a l fy e a r s She had already/yetwritten the letter when he c a l l e dh e r The companywas previously/beforehand run by thegovernment T h et e a mh a d n ' tl o s ta g a m eu n t i l / y e tl a s tw e e k Shelately/recently movedto London We had never/everbeentherebefore Hewasalways/stilllivingat homewith hisparents t h i st i m e l a s ty e a r H e m a d e d i n n e ra f t e r / f o l l o w i n gh e g o t h o m e fromwork

T w om o n t h sa g o ,w h i l eI W h e nI w a sa y o u n gc h i l d I, D u r i n gm y l a s th o l i d a yI , On my firstdayat school,I LastSaturday, afterI

pierlastnight. Thelntercity Ferrycroshedintothe Lookat the pictureandput the verbsin the list intothe pastcontinuous to describe whateach personwasdoingat the time,asin the example. r look r climb. readr holdo wofk . search

@ @


a a

M r J o h n s o/na t t h e w a t e r Mrs Smith/ the stalrs S h e i l a/ a b o o k A m a n/ o n h i sl a P t o P comPuter Mr Smith/ in hisbriefcase / a newspaper .loyce

WhenthelntercityFerry rrn<hpd infn fhp nipr Alr

waslooking at the Johnson water.

t h e r a i ns t a r t- d r i v et o M u n i c h- p u l lo v e r- w a i t ro srop A: Whatwereyou doingwhentherainstarted? B: lwasdrivingto Munich. A: Whatdidyoudo? B: I pulledoverandwaitedforit to stop. the storm hlt - watch TV/livingroom - close/ shutters t h e a c c i d e nht a p p e n e-d d r i n ka c u po f c o f f e e / ian c a f e- r rr n o r r f s i dteo h e l o the President arrived - wait outside the - wave/myflag Presidential Palace the fire broke out - work/in my office- run to/ emergency exit - r e a da b o o k - h i d e t h e e a r t h q u a k he a p p e n e d u n d e rt h e t a b l e


Lookat the pictures'and the prompts, thenmake up sentences usingpasttenses, asin theexample.


Puttheverbsin b'ackets intothecorrect past tense. 1 W h i l eI ( p u t )r h e c h i l d r e n t o b e d ,t h e p h o n e ( r ing ) 2 S h ew a sn e r v o ubs e c a u sseh e (wait) a weekto hearif she (get)the tob ( b e )a t r i e c : s 3 Yesterday, I (drive) s t o pw h e n a f r i e n d (offer)me a lii by and (see)the film lastweekero 4 We (not/enjoy)it at aril but I (not/see)her since she 5 l (move)to her new flai (you/be)lastnight? 6 Where (stand) outside the theatrefor two hours! | . (know)she (cry)because hereyeswerered, (work) as a waiter 8 After he i n a n l t a l i a nr e s t a u r a nf ot r t e n y e a r sh e q u i t h i sj o b (open)a coffeeshop and

Eve/deliver newsoaoers/her dad/leave/for work Evewasdelivering newspapers whenherdadleftforwork. Whrle Evewasdelivering newspapers, herdadleftforwork. AsEvewasdeliverrng newspapers, herdadleftforwork.

9 Tony/wor[</h is sister/cal I him

Compare the pictures. Whatdid peopleuseto have in the past?Whatdo we havenowadays? Usethe promptsandthe pictures to makesentences, asin theexamole. o olortriritrr r rlnthp< r fr rrnit'rro . rnmnr rforc r d e c o r a t i o n so t p l p n h o n e s

Thegirls/row/the boys/play rugby

People didn'tusetohaveelectricity inthepast.They used tohaveoil lamps. Nowadays, wehave electricity.

Steve/shop/Sa ndralprepare/di nner


Whatdidyouuseto do/didn't useto do during yoursummer holiday lastyear?Choose fromthe listandmakeup sentences. Youcanuseyourown ideas. o getup late. spend timewithyourfriends . go swimming . sunbathe . readbooks . eatout at restaurants

Emma/plant/a tree/herdad/build/the fence

I usedtogetuplate.




(0). thecorrect tense, asintheexample 11 Circle


Matchthetwo halves of thesentences in columns A andB.Then,makesentences byjoiningthem usingthe wordswhen/while/so/asor because/ since/for. llT-] Janewasworkingon thecomputer beenskiing l2Tl I haven't in Cuba FTI Hehasbeenliving ETI Shewastryingto bakea cake ETI ttookmyumbrella ETI we weretoo tiredto qo out



tho nvon r:lnht


b we stayedin and orderedpizza c

T i mw a sm a k i n gd i n n e r


i t L o o k eldi k ei t w a sg o i n gt o r a i n


6 months


I w a s 1 8 y e a r so l d

U s eo'f 'F" Jn" ' o l i s h and therewasn'ta cloudin the sky Evenbetter,it was t h e f i r s td a yo f t h e s u m m e rh o l i d a yasn d I 2 ) forwardto it for weeks Everyyear,on the first day of t h e h o l i d a y s| 3 ) to the beachwith my f r i e n d sb, u t t h a t w a s l a t e ra n d t h e r ew a s n o r u s h F o r t h e t i m e b e i n gI j u s t4 ) t h e c h a n c et o h a v e a i i ei n A f t e rl g o t u p a n da s| 5 ) c o f f e et,h e t e i e p h o n rea n g l t w a sm y f r i e n dA m y ,s h e6 ) thatthe weathew r a s g o i n gt o b e b a dt h a t a f t e r n o o n We 7) i i t h o u g hb e c a u s e i t w a s s u c ha perfectday, so we arrarged to rneet an hour later However,JUstas I left the housea huge blackcloud 8) o n t h e h o r i z o na n d f i v em i n u t e sl a t e ri t 9) w i t h r a i n I c o u l d n 'b t elieve m y l u c k ,t h e w e a t h e r1 0 ) f a n t a s t iac l l m o n t ha n d t h e n o n t h a t d a yo f a l ld a y si,t r a i n e d

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Awas being S)was C u s e dt o b e A w a ss h i n i n g B s h o n e C h a ds h o n e A looked B h a db e e nl o o k i n gC w a sl o o k i n g A h a dg o n e B w a sg o i n g C went A hadenjoyed B enjoyed C hadbeenenloying A w a sm a k i n g B h a db e e nm a k i n gC h a dm a d e A w a sh e a r i n g B h e a r d C h a dh e a r d A d i d n ' tb e l i e v eB w e r e n ' tb e l i e v i nC g h a d n ' tb e l i e v e d A w a sa p p e a r i nBg h a da p p e a r e d C a p p e a r e d A h a dp o u r e d B w a sp o u r i n g C u s e dt o p o u r A h a db e e n B was C w a sb e i n g

. KeyWordTransformations Studythe examples. In eachcasethe second sentence hasa similar meaning to thefirstsentence. !1)t!ii!r!.rlHEfilrldsFsrN:.iiiElt

i:ij,iirlr!aiiilr.;i'qlttlfr+f,111i1ii.!1r-d:Erii;1ri!in,i+iiri,;Yi 1 J o h n. l o i n etdh e c o m p a n sy i xm o n t h sa g o . has J o h nh a sb e e nw o r k i n gf o r t h e c o m p a n y for sixmonths 2 W h e nw e w e r ec h i l d r e nD, a dw o u l dt a k e u s t o t h e p a r ko n S u n d a ay f t e r n o o n s used Dad used to take u s t o t h e p a r k o n Sunday afternoons, when we were children, 3 When I went to Francelastsummer,it was the first time I hadeverbeenabroad never I had neverbeen abroaduntil I went to F r a n c lea s ts u m m e r 4

H o w l o n gi s i t s i n c ew e w e n t t o t h e c i n e m a ? last W h e nd i d w e l a s tg o t o t h e c i n e m a ?


| d r d n ' ct a l lh e ru n t i lI h a ds p o k e nt o S t e v e before I spoketo StevebeforeI calledher


I had neverbeento that restaurant before first It was the first time I had beento that restaurant

'ir., '\,i

,f sr;,1!,rlul4r,rrr',,-':,f;iiirtrj:,rrl:irf\;!-f;fr411


& $rgrt}ffiur Kmw%ffi thesentences withtwoto fivewords, 13 Complete including thewordsin bold.Donotchange the meaning of theoriginalsentence. Davidstartedstudyingheretwo yearsago been David two years We didn't leavethe houseuntil everybodyWAS ready before We waited until evervonewas ready

8 Johnwasworkingveryhardlatelyat that time. 9 I was left the buildingafter everybodyelse had gone 1 0 The kitchenwas being redecorated for yesterday afternoon

' WordFormation

the house. WhenJasonwasyoungerhe workedin NewYork used Jason in NewYorkwhen he wasyounger We had neverbeento that cinemabefore time lt h a db e e nt o t h a t c i n e m a Rosehasn'tpaidher rentyet. still Rose

l'd neverseensucha closerace ever lt wasthe s e en . It'sthreeyearssinceI went awayon holiday have I on holidayfor threeyears It was the first time she had given a speechin public She a speechin publicbefore

. LrrorLorrection outtheincorrect wordineach sentence. 14 Cross 1 He hadalwaysbeenwantedto be a singer 2 Laurahad beenworkingtherefor a coupleof years ago. 3 We were trying to be quiet becauseSarahwas beingasleep 4 | haven'tneverboughtanynew CDsrecently 5 | would usedto go therewhen I was younger 6 We were hungryso we had decidedto phonefor a ptzza. 7 They movedto the countryside sincethree years 490

agarnst,preventing(antibacterial) two (bilingua9 with, together,mutual (co-educational) between,among (intercontinental) wrongly,badly,not (misinformed) one(monolingual) many(multicultural)

. . .. renr

Whendid you leaveschool? since How long is it school?


antl-: bi-: co-: inter-: mis-: mono-: multi-:

thecorrect adjective fromthewordin bold. 1 5 Form 1 After the earthquake,the governmentaskedfor helpfrom the .. .. community, lt is a(n) . event, held in May and November eachyear. 3 T h e yb u i l ta n e w throughthe centreof town 4 Natashawas wearinga bright 2




COLOURED Jumper Makeyourselfclearso that you canavoidany UNDERSTANDING Therunners sprinted aroundthe track in a(n,) CLOCKWISE direction. Hethankedeverybody andsaid that they had all been very OPERATIVE The governmenthas decided to start a(n) SMOKING c a m p a t g nt o m a k e p e o p l e aware of the danger of smoking Most collegenewslettersare published WEEKLY

10 The Mayor has been accused of of public funds



*E â&#x201A;Ź &

4--3%ffi, &Y-a { tr\an vvLtr


M u l t i p lC e h o i cC e loze

- l

I tr\-76 !tv4L

Readthetextbelowandthinkof the wordwhichbestfitseachspace. Use onlyoneword in eachspace.There is an (0)at the beginning. example


Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA,B,Cor D which (0)at the beginning. bestfitseachspace. Thereisan example

C..o en"nel Vakingthe riqhl rrtove M o v i n gh o u s e0 ) l S a nu p s e t t i n eg x p e r i e n c e W h e n y o u m o v ey o u a r e 1 ) , . . . , . . . o n l y l e a v i n gy o u r h o m e b u t y o u a r e a l s o l e a v i n g your neighbourhood, friends, familiar s u r r o u n d i n gasn d , 2 ) s o m ec a s e s , your family You 3) be well organized The best way to do this is 4) .. m a k i n gl i s t s :l i s t so f t h i n g sy o u w a n t t o k e e p s, e l lo r t h r o w 5 ) . . . , a n dl i s t s of thingsyou haveto do, suchas6) v n r r r r r t i l i i i a qr r r t n f f

As difficult7) movingis for you, it is just as bad, 8) not worse,for y o u r c h i l d r e na n d p e t s l t i s a 9 ) harderfor them to understand why they have t o m o v ea n d t h e y 1 0 ) not know w h a t t o e x p e c t1 1 ) i s a g o o di d e a to take them to their new neighbourhood before you move and show 12) t h e i rn e w h o m e When you first moveinto your new home, makean effortto 13) to know your n e i g h b o u ras n d e n c o u r a g e y o u r c h i l d r e nt o b r i n gt h e i r n e w c l a s s m a t ehso m e O n c ey o u havestarted14) makefriends,you w t l lf e e lm o r e1 5 ) h o m ea n d ,b e f o r e y o u k n o w i i , y o u ' l lh a v ef o u n d a n o t h e rp l a c e t h a t y o uw i l l b e s a dt o l e a v eb e h i n d l

l l r l l l l l L l l ] ]i i l i l l [ ] r i i r [ ] r L i i r L D I r i ' I L : i r r r 4 l ' , N r n r ! , , , ! , , .

Gabrielle"Coco" Chanel 0) kvdr$ born in Saumur, Southern F r a n c e a n d w a s 1 ) . . . . . . . . . .u. p i n a F r e n c h o r p h a n a g e .S h e b e c a m e a n i n n o v a t i v ed r e s s d e s i g n e r2 l . . . . . . . . . .r.u l e d o v e r Parisianhigh fashion for almost six decades.At age 30 she . . t i n y h a t s h o p a n d q u i c k l ya d d e d s w e a t e r ss, h i r t s 3) .........a and accessories.Withinfive years her simple and comfortable designs attractedthe 4) ...........of influentialwealthy women. H e r s t y l ew a s a r e f r e s h i n g c h a n g e5 ) . . . . . . . . .t.h. e c o n f i n i n ga n d tight-fittingcorsetsand long dresseswith petticoatsof the time. jersey dresses, bell-bottomtrousers, trench She 6) coats, turtlenecksweatersand the classic "littleblack dress". Costume jewelleryas well as bobbed hair are also credited 7 ) . . . . . . . . . . .C h a n e l . T r a d i t i o n a lC h a n e l a c c e s s o r i e si n c l u d e m u l t i p l es t r a n d s 8 ) . . . . . . . . . .p. e a r l s a n d g o l d c h a i n s , q u i l t e d handbagsand sling-backpumps in ivorywith blacktoes.At the 9 ) . . . . . . . . . o. .f h e r c a r e e r ,C h a n e l1 0 ) . . . . . . . . . 3 . ., 5 0 0p e o p l e ,T h e e m p i r e 1 1 ) . . . . . . . . . .a. f a s h i o n h o u s e , a t e x t i l e b u s i n e s s ,a costumejewelleryworkshop,and perfume laboratorieswhere t h e f a m o u s p e r f u m eC h a n e l N o . 5 w a s 1 2 ) . . . . . . . . . . . C h a n e l r e t i r e di n 1 9 3 8 b u t 1 3 ) . . . . . . . . . .i .n 1 9 5 4 t o i n t r o d u c ea n o t h e r c l a s s i ct,h e c a r d i g a ns u i t .T o d a y ,C h a n e l1 4 ) . . . . . . . . .t.o. b e o n e o f t h e m o s t p r e s t i g i o u s1 5 ) . . . . . . . . . .i.n t h e w o r l d o f f a s h i o n , fragrances,and cosmetics.

Offiwas B is C have D be lAgrown Braised Clived Dbrought 2Awhich Bwhom Dwhose Cwho 3 A s t a r t e d B b e g a n C r e p l a c e d D o p e n e d 4 A attention B affectlon C aid D assistance 5Ainto Bfrom Cwith Dfor 6 A f o r m e d B s h a p e d C l n t r o d u c e d D a n n o u n c e d T { f o r B b y C t o D o f S A a b o u t B o f C f o r D a c r o s s 9 Atop B height C head D point 10 A employed B worked C used D bossed 11 Aincluded Bembraced Cgrouped Dsurrounded 12 A forged B imagined C created D revised 13 A returned B reviewed C restored D repLaced 14 A persists B continues C maintains D proceeds 15 A types B kinds C names D forms

ffirmruffiffin' @ emw%

(Units'l-2) Revision

13 He'sthe mostboringpersonwe've . . met A never C sometimes B yet D ever

thecorrect item. 18 Circle


I what you mean but there must be an easierway to dealwith the situation A amseeing C haveseen B see D havebeenseeing 2

Sandra for a new flat for ages,but shestill h a s n ' ft o u n da n y t h i n g A looks C haslooked B i sl o o k i n g D h a sb e e nl o o k i n g

3 At thistime lastyear,they in Liverpool A h a ds t u d i e d C study B werestudying D arestudying 4

In thosedayshe usually to college,but on that occasion he took the bus A i sw a l k i n g C w a sw a l k i n g B walks D walked

5 A s m a l ls t r e a mr u n s village A across B over 6


t h e m i d d l eo f t h e through D among

My houseis on West Road, . groun0 A opposite B along

the football

C over D against

7 Where on holidaylastyear? A wereyou going C d i dy o u g o B haveyou been D d i dy o u u s e dt o g o 8

Recently, we A went B weregoing



1 1 N o b o d yh a s . accident A never B still

h e rh u s b a n cda l r e o C when D after

1 6 H o wl o n g A are B have

C were D will

C h a v eb e e ng o i n g D h a dg o n e

. . eachothersincetheywere C haveknown D usedto know t o l d m e t h e t r u t h a b o u tt h e C ever D yet

12 He hasbeenstudyingFrench i999 A from C in B since D just

y o u b e e nw a i t i n gf o r t h e b u s ?

word. 19 Fillinthemissing 1 T h i sm o r n i n gj,u s t a s I leaving the h o u s et,h e t e l e p h o n rea n g 2 WhenPaulwasyounger,he to play rugbyfor the countyteam 3 How . haveyou beenworkingin the caf6? 4 monththeytravelledto praguefor 5 6 7 8 9

| was . ., . eatingbreakfastwhen the postman delivered a parcel. A already C before B yet D still Charlieand Stan. children. A know B were knowing

1 5 S h ew a s h a v i n gd i n n e r A since B while

. to the gym everynight after


Shehad neverbeento poland .. A yet C already B still D before


the weekend S h eh a d j o g g i n gi n t h e p a r ks o s h e wasexhausted I didn't see Sam at the gym, he must have left . we arrived | haven'theardfrom her she left thecompany S h ew a s n ' th u n g r yb e c a u sseh eh a d. .. eaten. Theywaited . . everyonehad arrived b e f o r et h e ya n n o u n c etdh e i re n g a g e m e n t l-'lewas drivingto work he ran out of petrol

11 . y o u c o m i n gw i t h u st o n i g h t ? 1 2 Haveyou ever to France? 1 3 Theirproductionincreases day 1 4 Thejourneyhad beenverypleasant a womansittingbehindme startedto shout 1 5 It'sa month sheleft for ltaly 1 6 What have you been doing morning? 1 7 I w a sb a k i n ga p i e T o mw a ss e t t i n g t h et a b l e 18 He has travelledby boatonce 19 Theyhave . repaired the roof. 20 IsMary workingfor BTXMotors?




:r..,. We usethe future continuous: . . .

for acttonswhichwill be in progress at a statedfuturetime I'mgoingonholidaytoSpain.Thistimenextweekl'll be Iyingin thesun. f o r a c t i o nw s h i c hw i l l d e f i n i t e lhya p p e ni n t h e f u t u r ea st h e r e s u lot f a routine rc or arrangementlwill beplaying tenniswithAndytomorrowmornrng. when we askpolitelyaboutsomeone's plansfor the nearfuture Willyoubedrivingto thepartytonight? Would you beableto givemea lift? l:',, . r:

Theywill havearrivedin Londonby5 o'clock.

Note:until/tillareonly usedin negativesentences: Shewill nothavefinishedthereportuntil/till 6o'clock. (NOT Shewillhavefrnished thereportby 6.30. w+'i$lt4#e#)


&ffirmmffilffr #ffim%ffi Future Perfect ContinuoUS(wirhavebeen+ present participre) We usethe future perfectcontinuous: o

to emphasise the durationof an actionup to a certaintime in the fuiure ByJune, hewillhavebeenteaching in thisschoolfor fifteenyears.

Note \U LC '

The perfect s future ruLurv p t r rr c L L L continuous U t t L t I l u u u 5 tis 5u usecl 5 e u with wlLIl D by y ..". ". T for or ', ,l,

a. Putthe verbsin brackets intothe correcttense to describe the future. Tomorrownight my friendSophieis comingto visitme. Her train 1) ... (arrive)at sixo,clockand sinceI 2) (still/work) at that time, we 3) . .. (meet)in the citycentreat sevenl'm sure that we 4) (have) dinner at Gianni'sbecausewe alwaysseemto end up there.By the time we have finished eating I guess that Sophie 5)...... ... .. (persuade m)e t o t a k e h e r t o t h e cinemabecause there'sa film that shewantsto see

i: . .': ..1:_. .'..,r, .

b. Whichtenseformwasusedin parta to talk about: a timetables/programmes ... o actionswhich will have finishedbeforea stateo futuretime a fixedarrangement in the nearfuture d an action which will be in progressat a stated futuretime . e prediction basedon what we know


Gremffiffi$ w%w 2

Complete eachexchange by fillingin willor be goingto.


Underline the correcttenseform.

1 A: Whatareyoudoingthisafternoon? B: I meetJessfor a coffee. Would y o u l i k et o c o m e ? 2

A Didyou remembermy book? B : Oh no, sorry | . give it to you tomorrow



3 A : We haven'tgot anybread B : O K ,I g o a n dg e t a l o a f 4

A M e l i ss t u d y i n g m e d i c i n ei s, n ' ts h e ? B : Yes,she be a doctorwhen she f i n i s h ecso l l e g e

5 A : What ......(you) to the party? B : I don't know,probablymy blackdress 6 A : It'sverycoldtoday,isn'tit? B : Yes,l'm sureit 7



Putthe verbsin brackets into the futuresimple, futurecontinuous or futureperfecf, asin the exampres. a

By Monday morning, Kelly will have written (write)her Historyessay b Kellycan't come with us on Sundaybecause shevylllbewriting(write) her Historyessay


A It turnsout that I cancomeafterall. B : Oh excellent,| . . see you on Fridaythen


8 A : I don't want to missthe startof the play. B : It'sOK lf we leavenow,we be t h e r eo n t i m e 9 A : Watchoutl You . burnyourself B : O h ,I d i d n ' tr e a l i steh e o v e nw a ss t i l lo n 1 0 A : l s S u ed r i v i n gi n t ot o w n ? B : Yes,I'm sureshe if you askher.


We will start the meetingas soon as everyone arrives/willarrive I expectwe are being/will be there in another n o u ro r s o If you need/willneedanymorehelp,just askBob. Joycewon't be able to come unlessshe has finished/willhavefinishedheressay I doubt whetheryou are/will be ableto find it if you don't askherto drawyou a map. Do you thinkyou'llseeKeithwhenyou are/willbe at work?

giveyou a lift

a. Dr Saunders isthe headof the politics department at a smallcollege. Lookat the calendar whichshowshisarrangements for the nextfew months,thenmakeup sentences, as in theexamole.


l ' m s u r ew e this afternoon b lf we do, thenwe . . .. . . fivegames.

(win) the match

(work)all dayon Saturday (work) therefor


a He . . b ByJanuaryhe threeyears




a lf Angela can get some time off work, we .. (fly)to Parisfor the weekend p lf Angelagets time off work, at this time on (fly)to Parrs Fridaywe

(clean)the housebefore She J a c ka n dS a l l ya r r i v e b She . . . (clean)for ages because it's reallyuntidy

Do you think we reporttoday? b Definitely, if we work hardwe (finish)it by threeo' clock

6 a h a v ea m e e t i n gw i t h o t h e r lecturers in the department fly to New Yorkfor a conference finishwriting articlefor Politics l e a v ef o r c l i m b i n gh o l i d a iyn i h e LakeDistrict h o s td i n n e rp a r t yt o w e l c o m e

He's havinga meeting withtheotherlecturers in the department onJune17th. b. Nowmakeyourown calendar for the nextfew months,andtellthe class.



(win) our last


Choose thecorrect itemA, B,Cor D. I d o n ' tk n o ww h e nh e A comes C i sc o m i n g B w i l lc o m e D will havecome B yA u g u s t N , i n a. A i ss t u d y i n g B will study

E n g l i sfho r s i xy e a r s C is goingto study D w i l l h a v eb e e ns t u d y i n g


&2u'"?, m%ffi

l ' v eg o t p l a n sf o r t h i sw e e k e n d| . . t o D u b l i n A w i l lb e g o i n g C w i l l9 o B g o D amgoing 4


Putthe verbsin brackets intothe correcttense

Youcan'tgo out in thisweatheryou a colo A w i l lc a t c h C a r ec a t c h i n g B catch D aregoingto catch B y t h i st i m e n e x tm o n t h ,h e . i n t h i sa r e af o r ten years A w i i l h a v eb e e nl i v i n g C w i l l l i v e B w i l lb e l i v i n g D lives C a n y o u h e l p m e t i d y t h e l i v i n gr o o m ?J i l l o v e rt h i se v e n i n g A i sc o m i n g C w i l lc o m e B comes D is goingto come He hisprojectby Monday A flnishes C w i l lb ef i n i s h i n g B i sf i n i s h i n g D w i l l h a v ef i n i s h e d I think I a partynextweekendWho shallI invite? A am having C have B am to have D will have

9 You'dbettertakeyour raincoatlt A w i l lr a i n C w i l l h a v er a i n e d B i s g o i n gt o r a i n D rains 10 We mustfinishpackingWe earlytomorrow morntng A leave C w i l ll e a v e B a r el e a v i n g D a r eg o i n gt o l e a v e

9 7

a. lmagineit is NewYear's Eve.Writedownfive resolutions for the comingyear.

Usean appropriatefuture tenseto completethe sentences that Anna might actuallysay,as in the examples. 1 Shehearsa weatherreportpredicting sunshine " lts goingta bea be.autiful day " 2 Herfriendsayshe feelshot "l'!lapenawinrlaw " 3 Herbossasksherwhen shewill finishthe report "l 4

S h ei sc a t c h i n tgh e 8 o ' c l o c kt r a i nt o M a n c h e s t e r . "My train

5 S h e h a s a r r a n g e dt o h a v el u n c hw i t h h e r f r r e n d Amy tomorrowafternoon " A m ya n dI 6 Someone asksheraboutherplansfor the weekeno "At thistime on Saturday,

lh goingtosave money. b. In pairs,try to guesseachother,sresolutions. A:Areyougoingtocutdownonsweets? B;lVo. etc

5 h ei s g o i n gt o t h e c i n e m ab u t s h ei s l a t ea n ds h e isworriedthat she'llmissthe startof the film "Bythe time I get there, S o m e o n ae s k sh e rh o w l o n gs h eh a sb e e nl i v i n gi n London "By nextAugust,| . .


&{3e.3%ffi, tense. 10 Fillinthecorrect



tt youanswer a question correctly, I tT-e-l ETI tt it rainstomorrow, l:Tl [tt go to themarketbeforework herexams, ETI trshepasses ETI yougeta t O%discount lGTl Jounwillgetyoua ticket DTI Hecan'tsleep ETI tt youthrowsomething in thealr,

DearAnn, t'm writinEto tell you all aboutmy plansf or the summer.|m very excited!t (be) the think it 1) bestsummerever! rhis July,I 2) (travel) to Mexico.As soon ds | 3) (receive) pay this month's check,t (bool<) my tickets and I 4) . . . s) . . (alsolbuy) somenew summerclothes.uopefully,t (have) enoughmoneyleft 6) over to buy a new cameraas well, ' because I am sure I 7) . . (see)lots of interesting thingsduringmy trip. on 4th August,I 8) . (have) a big party at my house,because it is my 30th birthday. It 9) (be) great,with lots of brilliant musicand tasty food. I hopeyou 10).. (come)t Well, t've got a lot to do, so t 11) (say) goodbyef or now. I 12) . . (write) again when t 13) .. .(get back) f rom ntexicoto tell you all about it!

Formcomplete sentences by matching the items below,asin the example.

a b c d e f g h

if I getupearly enough shewillgoto college in September if yougiveherthemoney gravity bringsit backdownto Earth yougettwo polnts if youpayin cash thegamewillbecancelled if hedrinkscoffeein theafternoon

yougettwopoints. lfyouanswer a question correctly, 13

a. Rickisambitious andismakingplansfor the future.Lookat the thingsthat hesayshewill bedoingor will havedoneby thetimehe is35. Makesentences, asin the example.

,, . workasa senior manager fora large company ,i." .becomeamulti-millionaire . marry hisgirlfriend, Sarah o liveina large house inthesuburbs of London

with love, Lucy

l'llbeworking manager fora largecompany. asasenior b. Writefivesentences describing whatyouwill havedoneor will be doingin ten years'time.


11 Fillinif or unless. 1 Youwiil catcha cold you weara warm coattoday 2 it's nice and warm, we will go for a p r c nr c 3 sheworks harder,shewon't passthe examS 4 | w i l l i n v i t eJ o h nt o t h e p a r t y . . . I s e eh i m 5 l ' m n o t g o i n gt o s p e a kt o h e r. s h es a y s sherssorry a i A

6+ l i . l i r l li ll l j l i l r r r i L r r r : l

Matchthe itemsin Column A with the itemsin ColumnB in orderto makecorrectType0 conditional sentences, asin theexample. C o l u m nA FTFI ETI l3Tl lZTl iSTl ETI

boilwater add four and two m i xb l u ea n dy e l l o wp a i n t put water in the freezer leaveicecreamin the sun dropa brlckin water

C o l u m nB a b c d e f

1- b lf youboilwater, it evaporates.

it becomesice it evaporates it melts it sinks you get green you get six

ffim.mrc#ffiffi w Kmw%ffi thesentences using Type0 orType1 1 5 Complete


1 If you haven'tgot enoughmoney, 4

2 3 4 5 6

l f y o us e eC a r l a , W e ' l lm i s st h e p l a n e lcemelts lf the weatheris good, Theywill be havinga party

lf we leaverightaway,I cangiveyou a lift

provided ' ':: n'u" '.' 1": ll


,isr,t u*uy

He has arrangedto leavework at four o'clock tomorrowafternoon ts He at four o'clocktomorrowafternoon

5 Takea coatwith you, it mightbe coldlater Takea coatwith you . . coldlater

. ErrorCorrection

Useof English . KeyWordTransformations Studythe examples. In eachcase,the secondsenrence hasa similar meaning to thefirstsentence. My parentssaidI couldgo to the partybut I hadto be h o m eb y m i d n i g h t long My parentssaidi couldgo to the partyas l o n ga s l w a s h o m eb y m i d n i g h t T a k ey o u rm o b i l ep h o n ew i t h y o u I m i g h tn e e dt o c a l l you rarer case

Takeyour mobilephonewith you in caseI needto callyou later

N/umwill be homesoon,so we'd bettercleanup this MCSS


We'd better clean up this messbecause m u m i s g o i n gt o b e h o m es o o n

Youcanborrowmy dictionary tonightbut I will needit b a c kt o m o r r o wm o r n i n g provided You can borrow my dictionarytonight providedyou give it backto me tomorrow morntng lf you don't studyharder,you won't passthe exam unless Youwon't passthe examunlessyou study

outtheincorrect wordineachsentence. 17 Cross 1 I'm goingto moveinto my new flat the nextweek. 2 Takesomeextramoneyin the caseyou needit. 3 Unlessyou do your homework,you will not be in trouble 4 She'sgoingto stayin, in caseher parentswill call 5 lf you dropa coinin water,it will sinks 6 Beforewe will leave,I want to changemy shirt 7 By the end of the week, I will havebeingstarted my newJob 8 A s l o n ga s y o u w i l l b r i n gi t b a c k you can borrowthe car 9 Thistime nextmonth,I will havebe relaxing on the beach 1 0 | w o n d e rw h e t h e rH e l e nw i l l h a v ec o m e t o t h e prcntctomorrow

' WordFormation

interest- interested fascinate- fascinating accept- acceptable - sensible sense


1 8 Formthe correctadjectivefromthe wordin bold. 16

Complete the sentences with two to fiveworos, including the wordsin bold.Do not changethe meaning of theoriginal sentence. 1 lf youdon'ttelluswhatthe problem is,thenwe can'thelpyou unless Wecan'thelpvou what the problemis. I canlendyou the moneybut you mustgiveit back to me by the weekend long I c a nl e n dy o ut h e m o n e y . it backto me by the weekend

1 He'snot a goodteacherHislessons arevery Art expertsargueabouthow . . t h e p a i n t i n gi s . I c o u l dh e a rt h e . voices of thechildrep n l a y i n gi n t h e p a r k Billwill takecareof it; he'svery 5 T h ei s l a n di s 6 Thatwas a really experience I D i dy o u k n o wt h a t M r J a c k s oinsa policeofficer?






t i ", i,.tlirii': . OpenCloze 19

Readthetextbelowandthinkof the wordwhichbestfitseachspace. Use onlyoneword in eachspace. Thereis an (0)at the beginning. example

. M ultiple Choice Cioze Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which bestfitseachspace. (0)at the beginning. Thereisan example


Advice and 0)bcfure

thanever abroad traver


n*"'#tn":::1"^,:;",;"' orusnow many ; ;fl[$:*f:l: and ;";;'" ::;J::;;'i P* i:*"s'iic'iime place'a long H[:I':;J"J 2)'""""" "'beingin a strange J u s th e a r i n g the name p e o p l e many t o c o n j u r eu p i m a g e so f a t r o p i c a l p a r a d i s ew i t h c o c o n u t p a l m s , w h i t e s a n d y b e a c h e sa,n dt h e b e a u t i f ubl l u e s e a T a h i tiist h e l a r g e s ti s l a n d 1 ) F r e n c hP oy n e s i a ,a g r o u po f 11 8 i s l a n disn t h e S o u t hP a cf r cO c e a n which attractsvisitorsfrom 2) overthe wono There is never a bad time 3) v r sr t Tahiti,but most touristscome between.June 4) . . October,when the weatheris slightly c o o l ea r n dd r i e r5 ) . i t i s d u r i n gt h e r e s to f t h e y e a r A n e x c e l l e nr te a s o nf o r v i s i t i n gd u r i n g J u l y i s t h e m o n t h - l o n gH e i v ai T a h i t if e s t i v a l w h i c h i n c l u d e sm u s i c ,d a n c i n ga n d s p o r t i n g competitions Another event 6) the whoie of FrenchPolynesiagets very excited 7) , i s t h e H a w a i kN i u tc a n o er a c e w , hich placeeachNovemberUp to sixtysix8) m a nt e a m sc o m p e t ei n t h e r a c ew h i c hv i s i t sf o u r d i f f e r e n ti s l a n d sa l o n g a c o u r s et h a t i s m o r e than116km9) l\4osttouristshavesomethingmore reiaxing rn 10) , a n d t h e y c a n e n j o ys h o p p i n gi n s t y l i s hb o u t i q u e sa n d t r a d i t i o n a m l a r k e t so r w a l k i n ga n dc l i m b i n gi n t h e v o l c a n im c ountains H o w e v eirt 1 1 ) h a r d l ys u r p r i s i nt g h a tt h e main reasonspeopletravelto Frenchpolynesia a r et o r e l a xo n t h e a m a z i n gb e a c h eosr t o t a k e 12) in water sports Scuba diving, s u r f i n ga n d s a i l i n ga r ev e r yp o p u l a ri n t h i s p a r t 13) .. t h e w o r l d W h a t e v eyr o u r r e a s o n s 14) c o m i n gt o T a h i t yi o u a f e b o u n dt o b e c h a r m e db y t h i s s t u n n i n gi s l a n da n d i t s u n i q u e m i x t u r eo f F r e n c ha n d 5 o u t h p a c i f i c c u l t u r e sM o s tt o u r i s t fsi n dt h a t o n ev i s i ti sn e v e r polynesia e n o u g ha n da r ed r a w nb a c kt o F r e n c h 15) a n dr i m ea g a i n

no maiorproblems' our'health'Thereare o" OuO3) """"""' wherever way from home'can knowabout'so that tftut things for all some memorable "u"'yo"nJti"id fravea holidaythat is wrt-t they going, they are ' the ' -tfrightA)"""""" +habeaten heatentrackyou should ' the ': Ul destination may neeo iour you sei 6) """" ":: ' Oefore doctor your "ou to talk with you on or to t"n" certainmedications vaccinations suffer some diseasethat travellers 'drlnk your trip. The 7) only areas' "otton , p"it""i"S' ln high+isk not from though,is {ooo includes This J*" 0"""0 or sterilised' 8) your that water waterto brush o'*nt anOusing safe meat havingice in your ;;tpecrallv carerulwith ' t) "':;";J' * ts """ teeth.when eat any food that 'u'ud'' and never hot' and seafood,avoid 10)""" " "' ratherthan o""'u"llun"*u'*' undercooked on holidaycan unywhere'bxl:::ele nuoJ"n at Accidents "* so'don'tteaveyour common11)""""""' ritx' be at higher on motorbikesnever *"u' u seatbelt'and always cars ln home. poolwithyoung you u'" by the sea^orlhe ri helmet your forget An aduli'who is a ' - to take extracare' 12) you all children, watchingthe kids 13) """"""' be '*;"iJ strongswimm"'' sun' Buildup vourexposure Ol'ig"t': :1" ' ' ' of the day' whenthe times.Anothe'rtorlou:V in the 14) ' a hat ano slowlyand stayinOoors you ur" outside'wear *n"" ,vong""ri. it. factorfor sun is at ' the rightprotection lt;; " always,." tun'"'"1"n yOUrSkin' ,â&#x201A;Ź,,rffi nrB r"ruiir\tinirilIili\\lliP

O A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 A 5 A 6 A 7 A 8 A 9 A 1 0 A 11 A 1 2 A 1 3 A 1 4 A 1 5 A

ago tflp flowever

by cau5es away off more have does frying mrnd need through middle to

r'!f r" : .,.4,.i'.r,i,FrrrLi:*i'!are:rrrrrrrlqr:1'!j{\rlritsx\\\\l{\'rilrer{i!r\li!|191f \illlilrrr!4\liFf llisi]l-!r't\[ry]\lHrN\fi'

ffi before B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

travel Beca use to grounds

off up many has comes baking reason rnust during centre -+


C since C visit a L



for motives along t o much had has piping brain require

C medium C for


yet holiday Despite o f reasons u p down most having goes

n u

-.,^.-^^ dvtrrogq

smoking sense can for

D with

wffiggffiE$?Effi &mm%

Revision(Unitsl-3) 21

1 4 W i l ly o u y o u rc a rt o n i g h t ? A haveused C used B be using D use

Circle thecorrect item. Oil . on water A is floating B hasbeenfloating

15 Thefilm. .. at6o,clock A will start C is starting B starts D wjll be starting

C hasfloated D floats


|. to Joe'sflat oncebefore A o n l yg o C haveonlybeen B a m o n l yg o i n g D haveonlybeengoing

1 6 D o n ' tw o r r y. . . . . B i l li s l a t et o n i g h t H e , l b l ew r t n me. A when C if B unless D a s l o n ga s


She playing c o m p u t egr a m e s A is loving C loves B hasloved D hasbeenloving

1 7 O h d e a r |; . . . h i sn a m e A will forget C had forgotten B haveforgotten D forgotten

E m i l yr e m e m b e r s month A seeing B to see

C haveseen D seen

1 8 Theyhavebeenmarried sixteenyears A since C through B during D for

R o bg o t r nt h e c a ra n d A drove B was driving

. away C had driven D drives

Ben at the party last

They for about twenty minutes when Murphyscoredthe firstgoal A played C had beenplaying B wereplaying D usedto play Hewon't havecome A when B while

sixo,clock. C until D before

WhenI wasa child,we A weregoing B u s e dt o g o

. swimmingeveryday C had gone D h a db e e ng o i n g

I d o u b tw h e t h e w r e A a r ef i n i s h i n g B finish

t h e w o r kt h i sm o r n i n g C w i l lf i n i s h D havefinished

10 Did you know that Hannah forty next October? A i sg o i n gt o b e C w i l lb e B will havebeen D n a 5D e e n 1 1 l f s h es e e sM a r k ,s h e A tells B willteli

him the good news i st e l l i n g D w i l lb e t e l l i n g

1 2 | d o n ' tt h i n kw e ' l lb e a b l et o l i f t i t someone e l s eh e l p su s A i f C unless B when D because 1 3 I ' l ld r o py o u a l i n e A until B as soonas

. l'mon holiday C when D i f

1 9 H e. . . o f b u y i n ga s e c o n d - h a nc da r A thinks C i st h i n k i n g B w i l lt h i n k D w i l jb et h i n k i n g


Fillinthemissing word.

1 D o n ' tc a l lm e o n S u n d a yb e c a u sIe .. oe studyingfor my exam 2 | wonder John will be at the party tonight 3 We are . . . . . t o t h e c i n e m at o n i g h t W h y don't you comewith us? 4 t h e e n d o f t h i s m o n t h ,l , l l h a v eb e e n workingherefor two years 5 Will you be able helpme paintmy a p a r t m e nt th i sw e e k e n d ? 6 This . next week, we will be flyingto Madrid 7 P i c km e u p a t 7 p m ,I w i l l . f i n i s h e dm y homeworkby then. 8 We havinglunchwith Colintoday. 9 | won't going away on holidaythis year I can'taffordit 1 0 | c a n ' t b e l i e v et h a t m y D a d w i l l . 72 yearsold thisyear 1 1 S h e ' s. . , forgetting t o t u r n h e rc o m p u t e r off 12 How haveyou knownpamfor? 13 | seeyourhousefrom here '14 Bythe time theycalledwe had .. arrived home. 15 When I was a studentI to worK as a waiter



â&#x201A;Ź= Li5# Infinitive


Formsof the infinitive

Present PresentCont. Perfect PerfectCont.

ACTIVE (to) repair ( t o )b e r e p a i r i n g (to) haverepaired (to) havebeenrepairing

PASSIVE (to) be repaired (to) havebeenrepaired

Theverbtensescorresponding to the tensesof the infinitiveareas follows: Verb Tenses Infinitive p r e s e nst i m p l e( h ev i s i t s ) to visit f u t u r es i m p l e( h ew i l lv i s i t ) p r e s e nct o n t i n u o u(sh ei sv i s i t i n g ) t o b ev i s i t i n g f u t u r ec o n t i n u o u(sh ew i l l b e v i s i t i n q ) p a s ts i m p l e( h ev i s i t e d ) presentperfect(hehasvisited) to havevisited pastperfect(hehadvisited) futureperfect(hewill havevisited) p a s tc o n t i n u o u(sh ew a sv i s i t i n g ) presentperfectcontinuous (hehasbeenvisiting) to havebeenvisiting p a s tp e r f e cct o n t i n u o u(sh eh a db e e nv i s i t i n g ) (hewill havebeenvisiting) futureperfectcontinuous Thepresentinfinitiverefersto the presentor future I expectto findoutmyexamresults soon(active) I hopeto beaccepted lJniversity. t at Leeds rpassive T h ep r e s e n ct o n t i n u o u si n f i n i t i v er e f e r tso a n a c t i o nh a p p e n i nagi t h e t i m e o f s p e a k i n g Daveappears to bestudyingat themoment. Theperfectinfinitiverefersto the past lt showsthat the actionof the infiniiivehappenedbeforethe action of the verb Theboysclaimto havefinishedtheirhomework(active) Theirhomeworkappearsto havebeenfinished.(passive) Theperfectcontinuousinfinitiverefersto the past lt emphasises the durationof the actionof the infinitive which happenedbeforethe actionof the verb Heseems to havebeenworkingconstantly forthelastcoupleof weeks. Note:the perfectinfinitiveand the perfectcontinuousinfinitiveareusedwith modalverbsandverossucnas seem,claim,expect,believe,and appear Theto-infinitiveis used: . o '

purposeCarlwenttotheshoptobuy to express somebread. aftercertainverbs(agree,appear,decide,expect,hope,plan,promise,refuse,etc) Sheishopingtogeta promotion. (happy,sad,glad,etc);express afteradjectives whichdescribe feelings/emotions willingness/unwillingness (willing,eager,reluctantetc),referto a person's (clever,kind etc)and the adjectives character luckyand fortunate, I wasveryluckyto win therace




o a o a o


Note:with adjectives that referto character we canalsousean impersonal construction It waskindofyou to giveJohna lift. aftercertainnounsand pronouns(somethinE, anyoneetc)to showthat somethingis necessary or possible, Wasthereanyonethereta helpyou? after too/enough Vanessa istoo impatientto waitin a queue. Mikeisn'toldenoughto vote. to talk aboutan unexpected eventusuallywith only lgothomeonlytofindthatlhadforgottenmykeys. with it + be + adjective/nounltwasdifficulttasolvetheproblem. after be + first/second/next/lastetc 5hewasthelastpersonto finishtheexam. afterverbsand expressions suchas ask.learn,explain,decide,find out, want, want to know etc when they arefollowedby a questionword Sheexplainedwhatwehadtoda. BUT:wonder why is followedby a clause(NOTan infinitive) /wonder why she didn't tell us. afterwould like,would prefer,would love etc to express a specificpreference lwould loveto visitlndiaoneday. in the expressions to tell you the truth. to be honest,to sum up, to beginwith etc Tobehonest,I'drathernotgo.

N o t ei:f t w o t o - i n f i n i t i v e s a r e l i n k e d b y a n d o r o r , t h e t o o f t h e s e c o n d i n f i n i t i v e c a n b eSohmeipt treodm i s e d t o c a l l and tellmewhatwashappening. Theinfinitivewithout to is used: . o

. .

after modalverbs Gregcanplaythepiano. after the verbslet, make,see, hear,and feel Herbossmadeherworkovertime. B U t w e u s e t h e t o - i n f i n i t i v e a f t e r b e m a d e , b e h e a r d , b e s e e n e t c ( p a s s iS v ehfeowr m a s) m a d e t o w o r k overttme. Note:when see,hearandwatch arefollowedby an -ing form thereis no changein the passive Hesawmetalkingto Anna.- | wasseentalkingto Anna. afterhad better and would ralher Wehadbetterleavesoon. H e l p c a n b e f o l l o w e d b y e i t h e r t h e t o - i n f i n i t i v e o r t h e i n f i n i t i v e w i t h o uStht oe h e l p e d m e ( t o ) p a i n t m y f l a t .

- i n gF o r m Formsof the -ing form ACTIVE v i s i t i n g ! ! havingvisited : I Present ! Perfect

I a

I ! !

PASSIVE b e i n gv i s i t e d havingbeenvlsited

: i i

Thepresent-ing form refersto the presentor future Hehateswalkingtowork.HehatesbeingvisitedonSundays. Theperfect-ing form showsthat the actionof the -ing form happenedbeforethe actionof the verb We can usethe simple-ing form insteadof the perfect-ing form with no changein meaning Sheadmitted visiting/ havingvisitedJamie.

The-ing form is used: . r .

as a noun Swimmingisa greatwayto getfit. aftercertainverbs(admit,appreciate,avoid,confess,continue,deny,fancy,go (for activities), imagine, mind, miss,quit, save,suggest,practise,consider,prevent)Jackwantstoquitsmoking. generalpreferenceTomhatesworkingatthebank. afterlove,like,enjoy,prefer,dislike,hate to express BUT:for a specificpreference(wouldlike/wouldprefer/wouldlove)we usea to-infinitive. l'dlovetocome.


â&#x201A;ŹreLJ=# T h e- i n g f o r m i s u s e d : ' . . o '

afterexpressions suchas be busy,it's no use,it's (no) good, it's (not) worth. what's the useof, can't help, there's no point in, can't stand, have difficulty (in), have trouble elc I am busywritinga report. afterspend,waste,or lose(time,money,eIc) Wewastedalotof timefixingthecomputer. afterverbsand expressions suchas look forward to, be usedto, in additionto, objectto, prefer(doingsth to sth else) Heisn'tusedto livingalone. after prepositionsElaine isscared of flying. afterthe verbshear,listento, notice.see,watch, and feel to describe an incompleteacliontheardSamantha talkingon thephone(l onlyheardpartof theconversation) BUT:we usethe infinitivewithout to with hear,listento, notice,see,watch, and feel to describe the completeaction I heardSamantha tellthestory.(lheardthewholestory)

Differencein meaningbetweenthe to-infinitiveand the -ing form: S o m ev e r b sc a nt a k ee i t h e rt h e t o - i n f i n i t i v e o r t h e - i n g f o r m b u t w i t h a c h a n g ei n m e a n l n g = not remember forget+ to-infinitive Heforgotto buymilk. forget+ -ingform= not recall l'll neverforgetvisitingEgypt.

= intendto mean+ to-infinitive Henevermeantto upsether. mean+ -ingform= involve Beinga firefightermeanstakingrisks.

= not forget remember + to-infinitive Didyouremember to callLucy? remember + -ingform= recall

= be sorryto (normally regret+ to-infinitive usedin the presentsimplewith verbssuchas say,tell, inform) I regretto informyouthatyourphonehasbeencutoff. regret+ -ingform= feelsorryabout Heisgoingto regretsellinghisrecordcollection.

lremember comingherebefore.

LOmpansons Use ' W e u s e t h e c o m p a r a t i v ef o r m t o c o m p a r et w o p e o p l e ,t h i n g s ,p l a c e s e, t c W e u s u a l l ru7s e t h a n w i t h c o m p a r a t i vaed l e c t i v e s Mary rsyoungerthanJane ' We usethe superlativeform to compareone person/thing/etc with more than one person/thing/etc in the s a m eg r o u p W e u s et h e . , . o f l i n w i t h s u p e r l a t i vaed j e c t r v eW s e u s ei n w i t h t h e s u p e r l a t i vweh e nw e t a l ka b o u t places It's themostexpensive necklacein the shop (NOT@ Spelling ' With one-syllable adjectives endingin -e, we add-r in the comparative and-st in the superlative form ntce-ntcer-nrcest ' W i t h o n e - s y l l a b laed j e c t t v eesn d i n gi n a v o w e l + a c o n s o n a n tw, e d o u b l et h e l a s tc o n s o n a nat n d a d d - e r l est thin - thinner- thinnest o with two-syllabla e d j e c t i v eesn d i n gi n - l y o r - y , w e c h a n g et h e - y t o i a n d a d d- e r l - e s t easy-easier-easiest




i i= ij:=i:=

Adjective C o m p a r a t i v eS u p e r l a t i v e short ad 1 e c t i v e s


bigger 5mailer

thebiggest lrregular t h e s m a l l e s t forms

-v adiectives



the noisiest


longer beautiful a0iectrve5


more b e au t if uI

the most b e au t i fuI

Adjective C o m p a r a t i v eS u p e r l a t i v e good bad little many much

better worse less more more

the best theworst the least the most the most

We useadjectives or theircomparative and superlative formsto makecomparisons

Adjectives . '

very + adjective (emphasises adjective)George isa verygoodstudent. as + adjective+ as ( to showthat two peopleor thingsaresimilarin someway In neqattve senrences we use not as/so ... as) l'm sureBian isascleveraspolly.


less+ adjective+ than (expresses the difference betweentwo peopleor things Theoppositeof more ... than) Thesequelwaslesssuccessful than theoriginal. t h e l e a s t + a d j e c t i+v oe f l i n ( c o m p a r e s o n e p e r s o n o r t h i n g t o t w o o r m o r e p e o p l e o r t h i n g s i n t h e s a m e group Theoppositeof most ... oflin) lt'stheleastexpensiverestaurantinthecitv.


Comparatives '

' '

much/alot/farla little/a bitislightly/even+ comparative(expresses the degreeof differenceberweentwo peopleor things)AnnersmuchyoungerthanSteve. - Ridinga motorbike isa lotmoredangerous thandrivinga car.- She wasfar happierwhensheonlyworkedpart time.- t think it'sa littlewarmerthan it wasyesterday. - lt wasa bit more expensive thanI thoughtit wouldbe.- Shesaidthatthesecond examwasslightlyeasierthan thefirstone.- Sincehis operation, hehasbeenwalkingevenmoreslowly BUT:many more + uncountablenoun romatemanymorebiscuits thanpaul. comparative+ comparativeshowsthat somethingis increasing or decreasing Weseemto startlaterand latereveryday. t h e + c o m p a r a t i v.e. . ,t h e + c o m p a r a t i v(es h o w tsh a t t w o t h i n g sc h a n g et o g e t h eor r t h a t o n et h i n gd e p e n d s on anotherlhing) Thelongerthejourneywenton,themorebeautifulthescenerv became.

Superlatives '

by far + the + superlative (emphasises the difference betweenone personor thingandtwo or morepeopleor thingsin the samegroup)Helsbyfarthebestplayerintheteam

- Quite- Rather - Pretty Fairly a a a

! a a

a + fairly Thisisa fairlycheapdressbutl'm sureyoucanfindsomething cheaper youshoutd quite a/an = enoughThisisquitea cheapdress. buyit. q u i t e+ a d j e c t i v essu c ha s h o r r i b l er,i d i c u l o u b s ,r i l l i a n ta, m a z i n ge,x t r a o r d i n a irm y ,p o s s i b lter u , e ,c e r t a r ne,t c


completely, totally)Getting thisfinished by5 o'clock isquiteimpossible. rather+ a(n)or a rather(= morethan usual/wanted gotrathera/a rathergoodpointsayingso. etc)She,s rather+ comparativeform + than He'srathertallerthanI expected. a pretty (quitecommonin everydayEnglish) He'sgota prettynastycuton hisarm.


T o o- E n o u g h .

Too hasa negativemeaninglt showsthat somethingis morethan enough,necessary or wanted We usetoo inthefollowing ways: . too + adjective/adverb + to-infinitive /trstoocoldformetoswim. a too ... for somebody/something Thiscoffee istoostrongfor me. a too ... for somebody/something+ to-infinitive Thelakeistoopollutedfor fishto livein. W e a l s ou s et o o + m u c hw i t h u n c o u n t a b n l eo u n sa n dt o o + m a n yw i t h c o u n t a b l ne o u n si n t h e p l u r a l Thereistoo muchrubbishin thebin.-Therearetoo manycarson theroad. B u t : B e f o r e a d j e c t i v e s n o t f o l l o w e d b y a n o u n o r a d v e r b s , w e u s e o nTl e y tror yoi s t o o s h o r t t o p l a y b a s k e t b a l l . (NOTtee msehshe+!)


e e a n i n gi t s h o w st h a t t h e r el sj u s ta s m u c ho f s o m e t h i nagsi sw a n t e do r n e e d e dW e E n o u g hh a sa p o s i t i v m useenoughin the followingways: . adjective/adverb + enough+ to-infinitive ltiswarmenaughtoswim. BUT:not + adjective/adverb + enough+ to-infinitive(negative meaning)ltisn'twarmenoughtoswim. . enough + noun + to-infinitive I'vegotenoughtimeto havea coffee.

Fillin the correctformof the verbin brackets (to -infinitive or -ingform),asin the examples.


Heatherbroughtthat CDso that we canlistento it H e a t h ebr r o u g h t. . . . 3 The exercise was easy Everyone could do it Theexercise was easyenough 4 Kevinshouldn'tdriveso quickly,its dangerous It'sdangerous 5 T i n as a i ds h ew o u l dc a l lm e b u t l ' m s t i l lw a i t i n g I ' m s t i l lw a i t i n g. . . ..

1 Hegoesto eveningclasses to lecrn(learn)ltalian (learil a languagecanhelpyouto get a job 2 Learning 3 Oh no! | forgot (buy) eggs

6 7 8 9 10


when I was at the supermarket The governmentis determined (solve)someof the environmental problems facing Ine area (cook)at hometo Dan prefers eatingout There'sno point in (buy) a computerif you arenot goingto useit. (decorate) They have decided the livingroom The childrenlove (9o) to the swimmingpool (tell) Alice what Sean | regret hadsaid Hydroelectricity and wind turbines can be used (provide)environmentallyfriendly .. ener9y.

Rewritethe sentencesusingfor, asin the example. 1 | mustfinishthiswork today It's importantfarmeta finishthisworktoday.


Write the correctform of the verb in brackets. (watch) TV at the I like weeKen0S l'd like ... (So) to the cinema tonrght l'll neverforget (meet) Davio Beckham 4 Don'tforget (lock)the door. (leave) school so 5 He regrets eafly I regret . . (inform) you that you haven'tbeenacceptedfor the job 7 Doyou remember. . .. . .. (visit)Paris? (call) 8 Remember .. me tonight. 9 She stopped (work) when she wassixty-five 't0 H e s t o p p e d (fix)thepuncture ....



3g- ei=#


Lookat pictures andin pairsmakeup dialogues, as in theexample.

you fancy/meeVcoffee/after work? Sorry/ca n'V agree/do/overti me tonight : Do you fancy meeting for a eoffee afterwork? SorryIcant. ...

3 O n ed a yI h o p et o 4 l w o u l dl o v e 5 I had better


Complete the tableby fillingin the adjectives, comparatives andsuperlatives, asin the exampre.


Comparative : '' -- ---

,"--a -

1 i 2.


3 l




t al l e r



5 l


6. A We/decide/give/you/job B that be/fantastidwhen/ you likeme/start?




q l

brg worse

Yes/can't waiVsee/old friendsagain



B g o i n gt o S p a i nt h i ss u m m e r watchingold movies u s ea c o m p u t e r

l'mthinking about I can

to goawayfortheweekend beingin crowded places

Usethe phrases to makeup sentences about yourself. 1 | c a n ' th e l p 2 l,m not usedto


Putthe adjectives in brackets intothe comparative or superlative form,addinganynecessary words.

you look/forwardtolgo/ partytonight?

A I can'tstand i tove rd tike




Matchthe phrases in ColumnA to thosein Column B to makecomplete sentences, thenmakesimilar sentences usingthe phrases in ColumnA andyour own ideas.


a ;



A: Theweather'sbeautifultoday,isn'tit? B: Yes,they said on the radio that it was lilg ftelrtesf(hot) day of the yearso far A : I t h i n kl ' d p r e f e trh e b l a c ks k i r t B : I k n o wb u t t h i so n e i s (cheap) A : T h ef i l ml a s t e df o r m o r et h a nt h r e eh o u r s l B: Yes, it was much (long) | expected A : C h r i si st h e b e s tp l a y eor n t h e t e a m ,i s n , th e ? B: Actually,I think Stevets even (good)

5 A: Markisveryclever,isn'the? B: Yes,he's (intelligent)personI know 6 A: We havea lot of work to do at the moment B: This is always (busy)time of year 7 A: I wasverysurprised when I met Maggie B: Why? Did you think she would be (young)? g A : It'sabouta two-hourdrive B : R e a l l y|?t h o u g h ti t w a s m u c h (far)awaythan that 9 A: Didyou readthat book? B: Yes,it was excellent, (interest) t h i n gI h a v er e a di o r a g e s 10 A: Are you goingto the hairdresser,s today? B: No I phoned, but (early) appointment they hadwas at two o'clockand I haveto be at work at one



!:=tj=# I

Write the correctform of the comparativeor superlativeand then completethe sentences with your own ideas. (difficult)scnoor 1 | find that ;#sil;sis f&emcsiCjffic;;fr subject (frightening) 2 l n m yo p i n i o n a n i m aol f a l li s (good)holidayI everhadwas 3 (healthy)than


Salads are


l ' m s u r et h a t (interesting) job than


i t h i n kt h a t I h a v es e e ni n a l o n gt r m e

(funny)film ( b i g )e n v i r o n m e n t a l

7 8

problemfacingmy country Gold

1 I quite/pretty enjoyedthe concertbut it could havebeenbetter 2 lf l were you, I would take the bus; it's fairly/rathera longway to walk 3 S h e ' sa r a t h e r / q u i t fea s tr u n n e rl ' m s u r es h e ' lw l in the race 4 I know you don't believeme, but it's fairly/quite true 5 I think this examwas fairly/quitea lot easierthan lastyear's 6 The restaurantwas rather/prettymore crowded than I expected 7 lt's a verynicehousebut it will needquite/pretty a lot of work beforeanyonecanlivethere 8 lt was a quite/prettygood film,you shouldseeit

(expensive) than

(happy)personI know

9 1 0 | w o u l ds a yt h a t (fast)than

thecorrect word. 11 Underline

12 Fillintoo/enough. 1 Davidis tootiredto go to the party

belowandtheprompts to 10 Usetheinformation makeupsentences usingmuch, more, monyor abit, asintheexamples.


S a mi s o l d own

to go into town on his


He arrivedat the cinema watchthe film

late to

4 J a n e h a s n ' ts t u d i e d exam

t o p a s sh e r

5 T h i ss o u pi s 6

hot to eat

P a u lh a s n ' tg o t new car



l '


m o n e yt o b u y a


t , s e o T 'F" Yn"o- 'i l q n

' Error Correction ''::..:4. -+

| 1.

outtheincorrect wordineach sentence. 1 3 Cross Delaysper week: CabinCrew per flight:

. .

r . . . .


be/old AirTropicana isa bit olderthanTrans-European Airways. fly/far Air Tropicana fliesnuch furtherthanTrans-European Airways. aircrafVold have/accidents flylinteresting places planes/reliable service/good

1 l ' m g o i n gf o r s h o p p i n o g n S a t u r d aw y ,o u l dy o u l i k e to comewith me? 2 Let'stake my car,it'smorebiggerthan yours 3 The exam is too difficult,so you'd better study nar0 4 I hateto watchingold movies 5 | c a n ' ts t a n dt o b e i n gi g n o r e d 6 Youshouldbe mostcarefulwhenyoucrossthe road 7 We will get thereon time if we will leavenow 8 T h i ss m a lTl Vc o s t sa sm o r et h a nt h a t b i go n e ! 9 | h a v e n 'gt o t v e r ye n o u g hm o n e yt o g o o n h o l i d a y th isyear 1 0 T h em o r eo l d e rh e o e t s .t h e l a z i ehr e b e c o m e s

ffirmr$xffiffitr # 3re #-

. KeyWordTransformations


l ' m g l a dI d o n ' tl i v ei n a c o l dc o u n t r y hate I would a coldcountry 6 C h r i sw o u l dr a t h e rn o t g o t o t h e c i n e m at o n i q h t feel Chris

Studythe examples. Ineachcasethe second sentence has a similar meaning to thefirstsentence.

7 I couldn't move the washing because it was so heavy too The washingmachinewas too heavy for me to moveby myself


I wanted to get two ticketsfor the concertbut r couldonlyaffordone enough I didn't haveenough money for two

Yourbrother cookI haveevermet 9 WheneverI eat snails,I remembermy first trip to Paris without I can'teat snarls

I alwaysworryabout my familywhen I go awayon a b u s i n e st rsi p help I can't help worrying about my family

1 0 Thecake wastoosmall sonoteveryone ,"J: ;il::

when I go awayon a business trip


Therewasn't everyone to havea piece 1 1 It was dlfficultto persuadeRobertto take the courSe difficulty I

l'm reallyexcitedaboutstartinguniversity forward l'm reallylooking forward to starting untverstty. I could never be happy working in a fast food restau rant. hate I would hate to work in a fast food restau rant


Robertto takethe course Jane's carisasold as Lisa's same Lisa's caris Jane's

I alwaysget depressed when I see peopletreating a n i m a lcsr u e l l y without I can't see people treating animals

. WordFormation

cruellywithout gettingdepressed My fatherinsists that I waterthe plantson Saturdays. makes My father makesme water the plants on Saturdays

broad- broaden p o p u l a-r p o p u l a r i s e false- falsify r i c h- e n r i c h

8 | haveneverhadsucha tastymealbefore best Thisisthe best mealI haveeverhad. j \-

I can'taffordto buythoseboots expensiveThose me to buy. 2 lt's not her fault that she,slazy as her mother alwaysdoeseverything for her help S h ec a n ' t because her mother always does everything for her 3 Please remindme to callthe plumbertomorrow forget Don'tiet me t h e p l u m b etro m o r r o w I can'twait to meetyourbrother forward I'm y o u rb r o t h e r

homeworkbeforethey let me watchW' | havenevermet anyonewho cooksas badlyas yourbrotherdoes worst

ticketsfor the concert

thesentences withtwoto fivewords, 14 Complete including thewordin bold.Donotchange the meaning of theoriginal sentence.

t o t h e c i n e m at o n i g h t My parentswon't let me watchTV until I finishmy homework make My parents my


Formthe correctverb from the word in bold. 1 T h et e a c h esr h o u l d the informationso that evervbodv understands it Thesetrousersaretoo long,l'll have ro them T h e ya r ep l a n n i n g to the factoryand buy new machinery They boiledthe water in order to . i t I t h i n ky o u s h o u l d s o m eo f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s T h ec o u n c ihl a sd e c i d e tdo t h e m a i nr o a di n t o





the citycentre


J; :=

=i- i,4-+* . OpenCloze 16

. Multiple Choice Cloze

Readthe text belowandthinkof the wordwhichbestfitseachspace. Use onlyoneword in eachspace. Thereisan (0)at the beginning. example


Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C,or D (0)at the whichbestfitseachspace. Thereisan example beginning.




Once0) up** a time, binswere large,heavy, tl. human beings?Many people metal objectswhich were difficultto lift and j;; I believe that they are, and are fascinatedby these enormous yet carry Theywere 1) of one long metal .3il:: gracefulcreatures.In recent years, whale watching has become '. i,. sheet,joined along its longestedge, with a extremelypopular,as more and more peoplewant to experience the ii, circularmetalbase Theyhad two handles,one feelingthattheyare developing a 1) .,...,..,. .:' relationship withwhales. 2) w h i c h d u s t m e nw o u l d u s e t o l i f t Whalewatchinginvolvessailingout a long way from shore,often them and swingthem onto their shoulders, throughvery2) ,......... waters.As a result,manywhalewatchersaretoo showinglittlecarefor hygiene,or for their own busyworryingabouttheirupsetstomachsor tryingnotto falloverboard physica wle l l - b e i n g to actuallylookfor whales.Mostof them3) .......... on a guideto keepan , As soon 3) plastic bins became 4)..........outfortheJ|ashofafinorag|impseofatai|to|etthemkn a v a i l a b l et h, e s et o o k 4 ) from the old whento look. m e t ao l n e sT h e yw e r es i m i l airn a p p e a r a n caen d However, therewill not alwaysbe whalesto see,and even5) .......,... w e i g h t ,b u t w e r eh a r d e r5 ) d a m a g eo r thereare,thereis no 6) .......... thatthe whalewatcherswill noticethem. dent However, beingmadeof plastic,theywere W h a l e sa r es o 7 ) . . . . . . . .h. .o m ei n t h es e a ,a n d8 ) . . . . . . . .i.n, t ot h ew a t e rs o - , not suitablefor hot waste,6) as ashes, well that they can be hardfor peopleto 9) ..,....... evenwhen one has asthesedestroyed their interrors pointed been 10) .......... 1othem.A competentguidewillusuallybe able :'i" I n m a n yp a r t so f t h e w o r l d ,t h e s t a n d a r d bin to find at leastone, though,and it has to be said that a whalein its h a sn o w b e e nr e p l a c e7d) the wheelie n a t u r a1l 1 ). . . . . . . .i.s. a w o n d e r f usli g h t . bin Theseare large,rectangular, plasticboxes The luckywhalewatcherwillbe 12) .......... to a spectacular displayof , o n w h e e l sw , i t h a h i n g e dl i d a n d a b a r w h i c h gymnastics, water as occasionally, whaleswill 13) .......... intothe air or a l l o w st h e b i n t o 8 ) . . p u s h e do r p u l l e d wave at their jets of water audience with their tails. They often spout a l o n g M o s t w h e e l i eb i n sa r e b l a c k ,b u t s o m e .. high 1a) .......... the These generally air. acts make whale watchers feel are green,brown or red Theyare designedto as thoughtheirtrip has been15) ,......... and has broughtthemcloserto :l b e j u s t a s s p a c i o uass t h e o l d b i n s ,9 ) understanding thesehuge,strangemammals. w e l l a s b e i n g e a s i e rt o m o v e a r o u n d a n d 10) l i k e l yt o c a u s ei n j u r i e sM a n yl o c a l c o u n c i lisn s i stth a t b i n sa r el e f ta t t h e s i d eo f t h e 0 A clever intelligent C smart D bright 'l road for collection,and for many people, A private B i n d i v i d u a l C own D personal c a r r y i n go n e o f t h e o l d b i n s 1 1 ) the 2 A rough B uneven C lagged D coarse back gardento the front of the housewas A trust 3 B ASSUMC C rely D believe e n o u g ht o c a u s es e r i o um s uscle damage 4 A ear B eye C arm D elbow N o m a t t e r1 2 ) . w e l l - d e s i g n eadb i n 5 A I T B though L d 5 D whether maybe, however, therewill alwaysbe problems 6 A p r o m i s e B a g r e e m e n t C g u a r a n t e e D contract Wheeliebins are unattractive and can also be 7 A i n B to C with D a t difficultto manoeuvre up and down stepsWhat 8 A mix B blend C combine D join 13) more, if you are unfortunate J A spot B look C watch D glance enoughto dropsomethingin the bottomof one 10 A i n B to C out D for of them, you will havea hard time getting it 1 1 A home B place C habitat D location 14) a g a i n ,a s t h e b i n sa r e a b o u t f o u r 1 2 A given B +t t/ ^c oa +L^c-ul C shown D entertained feet tall Nevertheless, they are certainlya step t 5 A fall B SWtm C climb D jump 15) one , and giveus hopethat, perhaps 1 4 A into B ACTOSS c u p D through day,someonewill designa trulytrouble-free bin tl A w o r t h w h i l e B usefu I C wasted D sensible



(Units Revision 1-4) thecorrect item. 18 Circle

1 4 We'd betterwait . . A before B for 15

1 You must A coming B come

C to come D to coming

You'dbetter .. . . it with Mrs Harrisand find out thedetails. A discussing C to discuss B discuss D havediscussed I e n j o y. . . t o w o r kl n t h e m o r n i n g A walking C to walk B walk D b ew a l k i n g 5 Shewent on a diet A losing B lose


| wanted A seeing B see

. someweight C to lose D havinglost

Laurabeforesheleft C to see D to seeing

lt's a shame Lisa couldn't come, I was looking forward .. . .. her A meeting C to meet B meet D to meeting We should let Gary . . ... what time we are meeting. A knowing C to know B know B to knowing Bobis veryworriedabout .. the exam. A failing C to fail B fail C havingfailed

1 0 I regret

you that the restaurantwill nor o p e nt h i se v e n i n g A informing C to inform B inform D to haveinformed


What'sthe ... A much B more

12 Don'ttell Ann A as longas B unless

1 3 H e ' sl a t e . . A much B like

backby Tuesday

.. to the party

Shallwe stop on the way there something to eat? A getting C to get B get D havegot


. . it stopsraining. C until D while

boringfilm you'veseen? C most D less sheasks C provided D if

c B hasbeen

D will havebeen

1 6 Hefailed . hisnew boss. A to impress C B impressing D Inrmpresstng 17 lt's . . . than a weeksinceI spoketo Jim A over C more B rather D much 18 Thisbag is . . A enough B much 1 9 S h ew a sm a d e A stay B staying 20

D o n ' tg o A untij B after

heavyfor John C s o D too late C to stay D havingstayed y o u rn a m ei sc a l l e d C a ss o o na s D yet

word. 19 Fillinthemissing 1 She . learnedto usethe computer 2 H e w a s r e a l l yh a p p yt o . . . a b o u tJ o , s engagement 3 T o n yh a s. . . . . . . .. . w o r k i n gh a r da l ld a y 4 Theriveris . . pollutedto swim in 5 He asked they hadto go 6 It'sa . . .. colderthan it was yesterday. 7 Peteris ... determined asJames 8 Sam is by ... the best studentin the class. 9 Thefurtherwe walked,the .. tiredwe 0ecame 10 Thereare too factoriesin this part of town 1 1 T h e l o n g e rt h e t e l e p h o n e c a l l ,t h e you pay 1 2 l ' m s u r ey o u c a nd o b e t t e r . . ..this. 1 3 She didn't get the job becauseshe wasn,t e x p e r i e n c e. d . . . 1 4 I t ' sb e e nr a i n i n g. . . . . mornrng 1 5 S h ei s n ' t. . . . . t o w o r k i n gl a t e 't6 . you washedthe dishes? 1 7 She .. .. havinglunchat 12 o,clock


usual C so D as

1 8 Take anumbrella in .. it rains. 19 . /you L v work v v u t N yesterdayT yE)l vu vgo v to 2 0 It was cold yesterday but today is colder

_a.1 it:


il- ii:=+= ModalVerbs Use , ability


Presentlirtur" Shecanplaytheviola. He'sableto writepoems

(90%certain) Shecanstillbeat schooL Shecouldbe late.(50o/o certain;it's possible s h ew i l l b e l a t e ) (50%certain;it'spossible Sammaybesleeping. that he issleeping) Theymight needsomehelp.(40% certain; p e r h a ptsh e yn e e ds o m eh e l p ) It is likelythat Tomwillcometomorrow. Tomislikelyto cometomorrow probability Shewill be 20 nextmonth.(100% certain; prediction) Theyshould arrive tonight.(90o/o certain; futureonly,it'sprobable) Heoughtto beat worknow.(90% certain;he w i l l p r o b a b lby e a t w o r k ) l o g i c aal s s u m p t i o n sYoumustknowthat.(90% certain- positive; l'm sureyou know that) Shecan'thaveso manypets.(negative;l'm s u r es h eh a s n ' t ) Theycouldn'tbe at home now (negative; I d o n ' tt h i n kt h e y ' r ea t h o m en o w ) permrssron You can/can'topen your book (giving or r e f u s i np g e r m i s s i oinn;f o r m a l ) CouldI go out?(more polite; asking for permission) givingpermission) Youmaygoout.(formal; Might I make a phonecall?(more formal; a s k i n gf o r p e r m i s s i o n ) l'm afraidyoucan't/mustn't makea phonecall. (informal,refusingpermission) (formal; Passengers maynot usemobilephones. refusingpermissionwrittennotice) (l sayso) necessity I mustpaythebilltomorrow. (necessity Theyhaveto wearuniforms. coming from outsidethe speaker) He'sgot to catchthetrain.(informal)

Shecould/wasableto play theviola.(repeated a c t i o n- a b i l i t yi n t h e p a s t ) Wewereable to escapefromthe burninghotel. ( s i n g la ec t i o n )


(Luckily Hecouldhavedrowned. he didn't) A n n m a y h a v e g o t l o s t . ( P e rshhaepi ssl o s t) Tommight havesoldhlscor (Perhapshe has s o l di t ) Itwaslikelythat thestarhaddisappeared. Thestar waslikelyto havedisappeared.

Sheshouldhaveleftbynow.(5hehasprobably left ) Heoughtto haverecorded hisnewCDby now. (Hehasprobablyrecordedit ) Shemusthavebeenseriously l//.(posiiive;l'm sureshewas) Theycan't have beenabroad.(negative;l'm suretheyweren't) Theycouldn'thavebeenmarried.(negative;I d o n ' tt h i n kt h e yw e r em a r r i e d ) They weren't allowed to/couldn't enter the country. \he wasallowedto seethe fiIes.(not: eeuld)

(l was obligedto) I hadto paythebillonFriday. Theyhad to wearuniformsat theprivateschool.

Hehad to catchthetrain. Thecqrneedsservicing. ORThecarneedsto be Thecarneededservicing. ORThecarneededto (lt's necessary) serviced. (it beserviced. was necessary) Shedoesn'thave to/doesn'tneed to/needn't Shedidn'thaveto/didn'tneedto workovertime. (lt - dr hUcJnt rnt- t^L C ^ F f\/na if nov/ flt iqn't a tr yv |n'AL aL oL c) ). d Ul wasn'tnecessary for herto work overlimeand necessity) shedidn't - absence of necessity) Yououghtto dropthema line.(t's necessary) Youneedn'thavemademe a cake.(lt wasn't necessary to makeme a cake,but you did )

nl^r VX J\)

I Ll l l l l l l t l l i l Ll i ' l r I i i ] r rLL rlir j i i ,L : i:ri r i r: i ) r , r , r , r r j i : ,l



i i= ii:=i.-=









'. Past I Youshouldbemorecareful. (generaladvice;I Youshouldhavebeenmorecareful.(but you adviseyou) weren't) You ought to brush your teeth every day. He ought to have givenher d /iff. (but he (l adviseyou; mostpeoplebelievethis) didn't) Wehadbettercancelthistrip.(lt'sa good idea; It would have beenbetterif we had cancelled adviceon a specific situarron; thetrip.(but we didn't) Shallwe borrowmoneyfrom thebank?(asl<ing for advice) Youcouldat leastletmeknow. Youcouldat leasthaveletmeknow. Heshouldtryagain. Heshould havetried again.(but he didn,t) Sheoughtto beon time. Sheought to havebeenon time.(lt was the I muststudyharder(l needto; I sayso) I haveto studyharder. (l'm obligedto; my teachers sayso) Weoughtta exercise daily.(lt'sthe right thing to do, but we don't alwaysdo it ) CanI borrowyourbook?(informal) CouldI borrowyourbook?(polile) MayI havethebookwhen youfinishit?(f ormal) Mightlturn up theradio?(veryformal) Willyouhelpmewith thisexercise? (veryfriendly) Wouldyou mind notsmokingin here?(polite) CanI helpyouwiththehousework? (informal) Shall I preparesnacks (informal) forthepicnrc? Wouldyou likeme to mowthelawnfor vou? Shallwego to thetheatre? Wecanalwayscatcha laterbus. Wecouldgo to thebeachat theweekend. You can't make overseas calls.(you aren,t allowedto) Youmustn'ttakephotographs. (it,sforbidden) Youmaynot parkhere.(f ormal) AIImotoristsmustobserve thenighwiy Code" People oughtnottosmoke. (lt'sthe rightthing to do, but peopledon't alwaysdo it )

r i g h t h i n gt o d o ,b u t s h ed i d n , d t o it ) I had to studyharder. I had to studyharder. Weoughtto havegivenmoremoneyto charity. (lt wasthe rightthingto do,but we didn,tdo it )

lgyt?yla Uue usedmycar.

They couldn't make overseai ;l/r. weren'tallowedto )


Allemployees hadto signnewcontracts. Sheoughtto havetakenherparents, (lt advice. w a st h e r i g h tt h i n gt o d o , b u t s h ed i d n , td o It)

Needn't- Didn't needto - Needn,thave ' don'thaveto/don'tneedto/needn't+presentinfinitive(itisnotnecessarytnthepresentorfuture) youdon,thave to/don'tneedto/needn'twakeupearlytomorrow.It'sSunday.(lt is not necessary to wake up ) ' didn'tneedto/didn'thaveto + present (it was not necessary infinitive in the pastandwe maynot know if the acttonhappenedor not ) shedidn'tneedto/didn'thoveto wakeup earlyyesterday. It wassunday.(ltwasn,tnecessary for herto wakeup earlyand we don,tknow if shedid or not ) o needn't+ bareperfectinfinitive (we knowthat sth happenedrn the pastalthoughit was not necessarv ) Youneedn'thaveleftsoearlylastnight.(you did, althoughitwas not necessarv,)


Irr l]



*"ffirr ;

Li=*: - rvraylvrishi ip"rtibir



Shemuststudya lot. Shemaystudya lot. PresentContinuous Shemustbestudying. lnfinitive Shemoy/mightbestudying. PerfectInfinitive Shecan'thavestudied. Shecan'thavestudied. Shecan'thavestudied. PerfectContinuous Shemayhavebeenstudying. Infinitive Shemayhavebeenstudying.


l'm sureshestudiesa lot. Perhaps shewillstudya lot. l'm suresheisstudying. Perhaps shewill bestudying I'msureshedidn'tstudy. l'msureshehasn'tstudied. l'msureshehadn'tstudied, Perhaps shewasstudying. Perhaps shehasbeenstudying.

Tags Question at the end of statements usedto confirmif the statementis true or not Questiontags areshortquestions .

. . .

Theyareformedwith the modalor auxiliary verbfrom the mainsentence and the appropriate subject pronoun A positivestatementtakesa negativequestionlag Youorecomingwithus,aren'tyou? A negativestatementtakesa positivequestionIag Hecan'tspeakEnglish,canhe? Whenthereis no auxiliary or modalverb,we usedo/doesor did + subjectpronoun Helenworksfor lnfotec,doesn'tsheTFelixdoesn'tlikeclassical music,doeshe? Whenthe statementcontainsa negativeadverbof frequency suchas rarely,neverihardly,seldom,we usea positivequestiontag SheneverwatchesTV, doesshe? Thequestiontagsof someverbs/expressions areformeddifferently I am invitedto theparty,aren'tl? (imperative) Leavemealone,will/won'tyou?Don'ttellanyone,will you?Let'shavea picnic,shallwe7 Thereis someicein thefridge,isn'tthere?Therearea fewbiscuitsleft,aren'tthere? Hehasgot a motorbike, hasn'the?BUTYouhaveenoughmoney, don'tyou? ThisislThatisJane'sbaq,isn'tit?

Note: . Whenyou aresureof'_p9answerand expectagreement, yourvoicegoesdown in the questiontag Hehaslivedabroad,hasn'the? . W h e n y o u a r e n o t s u r e o f t h e a n s w e r , y o u r v o i c e g o e s u p i n t h e q u e sYt iooundt ao gn ' t e a t m e a t , a f f i w l


Complete the dialogues by fillingin must,mustn't, con,con't,needn't or haveto,asin the example. 1 A: Do I needto buy a ticketin advance? B : N o ,y o u . a i l b u yo n et h e r e ,i f y o u l i k e . 2 A . I h a v e n 'et a t e na n y t h i n ga l ld a y B: Really? You be starving 3 A : A r ey o uw o r k i n gl a t ea g a i nt o n i g h t ? B: Yeswe finishthe projectby the weeKen0 4 A : W o u l dy o u l i k em e t o c o o kd i n n e rt o n i g h t ? B: Oh you do that l'll make s o m e t h i nw g h e nI g e t b a c k


5 A: Haveyou seenthis note I got from Alex? | readanyof it B : O h ,I k n o w H i sh a n d w r i t i nigsa w f u l ,i s n ' ti t ? 6 A: So,we'll meetat the stationat sixo'clock B: OK, fine. You forget to call Adamto let him knowwhat timewe'rearriving 7

A: lt's a shamewe didn't book that holiday,isn't ir? B: Yesbut there'snothingwe do it about now, l'm afraid



: 1= li:=+r:: A: Youlook happyWhat did the doctorsay? B : O h , h e s a i d m y k n e e i s m u c h b e t t e ra n d I . g o b a c ka n ds e eh i ma g a i n

3 The doctorsaidI can't/mustn'teat too much red meat 4 He'sgot a terribletoothacheHereallyshould/could go to the dentist 5 I m u s t n ' t / m i g h tg o o u t t o n i g h t ,i f I f i n i s ht h i s project 6 You must/ought to eat at leastthree piecesof fruit eachday . 7 You mustn't/shouldn'tforget to pay the phone b i l lt o d a y 8 You must/oughtto wear a helmetwhen you ride a motorbike,it'sagainstthe jaw not to

A : D o y o ut h i n kt h a t ' sp a u l ' ss i s t e r ? B : N o ,i t . b e H es a i ds h ew o u l db e i n R o m et h i sw e e k 1 0 A : l sJ a n eh o m ey e t T B : N o ,s h e s t i l lb e a t w o r k S h es a i d shewouldbe latetoday


Underlinethe correctmodalverb. 1 Shesaidshecouldn't/can't comeyesterday because s h e h a d a l r e a d ym a d ep l a n st o g o o u t w i t h h e r sister 2 W e c a n ' t / m u s t n 'ht a v er u n o u t o f m r l k ,I b o u g h t s o m et h i sm o r n i n g 3 We needto/shouldhaveinvitedCraigto the party 4 Louise isn't upstairs.She can/must have left already 5 | w o n d e rw h y H a n n a hd i d n , tc o m et o w o r k t o d a y M a y b eo n e o f u s m a y / s h o u l d c a l la n d c h e c kt h a t s h e ' sa l r i g h t 6 W e m u s t / m i g h tf i n i s ha l l t h e w o r k b y 1 O3 0 l , m not sureyet 7 We needn't/oughtn't to leave right away, we haveplentyof time 8 l'm afraidyou can't/mustn'tspeakto Mr Lambert a t t h e m o m e n t h, e ' si n a m e e t i n g 9 | can'tdo my HistoryhomeworkDo you think you

9 You might/mayborrowmy new earrings, as long a sy o u d o n ' tl o s et h e m 10 You shouldn't/can'thaveeatenso manysweets No wonderyou'vegot stomachachel

1 L u c k i i yI (do)all of the work a g a i nb e c a u sIeh a da b a c ku p c o p yo n d i s k 2 l t t u r n e do u t t h a t I ( c a l l )J o b e c a u sIea nh a da l r e a dtyo l d h e rt h e n e w s 3 | (buy) more milk because M u m h a da l r e a dby o u g h ts o m e , 4 She (dress)smartlyfor the party,so shewore herjeans 5 John (go) into the bank, he c o u l dh a v ec l o s e dh i sa c c o u not v e rt h e p h o n e 6 They (walk)to the supermarket because Simongavethem a lift

could/should helpme? 10 Youmustn't/needn't tellhimaboutthe oartvWe wantit to bea surprise 3

Wheremightyouseeeachof the followingsigns? Writesentences to explainwhat eachonemeans, asin theexample.

Fillin needn'thave/didn,tneedto and the correct form of the verb in bracketsto completethe sentences.


a b

Usecan,cont,hoveto, don'thavetoand needntwith the promptsbelowto ask andanswer questions aboutusingpublic transportin your country. Youcanuse yourown ideas.

H #t

1 (lnapark)- Youmustn't playballgames in thisarea. a


Underline the correctmodalverb,thenexplainits use. 1 Excuse me,will/couldyoutell me howto get to OxfordStreet, please? 2 Youneedn't/shouldn't pickup the children from school, l'm leaving workearlytodaysoI cando it

a o a o

buya ticketto travelon the bus/train buy a monthlytravelpass travelfreeif you areover65 e a to r d r i n ki n t h e v e h i c l e buyticketsin advance

A: DoI haveto buya ticketto travelon thetrainor bus? B: Yes, youdo.CanL..etc



tat *!


:F== LJ=;# 7

Lookat the photographs andusethe promptsto makeup sentences usingmust,mustn'tor needn't. . buy a ticket . throw litterover theside . makea reservation Youmustbuya ticket yougeton the before

ferry. havetoo much ruggage c h e c ki n t a k ey o u rl u g g a g e on board

2 A : S h a lw l e g o t o t h e c i n e m at o n i g h t ? B : a Sorry,we won't b Sorry,I can't 3 A : C o u l dy o u p o s tt h i sf o r m ew h i l ey o u ' r eo u t ? B : a N o ta t a l l b No problem 4

A C a nI t a l kt o y o u f o r a m o m e n t ? B : a Yes,you will b Certainly Wouldyou pickRonup tomorrow? B : a Of courseI would b O f c o u r s eI w i l l

6 A : W i l ly o ut a p et h a t f i l mf o r m e t o n i g h t ? B : a l ' d b e h a p p yt o b Yes,I may

question tags. 10 Fillinthecorrect

o o


t a k ey o u rr e c e i p t forgetyourPIN number haveyourlD with you

Lookat the pictures andmakeasmany assumptions aspossible, asin the examples. Hemightbelateforan appointment. Hecan'tbeonholiday. Hecouldbeon hiswayhome.

1 Let'sgo for a walk, .? 2 He rarelygoesout on a week night, 5 Shelivesnearme, ? your 4 Thisis newspaper, ? 5 Youhaven'tfinishedyour homework, 6 Thechildrenareveryquiettoday, 7 He is a good cook, ? 8 Youhaven'tgot a CD player, 9 Tonylovesltalianfood, 7 1 0 Youwill cometo the party, .. ?



Useof English . Error Correction outtheincorrect wordineach sentence. 11 Cross I m u s tt o g o t o t h e b a n ka t l u n c h t i mteo g e t s o m e money 2 Y o us h o u l dt o s t o pe a t i n gj u n kf o o d 3 Theydidn't havebeento work becauseit wastheir dayoff I w a s n ' tb e a b l et o c a l ly o u O e c a u syeo u r p n o n e w a se n g a g e d Don't let me forget, I must have to phone my p a r e n ttso n i g h t I a m u s e dt o b e a b l et o p l a yt h e p i a n ow h e n I w a s younger


Choosethe correctanswer. 1 A : D o y o ut h i n ky o u c o u l dh e l pm e w i t h t h i s ? B: a Of course b Yes,I needto

1I n-) wz_ i I l l i l l l i l l ' l l l l L l l l l r [ ] r | ! r i i I r : r i l L l r Lr b , , ! r ' r r l

H e d i d n ' tn e e dt o h a v ec l e a nt h e k i t c h e nb e c a u s e R i c kh a da l r e a ddy o n ei t .J N e e dI t o g o w i t h t h e m ? 9 W e d o n ' to u g h th a v et o g o i f y o ud o n ' tw a n t t o 1 0 T h e ym i g h t h a v et o c a u g h tt h e t r a i n i f J o a nh a d b e e nr e a d yo n t i m e

ffimwwwffiffif â&#x201A;Ź Effi#% . WordFormation

. KeyWordTransforrnations usedwith


verbs verbs,adjectives, n o un 5 in-: independent,indecisive adjectives, nouns (beforel) illogicat il-: adjectives, nouns im-: . (beforem and p) impossible adjectives, nouns (beforer) irresistible ir-: adjectives, nouns non-: non-smoker,non-toxrc adjectives, nouns un-: unfailuntidy adjectives, adverbs a n dn o u n s

Studytheexamples. ln eachcasethesecondsentence has a similar meaning to thefirstsentence.

disadvan tag e, disinf ect

Youcan'tget a drivinglicenceif you are underj 7 rnust You must be 17 or overto get a driving licence 2 lt'sa good ideato brushyourteeth aftereverymeal should You should brush your teeth after everymeal 3 There's a possibility that Jjmwill be at the party. might J i mm i g h t b e a t t h e p a r t y . 4

thesentences witha wordformed from 12 Complete thewordin bold. 1 Luckily, the housewas . when the fire brokeout It wasa relaxed, . occaSton You mustkeepon workingwith him no matterhow muchyou


H a v i n grespectfor your parentsis the right th jng to do. ought You ought to have respectfor your parents

5 Do I needto get a visato visitthe USA? necessary ls tt necessary to get a visato visitthe


AGREE lf you the turkey, FROST w e w i l l c o o ki t t o n i g h t . Hewas surethat what theywere d o i n gw a s ,., sohe LEGAL decidedto callthe police He haswrittenten novelsaswel as a n u m b eor f ... books, FICTION I havea meetingat 5 30, it'sreally . because I normally C O N V E N I E N T finishwork at 3:00o'clockon Fridays Don't be so ! The PATIENT b u sw i l l b e h e r ei n a m i n u t e Matt wasvery and LUCKY m i s s e tdh e g o a l .I t h o u g h th e w a s the bestplayeroverall 1 0 Theyrun a PROFIT o r g a n i s a t i ownh i c hh e l p st h e homeless in London 1 1 What he wassayingwastotally .. t o t h e m a i nt o p i c RELEVANT of the meeting 1 2 You mustn't . the OBEY law or you'llget into trouble.


Completethe sentences with two to five words, includingthe word in bold. Do not changethe meaningof the originalsentence.


1 l ' m s u r et h a t F r a n km i s s e tdh e t r a i n . have Frank the train 2 lt was not necessary for usto booka tablebecause the restaurant is neverbusyon Mondaynights have Therestaurant is neverbusyon Monday n i g h t ss, o . . . . .a t a b l e . 3 lt is forbiddento studentsto talk to one another d u r i n gt h e e x a m must Students o n ea n o t h e d r u r i n gt h e e x a m 4 Youshouldget somedetailsfrom theirwebsite you ought 5

moredetailsfrom theirwebsite, R o b i nm u s tb e h e r e ,h i sc a ri ss t i l li n t h e c a rp a r r . certain I hereh , i sc a ri ss t i l li n t h e c a rp a r k NeedI callto confirmmy booking?

necessary ts 7

to confirmmy booking? My doctoradvisedme to stayin bed should My doctortold me that

8 lt isposibte thatI wil J: fffl to hetp you might






=ilELJ=* . OpenCloze 14

Readthe text below and think of the word which bestfits eachspace.Use only one word in eachspace.Thereis an e x a m p l e( 0 ) a t t h e b e g i n n i n g .

. M ultiole Choice Cloze 15

Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which bestfitsthe space, (0) asin the example. Thereisan example at the beginning.

Don't be SAD Mostof us,at sometime or 0) cnofher, suffer from the 'winterblues',As the daysget shorter and cooler,we find ourselves feelingtired and w e t e n d1 ) . . . e a t m o r et h a nw e s h o u l dl t is perfectlynatural,our internalbiological clocks a r e s i m p l yr e a c t i n gt o t h e c h a n g e si n s u n l i g h t p a t t e r n sT h eo n l ys o l u t i o ni st o c a r r y2 ) . . . . . . .. a n d t r y t o m a k et h e b e s to f t h i n g s3 ) . . . . . . w a i t i n gf o r s p r i n g . Some people, however, 4) the 'winter blues'overwhelming. Theyhavelittleor no interest5) work, school,familyor friends Theyare tired all the time, 6) matterhow muchsleepthey get,and theycrave (potatoes,bread,spaghetti,etc) carbohydrates Theyalsoexperience feelingsof despair,misery and hopelessness Theseare symptomsof the disease 7) ... as SADor Seasonal Affective Disorder The cure 8) . . . a logicalone. Sufferers needexposure to brightlight Formild formsof t h e d i s e a s es i m p l ys p e n d i n gm o r e 9 ) . . . . . . . outsideusuallyhelpsto relievethe symptoms, but seriousSAD sufferersneed 10) moreeffectivetreatment.Accordingto medical professionals,the recommendedtreatment 11) . . . S A Di s e x p o s u r ef r, o m 3 0 m i n u t e s to two hours daily,to a 'light box' This box p r o d u c eas b r i g h tl i g h tw h i c hi s s i m i l atro b e i n g o u t s i d eo n a c l o u d yw i n t e r ' sd a y i n A l a s k aT h e p a t i e n t1 2 ) . . . . . t o a l l o wt h e l i g h tt o m a k e contactwith their eyesas research has shown that it is the effectof light on the eyes,rather 13) o n t h e s k i n ,w h i c h r e d u c e sS A D symptoms. Exercisecan also help relieve symptomsof depressron L u c k i l yt h , o u g h ,m o s t 1 4 ) us simply experience a mild form of the diseaseIn thls case, an effective cure includes anything 15) a C a r i b b e a nh o l i d a yt,o a g r e a t evening outwithfriends.


Curry,nowadays,is becomingknown as a 0) ir"=#ii';,:,-r=i+j English food In fact, it is 1) . easierto find an Indianrestauranl t h a na f i s ha n dc h i ps h o pi n m o s tl a r g ec i t i e sa n dt o w n si n t h e U K The reasonsare obvious,curriesare tasty, whereastraditional Englishfood 2) . sometimesbe quite bland What few peopleknow, 3) , is that most of the herbsand spices usedto makecurryhavemedicalproperties G a r l i ca n do n i o n sh a v eb e e nu s e d4 ) t h o u s a n dosf y e a r s to help lowercholesterol and blood pressure and treat infections. Turmericacid aidsdigestion,actsas an antisepticand supposedly hasantr-cancer propertiesCoriander, used5) , ., , , the ancient Greeksand Egyptians to flavourwine, is known to easemigraine headaches Gingeris 6) . . known for its abilltyto suppressnausea and reducefever When usedtopicallyit alsoactsas an effective 7) Chilliis alsofamousasa topicalpainreliever aswell as b e i n ga b l et o s t o p b l e e d i n g8 ) . a p p l i e dt o a c u t . l t a l s o h e l p s t h e b o d y p r o d u c ee n d o r p h i n sw h i c h c a u s ef e e l i n g so f pleasureClovesare usefulfor preserving food and they are also a(n)9) . ingredientin topicalpainrelievers usedby dentists But, be warned,beforeyou go rushingto your spicerack to 10 ) y o u ra c h e sa n d p a i n sm a k es u r et h a t y o u 11) what you are doing Most of thesespicescan havea 12) effectif you usetoo much lt is also13) to find out what f o r mt h e ys h o u l db e i n F o re x a m p l ec,u t t i n ga r a wc h i l lpj e p p ear n d r u b b i n gi t i n t o a n o p e n1 4 ) c o u l db e 1 5 ). a sw e l l a sh a r m f u l .

0A ac c epte l Aquite 2 A is 3 Aso 4 A for 5 Awith 6Amuch 7 A painkiller

d B u s u a l |El B often C B would C B f o r t u n a t e lC y B rn C B by C B highly C B stopper C 8Awhile Bwhen C 9 Afirst B important C 10 A solve B fix C 11 Athink B consider C 12 A positive B unknown C 13 Aimportant B needed C 14 A lnjury B hurt C 15 A hurtful B painful C

tradtttonal lJ very D could D nevertheiessD since D for D very D reducer D as D usual D cure D learn D negative D advised D sprain D helpful D

cultural seldom can however during from well destroyer whether main mend know minimal significant wound awful

W w



Revision(Unitsl-5) thecorrect item. 16 Circle

1 4 P u p i l s. . inthecorridors A d o n ' th a v et o r u n C m u s t n ' tr u n B n e e d n ' rt u n D n e e d n ' bt e r u n n i n g 15

He hasworkedwith hisfather he left school A when B since C before D while | .. . to the partybut I didn'tstaylongbecause I wastired A amgoing C h a db e e ng o i n g B was going D went 3


lt .. . heavilyall week and the roadsare wet and slippery. A h a dr a i n e d C h a sb e e nr a i n i n g B i sr a i n i n g D rains W h a tt i m ed i dJ o h n ' sf l i g h t .. yesterday? A land C landed B belanding D w a sl a n d i n g H ep u t t h e l a d d e u rp t h ew a l l . A to B against C from D between Bythistime nextyear| . . payingfor my car A havefinished B w l l l h a v ef i n i s h e d C amfinishing D a m g o i n gt o b e f i n i s h i n g l f h e h a se n o u g hm o n e y h , e.. o n h o l i d a yi n thesummer A goes C willgo B istogo D w i l l h a v eg o n e


C o l i nw o n ' t c o m eu n l e s h se .. theessav A willfinish C i sf l n i s h i n g B finishes D w i l l h a v ef i n i s h e d When I was at school,I reallyhated . . for exam5. A study C usedto study B to study D studying

10 Oh no! | forgot out. A posting B post

those letterswhen I was C to post D to haveposted

1 1 S o l d i e r .s. . obey ordersfrom their superior officers. Acan B might C haveto D ought to 12 You to the supermarketlater, l'll go t o m o r r o wm o r n t n g . A n e e d n 'gt o C n e e d n 'h t a v eg o n e B didn't haveto go D neededto go 13 That have been Harry,scar you saw yesterday. Hisis blue,not green. A needn't C mightn't B couldn't D shouldn't

. you tell me how to get to the stationfrom here,please? A Shali B Could C Should D May

1 6 T h e r e. 5Ure. A must 17 We could heavily Ago B begoing

be an electionthis year,but l'm not B might

C ought

D should

to the theatre,but it was raining

1 8 L e a v em e a l o n e ., . . A shall B will

C havegone D havebeengoing you? C do

D have

1 9 T h a th o u s e . . f 3 0 , 0 0 0i n 1 9 9 8 A cost B will cost C hascost D costs 20 Thematchwill havefinished A when B after C by

six. D since

word. 17 Fillinthemissing 1 Do I to do my homeworknow? 2 She .. be ill I saw her just five minutes ago. 3 Thecoffeeis . . .. hot for me to drink 4 We aren't going to the cinema tonight, ..we? 5 Thewater isn'thot yet 6 .. you be coming to the party on Saturday? 7 He isthe . .. . interesting man l,veevermet 8 You . .. .. smokein here lt,snot airoweo. 9 l ' l lb e h o m ee a r l y t h e b u si s l a t e 1 0 W h e nI w a s a c h i l d w , e .. . to go to Spain everySummer 1 1 J a n ec o u l d . . . h e l p e du s ,b u t s h ed i d n , t 12 He is to workingon Saturdays. 1 3 L e t ' sp l a ys q u a s h , .. we? '14 Thebandhad beenplayingfor an hour the lightswent out 1 5 D o n ' tp h o n ea t 6 : 0 0 l ' l l h a v i n ga p r a n o lesson 16 We were not .. to takephotos 17 Tomrarelydrivesto work, he7 1 8 H o wo l d l i t t l eM a r yb e i n M a r c h ? 19 Was Sharon to read and write when shewas fiveyearsoldT 20 When we were youngerwe used to go sailing .. ... weeKeno




= :; '; E:


-rr-^ t-)^--i,,^ I r rc rd>>tvc

Verb/TenseForm P r e s e nsti m p l e Present continuous P a s st i m p l e Pastcontinuous F u t u r es i m p l e Prp(ont narfort

Pastperfect Futureperfect Present infinitive Perfectinfinitive -ing form Modals



Hiscompanybuildshousesandofficeblocks Houses andofficeblocksarebuilt by his company. Theyarebuildinga newhospital. A newhospital is beingbuilt. Theybuilt thesehousesin the 1950s. Thesehouses werebuiltin the l950s. Theywerebuildingthesupermarket when Thesupermarket wasbeingbuilt when theyranoutof money. theyranoutof money. Theywill builda bridgeacrosstheriver. A bridgewill be built acrosstheriver. Theyhavebuilta biggercinema. A biggercinemahasbeenbuilt. Theyhad builthalfof thehouses beforethey Halfof thehouses hadbeenbuiltbefore phone laidthephonecables. thevlaidthe cables. Theywill havebuilt it by theendof theyear. It will havebeenbuilt by theendof theyear Theycanbuildan extension in theirback An extension canbe built in theirback qarden. qarden. Theymusthavebuiltthesecond terminalat Thesecond terminalat theairportmust theairportbynow. havebeenbuilt bynow. Theywantto preventthemfrombuildinga Theywantto preventa newroadfrom newroad. beingbuilt. Theyshouldbuilda newTownHall. AnewTownHallshouldbe built.

Thepresent perfectcontinuous, pastperfectcontinuous futurecontinuous, andfutureperfectcontinuous arenot y normal usedinthepassive Wecanusetheverbto get instead of theverbto be in everyday speech whenwetalkaboutthingsthathappen by accidentorunexpectedly Hegotinjuredwhenhewasplayingrugby.(nsteadofhewosinjured...)

We usethe passive: '

' '

whenihe person or people whodo theactionareunknown, unimportant or obvious fromtheconiext, (Wedon'tknowwho stoleit ) Hrswalletwas stolen. Thecarisbeingrepaired.(ft isunimportant whoisrepairing it ) (lt isobvious Thecriminals havebeenarrested. thatthe policearrested them) whentheactionitselfismoreimportant thantheperson/people whodo it, asin newsheadlines, newspaper articles, formalnotices, processes, advertisements, instructions, etc Thegallery willbeopened to thepublic onJuly7th.(formal notice) whenwe wantto avoidtakingresponsibility foranactionor whenwe referto an unpleasant eventandwe do notwant to saywho or whatisto blameMstakes havebeenmadeinthepast.

Changingfrom the activeto the passive: o . I

106 I I i , l i l l [ ] lI I l l l l l r0 r 1 L i i I i l , I M L ,

i r i , ,r , , , 1 , , r '

the objectof the activesentences becomes the subjectin the passive sentence theactive verbremains in thesametensebutchanges intoa passive form thesubject of theactive sentence becomes theaqent,andiseitherintroduced withthepreposition by or isomitted

ffirmrmffiffi$ â&#x201A;Ź â&#x201A;Źffi#% f Acrtr/El rapns

fPASstr/E I




only transitive verbs(verbsthat take an ob.lect) canbe changedinto the passrve Jackieis redecoratingtheflat. (transitive verb) l Theflat is beingredecorated byJackie. BUT:Jackielivesonthethirdfloor(intransitive verb) - no passivefarm:Thethirdfteerl yJafu. Note: Sometransitive verbs(have,be, exist,seem,fit, suit, resemble,lack,etc)cannotbe changedinto the passive, Rick hasa redjumper.(NOTMdjry1@k) by + agent is usedto saywho or what carriesout an actton with + instrument/material/ingredient is usedto saywhat the agentused Thepastasaucewasmadeby Tony. / lt wasmadewith freshtomatoesfrom thegarden. Theagent can be omittedwhen the subjectis they,he,someone/somebody, people,one, elc Somebody hascleaned thecar. -) Thecarhasbeencleaned. Theagentis not omittedwhen rt is a specific or importantperson,or when it is essential to the meaningof the sentenceThenovelwaswrittenby Charles Dickens. Newmeasures areto beintroduced by the localcouncil. Whenwe want to find out who or what performedan action,the passive questionform is Who/What... bv? Whowasthepicturepaintedby? With verbswhichcantaketwo objectssuchas bring,tell, send,show,teach,promise,buy,sell, read.offer, give,lend,etc,we canform two differentpassive sentences Emilytoldthechildrena story.(active) Thechildrenweretolda storybyEmily(passive, more usuar/ A storywastoldto thechildren byEmily.(passive, lessusuarT lf, in an activesentence, preposition a followsa verb,then it is placedimmediately afterthe verbin the passive Christhrewtheballinto theair. r Theballwasthrown into theair bv Chris. Theverbshear,help,seeand makearefollowedby the bareinfinitivein the activebut by the to-infinitivein the passive Theteachermadethestudentsworkveryhard. t Thestudents weremadeto workveryhardby theteacher. Let becomesbe allowed to in the passive,Shelet thechildren stayup late. t Thechildrenwereallowedto stavuD late.

Relative Clauses Relatlve clauses areintroduced with eithera relativepronounor a relativeadverb. RelativePronouns We use: 1 2 3

who(m)/that to referto people Tina,whoisHelen's got herBAlastsummer. sister, which/that to referto things Thepenwhichisonyour deskis mine. whosewith people,animalsand objectsto show possession (insteadof a possessive adjective)Bob,whose fatherisa lawyer, gotpromoted lastmonth.



â&#x201A;Ź* r5#

W h o , w h i c h a n d t h a t c a n b e o m i t t e d w h e n t h e y a r e t h e o b j e c t o f t h e r e l a t i v 5e hc e l a3ut sh e g(iw r lh o ) t t o l d youabout.BUTShe's thedoctorwholivesnextdoar.(whocan'tbeomitted) Whom canbe usedinsteadof who when it isthe objectof the relativeclauseWhom is alwaysusedinstead of who or that after a preposilionThat's themanto whomlwasspeaking lastnight Who, which, or that arenot omittedwhen they arethe subjectof a relativeclauseThemanwholivesnextdoor isa doctor. Whoseis neveromitted,She'sthegirl whosecarlbought. RelativeAdverbs We use: 1 2 3

when/that to referto a time (when/thatcan be omitted) Thatwastheyear(when/that)wewenttosouthAfrica. where to referto placesThetownwherehelivesisin theNorthWestof England. why to givea reason,usuallyafter the word reason(why can be omitted) Thereason(why)hedid thisis stillnot clear.

ldentifyingand Non-ldentifyingRelativeClauses



An identifying relativeclausegivesnecessary information, essential to the meaningof the mainsentencelt is not put in commasand is introduced with who, that, whose,where,when or the reason(why). ThedoctorwhotreatedHannahsaidshewouldbefinein a coupleof davs.


A non-identifying relativeclausegivesextrainformationand ls not essential to the meaningof the main sentencelt is put in commasand is introduced with who, whom, which,whose,where or when Thedoctor,who wasveryfriendly, gaveHannahan injection.

a. Fillin the gapsin the table.

5 When I spoke to him this morning he . . . . .. t h e g a r d e nf e n c e 6 Yesterday she took the bus to work because h e rc a r 7 The report ...... by Harry and Sarah. 8 Duringthe last year,two new supermarkets . . in the centreof town

Fillin byor with, as in the example.

b. Usethe appropriateverb forms from the table to completethe sentences. 1 The companysforssinformationabout all its customers on computer. 2 Theparcel tomorrow. 3 T h ep o l i c e. . . . t h e m a nf o r a letterto Anna at


1 The salad dressingls made r,vltholive oil and vrnegar. 2 The car was being fixed a friend of ours 3 Thetreewas cut down a chainsaw. 4 On Saturdayafternoonsthe streets are filled . shoppers 5 That book was written .... . my favourite autnor 6 All of this troublewas caused Sally's interfering

?:='==:r:.;-: 3

a. Readthe passage andput the verbsintothe correctpassive tense.

4 A : H a v et h e yf i n i s h e b du i l d i n g t h e n e wc j n e m a yet? B : Yes,I heardthat iVopen/the mayornextweek


Didyou writethat report? B : No, I think iVwrrte/Fiona

firstmodern OlympiG c ames

6 A : Why wereyou late? B : My flighVdelay/by the badweather

A t h e n si n 1 8 9 6 T h e y 2 ) . . (organise) by the lnternational Olympic Committee, which3) (found)two years e a r l i ebr y t h e F r e n c h m aBna r o np i e r r ed e C o u b e r t i nA t the firstgames,athletesfromjust 13 countries 4) (invite)to take partin 42 eventsSince t h e n ,t h e s u m m egr a m e s5 ) ( h o s t )b y a differentcityeveryfour years(exceptduringthe World W a r sa ) n dt h e i rp o p u l a r i thya sg r o w na n dg r o w n T h e 2000 Gamesin Sydney, Australia, which 6) ( a t t e n d )b y m o r et h a n 1 O , O O 0 athletesfrom almost2OOcountries, 7) (think)to havebeen the biggestand the bestyet lt 8) (hope)that the evenr will be evenmoresuccessful in the yearsto come


8 A : Haveyou finisheddecorating yourflat? B : No, but iVfrnish/by the end of the month o


C a nI b o r r o wy o u rb l u ej u m p e r ? B : Sorry,but iVwash/at the moment

1 0 A : H o wo l d i st h i sp i c t u r e ? B : l V p a i n V m o trhea n 1 0 0y e a r sa g o


b. Askandanswerquestions, asin the example.

A Haveyou got yourcarbackyet? B : No, iVstill/not repair

Rewritethe followingpassagein the passiveform.


The poticearrestedlocatman ,r"o;:;", ;.;;;';;;. ;;.r' i:f the armedrobberyof the petrolstationon GeorgeStreet ::{ :1 TheycaughtRowerunningaway from the sceneand they t; found that he was carryingmorethan f2OO0in cash They a, Usingthe prompts, writesentences in the passive, ri later officiallycharged him with the robbery A police asin the examole. ; s p o k e s m aann n o u n c etdh a t R o w ew i l l a p p e a ri n c o u r tn e x t m o n t h l f h e i sf o u n dg u i l t yt,h ej u d g ec o u l ds e n t e n chei mt o ,l up to ten yearsin prison

A: Where werethefirstmodern Olympic Games held? B: They wereheldin Athens. Who.. .? etc.


Rewritethe newspaper headlines ascomplete sentences, asin the examole.

I Investigationto be held into tragiccoachcrash I 1 A : W h a ta r et h e c h i l d r e d no i n g ? B : They/teach/E nglish TheyarebeingtaughtEnglish. 2 A . That'sa reallynicedress B : Thanks,iVgive/tome for my birthday D o y o u f a n c yg o i n go u t f o r d i n n e rt o n i g h t ? B : SorryI can't,I/invite/to a party

I ueroict not reached Ot iurY in the , : case -, waterman :

, Extrafundingfor hospitals. announcedby Health : . : -. Minister

Ove-o+y sTRiKETo EE ++to Fy TRAIMDRvER5

Aninvestigation willbeheldintothetraqiccoachcrash.


ff := Lâ&#x201A;Ź==#


lf possible, in the rewritethe followingsentences passrve.

andmakeupasmany 10 Lookat thepictures sentences aspossible usingrelatives.

Julielivesin Barcelona Can'tbeput intothepassive TheychosePaulto be the newteamcaptain Paulwaschosento bethenewteamcaptain. Theyhaveclosedthe roadbecause ofthe floods 4 Theyhavetwo sonsanda daughter 5 Thepostmandelivered the letterjust beforewe left 6 Thatold shirtdoesn'tfit me anymore


a l a r mc l o c k goldfish

Fillin who,whichorwhose,then saywhetheror not pronouncanbe omitted,asin the the relative examptes.

4 5

That'sthe woman wh*se daughterworks in the bank ir***of&eoffiiffedj Maryis the personwJ'l*lwantedto speakto {r** &c*ffiiri*dj That'sthe book I wantedto borrow from you l s M a r kt h e b o y hasgot a motorbike? M r J o h n s o ni s t h e m a n t o po f t h e h i l l . TL^-^ | | tc)c

^-^ dtc

+L^ L It c

-L^^)t luc5

b i n o c lua r s








lbought last


Agoldfish isasmall fishwhich wekeep asapet, thecorrect item. 11 Circle 1 Do you know the man newsagent's? A which B whose 2

Matchthe itemsin the two columns. Thenusethe correctrelativepronoun,who,whoseor which,to makeup complete sentences. FTdl n doctorissomeone ETI rhe tigerisan animal This is Peter FTI ETI n kettleissomething ETI Cregisthemechanrc

11n' t t \ J

iI :l ltl il tt 0 il [] rilil nilnr

C who

3 W h a t ' st h e n a m e o f t h a t c o m e d i a n TV showyou werewatchinglastnight? A who's B whose C whom

a fixedour car b is usedto boilwater c c a nb e f o u n di n lndia


thesick d cures youmer e srsrer yesterday

5 Thisis MissWalters phone

Adoctor issomeone whocures thesick.

owns the

N e i l s a i d t h a t t h e r e ' sa f i l m o n a t t h e c i n e m a . . . we mightenjoy A which B who C whose

The students, essayswere due the next day,wereall workingin the library A whose B that C who

A which

1- d

l an t e r n

n o u s e1 50 n

week .Jamie is the person . i s i n c h a r g eo f t h e project 8 lsn't ClaireWinters the woman brotherworkswith Steve? 9 R o h ' ct h o n o r c n n won the tennis c o m p e t i t i o nn,o t W i l l '10 That'sthe school the boysusedto go to



you spoketo on the

B whom

6 T h e n e w w a s h i n gm a c h i n e wasverycheap A where B which

C who's she bought C who

Useof English

. ErrorCorrection

. WordFormation

out-: over-: post-: ' pre-: re-: semi-: sub-: super-: under-:

outtheincorrect wordineach sentence. 13 Cross 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Theirhouseit was brokeninto lastweek Amandawho was invitedto the partyby Jane He is saidthat to be veryrich S h e ' sh a db e e nh e rh a i rc u t ,h a s n ,st h e ? Thereportis stillbeinghadtypedat the moment I was agreedwith everything theyweresaying. That'sthe manwho isworksin the supermarket Joyce,whosedaughterlivesnextdoor,sheworksin thehospital 9 T h a tw h i c hi st h e g i r lw h o b o u g h tR o b , h s ouse 1 0 5hewas seento talkingto Benlastnight

more,better (outperform) to a great extent (overreact) after (post-graduate) before(pre-school) again(rewrite) half(semi-detached) under,less(sub-zero) big, more(supermarket) not enough(underpaid)

. KeyWordTransformations eachof thesentences witha word 12 Complete formed fromthewordin bold.

Studythe examples.ln eachcasethe secondsentencehas a similarmeaningto the firstsentence.

1 He everybodyelse i n t h e t o u r n a m e nat n dw o n e a s i l y 2 The seatshad beenarrangedin a


facingthe front of the room 3 Thefilm was in Frenchwith English


apporntment, allowed I was allowedto leaveearlybecauseI had a d e n t a al p p o i n t m e n t . 2 The governmenthassuggested that we shouldtry to conservewater. by lt has been suggestedby the government

TITLE 4 T h e g a r d e nhad been neglected and wasvery 5 You mustn't how difficuitit is goingto be 6 Theirhousewas destroyedby the earthquake but theyaredetermined to it 7 lna. .interview,the coach tried to explain why his team had playedso badly 8 Before you put in the chicken, . the ovento 1BO"C 9 She had always dreamed of b e c o m i na g 10 | a n d w a s l a t ef o r scnool

that we shouldtry to conserve water GROWN ESTIMATE




Most people believethat the OlympicGamesnerp promoteworldpeace. believed The OlympicGamesare believedto help promoteworld peace


We got a qualifiedplumberto installour new shower. had We had our new shower installedby a q u a l i f i ep dl u m b e r .


Someone stolehercarlastnight. was Hercarwas stolenlastnight

6 They will replacethe broken wrndow romorrow morntng. be The broken window will be replaced tomorrowmornjng


7 Theyare expectingthe Royalcoupleto arriveback in E n g l a n od n S u n d a ym o r n i n g expected The Royalcouple are expected to arrive b a c ki n E n g l a n od n S u n d a m y orning 8


lf I don't finjshthe reportby Friday, I won,t be abteto go awaythisweekend finished tf this report isn,t finished by Friday, I won't be ableto go awaythisweekend. "j





r- Li-*


with two to Complete the sentences fivewords,including the wordin bold. Donot change the meaning of the originalsentence.

. M u l t i o l eC h o i c eC l o z e thetextbeloWthencircle theanswer A, B,Cor Dwhich 1 5 Read (0)at thebeginning. bestfitsthespace. There isanexample


She has to finish her essayby next Monday finished Heressay by nextMonday

Going abroadhas neverbeen easierToday,thanks 0) f* the UK'sPetTravelScheme(PETS), you can safelyand easilytake your pet with you when you travel to many European c o u n t r i e as n d t o a n u m b e r of long haul destinations 1 ) . . . . . . . .. . . .A u s t r a lai an d N e w Z e a l a n dF . i r s to f a l l ,

Theylet me takethe dayoff yesterday allowed I the day off yesterday Peoplebelievethat the traincrashwas caused b y a s i g n afla i l u r e believed lt . . train crashwas causedby a s i g n afla i l u r e They delivered her new furniture yesterday was H e rn e w f u r n i t u r e . .. yesterday The mechanicat the garageserviced o u rc a r . had We t h e m e c h a n iact t h e g a r a g e A national newspaperhas reported t h a t t h e m i n i s t eirs g o i n gt o r e s i g n by lt has n a t i o n a l n e w s p a p e rt h a t t h e m i n i s t e ri s g o i n g t o restgn It is expectedthat Barcelona will win the match Barcelona the match T h ep o l i c ea r et o c a r r yo u t a t h o r o u g h investigation be A t h o r o u g hi n v e s t i g a t i o n b yt h e p o l i c e T h e l o c a lc o u n c i h l a s s u g g e s t etdh a t t h e p o l i c es h o u l di m p o s eh e a v yf i n e s f o r d a n g e r o udsr i v i n g by l t ........ t h e l o c a l c o u n c i lt h a t t h e p o l i c es h o u l di m p o s eh e a v y f i n e sf o r d a n g e r o udsr i v i n g

1I 1t z )_ l






vorir net

ncpds to

have a

m i c r o c h i p2 ) This m e a n st h a t a s m a l lm i c r o c h i p , a b o u tt h e 3 ) of a grain of rice,is inserted4) the looseskin 5) the back of the neck The microchiphas a special c o d eo n i t w h i c hi s 6 ) . . . . . . . . t o e a c h animal and is used for identification7) I n f o r m a t i oanb o u tt h e a n i m asl u c ha s n a m e a , g e ,b r e e da n dv a c c i n a t i o n d e t a i l sa, l o n g8 ) . . . . d e t a i l sa b o u tt h e o w n e r a , r e9 ) on a central computer The next step is to have your pet vaccinated 10) rabiesThenafter a follow-upblood 11) , a PETS Certificate or passportwill be issuedand your pet canset off with you Of course,this new conveniencedoesn't come cheap, with the 12) costof the procedure amountingto f200 13) w h e n c o m p a r e dt o t h e o l d w a y , a q u a r a n t i n e , 14) of six months at a cost of f2,OO0,it is certainlya 15) i n t h e r i g h td i r e c t i o n

O A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 A 5 A 6 A 7 A 8 A 9 A 1 0 A 11 A 1 2 A 1 3 A 1 4 A 1 5 A



counting B fitted B amount B to B In B unrque B reasons B to b stored B to B e x a m i n a t i oBn total B Whereas B nori nd B B


C C installed C rar9eness C Into C on C individual C intentions C with c deposited C o9or r)L C research C SUM C l-)oqnito C C time stride C l-A^aih6r

with plus built-in size beside a t only functions

b v reserved for test added However <i:no



o f including fixed range b v b v same purposes for collected through investigation complete Eventhough stretch step



:i- ii:=;+j: . OpenCloze Readthe text belowandthinkof the wordwhich bestfitseachspace. Useonlyonewordin each space. Thereisan example (0)at the beginning.


thecorrect item. 17 Circle 1 He f o r t h a t p h o n ec a l ls i n c e5 o , c l o c k A waits C h a sb e e nw a i t i n g B i sw a i t i n g D w i l lw a i t 2

lf I hearfromJoey,I A am letting B let


H i sp r e v i o ujso b w a sj u s t , . w e l l p a i da s t h e o n e h e h a 5n o w A not B more C slightly D as

i r*rl-r.=; i*:r-rlll '-'


s-G) R e v i s i o( U n n i t1






More and 0) ;=Gr-people today are turning to the I n t e r n etto m e e t 1 ) e m p l o y m e nnte e d sA c c o r d i n g 2) one recentsurvey,more3) one million U K r e s i d e n t ss e a r c h f o r j o b s t h r o u g h t h e I n t e r n e t 4) m o n t h l n r e s p o n s5 e) this demand, thousandsof new sites,offeringto matchjob huntersto suitable a d v e r t i s e m e nht sa,v e6 ) I a u n c h e dF o rt h e thesesitesareveryconvenientThereis no more lob-seeker, h u n t i n g7 ) a l i s to f t h o u s a n dosf a d v e r t i s e m e nr or s f i n d t h e o n e t h e y a r e l o o k r n gf o r T h e y c a n s i m p l y 8) r i d o f u n s u i t a b l ea d v e r t i s e m e n b t sy b e i n g specific9) their searchdetails lf they do not wish to accept a salary 10) less than f3O,OOO, 11) if they do not wish to work outsidea certatn area,for example, then they cantype in this informationat the start of their searchin 12) to savetnemsetves t h e t r o u b l eo f r e a d i n ga b o u tj o b st h a t a r e 1 3 ) no rnterest to them TheInternetalsoallowsthe job_seeker to sendtheirCVsto a numberof differentplacesmorequickly They can 14) get up-to-the-minuteinformation a b o u tw h i c hj o b s a r e s t i l la v a i l a b l eS o , n e x tt i m e y o u a r e 15) the lookoutfor that exciiingnew opporrunrry; g e t o n l i n ea n dg e t a h e a c , ,

you know C w i l lb e l e t t i n g D w i l ll e t

4 There'sno point in she'snot interested A explaining B explain 5

i w o u l dl o v e A own B to own

how you feel,because C explained D to explarn

my own restaurant one day C owning D to beowning

6 She b e m a r r r e d S h e w a s w e a r i n ga w e d d i n gr i n g A could B needn't C must D c an ' t 7 We to go to bed soon We'vegot a very busydaytomorrow A should B ought C must D can 8

He g e t t h e r e i n t i m e ; t d e p e n d so n t h e trafflc A might B must C ought D need

9 Theleakwas fixed A w i th B for

a plumber. C by D to

1 0 H e c a n ' t c o m e b e c a u s eh e to work overttmeeverynightthisweek A makes C i sm a k i n g B i s b e i n gm a d e D i sm a d e

word. 18 Fillinthemissing 'l

% b l 1 t "' ,

l o't i

1".. l''r'' I t , t. i




C h i n e s ies in Taiwan 2 Haveyou invitedto the party? 3 She will have working here for iwenty-fiveyearswhen sheretires 4 That'sthe house I grew up 5 The demonstrators want to stop the law from , passed This is Peter James is the new c o m p u t etre c h n i c r a n H e h a s b e e ns t u d y i n ga l l n i g h t H e be exhausted 8 It is that he will be the nextpresident 9 Thesaucewas made freshherbs 1 0 The priceof computersis expected Ise



Causative form o . . .

We usehave+ object+ past participleto saythat we havearrangedfor someoneto do somethingfor us The pastparticiple (5hedidn'tcut herown hair) hasa passive meaningShehadherhaircutat thenewhairdresser's. (present verb have formed with and negations of the are do/does simple)or did (pastsimple) Questions Didyouhavethecarpetscleanedlastweek? Wealsousehavesomethingdonetotalkaboutanunpleasantexperiencethatsom WehbeondKyahtaedw a s in town,shehadherbagstolen.(= her bag was stolen) Wecanusetheverbgetinsteadofhaveininform c oanl v e r s a t i ol 'nl lg e t t h e p h o t o g r a p h s d e v e l o p e d w h e n l g o tntotown. Regularactiveform

PresentSimple PresentContinuous P a s tS i m p l e PastContinuous FutureSimple F u t u r eC o n t i n u o u s PresentPerfect PresentPerfectContinuous PastPerfect PastPerfectContinuous Infinitive -ing form

He fixeshisbike H e i s f i x i n gh i sb i k e He fixed hisbike Hewas fixing hisbike H ew i l l f i x h i sb i k e H ew i l l b e f i x i n gh i sb i k e H eh a sf i x e dh i sb i k e H e h a sb e e nf i x i n gh i sb i k e H e h a d f i x e dh i sb i k e H eh a d b e e nf i x i n gh i sb i k e H es h o u l df i x h i sb i k e It'sworth fixing hisbike

Causativeform He has hisbikefixed He is havinqhisbikefixed He had hisbikefixed Hewas havinohisbikefixed Hewill havehisbikefixed H ew i l l b e h a v i n gh i sb i k ef i x e d He has had hisbikefixed He has beenhavinghisbikefixed H e h a d h a d h i sb i k ef i x e d H eh a d b e e nh a v i n gh i sb i k ef i x e d He shouldhavehisbikefixed It'sworth havinghlsbikefixed

Reoorted Soeech . o


We usedirectspeechto quotesomeone's exactwords We enclosetheirwordsin invertedcommas "llivein HighfieldRoad,"Evesaid.or Evesaid,"llivein HighfieldRoad." We usereportedspeechto reportthe exactmeaningof what someonesaid,but not in the exactwords We do not useinvertedcommasPersonalpronouns,possessive pronounschange adjectivesand possessive according to the meaningof the sentenceEvesaidthatshelivesin Highfield Road. We can reportsomeone's wordsa longtime aftertheyweresaid(out-of-datereporting)or a shorttime after theyweresaid(up-to-datereporting)

S a y - T e- A llsk Saycan be usedboth in directand reportedspeechlt is usedwith or without a personal object Whenit is usedwith a personal objectit is alwaysfollowedby to (saidto him) In reportedspeechsay is not followedby an objectpronoun,but it can be followedby that "l'mtired,"shesaid. OR "l'mtired," Direct: shesaidto me. (that) Reported: Shesaid shewastired. Tellcanbe usedboth in directand reportedspeechlt is alwaysfollowedby a personal object(toldhrm) Direct: "lcomefromNewcastle," Garytoldme. Reported: GarytoldmethathecomesfromNewcastle Ask is usedin directquestionslt is alsousedin reportedquestions and requests Direct: "Where areyougoing?" heaskedme. "Hurryup,"shesaid. Reported: Heaskedmewherelwasgoing. Sheaskedusto hurrvup.

114 i l r l l l l n u uur L rr u n r L r ,


ii= ti=*


Expressions usedwith say,tell and ask hello,good morning/afternoon etc,something/nothing, so,a prayer,a fewwords,etc the truth, a lie,a story,a secret,a joke,the time,the difference, one from another,somebody one,sname, somebody the way,somebody so,someone,s fortune,etc a question,a favour,the price,aftersomebody, the time,around,for somethrng/somebody, etc In reportedspeech: .

Tenses changeas fotrows

" I walk to work everyday PresentSimple " I a m g o i n gt o t h e c i n e m a PresentContinuous " I nave haveTtntsneo finishedmy homework', PresentPerfect " I b o u g h tt h e i rn e w C D .

-+ -+ **+

" l w a s p l a y i n gf o o t b a lal t 1 2 o , c l o c k" PastContinuous


" l w i l l g o a n db u ys o m eb r e a d"



Hesaid(that)he walkedto work everyday P a s tS i m p l e H es a i d( i h a t )h e w a s g o i n gt o t h e c i n e m i . Hesaid(that)he had finishedhishoinework_ Hesaid(that)he boughVhad nougfrttherr;;:;tO. PastSimpleor Pastperfecr H es a i dt h a t h ew a s p l a y i n g / h abde e np l a y i n gf o o t b a lal t 1 2 PastContinuousor PastperfectContinuous H es a i dt h a t h e w o u l d g o a n db u ys o m eb r e a d . Conditional(would)

Thepastperfectand pastperfectcontinuous do not changein reportedspeech '

Somewordsand time expressions changeaccording to the meaningof the sentence here+ there,come+ go today,tonight+ that day,that night r the day before,the previousday yesterday now >then, at that/the time/moment.immediately two daysago + two days before lastmonth- the month before,the previousmonth thisweek+ that week tomorrow+ the next/followingday nextmonth+ the month after,the following month


Somemodalverbsalsochange,as follows: will , would - could,can (futurereference)>could/wouldbe able can(ability) to + may might shall ' should + p''rt,71rud must(obligation) ,o needn't needn't/didn,tneedto/didn.t haveto





E= Li=*


Usethe promptsto saywhatyou cando at eachof the businesses.


Lookat the pictures and makesentences usingthe causative form,asin the example.

RomsPizzs Beautiful Itolisn pasta ond pizza

Top stylisf ct low prices

We'll developyour holidoy snops while you wcit



We con insfoll locks, security lighfs, burgloralorms.

They/photograph/take Theyarehavingtheirphotographtaken.


2 5


pizzaldeltver (bythem). Youcanhavea pizzadelivered

2 3 4 5 6


Rewrite the sentences usingthe causative form,as in theexample. 1 Someone isgoingio paintourhouse tomorrow Wearegoingtohaveourhouse painted tomorrow.

hair/cut photographs/ develop n e wb u r g l aar l a r mi/n s t a l l leaflets/print carlrepair

2 Weareinstalling central heating thiswinter 3 T h eh a i r d r e s sceur t m v h a i rt h i sm o r n i n o 4


Rewritethe sentences usingthe causative form, in the example. Hiscarisserviced twicea year Hehashiscarserviced twicea year. Herjacketis beingdry cleanedat the moment 3 Theirnew gasfirewas installed lastmonth 4 M y m o b i l ep h o n ew a ss t o l e nl a s tn i g h t 5 Thedoctorcheckedhisbloodpressure. o Dida professional theirhousefor them? decorate z

4 4 / '

t t o

i: lLrl lll ll iill iNll [] r [] [,r NrLr] rn[],r Lrxrrx:rtrililxrdnn,,-,rnu,!,n,ri.

She/order/take She/teeth/check He/trousers/a lter

T h e yw i l l d e l i v eor u r f u r n i t u r eo n F r i d a y

5 T h ep l u m b eirs f i x i n qt h e s i n ki n t h e k i t c h e n


Complete the sentences usingthe causative. 1 Ann'shairistoolongShe Theywantedto havea marqueein their garden They We still haven'ttakenour holidayphotographs to be developedWe yet

John is at the optician'sHe


Reportwhatthe doctorsaidto the patient,asin the example.

You need to arrange for someoneto repairyour roof You Mary's purse was stolen yesterdayMary Tony'snosewasbrokenduring the match.Tony T h e p a i n t e ri s p a i n t i n gB e n ' s bedroom Ben.


lf it is broken, we will haveto put it in a cast

Complete the sentences by fillingin the correctformof say,tell,or ask,asin the examole. Alisonref#me that she was goingon holidaynextweek N e i l ' sg o i n g i n t o t o w n , h e . if we wanted anythingfromthe shops lf you seeCarol her that Harrywas looking f o r h e re a r l i e r D i dA n n ao r C h r i s a n y t h i na g b o u tw h a tt h e ya r e d o i n gt o n i g h t ? The boss John that we have to finish the reporttoday Dave that we shouldn't wait for him b e c a u s eh e m i g h t b e a b i t late He her where she would like to go for drnner I mustrememberto someone what time rne examstarts I don't want to be late Did she you why shedidn'tgo to the party lastnight? 1 0 Tina always t h a t s h e i s g o i n gt o q u i t h e r job and go back to college, but I don't know if she ever will

to sitdown' thePatient asked 1 She 2 3 4 5 6


Matchthe speech (A-F)tothe sentences bubbles (1-6).Then,rewrite themasreported speech to complete the sentences, asin the example. B


G o t o y o u rr o o m !

Wheredid you buy it?

I-TII I was meetinghim at the station,so I csksdhim wh*t tifi1â&#x201A;Źhlstr#itt *{{ivtd.

fTrl frtl

Theboywas misbehaving, so hismum Benhad an examthe followingday,so he


J a n er e a l l yl i k e dT i n a ' n s e ws k i r t s, o s h e

l-Til rh" rentwasdue,soTim soJim l-T0 I Wewereallgoingoutto dinner,



â&#x201A;Ź= .: I ; "


i ; 1 . - ;;, -" ' = r.--,


Joworksin a clothesshop.Readthe questions that a customer askedherandturntheminto reported questions, asin the example.

Change the directspeech into reported speech, as in theexamole.

"Do you havethis


3 4 5 6

shirt in a smaller stze?" Heaskedif theyhad theshirtin a smaller stze. " l s t h e r ea f i t t i n g room whereI can t r y i t o n ?" " How muchdoes it cost?" "Can I pay by creditcard?" "Willyou be opentomorrow?" " W h a tt i m ed o y o ; c l o s eo n S a t u r d a y s ? "

It'son sai T O rL l 5


Thecustomer asked if thetiewentwith hisshirt.




Rewriteeachof the sentences in directspeech, as in theexamole.

5 6

Hesaidthathewouldcalimethenextday "lwillcallyoutomorrow," 2 Shesaidthatshecouldspeak ltalian 5

He saidthat he neededto go to the supermarket laterthat day Shesaidthat she had seenthat film the previous week


Heaskedif I wouldgivehim a lift to work


Shesaidthat I shouldgo backtherethe following mornrng When I saw him yesterday, he saidthat he wasn't workingtoday


. Error Correction outtheincorrect wordineach sentence. 12 Cross


SheaskedwhetherI was goingawaythe following weeKen0

5 6 7

He askedwhetherwe had playedfootballthe day before

8 9

10 Sheaskedif shecouldborrowsomemoney


Useof English


He is having had his house decoratedat the moment H e r a p p o i n t m e nwt a s t w o h o u r sa g o ,s o s h ew i l l h a v eh a db e e nh e rh a i rc u t b y n o w I don't want to cooktonight Why don't we have s o m e t h i nhga v ed e l i v e r e d ? I am havingmy eyesbe testedat the optician's this afternoon Shegot her new furniturewas delivered yesterday S h ed i d n ' th a v et h e h o u s eb e c l e a n e b d yt h e m a i d N i n as a i dm e t h a t s h e h a d a s p a r et i c k e tf o r t h e concert Emmaaskedif wherewe weregoingio meet H e a s k e dt o m e w h a t I w a s d o i n g l a t e r t h a t evenIng S h e s a i d s h e w a s s t a r t i n gh e r n e w j o b o n r n e followingweek

il:e E E . KeyWordTransformations Studythe examples.In eachcasethe secondsentencehas a similarmeaningto the firstsentence.

S t u a r st a i d , I t h i n kt h a t I c a nf i x i t cout0 Stuartsaid fix it 7

sard would

t 1 Theyarrangedfor a caketo be madefor Joe,sbirthdavl party had

They had a cake made for Joe'sbirthday party

A t t h e m o m e n tt,h e i rk i t c h e ni s b e i n gp a i n t e d having Theyare having their kitchen painted at themoment 3 Whichhairdresser's did you go to lastweek? get Wheredid you get your haircut lastweek? 4

P a ms a i d ," l ' m g o i n gt o t h e t h e a t r ew i t h S a r a hn e x t week " was Pamtold me that she was going to the theatrewith Sarahthe followingweek


" W h e r es h a lw l e g o t o n i g h t ?" p a u la s k e d should


P a ual s k e dw h e r ew e s h o u l dg o t h a t n i g h t

" l t ' sh o t i n h e r e , "s h es a i d " W i l ly o u o p e na w i n d o w , " Mike? asked Shesaidthat it was hot in there and asked Mike to opena window.



" l ' l l g o a n d p i c kC l a i r eu p f r o mt h e s t a t i o n , "M a r k


M a r ks a i dt h a t Claireup from the station

Paulsaid," I was on holidayin Francelastweek ', p r e v i o u s P a usl a i dt h a t d u r i n gt h e .

. o n h o l i d a yi n F r a n c e

. WordFormation

verb + erlorlar (teacher, governor,Iiar) verb/noun/adjective + ist (typist,motorist,specialist) verb+ ant/ent (assistant, correspondent) noun + an/ian (American, ltalian,historion) verb + ee (licensee, referee)

1 4 Completeeachof the sentenceswith a word formed from the word in bold.

thesentences withtwoto fivewords, 13 Complete including thewordin bold.Donotchange the meaning of theoriginal sentence. 1 Julianarrangedfor one of the secretaries to type that letter. had Julian by one ofthe secretaries 2

Our new sofa didn't fit in the car,so it is being delivered nextweek getting Our new sofadidn't fit in the car,so we


He took his car to the garage couldbe fixed having He a t t h e g a r a g et o d a y


" l st h e m a t c ho n T Vt o n i g h t ? "s a i dR i c k whether Rick o n T Vt h a t n i g h t


" Y o u s h o u l dd o y o u r h o m e w o r ka f t e r d i n n p r T o m ' sm u ms a i dt o h i m told T o m ' sm u m do hishomeworkafterdinner

. +^l-., LWUOy

next week -^ )U

+L^+ U td L

:+ tt

The . . told PHOTOGRAPH everyone to smilewhilehe took the picture Spainattractshundredsof t h o u s a n dosf TOUR everyyear Didthey evercatchthe w h o b r o k ei n t o BURGLE yourflat? All of the EMPLOY compana y r ee n t i t l e dt o f o u r weekspaidholidayeachyear. T h ew i n n i n g CONTEST recervesaf5000prize He is a verytalented . a n d h i sl a t e sfti l m ACT was a greatsuccess She'sa .atSt STUDY Andrew'sCollege 8 He'sverycreativeand he'salways wantedto be an ART Her t o l d h e rt h a t MANAGE shewould haveto do some overtimethisweek 1 0 Thetown hasabout70,000 INHABIT






' O p e nC l o z e

1 5 Readthe text belowandthinkof the

wordwhichbestfitseachspace. Use onlyonewordin eachspace. Thereis an (0)at the beginning. example

L::.. t;_:::



1,.......1 L-,__.

t:_:": t'


Did you know that shoppingcan 0) ;::-baci f o r y o u rh e a l t h ?F o rm a n yo f u ss h o p p r nigs p a r L of our dailyroutine,whether it's going to the 7:::, supermarl<et or lust buyinEa newspaperfrom t_.L..__.__ l-.,---..1the local newsagent 'tr) , a recent ttrdy by a Britishresearcher hasshownthat, in , .-.._ L-,.--.-,-some cases,shoppingcan be 2) .. stressful that it couldleadto healthproblems l-1 The study --.vras carried3) by a {" consultingfirm hired by a largeNorth London |-':shopping centre The aim of the studywas to l.' ,-1. help identifythe stresslevel 4-) s h o p p e rds u r i n gb u s yt i m e s5 ) as Saturdays or holidays,and to try to come up 6) waysto helpmakethe shopping expenence morerelaxing andenjoyable Thirtyfive shoppers7) selected for the study Theyrangedin age between22 a n d 7 9 a n d t w o t h i r d so f t h e m w e r e f e m a l e Their heart rates and blood pressurewere recorded8) they were shopping and they were interviewed before and 9) t h e i rs h o p p i n tgr i p The study reportedsome '10) interestingresults All the male test sublecrs e x p e n e n c eadn i n c r e a s1et r ) blood pressureand heart rate, some reachinglevels s i m i l a1r 2 ). a f i g h t e rp i l o tg o i n gi n t o n o i n gi n t o a d a n g e r o u s b a t t l eo r a p o l i c e m a g s i t u a i i o nO n t h e o t h e r 1 3 ) , only one in four of the 14) test subjects e x p e r i e n c ecdh a n g e sr n b l o o d p r e s s u r ea n d heartrate The conclusions drawn 'l5) ihis s t u d y s h o w t h a t w o m e n a r e g e n e r a l l ym o r e e x p e r i e n c eadn d c o m f o r t a b l ew l t h s h o p p i n g L e s ss u r p r i s i n g l m y ,o s t m e n r e a l l yd o n ' i l i k e s h o p p i nagt a l l ! -

. M u l t i p lC e h o i cC eloze Readthe text beloWthencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which (0)at the beginning. bestfitsthe space. Thereis an example


F,fu*E=*sfi* What do live frogs, underwear, p o a c h e de g g sa n d c a p p u c c i naol l h a v e 0 ) , i c o m m o n ?T h e a n s w e ri s t h e y a r e .& a l l i t e m st a k e n 1 ) a v e r yl o n g l i s t of objectsthat can be bought from v e n d i n g m a c h i n e sM o s t o f u s a r e familiar 2\ more traditional m a c h i n et sh a t s e l ls o f td r i n k sc, h o c o l a t e bars or stamps,but believeit or not, t h e r ea r e n ' tt o o m a n yi t e m sy o u c a n ' t .a 3) i n v e n d i n gm a c h i n e s V e n d i n gm a c h i n e us s e dt o b e a l o t m o r e p o p u l a r4 ) : Sunday li shopping,24 hr convenience storesand fast food restaurants entered ':,1 Therewere evenmachines ,i our 5) in the 1950'sthat sold bread, e g g sa n d o t h e rs t a p l ef o o d i t e m s 6 ) , , i n J a p a nv, e n d i n gm a c h i n e s are still as popular 7) ever They even have fully automated 'a convenjence storeswherecustomers come in, write 8) the code j n u m b e r so f t h e p r o d u c t st h e y w a n t a n d p u n c h t h e m 9 ) a i, computerat the front of the store A robotic'buckei'then collectsatl t1,''the itemsyou want and putsthem into bagsfor youl '1\r InEuropa e n dt h e U S ,c o o k e df o o dv e n d i n gm a c h i n e1s0 ) to be 'fry q u i t e c o m m o n T h e o n t h e s p o t 'c h i p m a c h i n em :;' , i c r oh a m b u r g e r s andpizzadispensers wereparticularly 11) with university students i a n d i n a m u s e m e natr c a d e s . T o d a yw, e s t i l lf i n dv e n d i n gm a c h i n ei sn b u sa n dt r a r n1 2 ) i a n di n h o t e l a n d h o s p i t al o b b i e sb, u t u n f o r t u n a t e l u y ,s u a l l yd u e 1 3 ) . t e c h n i c adli f f i c u l t i easn, y t h i n g m o r ec o m p l i c a t e1d4 ) . , a s o f td r i n ki n adisappointment , t i a c a n o r ap a c k e t obf i s c u i ti su s u a l l ybai t 1 5 )

:1' '3

.t'94t ,*

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1'l 12 13 14 15





with u p t o find before homes Despite than down through would favourite routes t o

A for


o n from i n search after kitchens Whereas a s u p with were approved stops b v like o f

C through C C C C C C C C C !

view when lives However for i n into use popular proLq)

C o f C than C more


out with ask while lifestyles Even how over b v used liked stations for except like

effirmr?t$llffiff s =# -

(Units Revision 1-7) thecorrect item. 17 Circle I was soakingwet becauseas | . backfrom the shopsit startedto pourwith rain A walk C hadwalked B w a sw a l k i n g D h a db e e nw a l k i n g 2 Youwon't passthe course . . . you work hard A whether B if C when D unless They. . eatingby the time we arrive A w i l l h a v ef i n i s h e d C a r ef i n i s h i n g B w i l lf i n i s h D h a df i n i s h e d I regretnot lastweek A see B to see

Cathywhen shewas in town C seeing D to be seeing

H e h a sd e c i d e d . . . . . a n e w c o m p u t e r . A buy C buying B to buy D to buying Please A shall

I borrowthat new CD of yours? B must C can D shoulo

Oh, you . . have fed the dog, I gave him s o m e t h i nega r l i e r . A mustn't C couldn't B oughtn't D needn't The escapedprisoner dangerous A believes B is believed

C had believed D believed

Thesaucewas made Awit h Bb y

. cheeseand cream C fo r D to

to be armed and

1 0 George,

... fatherowns the localgarage,is t r a i n i n gt o b e c o m ea m e c h a n i c A who's B whose C that D which


Anna A said B told

that the film startsat 9 o' clock C asked D askedme

12 Excuseme, could you .. please? A say

1 3 They

B tell

what the time is C asked

D tell me

the weddinginvitationsprintedlast

week A have B arehaving 1 4 He said that he

C had D havehad in Belfastthe following

1 6 | d i d n ' th e a ry o u A to come B havecome

h o m el a s tn i g h t C come D coming

1 7 H e. . . . t o m et h a t I s h o u l dc a l lb a c ki n a n h o u r A asked C said B expressed D told 18

forget what he told you lt's very rmportant A mustn't B needn't

C d o n ' th a v et o D oughtn't

19 Haveyou decidedwhere t h i ss u m m e r ? A g o C to going B begoing D togo

20 Thedetectiveisthoughtto .

the mystery. C besolving D havebeensolving

A havesolved B solved

word. 18 Fillinthecorrect I .. . .... . .. to go to Portugaleverysummer when I wasyoung This novelis lesssuccessful .... one. You had ....


. the last

leavebeforeit rains

It's worth SUmmer

a n e w s w i m s u i tt h i s

T h et r a i nw i l l get there

arrrvedby the time we

lf I have.. .

money,l'll buy a new car

The children allowedto join in the party Theyall hada greattime That is the stadium me0at.

I won the gold

By September, he wiil have herefor fiveyears

1 0 Hesaidthat he

working go to the banklater.

1 1 We are

forward to our summer


1 2 Let'shavedinner,. .. . 1 3 He askedme

we? . I was from Egypt

1 4 We're playingtennis tomorrow


A hasbeen B w i l ib e

15 He had .. . . t h e c a r p e tc l e a n e dt h a t m o r n i n g and it lookedas good as new A has C had B have D i sh a v i n g

C had been D w o u l db e

ratns 15 He.



r""*,*r :{',


p t. R e n n r f e d f! vor rm mi l :| nr udr cr v,J , R r \ Lo y un! Jr Lj p J / q t c JSU ryryn L JnL p t vc t , t i nt n \_L\, J c r\LyvrLLv

To reportcommands,requests,suggestions, instructionsetc,we usean appropriate introductory verb Introductory verbsareusedwith the to-infinitive,the -ing form or a that-clause Introductoryverb


+ to infinitive agree * claim demand offer * promrse refuse * threaten

'l'llhelpyouwith thedecorating." "lknewnothingaboutit." "l wantto speakto themanager." "Would youlikemeto carrythosebagsforyou?" "l'llgiveyouthemoneybacktomorrow." "No,I won'tapologise to her." "Behave yourself or l'llsendyouto bed."

+ sb+ to-infinitive "Youshouldapplyforthatjob." advise ailow "Youcango out withyourfriends." ask "Couldyougivemea lift to work?" beg "Please, please, you haveto helpme." command "Putyourhandsin theair." "Youshouldenterthecompetition." encourage forbid "Youcannotgo to theparty." rnvite "Willyoucomeoverfordinnertomorrownight?" order * remind * warn

"Goanddoit st once!" "Don'tforgetto watertheflowers." "Becareful, don'ttouchtheoven."

+ - i n gf o r m accusesb of * a d m i t( t o )

"She stolethemoney." "Yes, I brokethewindow."

a p o l o g i sfeo r * boastabouVof

"l'msorryI haven'tfinishedthiswork." "l'mthebestplayerin theteam."

* c o m p l a i (nt o s b ) oflabout * deny " i n s i sot n * suggest

"lhavea terrible " headache

+ that clause explain i n f o r ms b


122 lLrrrirLiirNLrr0L

"ldidn'ttakeyourkeys." "lamgoingtopaythebill." "Whydon'twego to thebeachtomorrow." "llikeherlessons because she'sa verygood teacher." "Theflightwill bedelayedbyhalfan hour."

Reportedspeech Heagreedto helpmewith thedecorating. Heclaimedto knownothingaboutit. Hedemanded to speakto themanager. Heofferedto carrythebagsfor me Hepromisedto givemethemoneybackthenextday. Herefusedto apologiseto her. Hethreatened to sendmeto bedif I didn'tbehave myself. Headvisedme to applyfor thejob. Heallowedme to go out withmy friends. Heaskedme to givehim a lift to work. Hebeggedme to helphim. Hecommanded themto put theirhandsin theair. Heencouraged meto enterthecompetition. Heforbademe to go to theparty. Heinvitedme to go overfor dinnerthefollowing night. Heorderedme to go anddo it immediately. Heremindedme to watertheflowers Hewarnedmenot to touchtheoven. Heaccusedherof stealingthemoney. Headmitted(to)breaking/havingbrokenthe window. Heapologisedfor not havingfinishedthework. Heboastedabout/ofbeingthebestplayerin the team. Hecomplained(tome)of/abouthavingaterrible headache. Hedeniedtaking/havingtakenmykeys. Heinsistedon payingthebill. going to thebeachthenextday. Hesuggested Heexplained that heIikedherlessons because she wasa verygoodteacher. Heinformedusthat theflight wouldbe delayed byhalfan hour.

Theverbsmarkedwith an asterisk canalsobe followedby a that-clausein reportedspeech Heclaimedthat heknewnothinqaboutit. etc

ffirmrmffiffi$ @ 6m m%


never,rarely I haveneverbeen

N o t e :W e u s ea s i n g u l avre r bw i t h c o m p o u n dosf s o m e a , n y a n d n o Thereis nothingwecando.

to meanall, everyone, Wego to Scotlandeverysummer.Thebusesleaveeveryfive p r a c t i c a l layn dw i t h o u t

A few/Few- A little/Littre A f e w a n df e w a r eu s e dw i t h p l u r a lc o u n t a b l en o u n s A l i t t l ea n d l i t t l ea r eu s e dw i t h u n c o u n t a b l ne o u n s ' n . o

A few meansnot many but enough There area fewapplesleft,wouldyou likeone? Few meanshardlyany. almost none,and can be usedwith very for empnasrsThereare (very)few placesfor youngpeopleto go in thevillage. A l i t t l em e a n sn o t m u c hb u t e n o u g h Thereisa little milk left,you don'tneedto buyanytoday. L i t t l em e a n sh a r d l ya n y ,a l m o s tn o n e ,a n dc a nb e u s e dw i t h ,very for emphasis Thereis (very)little trafficat that time of night.



&{3m%ffi l.l','

" lt will be verydangerous! "

Matchthe columns to makesentences. T h et e a c h e r l p r o m i s e d . e a r n i n ga l o t o f m o n e y to sendthe studentsto Herparents the headmaster. m a k i n ga l lo f t h e Carl advised herself i arrangements They th reatened . him to get moreexercise i . Helen boastedabout i h.t to go to the party i . to do whateverthey couldj Thedoctor i n s i s t eodn rn hotn


He me that it would be very dangerous " N o ,I d i d n ' tb r e a kt h e g l a s s" . He h a v i n gb r o k e nt h e g l a s s


Fillin the correctformof the reporting verbsfrom the list. . refuse. apologise for . explain. suggest . Warn. deny. Offer. aCCUSe "Wouldyou likeme to helpyou with youressay?" She to helpme with my essay " S h a lwl e g o t o t h e c o n c e rot n F r i d a n yight? goingto the concerton Friday He . . night " l'm sorryI didn'tcometo the party." She not comingto the party "Youwerespeeding He .. . . . . m eo f s p e e d i n g 5 " N o ,l w o n ' t d o i t " to do it 6 | was latefor work because I missedthe bus He . . . ,. . that he had beenlatefor work because he had missedthe bus



Rewritethe followingsentencesin reportedspeech usingan appropriateintroductoryverb,as in the example. 1

" N o , l w o n ' t h e l py o ua n ym o r e . " Herefusedto helpmeanymore.

2 3 4 5 6

"lt would be a good ideafor you to join a gym " "Don't forgetit's Dawn'sbirthdayon Friday" "Wouldyou likea lift to the station,tomorrow?" " l t w a sM i k ew h o b r o k et h e c o m p u t e"r . "You'renot allowedto watchthat film lt's not suitablefor children" "We'rehavinga dinnerpartyon SaturdayWould y o ua n d P a u l i k et o c o m e ? " "Do you knowwherethe nearestbankis?" "lt wasn'tme who ate all of the biscuits" "l insistthat you refundthe moneyimmediately "

7 8 9 10


Fill in o/an or some, 1 2 3 4 5

. ..


milk chip . a p p l ej u i c e fruit . burger


7 8 9 10

. flce ...egg rea ... poraro spaghettl

;. &


Write C(for countable)or U (for uncountable)next to eachof the nouns.Then,usethem to make up sentences, as in the example.


l'd likea cheese sandwichanda glassof orangejuice,please.



' "


- n"t


D o y o u t h i n kw e i n v i t e dt o o people to the party? B : M a y b eT h e r ei s n ' t r o o mI n n e r e

5 A : We haven'tgot time you know B : I k n o w ,j u s t g i v em e m i n u t e sa n d l , l l be ready lt doesn'tmatter if we,re late

Fill in is, are, a(n)or some. 1 I want to buy new clothesthisweekend 2 thereany potatoesleft? 3 Broccoli verygood for you 4 | was hoping you could give me information 5 H e i s l o o k i n gf o r n e wf l a t 6 Theysay that the first two weeksof the course . the mostdifficult 7 Wouldyou like glassof water? 8 .Accommodationin London very expenstve



4 A . We'vegot a potatoes,shallI make chips? B : l d o n ' t t h i n k y o u ' l lb e a b l et o , t h e r e , sv e r y , oilleft

cheesesandwichf; yogurt ; sugar ; pear oregano ;mussel ;flour ;ketchup grapefruit ; omelette




Replace the wordsin bold with afew,a little,very few,or verylittle. It'sbeentwo or threeweekssinceI spoketo Carol It'sa seriousproblembut there'snot muchwe can d o a b o u ti t , l ' m a f r a i d Most of the guestshad left but therewere stilla c o u p l e o f p e o p l e s t a n d i n ga r o u n d c h a t t i n g

What can you see in the picture?Whichthingsare c o u n t a b l ea n d w h i c h u n c o u n t a b l e ?

T h e y h a d m a d ea l o t o f f o o d b u t o n l y a s m a l l a m o u n to f i t w a se a t e n S h e s p e a k sf l u e n t F r e n c ha n d s o m e l t a l i a n H a r d l ya n y s t u d e n tsst u d yL a t i na n da n c i e nG t reek at schoolthesedays There'sa small amount of stew ieft, would you l i k et o f i n , s h: t ? Not manypeoplewouldarguewith you aboutthat


Complete the sentences fillingin eachor every. Ron must be very fit. practically t i m e I w a l kp a s t h e g y m ,I s e eh i m i n t h e r e

Thereisan apple.(countable) Thereissomespaghetti.(uncountable) etc


Completethe dialoguesby filling in some,any, many, much,(o)Iittle, (a)few. 1 A : H a v ew e g o t B : Y e sl t h i n k t h e r e ' s

m o r eo r a n g ej u i c e ? left

2 A: Are there ticketsleft for the Friday n i g h tp e r f o r m a n c e ? B: Yes, sir, we have a left How . w o u l dy o u l i k e ?

. o f u s w a s a s k e dt o s t a n du p a n d introduceourselves to the group P e n n ya n d h e r s i s t e r g e t o n v e r y w e l l w i t h other Trainsto the town centre leave twenty minutes Theyarea verygoodteam Theyhavewon almost gamethey'veplayedthisseason l a nc o u l d n ' dt e c i d ew h e t h e rt o h a v et h e i c ec r e a n r or the chocolate c a k e ,s o h e t r i e d a l i t t l eb i t o f of them


# 1'l


q*%ffi 4'{'"'t

a. Lookat the pictures showingdifferentfoods. Usethe promptsandseverol, o lot of,no,not many,notmuch,o few,a little,to makeup sentences, asin the examples.

questions, asintheexamples. 13 Askandanswer

. pasta. applesr strawberries . beans. tomatoes r potatoes. icecream. raspberries . broccoli . soup. chocolates . cake. biscuits . lentils. milk . salad. crisps. orange juice

Fl iil'

,\. {. {











{' x'

l 6 a l o tn f n n < f n areno n n n l o c

A: Didyoubuy manyeggs? justa few. B: No,

2 A: Didyoubuy muchcoffee? B: No,justalittle.


Useof English b . Lookat the pictures again,thenin pairsaskand questions, answers asin the example. Arethereanytomatoes? B: Yes, therearea fewtomatoes. etc A.

12 Fillin some,onytno or their compounds,as in the example.


1 We were lost so we asked:*neb*dy/rcn's**t for directions 2 Havewe got . morepasta? 3 l'm afraidthere's cakeleft 4 Will you get l a m b c h o p sw h e n you'reat the supermarket? 5 l st h e r e I c a nd o t o h e l p ? 6 | l o o k e da l lo v e rt h e h o u s ef o r i t , b u t I c o u l d n 'fti n d it A n d ya n d J i mm u s th a v el e f t a l r e a d yI c a l l e dt h e i r flat but answered. T h e yk n e w a b o u ti t u n t i li t w a st o o late 9 We are determinedto go hot and s u n n yf o r o u r h o l i d a ytsh i sy e a r 1 0 | l o v et h a t s o n g ,l ' v e n e v e rh e a r d likeit before

' KeyWordTransformations Studythe examples. In eachcasethe second sentence hasa similar meaning to thefirstsentence. " Don'tforgetto buy a birthdaycard s a r dt o m e remindedAmy remindedme to buy a birthdaycard for Phil 2 " G e t o u t o f t h e c a r l" t h e p o l i c e m asnh o u t e da t t h e m ordered Thepoliceman orderedthem to get out of thecar 3 B e ns a i d ," O K ,I w i l lw a l kt h e d o g t o d a y" a g r e e d B e na g r e e dt o w a l k t h e d o g t h a t d a y 4 Thereisverylittlebreadleft hardly Thereis hardlyany breadleft 5 | l o o k e di n t h e b a gb u t t h e r ew a s n ' ta n y t h i n gi n i t n o t h i n g I l o o k e di n t h e b a gb u t t h e r ew a s n o t h i n g init 6 5 h er e a l l yl i k e st h a t a c t o ra n ds h eh a ss e e na l lo f h i s films every S h er e a l l yl i k e st h a t a c t o ra n ds h eh a ss e e n '",,,. everyone of hisfilms. ,ii =lllii\ir:l\liktJ:.iiiltirr7:'.,:irf,l\!ir,!i{ii1F-3ir!!:niitrifr


& ffigmrffi$?}ffit em ryffi

thesentences withtwoto fivewords, 14 Complete including thewordin bold.Donotchange the meaning of theoriginal sentence.

He has a very good job and he earnsa lots of money 1 0 D o y o u t h i n kt h e r ei s t o o h o w m u c hg a r l i ci n t h i s sauce?

" l ' m n o t g o i n gt o l e n dy o ua n ym o r em o n e y ,J, 'a c k told Rob refused

Jack any moremoney

C h l o es a i d , " l ' m a f r a i di t ' s m y f a u l t t h a t w e , r e late." that Chloe faultthat theywere late "YesEve,you cango and watchthe film,,'herdad toldher allowed Eve'sdad a n dw a t c ht h e f i l m . "Yes,l've got a lot of work to do this week,,,he s ar d admitted He a lot of work to do that week Shehad nowhereto staythat night anywhere 5he s t a yt h a t n i g h t The exam was very difficult and most of the studentsfailed very Theexamwasverydifficultand . the studentspassed " D o n ' tf o r g e t o c a l lJ i m , "A n n es a i dt o m e reminded Anne Jim We onlyhavea verysmallamountof cheeseleft little We.. ..left

. ErrorCorrection outtheincorrect wordineach sentence. 1 5 Cross Dawnwarnedto us that it was probablygoingto rainlaterthat day. Hethreatened them to callthe policeif they didn't turn the musicdown 5 H es u g g e s t eodn g o i n gs h o p p i n tgh e n e x td a y 4 J i l ld e n i e dt h a t h a v i n gc a u s e tdh e a c c i d e n t 5 Will you buy some of rice when you go to the shops? There'sa very little coffee left Would you like a n o t h e cr u p ? I was sureit was the right room but therewas nor nobodythere She lovesthat singerand she,sgot everyone CD he'severmade.


-ship: (addedto nounsthat referto people) refers to the state, experienceor skill of these people(citizenship, friendship) (addedto nounsthat referto people)refers to the states,conditions or periodsof time in which sth is experienced(boyhood, manhood) - m e n t : (added to verbs) refers to the processof m a k i n go r d o i n g s t h , o r t h e r e s u l to f t h i s process(enjoyment, punishment) -ne5s: (addedto adjectives)refers to the state or qualitydescribed by the adjective(carelessness, rudeness)

nounfromthewordin bold. 16 Formthecorrect


En *%ffi . OpenCloze

1 7 Readthe text belowandthinkof the

Use wordwhichbestfits eachspace. Thereisan onlyonewordin eachspace. (0)at the beginning. example

. Multiple Choice Cloze

1 8 Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which (0)at the beginning. bestfitsthe space. Thereisan example

have ave b B a n a n a sh Bananas become e c o m e B r i t a i n ' s. hardly a r d l y, , 0) ttt*st popular fruit. lt is h s u r p r i s i n gs i n c e t h i s b r i g h t y e l l o wt r o p i c a lf r u i t h a s s o lt tastes m u c ht o 1 ) s w e e t a n d d e l i c i o u si,t i s 2) w i t h v i t a m i n sa n d to m i n e r a lasn di sv e r y3 ) d v , i ynLp r srt

Ran,an:s elso contain a

fibre,whichgives mixtureof threedifferentsugarscombined4) your systeman instantburst 5) energy They are enjoyedby their energy many world classathletes,who use them to 6) levelsup duringcompetitions7) . . . fact,they areoftentakenonto CentreCourtfor a mid-gamesnackby leadingtennisstarsor eatenat "half-time famousfootballersEvengolferscarrythem around' 8) ' t o e a t d u r i n gt h e i rg a m e B a n a n a9s) . . m a k ea g r e a tb r e a k f a sotr snack for studentsas they are 10) . ., in potassium,viial for improvingconcentrationWhat's more, it's not only humanswho,:i' 11) enjoythe benefitsHorsetrainersusebananasto boostthe 12) of their four-leggedathletes.As you can see, bananas 13) for everyoneWe can all increase our dailyvitalitywith the . of our h e l po f t h i s u n i q u ef r u i t .S i m p l ys l i c i n ga b a n a n ao n 1 4 ) . b r e a k f a scte r e a le, a t i n go n e w i t h o u r l u n c ho r j u s t s n a c k i n o gn one 15) t h e d a yc a nh e l pu s k e e po u r e n e r g yl e v e l hs i g h

O A much : 1 A grve 2 A pacKe0 3 A srmple 4 A to 5 A of 6 A match 7 A To 8 A with 9 A al s o 1 0 A wealthy 'tI A might 1 2 A effect 1 3 4 do 1 4 A top 1 5 A while




most C take C complete C easy C of C tn C take C On C by C however C full C can C competitionC make C over C after C

many D offer D full D comfortable D with D with D catch D For D for D besides D healthy D must D performanceD help D cover D during D

best bring top gentle b v out keep l n a s though rich would challenge are through before

j',,r i,f'

2 i



j "

(Unirs Revision 1-B)

14 | havenevermet . A anyone B everyone

thecorrect item. 19 Circle


l ' m t o o t i r e d. A g o B togo


It's going to be a huge party.They have invited practically they know A somebody C nobody B anybody D everybody

outtonight C going D for going

18 My boss A asked B said

2 0 A A


1 0 He

an extrasetof keyscut afterBlllmoved

in. A has B i sh a v i n g

C h a sb e e nh a v r n g D had

1 1 H e. t h a t h e w o u l dc a l lh e rb a c kl a t e r A offered C asked B promised D refused 1 2 H eb o a s t e d . . w i n n i n gh i st e n n i sm a t c f r . A about B on C for Dto

1 3 I'm not sureif I will havetime to meet you later l'vegot A lot

of thingsto do today B many C lots D much

of my friendsnow work in London B many C lot D all

Fillinthemissing word. I was gettingreadyfor work rang

The thieves . shortlyafter the robberytook place A werearrested C havebeenarrested B arebeingarrested D will be arrested .. a

C insisted D explained

19 Anna is very stressedShe saysshe has t h i n g st o d o A verymany C too many B verymuch D too much

m o r et h a n a h u n d r e dy e a r s C w a sb u i l t D w a sb u i l d i n g

me to work on Saturdaythis


l ' m s u r eh e h a v et o l d u s i f h e h a d k n o w n anything A must B can C would D ought

After beinggiventhe award,the actor few words A told C requested B said D talked

biscuitsleft Helpyourself B afew C little D alittle

17 He us to take the train because the traffic was verybad. A offered C forbade B advised D suggested

In the end he . to go to the librarybecause he foundallthe information that he wantedon the web. A needhave B needn,t C need D d i d n , tn e e d

T h e i rh o u s e ago. A h a db u i l t B i sb u i l d i n g

assmartas her before C no one D nobody

Thereare A few

I a m g o i n gt o b e da ss o o na st h e f i l m .. A finished C finishes B i sf i n i s h i n g D w i l lf i n i s h t h a nj u l j e C t a l l e s t D a st a l l

-* *


How long .. . did you leaveuniversity? A ago B when C before D earlier

3 J a n em u s tb e s l i g h t l y A tall B taller


the doorbell

H e h a sb e e nw o r k i n gh e r e. , years 3

| can't believe April | .. iater.

m o r et h a n 1 5


0e JU next

t o g i v e m y s i s t e ra lift to the airport

5 The car house

stolen from


Lauraaskedme .




Jimwas comingor not.

. hishousepaintedby a professional

8 I trustAlex l'm surehe was . . . the truth 9 There'svery ., orange juice left in the carton We needto buy some

1 0 Sheapologised 't1 The

forgettingmy birthday

saucewasveryspicyI think I put too c h i l l pi o w d e ri n i t . 1 2 l ' m a f r a i dt h e r ei s n ' t spaghettileft 1 3 5he claimed already.

finishedthe report

14 1 5 Shewas carryinga suitcase in






to saythat we would like somethingto be differentin the present






s o m e t h i nw g h i c hh a p p e n e d n rl U n lli U d nl ' ' t L 'h l: on V n oVnC | | l; lnl JL-lhl ca n - - + V Pd)L

lwishyouwauldcometo lessons on time. lf onlyit wouldstopraining.





to express: o p o l i t ei m p e r a t i v e . a desirefor a situationor n e r s o n 'bse h a v i o rtror change


Matchthe itemsin columnA with thosein column B to makesentences, asin the example.


A .,,-}p 1 lf I wereyou, "\ 2 l f N e i ld i d n ' t to work tonight, "$ -li 3 lf you left right away, .,' l f E m m ad i d n ' tl i v e '\ so far away, lf I had morefree 3 't time, l f t h e yh a dm o r e "ft money, "\


a b c d e

Job f you mightstillcatch t h et r a i n

1- e Iftwere you,lwouldappty forthatjob. '



B he wouldcomewith us. I c o u l dl e a r na f o r e i g n language w e c o u l dv i s i th e rm o r e often. t h e yw o u i df i n da b i g g e rf l a t I wouldapplyfor that




lf I had knownit wasyourbirthday,I (buy)you a present. lf I were you, | (write) a ietterof complaintto the company lf I hadn'tgot stuckin traffic,| .. .. (not/miss)the train. lf we had beeninvitedto the wedding,we . lf you didn't haveto *ort on Sutrrduyr,*. lno) (visit)yourparentsmoreoften lf I werean architect, |. (design) .. my own house lf you hadstudiedharder,you (not/fail)yourexams 9 l f y o u h a dt o l d h i mt h e t r u t h ,h e .. (forgive)you 1 0 l f w e h a da g a r d e nw, e (grow)our own vegetables

Putthe verbsin brackets intothe correcttense,as in the example. 1 lf we hadenoughmoney, we r*wfdgw(go) to the clnema.




Lookat the pictures, thenusethe promptsto write sentences. type2 or type3 conditional

g o l C a r i b b e ai snl a n d

invite/all my friends

Whatwouldyoudo if yo1 wantedto loseweight? If I wanted toloseweight, I wouldstartgoingto thegym. lf lwanted eata healthy diet.etc toloseweight,lwould 2 wonthe lottery? 3 hadtwo week'sholiday? 4 moved to a newhouse?


In pairs,askandanswerquestions aboutwhatyou asin woulddo in eachof the followingsituations, the example. 1 you/meeVyour favourite singer you you metyourfavourite singer? A: Whatwould doif for B: lf I metmyfavourite singer, I wouldaskhim/her anautograph.

F r a n k / p a irlkl e g a l l y / n o t Julie/nothavea laptop/notbe get parkingticket able/workfrom home

2 you/win/two ticketsto watchyourlocalfootball 3 4 5 6

6 Jennifer/not studyhard/not graduatefrom university


Stanley/read notes/ not failltest

using Lookat thepictures andmakeupsentences the prompts,asin the example. Thenmakeup extra sentences for eachsituation, usingyourown ideas.

team yourhouse a new sportscentre/open/near yourfriends/have/a fancydressparty town the circus/visiVyour you/havea choice/goto a basketballmatch or musicconcert classical

Complete the sentences usingtype2 or type3 conditionals, asin theexample. 1 lf I hadbeengivena payrise,I eauld kavet:*ugtttu ncwe6r 2 4 5

l f I w a s n ' ts o t i r e d , l f i t w a ss n o w i n g , l f I w a sg o i n go n h o l i d a y , lf Lucyhad a betterjob,


l f y o u h a dc a l l e dm e e a r l i e r ,

7 8 9

lf we hadseenHarry, lf I wereyou, lf you had readthat book,


1 0 l f M a r kh a d n ' tb r o k e nh i sl e g ,

132 I lLr uu,.,. .,,,,.. .,-,-,-,-,,



?T: tq9% ry


Lookat the pictures andcomplete the wishes. Then makemixedconditional sentences usingthe prompts, asin the example.

My friends s h o u l dh a v e arrived ,.

r lshouldn't r, havequit my \"! iob "",,,,


5 6 7 8




I t w a sS a t u r d am y o r n i n ga n d M r sJ e n k i nhs a dt o go to the supermarketto buy the weekly groceriesThecarparkwasfull,so sheparkedon the street,The supermarketwas so crowded t h a t i t t o o k h e ro v e ra n h o u rt o d o h e rs h o p p i n g When she got to the cashier, she realisedthat s h eh a d l e f t h e r p u r s ei n t h e c a r ,s o s h ec o u l d n , t payfor her groceriesShewent to the carto get her pursebut the streetwas emptyand her car h a d d i s a p p e a r eSdh ec a l l e dt h e p o l i c et o r e p o r t t h a t h e rc a rh a db e e ns t o l e nT h ep o l i c et o l d h e r that her car had beentowed awaybecauseshe h a dp a r k e di t i n a n o - p a r k i nzgo n e H e rh u s b a n d had to go down to the policestationand pay t h e f i n es o t h a t s h ec o u l dg e t h e rc a rb a c k

ls h o u l dh a v e beenmore sensible

I shouldhave startedthis reportearlier.

\ I shouldhave i studiedfor ihe r,,,,., test '\.

lf thecarparkhadn'tbeenfull,shewouldn,t haveparKea on thestreet.

10 1 noVbe/bored now I wbhmyfriends hadarrived. lf myfriends hadarrived I wouldn't beborednow. 2 noVbe/so tirednow 3 noVneedto/lookfor anotherone now 4 be ableto/answerthe questions 5 noVhave/this hugecreditcardbill 6 noVstillwork/onit now " " " ' ' b " n" " + ni u' ar . - . , . i l . i r r dr ( i l , { i i di ..r h.,,!,r ..,r ...h.,,- ,.,


Readthe story below and rewrite it usingtype 3 conditionalsentences, as in the example.

,'i'' l

i I shouldhave i goneto bed t,garller lastnight


I can'taffordto buy a motorbike My fatherwon't let me drivehisnew car. | forgotto sendmy sistera birthdaycard | lostmy goldbracelet

Rewritethe sentences aswishesandsaywhich onesareregrets andwhich areunrealsituations, as in the examples. 1 | didn'tstudyFrench at school I wbhI hadstudied French atschool.(egret) 2 | haven't gota CDplayer lwishlhada CDplayer. (unrealsituation)

Fillin the correctverbform,asin the example. 1 i would rather the plumber {#fttâ&#x201A;Ź (come) tomorrow,becauseI don't want to wait around f o r h i mt o d a y 2 | would ratheryou (not/go) to that partyyesterday 3 l t h l n k h e w o u l dr a t h e r (not/watch)the film He didn't seemto enjoy it much l'drather ( p l a y t) e n n i st h a n . g o s w t m m t nn g e x tw e e k e n d I would ratherthey (try) to fix the computerthemselves beforethey askedme to do it 6 I would ratheryou (catch) a l a t e rt r a i n 7 Would you rather I (call) you or sentyou a text m e s s a g e ? 8. l'd rather (wait) for Saran ihan go on withouther

3 | leftmyumbrella on thebus 4 | don'tknowhowto usea computer.




thenuse andspeech bubbles, 11 Lookatthepictures yourownideas to makeupsentences, asinthe exampre.

questions thefollowing usingwould rather 12 Answer ...because andyourownideas, asintheexample. 1 Y o u rf r i e n d sa r eg o i n go n h o l i d a tyo a G r e e ki s l a n d but the sameweek your parentshaveofferedto takevou to Pariswith them.

hatehavingto weara Scnool uniform

Iwouldrathergo withmy friendsbecause I loverelaxing on thebeach. Yourbrotheris goingto renta videofor you both to watch Hesuggests eithera comedyor a horrorfilm It is your bifthdayand your parentsaskyou if you wouldprefersomenew clothesor a membership to a gym.

toweara school unifarm,l jeans toschool. couldwearmy

You are a bit short of moneyand your bossasks you to work overtimeon Fridaybut you had a l r e a d yp l a n n e dt o g o t o t h e c i n e m aw i t h y o u r

I haveto attend lortr rre< hr ri iharr :ro

hoci friannl +hr+ ninh+

cn hnrinn

Yourfriendscan'tdecidewhetherto go to a club to'norrownightor out for a mealat a restaurant

Useof English ' Error Correction outtheincorrect wordin eachsentence. 13 Cross 1 l ' d r a t h e tr o g o s w i m m i n g t h a ns a i l i n g lf I didn't haveso muchhomeworkto do, I c o u l dt o g o o u t t o n i g h t lf I were you, I would havetalk to my manager a b o u ti t 4 | preferto sendinge-mails to writingletters 5 l ' d r a t h e yr o u h a dc a l l e dh i m n o w 6 | wishyou would havepaymoreattention inclass 7 l f I h a d n ' th a dg o n et o t h e p a r t yI, w o u l d n ' th a v em e t C o l i n 8 lf I havewon the lottery,I wouldtravel aroundthe world 9 | w i s hi t w o u l db e s t o pr a i n i n g . 1 0 l f y o u h a d n ' tb e e nw o r k e ds o h a r d y, o u w o u l d n ' th a v ep a s s eydo u re x a m s you driveslowly,you maynot have 11 Unless anaccident 1 2 | w i s hI h a dh a dm o r em o n e yT h e nI couldafforda hoJiday 13 I'd ratheryou havetalkedless 14 Wouldit not be OK if I borrowedyour pen? 15 You'dbetterto hirea nrivatedetertive


I m i s s e tdh e b u s t h i sm o r n i n g

::. . :r.t' r " ;'':"'' .

- ;..:,::. r-.

&Grnmtnffi $$"'? u5 ' WordFormation

. KeyWordTransformations Studytheexamples. In eachcasethesecond sentence hasa similar meaning to the firstsentence.

-ence: -ton: -tion: -ation:

r g n o r e- t g n o r a n c e - correspondence correspond collect- collection reduce- reduction examine- examinatron





116l\ lititiar*i,iiri,ft\ltisit\lBl

""*'''""u"*'';\\!''. i" 1 t reallyregret;;n".n to the party. wish I wish I had gone to the party 2 W h a ta p i t yy o u d i d n , tg e t t h a tj o b only l f o n l yy o u h a d g o t t h a t j o b 3 | likeplaying footballbetterthanwatchingit on W. than l'd rather play football than watch it on TV

nounfromthewordin bold. 14 Formthecorrect Therewerea few peoplestanding a r o u n do u t s i d et h e m a i n to thebuilding She has been working for the .. . . . for more than ten years Theygot in the car and droveoff in the of the town centre. We expecteda large at the liveconcert Moira feit great . for her brother A . o f g o o d l u c ka n d skilh l e l p e dh i mt o w i n t h e g a m e Thedecorators trredto causeas little . . . . . t o t h e p e o p l ew h o w o r k e di n t h e b u i l d i n g a sp o s s i b l e . The electrician checked the between the two cables Getting stuck in a traffic jam has becomean everyday srnceI starteddriving 10 The governmentwill need to take to deal with this crrst5 1 1 T h e m a n a g etro l d h e r s e c r e t a rsyh e wanted no .. from a n y o n ed u r i n gt h e m e e t i n g . 12 Theburglarsdisguised themselves to avoid


My fatherdoesn'twant me to go out on a school nrght rather N/yfatherwould ratherI didn,t go out o n a s c h o onl i g h t


5 I l i k el t a l i a nf o o dm o r et h a nC h i n e s e prefer I preferltalianfood to Chinesefood 6 | d o n ' tf a n c yg o i n go u i t o n i g h t ,l e t , ss t a ya t h o m e rather l'd preferto stayat homeratherthan 90 outtontght


7 I t h i n ky o us h o u l dl o o kf o r a n o t h ejro b were lf I were you, I would look for another job 8 | d o n ' th a v et h e t i m et o g o t o n i g h ts c h o o l would l f I h a d t h e t i m e ,I w o u l d g o t o n i g h t SCnOOl



9 W e d i d n ' th a v ee n o u g hm o n e ys o w e c o u l d n ,bt u y thehouse could I f w e h a dh a de n o u g hm o n e yw, e c o u l d h a v eb o u g h tt h e h o u s e


10 Myhusband s t a r t e dh i so w n b u s i n e swsh e nh e l o s t h i sl o b hadn't lf myhusband h a d n , tl o s th i sj o b , h e wouldn'thavestartedhisown business





thesentences withtwo to fivewords, 1 5 Complete including thewordin bold.Donotchange the meaning of theoriginal sentence. I likescience fictionfilmsmorethan horrorfilms prefer I

I can'topenru o*n restaurant ;:l|l




rrI hade:o:sn'"T;'";, ,urtr*unt




He was drivingtoo fast so he got a speeding ticket. been lf he fast,he wouldn't got ticket have a speeding I t w o u l db e a g o o di d e at o s e l tl h a t o l d motorbikeand buy a car. were lf I s e l lt h a t o l d m o t o r b i k ea n d buya car. I c o u l d n ' td r i v em y c h i l d r e nt o s c h o o l yesterday because my carbrokedown could lf my car hadn't broken down,I to schoolyesterday 6

| can'taffordto go awaythissummer only lf g o a w a yt h i ss u m m e r l'vegot a lot to do this afternoon.Can we meettomorrowmorninginstead? rather l'd preferto meettomorrow mornrng.... afternoon What a pity I couldn't go to my c o u s i n 'ws e d d i n g wish t o m y c o u s i n 'ws e d d i n g I l i k e l i s t e n i n gt o r o c k m u s i c , n o t countryand western than l'd ratherlisten countryandwestern

10 My bossgetsupsetwhen I leaveearly rather My boss.. . . d i d n ' tl e a v ee a r l y 1 1 We want to playtennis,but we can't hor:rrco


lf w e c o u r qp r a yr e n n r s

1 3I w i s hF i o n ah a dt o l d m e t h a t h e r s e l f I t o l d m et h a t h e r s e l f

1 4 | w i s h I h a d k e p t i n t o u c hw i t h C a r o l andVicky regret I really in touch with Carol and Vicky

136 I l l L , L i l l L l l L i rr i I r


Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which (0)at the beginning. bestfitsthe space. Thereis an example


For some peopleflying is a terrifyingexperienceSurely, even those of us 0) who quite enjoy this form 1 ) . . . . . . . . t r a v ecl o u l d neverbe convinced to jump out of an a e r o p l a n e1 0 , 0 0 0f e e t ground, above the However, this is what thousands of skydivers choose to do everyday,and what's more, someof them claimthat everyone should2) it a try. So do you 3) . . r u s h i n gt o w a r d st h e g r o u n da t o v e r o n e hundredand fifty kmsan hourwhile relyingon a squarepieceof cloth to 4) . you backdown to Earthsafely? lf 5) . , you havetwo optionsfor yourfirstjump Thefirstisto m a k e a t a n d e mj u m p , w h e r e y o u w i l l b e s t r a p p e d6 ) an instructorand the two of you will makethe jump together However, t h e s e c o n do p t i o ni s u s u a l l7y ) i f y o u a r es e r i o uas b o u tt a k i n g the sport Hereyou will go to groundschool,9) you 8) w i l l l e a r nh o w t o s a f e l yg e t i n a n d o u t o f t h e p l a n e ,h o w t o p a c ka parachuteand how to steerit Thenyour first jump will usuallybe a s t a t i cl i n ej u m p .Y o uj u m p 1 0 ) y o u ro w n b u t y o u r p a r a c h u t e opensautomatically after a coupleof secondsThosemight seemlike t h e l o n g e s ta n d s c a r i e s st e c o n d so f y o u r l i f e , 1 1 ) ihe enthusiasts sayit is all worth it for the incredible feelingyou get when y o u s e et h a t p a r a c h u toep e nu p a b o v ey o u ,a n d t h e e v e n1 2 ). . . . . . . . amazingfeelingof achievement that you get when you arrivesafely b a c k1 3 ) s o l i dg r o u n dl.t ' st r u et h a t f o r m o s tp e o p l eo n ej u m pi s y o uw o n ' t t h i n kt h e r ei sa n y t h l n g n e v ee r n o u g ha n db e f o r e1 4 ) s t r a n g ea b o u ts p e n d i nagl ly o u rs p a r em o n e ya n df r e ew e e k e n dpsa y i n g to 15) . .. thechance t o j u m pj u s to n e m o r et l m e .

it ic r:ininn

1 2 O h n o l I f o r g o tt o c a l lA l e x had I remembered to callAlex would

. M ultiple Choice Cloze

O A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 A 5 A 6 A 7 A 8 A 9 A 1 0 A 11 A 1 2 A 1 3 A 1 4 A 1 5 A

wnom of --t.^ ! |dNe

think put only to advised along while Dy despite more 1+ O L

many have

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B tr

which for grve

C C C expect C t ur n C not C by C recommen0eo C down c after C on C furthermore C a better ! to C long C 00 C

what t o have want bring this with wanted

u p before for besides +A^t t^h Lrrvugr I

o n much make

@ D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

who b v g o fancy give s o u p expected off where t o but bigger i n far give


xffiry%ffi . OpenCloze 17

T h i st i m e n e x tw e e kw e A fly B will fly

Readthe text belowandthinkof the wordwhich bestfitseachspace. Useonlyonewordin eacn space. Thereisan example (0)at the beginning.

Sorry,I nevermeant t r a c ko f t i m e A b e B tobe


fur ffiifd**s.&,envfuat

ffi,:;i' ' I

C l a i r ei s m a d e A work B working

thecorrect item. 18 Circle 1 Hewas hot and thirstybecause he for a run A w a sg o i n g C h a db e e n B went D havebeen


verylongnours C to work D to be working

She t h a t s h e w a s g o i n g t o L o n d o no n business the followingweek A asked C a s k e dm e B told D toldme

for thosewho havelittleexperience wrrn


C to bebeing D being

J e n n yi st h e g i r l. e n g a g e tdo W i l l A who B who's C which D whose

2) h i k i n ga n d c l i m b i n g U n f o r t u n a t e ltyh o u g h , b e i n g a w a y from civilisation has its dangers,as 3) as its rewards,especially

the great outdoors.Beforeyou head off the b e a t e nt r a c k y, o us h o u l db e a w a r eo f t h e r i s k sa n d h a v et h e r i g h t e q u i p m e nw t ith you, in 4) anythingdoesgo wrong O b v i o u sw l yh a ty o u n e e dw i l ld e p e n d5 ) where you are going and the detailsof your trip However, there are some essentialsthat you should never forget 6) p a c k H a v i n ga c o m p a sas n d a m a p i s c l e a r l y verytmportantYou7) , neverfjnd yourdestination i f y o u a r e w a l k i n gr o u n da n d r o u n dg ) . , c r r c l e sl f y o u d o g e t l o s ta n d h a v et o s p e n da n i g h to u t s i d eh, a v i n g matches (kept in a waterproof container)and some firelightercan make life a lot 9) comfortableA good firewill keepyou warm and can alsobe usedto cook food On the subject10) . food,you shouldalways take more 11) . . you will need lt,salwaysbetterto carrysomefood homewith you than to run 12) at a crucialmoment Somesurvival expertssuggestthat you s h o u l de v e nt a k ed o g b i s c u i tos r s o m eo t h e rf o o dt n a t y o u r e a l l yd o n ' tl i k ei 3 ) t h a t y o u w i l lo n l yb e t e m p t e d to eat it in a realemergency O t h e r i m p o r t a n tt h i n g s t o h a v e w i t h y o u j n t h e wildernessare a basic first 14) kit and extra clothing A Swiss-army knife is also usefulfor all sortsof d i f f e r e ntth i n g s O n c ey o u h a v ea l lo f t h e s ee s s e n t i asl a s fely p a c k e dt h e r es h o u l db e 1 5 ) stoppingyou from heading o f f i n t ot h e u n k n o w n ,

so long I just lost

We expect who got the promotionsoon A to hear B hear C hearingD heard

As city life becomesmore and 0) r*r:r*stressful, it is not surprising that many peoplewani to get 1) from it all Thishas m e a n t a l a r g e i n c r e a s ei n t h e popularity of activitres sucn I

to Milan C areflying D wiil be flying

H e c a n ' t c o m e b e c a u s eh e his new f u r n i t u r ed e l i v e r esdo m et i m et h r sa f t e r n o o n A has C h a sb e e nh a v i n g B h a sh a d D i sh a v i n g 9

lt was a greatpartyl practically I Know was there A somebody C nobody B anybody D everybody

1 0 H e . . t h a t t h e c a rb e l o n g etdo h i m . A claimed C refused B demanded D ordered

word. 19 Fillinthemissing 1 Lastyearwe . to playfootballeveryFriday afternoon 2 Lookat thoseblackclouds,l,m sureit,s to ratn 3 l'd y o u h a dt o l d m e e a r l i e r 4 George, wants to be a lawyer, is studyinglaw at BristolUniversity 5 That photograph was taken my grandmother S h ee x p l a i n etdh a t i t . t a k e s o m et i m e a n dt h a t w e s h o u l dg o b a c kt h e n e x td a y 7 L a u r aa c c u s ehdi m lying. 8 lf y o u h a dt o l d m e e a r l i e rI ,w o u l dh a v e comewtth you We have . c a l lC h r i sa n d t e l l h i m w h e r e w e ' r em e e t i n gt o n i g h t 1 0 | w o u l dh a v et a k e nt h e t r a i ni f I known how badthe trafficwas goingto be


ffirsffiffiffir u5#

FuturePerfect Forrn:will have+ past participle "

a ivl el f i n i s h e d b e f o r e a s t a t e d t i m e i n t h e f u W e u s e t h e f u t u r e p e r f e c t f o r a c t i o n s t h aht w T thueryew h i l al v e finishedshootrng thefilmbytheendof l\Larch.

The time expressions we usewith the future perfectare: before,by, by then, by the time, until/till(onlyin negativesentences)Hewon'thavefinishedwritingthearticleuntil/tiil Thursday.

FuturePerfect nuous Cont: Form:will havebeen+ verb + -ing .

W e u s et h e f u t u r ep e r f e c tc o n t i n u o u tso e m p h a s i st h e e d u r a t i o no f a n a c t i o nu p t o a c e r t a i nt i m e i n t h e perfect future Thefuture is usedwith by... for Bytheendof continuous thismonth,hewill havebeenworkingat thisradiostationfor tenyears.

I i^l,i^^ \A/^"^. Lil tr\il t9 vvtrtu)

Linking w o r d ss h o wt h e l o g i c arle l a t i o n s hbi pe t w e e ns e n t e n c eosr p a r t so f s e n t e n c e s .

Positive addition (this/that), what is more,in addition(to),also,aswell as(this/that), and,both and,too, besides moreover, furthermore,etc Hewasbothrudeandunhelpful.


Negativeaddition RobnorDaveboughta newspaper neither( nor),nor,neither,either,etc f''leither today.


Contrast b u t ,a l t h o u g hi ,n s p i t eo f , d e s p i t ew, h i l e ,w h e r e a se,v e nt h o u g h ,o n t h e o t h e rh a n d ,h o w e v e yr ,e t ,s t i l l e , tc Thecarisoldbut reliable. Notethe structures: although + clause , Althoughit wasraining,heleft. rsin,heleft. despite/inspite of + noun - Despitethe despite/inspite of the fact + clause In spiteaf thefactthat it wasraining,heleft


G i v i n ge x a m p l e s in particular, suchas, ike,for example, for instance, especially, e|c Thefoodwasdelicious, wasexcellent.


Cause/Reason as,because, because of, since,for this reason,dueto, so,as a result(of),eIc HeswitchedontheWbecausehe wantedto watchthenews.


Condition if, whether,onlyif, in caseof, in case,provided(that),providing(that),unless, as/solongas,otherwise, or (else), on condition(that),etc Heagreedtolendherthemoneyprovidedthatshepaidhimbackassoonaspossible.


Purpose t o , s o t h a t , s o a s ( n otto) , i n o r d e r ( n o t o ) , i n o r d e r t h a t , i n c a s e , eRt co b c a u g h t t h e e a r l y t r a i n s o t h a t h e w o u l d bethereon time


Effect/Result such/so that, so,consequently, as a result,therefore,for this reason,etc Shewasboredsoshedecidedtogofor a watK.

@ ffirmmffiffitr ;a"= #.=*


Listingpoints/events To begin: initially, first,at first,firstly,to starVbegin with, firstof all,etc Firstly,hethankedeverybodyforcoming. To fv LUIlLf continue: lf ue' 5eLUIluiy' secondly, afterrnls/rnar, dlLer this/that,secono, second,afterwardS, afterwards, then,next, then, next,etc etc A/exf, A/exf, add theonions addtheonionsandqarlictothe mxture.

To conclude:finally,lastly,in the end,at last,eventually, etc Eventually,wearrivedbackhome. .

Summarising tn conclusion, in summary, to sum up, on the whole,all in all,altogether, in short, elc Inconclusion,eatinaa healthybalanceddietis thebestwayto avoidthisproorem.

B o t h / N e i t h-eAr l l / N o n-e E i t h e r "

Both referst o t w o p e o p l et,h i n g so r g r o u p sI t h a sa p o s i t i v m e eaning a n d i s f o l l o w e db y a p l u r avl e r b Johnwentto themeeting. stevewentto themeeting,tao.Bothmenwentto themeeting. N e i t h e r e f e r st o t w o p e o p l et,h i n g so r g r o u p sa n d h a sa n e g a t i v m e e a n i n gl t i sf o l l o w e db y a s i n g u l a r c o u n t a b l ne o u n H o w e v e trh, e n e i t h e ro f + p l u r a ln o u n p h r a s es t r u c t u r cea nb e f o l l o w e d b y e i t h e ra s r n g ua r or pluralverbin the affirmativesheiladoesn'tknowwheretogo.Anndoesn'tknowwheretoqo,eitherNeitherof the girlsknow/knows whereto go. All refersto morethan two people,thingsor groups lt hasa positivemeaningand js foilowedby a pruratverb AIIof thechildrenwereexcitedaboutgoingon thetrip.


B o t h / A lcl a n g o a f t e r t h e v e r b t o b e o r a f t e r a n a u x i l i a r y v e r b b u t b e f o r e t h e m a i n v e r b Theyareboth/allvery happy.Theyhaveall/bothpassedtheexam but Theybothtravelledbycoach. whole is usedwith singularcountablenouns we usea/the/this/myetc + whole + noun whole is not used w r t hu n c o u n t a b n l eo u n s Sheatethe wholecake./ Sheateall of thecake. Shespentoll of hermoney.(NOT<hespe.tthc ,ryheh+t_bet ^+n+y.) All + daylmorning/week/yearetc = the whole + daylmorning/week/yearetc. He,sbeen workinqhard alt morning/thewhole morning. N o n eo f r e f e r tso t w o o r m o r ep e o p l eg, r o u p so r t h i n g sa n d h a sa n e g a t i v m e e a n t n gl t i s u s e dw i t h n o u n so r o b j e c tp r o n o u nas n d i sf o l l o w e db y e i t h e ra s i n g u l aor r a p l u r a vl e r bl a s k e d a l l ot hf e p e o p l e a t t h e b u s s t o p but noneof themknewwherethetheatrewas. Eitherrefersto two people,thingsor groupsand is followedby a singularcountable noun However, the eitherof + pluralnoun phrasestructurecanbe followedby eithera singutaror plural verb Theblueshirtis fine. Thewhiteshirtisfine,too.Eithershirtisfine./ Eitherof the shirtsis/arefine. E i t h e r c a n a l s o b e u s e d a t t h e e n d o f a n e g a t i v e s e n t e"nl hc a eveneverbeentoltaly.,,,,l,veneverbeen,either.,,


Both ... and is followedby a pluralverb BothChrisandJamesliveinscotland. N e i t h e r . .n . o r / E i t h e r . .o. r t a k ee i t h e ra s i n g u l aor r p l u r avl e r b ,d e p e n d i nogn t h e s u b j e cwt h i c hf o l l o w s norlor EitherNeilor Kateis goingto drivemeto thestation.EitherNeilor hisparents going are to drivemeto thestation


';= ' Completethe sentencesby using the futureperfect simple or the futureperfectcontinuous,as in the example. 1 By the end of the year, | l+'r#f;*t"s $ge:'it+;*:.qm-* (work) herefor eightyears (finish) writing that 2 Pete r e p o r ti n h a l fa n h o u r 3 B yt h e t i m eG r e gr e t i r e sh,e (run)the business for morethan thirtyyears 4 lf we don't hurry,the concert (start)by the time we get there 5 | won't be able to drive to work tomorrow m o r n i n gb e c a u steh e m e c h a n i c (not/fix)the caruntilthe afternoon 6 T h e r e 'nso p o i n ti n p h o n i n gh e rn o w S h e (already/leave)


B untiltomorrow for fiveyears a l ld a y by now

lt's hard to believethat this time next week you a r o u n dA u s t r a l i a A will havebeentravelling B w i l lb et r a v e l l i n g C travel


lt'sgettingcoldin here I A w i l l h a v ep u t B w i l lp u t C w i l lb e p u t t i n g


| hopethe weather A is goingto improve B will improve C will haveimproved


l ' m a f r a i dI a c h a n c et o r e a dt h i s u n t i l tomorrow A amnot having B won't have C won'tbehaving

t h e h e a t i n go n

by the time we leave

1 | will havecleanedup the messbefore/untilMum getsback 2 By/Bythen the end of the month, he will have beenteachingfor threeyears 3 Shewill havepreparedall of the food bylby the time the guestsarrive 4 T h em e c h a n isca i dt h a t h e w o n ' t h a v ef i n i s h e tdh e repairsuntil/sincetomorrow 5 The essayis due tomorrorybut I don't think I will haveevenstartedit by then/thetime 6 We will have been travellingfor three months until/bythe time we get to Thailand

Tellyour partnerwhat you will havedone by:

By8pmtonight,Iwill haveeatenmy dinner. By noon tomorrow,I will have been at school for four hours. BynextMonday,lwillhave spentall my money.

Circlethe correcttense. 1 By the end of the month, he threeyears A willlive B w i l lb e l i v i n g C w r l lh a v eb e e nl i v i n g 2

here for


Mytrain a t 7 : 3 0t o m o r r o wm o r n i n g . A leaves B w i l lb e l e a v i n g C will havebeenleaving

3 Thesebagsareveryheavy; upstairs? A w i l l y o uh e l p B w i l ly o u b e h e l p i n g C w i l ly o u h a v eh e l p e d



Underlinethe correctitem.

. 8pm tonight . noontomorrow . nextMonday


B yt h e t i m ew e t h i s ,i t w i l l b e l u n c h t i m e A w i l l h a v ef i n i s h e d B w i l lf i n i s h C finish

Matchthe columnsto makecompletesentences.

A FTI By May, she will have a beenliving in Manchester ETI rhe workmensaidthey b won'thavefinished ETI t'm sure he will have c wnttentheessay I will be d lZT_l NextSaturday, working



me carrythem

Underlinethe correcttense. A The play 1) starts/willstart at 8pm so we 2) will meeVare meeting you outsidethe theatre at 7.45pm lf we 3) are not/will not be there by 7:55pm,go in andwe 4) will find/aregoingto find you when we 5) will arrive/arrive B Thanksfor babysittingfor us tonight;we 1) will appreciate/appreciate it | 2) have left/will have left some moneyon the kitchencounterso you can orderpizzafor dinnerPlease don't let the kids watch TV until they 3) have finished/willfinish theirhomeworkWe 4) will be/arebackby 11

at'a !=

i t= ij:=a;-:: C Welcometo the GoldenSandsHotel I hope you 'l) haveenjoyed/willenjoyyourstaywith us your . room2) will be/ison the flfth floorwith an ocean view Thebusinto town 3) will stop/stopsoutside t h e h o t e la n d y o u c a nb u y y o u rb u st i c k e t sa t t h e receptiondesk If you 4) will need/needanythrng, pleasedo not hesitateto ask me or any other memberof our staff




Choosethe correctitem. 1 A: Haveyou ilstenedto thosetwo CDsyet? B : N o ,I h a v e n 'ht a da c h a n c e t o l i s t e nt o of themyet a ati b neither L EILI IEI

4 A . Shehasgot threebrothers,hasn,tshe? B : Yes , ofthem livenearby, though a None b Neither c All

6 A : What do your parentsdo? B: . of them areteacners a Both b. Ail



2 D e b b i ew i l lw a s ht h e c a ro r e l s ep a mw i 3 Carlhasn'treadthat book Rebecca hasn,treadit either 4 Johnboughtthat newspaper, or maybeStevedid 5 J u l i a ni s g o i n gt o t h e p a r t yB o bi sg o i n gt o o 6 Keith hasn't got a computer Max hasn,tgot a c o m p u t eer i t h e r

1 Either/Neither Simonnor Kellyhad seenthe film before 2 Shedecorated the all/wholehouseby herself 3 I asked everybodybut none/no of the people therehad seenLouisethat day 4 As soonasthe guestsarrived,each/everyof them wasshownto theirseat 5 l've been to that restauranttwice before and all/bothtimesthe food was excellent 6 We're really busy at the moment; I,ve been workingovertimeevery/alldaythisween

A Thatshopsellslotsof niceclothes B : Yes,but of them areveryexpensrve a both b all c neither

A r e D a n n ya n d M i c h a ecl o m i n gt o n i g h t ? B : No, o f t h e mc o u l dm a k ei t a either b both c neither

1 Frankworksin a bank Tomworksin a banktoo BothFrankond Tomworkin a bank.

thecorrect word. 10 Underline

2 A: Clivehasgot two cars,hasn,the? B: Yes,but he bought of them secono hand a either b both c all 3

Rewritethe sentencesusingboth... and, neither ... nor,or either... or, as in the example.

below.Makeasmany 11 Lookat thepictures sentences you as canusingtheprompts provided andboth,neither, all,none. t have/briefcase; 2 indoors;3 inlpark;4 use/laptop; 5 use/mobile phone; 6 have/jacket, 7 have/coffee; 8 wear/hat


Underline the correctword. I can't speakFrenchat all, whereas/despite my srsterspeaksit fluently Theydecidedto go for a walk, even though/in spiteof the rain S a r ah a s n ' tg o t a T V a n d s h e h a s n , tq o t a C D playerneither/either I hate travellingby boat becauseI alwaysget seasickBesides/However, I can,tswim In spiteoflAlthough he couldplaythe guitarver, w e l lh e d e c i d e d n o t t o b e c o m ea m u s i c i a n 6 B o t h / E i t h eJri ma n d S a mw e r eb o r ni n C a n a d a 7 The salesassistantwas rude Furthermore/Even though, he refusedto callthe manager In additionto/ In spiteof beingstubborn,he was lazy. Of courseyou can borrow my car However/yet,I needit backby 8 o'clocktonight 1 0 I lovethrrllers, despite/inadditionto the fact that theyalwaysgiveme nightmares.




1 Neither Perry norMarkhave/has a briefcase. 12

Jointhe sentences usingthe wordsin brackets, as in theexamples. 1 Thebookisuerywettwrittenlt isajsoveryfunny (which) Thebookwhich isverywellwritten, is alsoveryfunny. 2 The shirtwas expensive He decidedto buy it anyway


Althoughtheshirtwasexpensive, hedecided to buyit anyway. 3 Shewasverytired Shewent to bed





i n:

'':+,-.-...: .1,"


C o l i ni s t a l l w i t h d a r kh a i r H i ss i s t e ri s s h o r ta n d (whereas) blond 5



H e f i n i s h e de a t i n g H e d i d t h e w a s h i n g u p (assoon as) Philwrote a letter He postedit,

with two to five words, Completethe sentences i n c l u d i n gt h e w o r d i n b o l d .D o n o t c h a n g et h e meaningof the originalsentence. by 1 Anne'sambitionis to open her own restaurant t h e t i m es h ei st h i r t y will A n n eh o p e ss h e her own restaurantby the time she is thtrtY


I havea lot to do today I haveto speakto Mr (for instance) Wilsonabouthisorder


He movedto Portugalten yearsagothis month. Bythe end of this month been in Porrugal for ten years .


Despitebeingshortof money,she decidedto buy the new dress even Shedecidedto buythe new dress.. . . shortot money


can go to the party providedthat you are ]o' h o m eb v m i d n i q h t long Shecango to the party h o m eb y m i d n i g h t

Paultook out a notebook.He could make some (sothat) 9 We playedverywell We stilllostthe match (eventhough) 10 Jim took the bus into town He was going (becausei shopping



l '

Iv JtLc o n T F n rr :|/ tr (r Jnr Lr vr

We couldn'thearwhat he was sayrngbecausehe


<nnka fnn nrriptlv



. KeyWordTransformations

Hedrankthe wholebottleof water himself all H ed r a n k himself

has In eachcasethesecondsentence Studythe examples. a similar meaning to thefirstsentence. 7

.#* % | 1 Hestartedworkinghereat the end of Junelastyear. t been By the end of June,he will have been working herefor one year


L a u r ad o e s n ' lti k eC h i n e sfeo o da n dC h r i s t i ndeo e s n ' t l i k ei t e i t h e r nor NeitherLauranor ChristinelikesChinese food Shewaswritingthat reportall day whole Shespentthe whole day writing that


142 . tli,,t,,,,,,,,,,


I think that

t h a tC D Emilydidn't learnto swimuntilshewas twenty when Emlly to Swrm


Althoughhe wastired,he decidedto go for a run spite In spite of the fact that he was tired, he decidedto go for a run

| t h i n kt h a t L u k eb o r r o w e dt h a t C D ,o r m a v b eJ o e did

2 O u r t e a c h e rs a i dt h a t s h e w i l l m a r kt h e e x a m st h i s week have Our teachersaid that she will have markedthe examsby the end of the Sincehiscarbrokedown,5amhadto walkto work because Sam had to walk to work becausehis car broke down

we couldn't hearwhat he was saytng

. Error Correction 14

Crossout the incorrectword in eachsentence. 1 | doubtthat Robwill havewokenup by yet 2 Theywill havebeenarrivedat the hotelby the time it getsdark 3 5hewill haveleft beforetheywill arrive 4 lt was such a hot weatherthat we went to the 0eacn 5 NeitherClairenor Susanhad not readthe book 6 Marinareallyenjoyscooking,whereasthat I prefer to eat out 7 Brianand Carol both went to see the play but neitherof enjoyedit verymuch




f i= Lâ&#x201A;Ź-* By the end of July,I will havebeento workingherefor two years Despitefrom the fact that it was the middle of August, the weather was c o l da n dw e t 1 0 I ' m s u r es h e w i l l u n d e r s t a nw dhy you didn'tgo, providedfor that you explarn whathappened

. M ultiple Choice Cloze 16

Readthe text below,thencirclethe answerA, B,C or D which bestfitsthe space. Thereis an example (0)at the beginning.

. WordFormation


combines with adjectives to describe something beingdonein the manner describedby the adjective(quickly,happiIy) -ward(s): combines with nouns and adverbsof directionto describe the directionin whichsomething ismovingor facing (downward(s), westward(s))

adverb fromtheword 1 5 Formthecorrect inbold. 1 He took a couple of steps t o a l l o wt h e othersto get through 2 She was upset becauseshe felt that they had been very treated 5 I n e yw e r em o v t n g in the directionof the coast 4 Paulwas a muchbetterplayer a n dw o n t h e g a m e 5 He spokevery so that everyone would u n d e r s t a nhdi m 6 We decided to head as soon as we saw the a p p r o a c h i nsgt o r m





1) betterbe carefulit couldmeanthat a tornadois heading your 2) The first sign that a tornadois comingis the formation 3) a thunderstorm I n t h e b e g i n n i ntgh e r e ,asn e e r i es t i l l n e sass t h e p r e s s u ri e ss u c k e d a w a y T h ea i r i s s t i l la n dc a l ma n d n o b i r do r i n s e csto u n d4s) b e h e a r dC u m u l o n i m bcul so u d bs u i l di nt o w e r s , 5) as supercells,and the normalafternoonthundershowers beginto take6) an incredible energy lf you watchthe horizon y o u ' l ls e e a r e v o l v i ncgo l u m no f c l o u d sc, a l l e da f u n n e l ,h e a d i n g g) 7) ., the earth Whenit connects the ground,tne neat feedsthe centre9) the funnelanda tornadois born Thesafest p l a c e1 0 ) y o u t o b e i s u n d e r g r o u nodr i n a n o p e n d i t c h Tornadoes desiroyeverything 11) theirpathandhavethe power to 12) up people,trees,bridges,carsand evenhouses The scariest thingabouttornadoes isthat you havemrnutes, not hoursto feact We now havewarningtlmesof up 13) twentyminutes 14) to betterradardetectorsWith oldermethodsof reporting tornadoes, we wereluckyto havetwo minutes to 15) cover

0Asometimes l A h a d 2 Adirection 3 A o f 4 A must 5 Acalled 6 A u p B 7 Aaway 8 A b y 9 A o f 1 0 A o f 11 Aup 12 A make 13 A to l 4 A b e c a u s 15 A make

B B B B B B o

never w o u l d route b y can namec f f

S c C C C C C B up C B w i t h C B r o C B a t C B rhrough C B pick C B for C e B a s C B take C

ever dtd path with could known i n across for i n for i n take against since hrd.^


always need way for might reported o n towards across u p t o across turn a t due draw



Eil=Lâ&#x201A;Ź%* Onon


1 7 Readthe text belowandthinkof the wordwhich Useonlyoneword in each bestfitseachspace. (0)at the beginning. Thereisan example space.

daughter goes to school with Doug, Emma,livesin our street B that C which D whose A who You disturbthe driverwhile the bus is movrn9 A mustn't B couldn't C haven't D needn't flour, milk and The sauce was made cneese Dwith Aby B for C up I don't know who the letter was from but it ...inRome A is posted C was posted D was beingposted B is beingposted He .. .. . methat he didn'thavetimeto helpus A told B said C spoke D asked She tomorrow. A has B had

1 0 Thereis cup? A alittle

her hair dyed at the hairdresser's C hasbeenhaving D i sh a v i n g coffeeleft Wouldyou likeanother B afew

C little

D few

' t 1 lf I wereyou,| . .. A must

demandan apology D might B would C may

12 Hewouldn'thavemadethat mistakeif he moreexperienced A w o u l db e B i s

C hasbeen D were

word. 19 Fillinthemissing I was listeningto the newson the radio Tonyarrived I am to London next week for a conference That b e P a u l ,l ' d r e c o g n i s eh i s c a r


1 8 Circlethe correctitem. all morninqand the roadswerewet and A rains B i sr a i n i n g

C h a db e e nr a i n i n g D w i l lr a i n

you if we decideto go out tonight C amcalling call D w i l lb ec a l l i n g willcall 3 At the weekend we went mountarns C hiking A hike D to hiking B to hike


In t n e

anywnere b e i n g o p e n e di n t h e A new cinema town centrenextmonth we He offeredto give us a discount paidin cash t lththem; lf . . . . . .I h a dg o n et o t h e c o n c e rw i t s o u n d sl i k ei t w a sb r i l l i a n t . lf | . knownthat shewantedto come, would haveboughta ticketfor her . .... Sarah, 8 We all orderedthe steakexcept who is a vegetarian Marycanspeakltalian 9 NeitherTom. arrivedat the airportby now 1 0 T h e yw i l l

WWWWWWW UpstreamIntermediate82 is a modularsecondary-level coursefor learners of the Englishlanguageat post-intermediatelevel (pre-FCE, CEFB11BZ, ALTEA3/A4 or any other examinationsat the samelevelof difficulty.)The series combinesactive English learning with a variety of riverytopics presentedin themed units. Key Features . theme-basedunits from a wide varietyof sourcesin five modules . a varietyof cross-cultural topics .

systematic developmentof all four languageskillsthrough realisticchallenging taskswhich encourage the learner,s personalengagement


practisingand activatingall essentialvocabulary lexicalexercises includingcollocations, idioms,phrasalverbsand word formation a varietyof authenticstimulatingreadingand listeningtasks

. o

realistic, stimulatingdialoguesfeaturingpeoplein everyday situations


grammarsectionscoveringall majorgrammatical areasplusa GrammarReferenceSection


compositionanalysisand practiceon all typesof writing with full models


a wide rangeof speakingactivities


intonation& pronunciation sections




Literaturepages Components Student'sBook Teacher's Book(interleaved) Workbook(Student's) Workbook(Teacher's overprinted) Classaudio cassettes/audio CDs Student'saudio cassette/audio CD Test Booklet

hing I S B N - 3. 1: 9 7 8 -1- 8 4 3 2 5 - 5 7 0 - 3 ISBN-10: 1-84325-570-7